WorldWideScience

Sample records for canal diferencial sobre-completo

  1. Estimación de la madurez ósea en canales de bovino por fluorescencia diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón R. Torrescano Urrutia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, el análisis de clasificación de calidad de la canal depende en gran medida de la edad del animal; sin embargo, el patrón en México es demasiado impreciso, pues sólo requiere identificar si éste es menor o mayor a 30 meses. Esta falta de precisión genera la necesidad de sistemas objetivos para medir la madurez fisiológica. El propósito de esta investigación fue estimar de manera precisa el porcentaje de osificación del cartílago en la 12ava costilla, como un indicador de madurez ósea en canales de bovino, utilizando un esquema electrónico por visión artificial. En el esquema desarrollado se aprovecha la mayor fluorescencia que genera el cartílago, en comparación con la del hueso y la grasa, sobresaliendo claramente la región del cartílago, desarrollando algoritmos de procesamiento de imágenes para analizar esta región, y estimar de manera precisa el porcentaje de osificación, y por tanto la edad fisiológica de la canal. El sistema de visión artificial desarrollado permitió evaluar la madurez ósea de una canal en menos de un segundo, y la información obtenida fue utilizada para establecer la clasificación electrónica de la canal en menos de cinco segundos.

  2. Geometria diferencial das curvas planas

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, João Paulo Felipe [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    A história da Geometria Diferencial começa com o estudo de curvas. Noções de retas tangentes à curvas podem ser encontradas em Euclides, Arquimedes e Apolônio. Também, o Cálculo está baseado em ideias geométricas e, portanto, é natural encontrar investigações sobre curvas entre os tópicos tratados pelos pioneiros da Análise, Newton, Leibniz e Euler. Neste trabalho, serão apresentados os conceitos que fundamentam a teoria de curvas, bem como exemplos envolvendo algumas curvas clássicas, como a...

  3. Diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores

    OpenAIRE

    MATTOS JAMES PITÁGORAS DE

    1998-01-01

    Baseado na revisão da literatura, o autor refere-se aos tremores normal (fisiológico) e anormal (patológico). Analisa particularmente os patológicos, dividindo-os em de repouso e de ação. Com os elementos semiológicos estabelece o diagnóstico diferencial entre os tremores parkinsoniano, essencial severo, rubral, tardio, postural, cinético e os de posição e de ação específica, entre outros.

  4. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  5. Sistemas dinámicos de orden diferencial elevado

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Villaseñor, Eduardo Jesús

    2001-01-01

    La tesis se centra en el estudio de los grados de libertad descritos por las teorias Lagrangianas de campos relativistas de orden diferencial elevado poniendo de manifiesto su relacion con los grados de libertad de teorias ordinarias de segundo orden diferencial. Aunque como teorias cuanticas de campos son en general no unitarias por la presencia de "fantasmas de Weyl", historicamente han sido objeto de estudio por distintos motivos. En el primer capitulo, mediante el uso conjunto de tecnicas...

  6. Aprendizaje diferencial aplicado al saque de voleibol en deportistas noveles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido Solana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El aprendizaje diferencial se ha mostrado útil para la mejora de determinadas habilidades motrices. Los resultados en poblaciones noveles contrastan con las recomendaciones basadas en la práctica en condiciones de variabilidad o interferencia contextual que cuestionan su utilidad en el aprendizaje de nuevas habilidades. En el presente trabajo se comparan las modificaciones de la velocidad y la precisión del saque en voleibol al aplicar las metodologías de entrenamiento por consistencia y de aprendizaje diferencial. Una muestra de 33 participantes sin experiencia en voleibol se dividió en tres grupos. Dos grupos llevaron a cabo tres semanas de entrenamiento, mientras que el tercero conformó el de control. Los participantes fueron evaluados antes y en dos ocasiones posteriores. En cada test se registró la precisión y la velocidad de los saques. De los resultados se destaca la mejora tanto en precisión como en velocidad de los grupos de práctica. Además, el grupo de entrenamiento diferencial presenta una mejoría en la consistencia de la precisión, disminuyendo el error variable de sus ensayos. La principal conclusión del estudio es que la metodología del entrenamiento diferencial puede ser una metodología muy eficaz para el aprendizaje del saque en voleibol en poblaciones noveles.

  7. Aprendizaje diferencial aplicado al saque de voleibol en deportistas noveles

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Sabido Solana; Raúl Reina Vaíllo; Francisco Javier Moreno Hernández; Sandra Ruth Reynoso

    2013-01-01

    El aprendizaje diferencial se ha mostrado útil para la mejora de determinadas habilidades motrices. Los resultados en poblaciones noveles contrastan con las recomendaciones basadas en la práctica en condiciones de variabilidad o interferencia contextual que cuestionan su utilidad en el aprendizaje de nuevas habilidades. En el presente trabajo se comparan las modificaciones de la velocidad y la precisión del saque en voleibol al aplicar las metodologías de entrenamiento por consistencia y de a...

  8. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract infections. Atrioventricular canal defect can cause recurrent bouts of lung infections. Heart failure. Untreated, atrioventricular canal ... Leaky heart valves Narrowing of the heart valves Abnormal heart rhythm Breathing difficulties associated with lung damage ...

  9. O dictionnaire suisse romand e a lexicografia diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René G. Strehler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v2n32p57 A noção de lexicografia diferencial está pouco difundida fora da francofonia. O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar as peculiaridades da lexicografia diferencial através do Dictionnairesuisseromande (DSR. Baseado em considerações teóricas de Coseriu, Völker ou Glessgen, nós admitimos que a variação faz parte do sistema. Em lexicografia, cabe verificar como as variações (diatópica, diacrónica... se articulam em volta de um nível linguístico chamado não marcado. A variante normalizada do francês, o français standard, foi elaborada essencialmente pelos grammairiens do século XVII, como Vaugelas ou Bouhours, por exemplo. Na lexicografia francófona, que verdadeiramente apareceu com os dicionários de Richelet (1680 e Furetière (1690, o français standard continua a referência, mas em muitos dicionários, o français standard, embora supranacional, é explicado em função do uso da França. É nesse contexto que aparece a metodologia da lexicografia diferencial. A noção de diferencial se manifesta na seleção da nomenclatura, pois são apresentados no dicionário apenas os lexemas com uso divergente em comparação com dicionários gerais que fornecem um francês de referência, mas não a norma. Em resumo, o DSR consagra uma norma regional, ou subnorma, correspondendo às peculiaridades do francês suíço. Outras obras diferenciais corroboram essa observação: o francês se compõe de um français standard e de normas regionais descritas pela lexicografia diferencial – situação diferente daquela do português, para o qual existe uma norma culta brasileira e uma norma culta de Portugal

  10. Diagnóstico diferencial del tobillo doloroso

    OpenAIRE

    Moliné Regla, Carmen; Padrós Sánchez, Carolina

    2003-01-01

    El propósito de ésta comunicación es hacer un pequeño repaso de las diferentes patologías que pueden ocasionar dolor a nivel de la articulación del tobillo para poder establecer un diagnóstico diferencial de las mismas. Si bien las más frecuentes suelen producirse durante la práctica deportiva sobre todo en niños, adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, no hemos de olvidar las diversas patologías articulares que afectan dicha articulación y que en muchas ocasiones son procesos secundarios a enfermeda...

  11. Linfedema: Diagnóstico diferencial y pruebas complementarias

    OpenAIRE

    Forner Cordero, Isabel; Cuello Villaverde, Enrique; Forner Cordero, Ángeles

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar una revisión y actualización del diagnóstico diferencial del linfedema y de las pruebas complementarias necesarias y presentar un algoritmo simplificado del diagnóstico. Estrategia de búsqueda. Se buscaron los artículos originales en las principales bases de datos: National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines Finder de la National Electronic Library for Health del NHS británico, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Knowledge y Medline (19962009), y las mono...

  12. MARKETING PESSOAL: UM DIFERENCIAL PARA O SUCESSO PROFISSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson da Silva Constante

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para garantir um lugar no concorrido mercado de trabalho, um diferencial competitivo torna-se cada vez mais necessário. Neste contexto, utilizar-se de um bom marketing pessoal tem sido uma eficiente estratégia adotada por profissionais que conquistaram um lugar de destaque e são reconhecidos pelo trabalho que desenvolvem. A pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida através da aplicação de um questionário a dez profissionais bem sucedidos, demonstra a importância deste assunto, bem como confirma os conceitos teóricos descritos. O estudo apresentou aspectos que devem ser valorizados pelos profissionais que buscam o sucesso na sua carreira, tais como a qualificação, o planejamento e a organização, a imagem e a comunicação pessoal e visual. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Marketing. Marketing Pessoal. Sucesso Profissional.

  13. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  14. Arboles binomiales para la valoracion de opciones sobre procesos derivados de la ecuacion diferencial estocastica autonoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marin-Sanchez, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    ... los dos primeros momentos del proceso solucion de la ecuacion diferencial, los cuales incorporan el factor de crecimiento y la volatilidad en terminos de los parametros y del proceso subyacente a lo largo de su ramificacion...

  15. Flotacion diferencial de sulfuros en celda Hallimond, mediada por Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mejia Restrepo, Erica; Osorno Bedoya, Laura; Ospina Correa, Juan David; Marquez Godoy, Marco Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Se investigo el efecto del pre-acondicionamiento oxidante con Acidithio-bacillus ferroxidans, precedido de un proceso de flotacion diferencial en celda Hallimond, para mezclas pirita-galena, pirita...

  16. Análisis del Funcionamiento Diferencial de los Criterios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación ha tenido como objetivo la determinación del funcionamiento diferencial del ítem (DIF en el test del Dibujo de la Figura Humana utilizado para la estimativa de la inteligencia en niños, considerando la variable sexo. Han sido estudiados protocolos de 2508 estudiantes de la enseñanza primaria y preescolar, cuyo promedio de edad fue de 8,14 años. Gran parte de ellos frecuentaban escuelas públicas (72,1 % y los grupos para el estudio de DIF fueron compuestos por 1248 niños y 1260 niñas. Los parámetros métricos de los ítems fueron determinados según el modelo logístico de un parámetro de Rasch. Los resultados han indicado la presencia de DIF en 20 de los 46 ítems analizados, siendo que nueve de ellos han sido de fácil ejecución para las niñas y 11 para los niños.

  17. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  18. AplicaÃÃes de cÃlculo diferencial exterior a teoria econÃmica

    OpenAIRE

    Josà Tiago Nogueira Cruz

    2008-01-01

    O trabalho consiste em decompor uma forma diferencial, sob algumas condiÃÃes iniciais, para conseguirmos resolvermos problemas na economia. O trabalho consiste em decompor uma forma diferencial, sob algumas condiÃÃes iniciais, para conseguirmos resolvermos problemas na economia.

  19. O uso do software maple no ensino do cálculo diferencial e integral

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiber, Carmen; Pacheco, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta resultados parciais do projeto de pesquisa “Investigando o potencial de utilização do software Maple no ensino do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral” que objetiva investigar possibilidades de utilização do referido software no desenvolvimento teórico e prático do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral. Metodologicamente, o projeto fundamenta-se nos princípios da Engenharia Didática que, segundo Artigue (1995), se caracteriza por ser um esquema experimental baseado nas realizações di...

  20. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  1. CONFIGURACION DIFERENCIAL DEL PROCESO EDUCATIVO INFORMAL: UNA APROXIMACION DESDE LAS CONSTRUCCIONES ESPACIALES DEL PUEBLO AYMARA

    OpenAIRE

    GARRIDO PEREIRA, MARCELO ESTEBAN

    2007-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene por objetivo comprender la configuración diferencial de los procesos educativos informales desde una dimensión que considera las formas específicas de construir espacio que tienen los habitantes de tres localidades indígena 526p.

  2. Adipositas cordis: um difícil diagnóstico diferencial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos; Jorge Isaac Garcia Paez

    2012-01-01

    ... súbita, arritmias, disfunção do miocárdio e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva. O diagnóstico diferencial entre as doenças relacionadas à infiltração gordurosa do miocárdio de evolução...

  3. Úlceras orales: diagnóstico diferencial y tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Schemel-Suárez, Mayra; López López, José, 1958-; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Las úlceras orales suelen ser muy dolorosas y son motivo de consulta frecuente. Entre sus causas destacan procesos infecciosos, neoplasias, enfermedades gastrointestinales, alteraciones sanguíneas, enfermedades reumatológicas, enfermedades inmunológicas, traumatismos y otros factores. Debido a la diversidad de factores que pueden causarlas es necesario realizar un adecuado diagnóstico diferencial. ...

  4. Canal plane dynamic visual acuity in superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Ward, Bryan; Carey, John P; Schubert, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    1) To characterize normal, horizontal active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) and passive canal plane head thrust DVA (htDVA) across ages to establish appropriate control data and 2) to determine whether horizontal active DVA and passive canal plane htDVA are significantly different in individuals with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) before and after surgical repair in the acute (within 10 d) and nonacute stage (>6 wk). Prospective study. Tertiary referral center Patients diagnosed with SCDS (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 51). Surgical canal plugging on a subset of patients. Static visual acuity (SVA), active horizontal DVA, and canal plane htDVA. Visual acuity (SVA, active DVA, and htDVA) declines with age. In SCDS, SVA and active DVA are not significantly affected in individuals after surgical canal plugging; however, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is significantly worse after canal plugging. Age-based normative data are necessary for DVA testing. In SCDS, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is normal before surgery but permanently reduced afterward.

  5. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  6. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  7. Lumbar canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, D J; Drucker, Y; Segal, A M

    1997-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis is an increasingly recognized condition in patients more than 65 years of age. The clinical syndrome is dominated by neurogenic claudication. The natural history of the Condition is not yet well described. Long-term results of surgical therapy are frequently disappointing, and reoperation is required in more than 10% of patients. Nonoperative treatment options include physical therapy exercise programs, calcitonin, analgesics, and epidural steroid injections. A clinical pathway for management of symptomatic stenosis, emphasizing an initial nonoperative approach, is suggested.

  8. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  9. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  10. Notas sobre o diagnóstico diferencial da psicose e do autismo na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupfer M. Cristina M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a discussão em torno do diagnóstico diferencial da psicose e do autismo infantis, mostrando a falta de concordância entre os autores psicanalistas. Busca, em seguida, delinear um diagnóstico diferencial a partir da proposição de que no autismo falha a função materna e na psicose infantil falha a função paterna.

  11. Carcinoma escamoso gingival: caso clínico y diagnóstico diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; Finestres Zubeldia, Fernando; Huguet Redecilla, Pere

    2001-01-01

    Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 59 años que consulta por presentar una lesión tumoral en la encía del segundo cuadrante, de unas 6 semanas de evolución. Se presentan los resultados del estudio histopatológico y se plantea el diagnóstico diferencial. Se comentan las entidades más probables del diagnóstico diferencial (granuloma piógeno, carcinoma escamoso y metástasis gingivales), discutiéndose asimismo la importancia de los aspectos radiológicos. Se concluye que el diagnóstico def...

  12. Problemas de geometría analítica y diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Usunáriz Balanzategui, Ubaldo; Usunáriz Sala, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Este libro, Problemas de Geometría Analítica y Diferencial, junto con otros dos, Problemas de Matemáticas y Problemas de Geometría, están dedicados a la presentación y resolución de problemas que se planteaban hace unas décadas, en la preparación para ingreso en las carreras de ingeniería técnica superior. Incluye 907 problemas, de los que 707 se refieren a la geometría analítica y 200 a la geometría diferencial. Los correspondientes a la geometría analítica se reparten entre la geometría del...

  13. Aprendizaje diferencial aplicado al saque de voleibol en deportistas noveles Descargar

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Reynoso, Sandra; Sabido Solana, Rafael; Reina Vaíllo, Raúl; Moreno Hernández, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    El aprendizaje diferencial se ha mostrado útil para la mejora de determinadas habilidades motrices. Los resultados en poblaciones noveles contrastan con las recomendaciones basadas en la práctica en condiciones de variabilidad o interferencia contextual que cuestionan su utilidad en el aprendizaje de nuevas habilidades. En el presente trabajo se comparan las modificaciones de la velocidad y la precisión del saque en voleibol al aplicar las metodologías de entrenamiento por consistencia y de a...

  14. Diferencial de salários da mão de obra terceirizada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Stein

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo compara os salários da mão de obra terceirizada no Brasil com os dos trabalhadores contratados diretamente pelas empresas. A comparação simples entre as remunerações médias dos dois grupos indica que os salários dos terceirizados são 17% inferiores, mas quando o diferencial é controlado pelo efeito fixo do trabalhador, a diferença cai para 3,6%. Além disso, as evidências apontam para uma grande heterogeneidade no diferencial salarial. Trabalhadores de ocupações como telemarketing têm o salário médio 8% inferior quando estão terceirizados. Por outro lado, ocupações como segurança e vigilância oferecem salários estatisticamente maiores, em média, para os terceirizados. As evidências indicam ainda que o diferencial desfavorável ao terceirizado apresentou um aumento entre 2007 e 2012 e uma redução a partir de então.

  15. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  16. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  17. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

  18. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  19. La atención diferencial del ICBF en el resguardado indígena Wasiruma

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Restrepo, Sulay

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo que aquí se presenta aborda el carácter problemático de la atención diferencial del Estado, representado por el ICBF, en el Resguardo Indígena Wasiruma, del Municipio de Vijes, Valles del Cauca. Esta atención puede interpretarse como un intento gubernamental en el que se cruzan dos concepciones de ordenamiento social. Por un lado, la intervención del Estado, quien plantea una política pública de niñez y familia basada en la perspectiva del individuo como sujeto de de...

  20. Elementos de historia del cálculo diferencial e integral

    OpenAIRE

    De Faria, Edison

    2010-01-01

    En este curso corto se compartió algunos elementos de historia del cálculo, empezando con los trabajos de los babilónicos hasta llegar al nacimiento del cálculo diferencial e integral con Newton y Leibniz, así como algunas estrategias metodológicas que podrían ser pertinentes para un curso de esta naturaleza, como son el uso de portafolios, la participación de conferencistas que son especialistas en campos específicos de las matemáticas, y las exposiciones presentadas por los propios estudian...

  1. Compatibilidad química del piracetam determinada por calorimetría diferencial de barrido

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez; Keila Mena Salabarría; Mirelys Céspedes Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en la primera etapa de preformulación de un medicamento se seleccionan los excipientes y es importante la realización de los estudios de compatibilidad química entre el ingrediente activo farmacéutico (IFA) y excipientes. Una de las técnicas más rápidas para realizar dichos estudios es la Calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC), y como técnica complementaria la Termogravimetría (TG). Objetivo: empleando DSC y TG, se realiza un estudio de compatibilidad química entre IFA y exci...

  2. Presentaciones enloquecidas del segundo despertar sexual y el problema del diagnóstico diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Julia; Machado, María Inés

    2016-01-01

    Es conocido el lazo que suele realizarse entre manifestaciones disruptivas, estridentes, enloquecidas con lo que se ha llamado “adolescencia” o crisis adolescente. Muchas veces es un problema en la adolescencia arribar a un diagnóstico diferencial en la perspectiva del psicoanálisis, al desdibujarse en ocasiones los límites claros entre estructuras subjetivas. El siguiente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar el Proyecto Promocional de Investigación “Adolescencia: el problema del diagnóst...

  3. Experiencias de calorimetría diferencial de barrido en aleaciones Al-Si

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina López-Eckerdt; Pablo Reynoso-Peitsch; Marcela Mirandou; Ariel Danon; Sergio Aricó

    2016-01-01

    La observación de agujas características de una transformación displaciva en aleaciones U-Al-Si en el entorno del compuesto U3Si5 evidencia la necesidad de analizar las distintas transformaciones que ocurren durante el enfriamiento utilizando una técnica dinámica de identificación de transformaciones (calorimetría diferencial de barrido). Para evaluar la versatilidad de esta técnica, se estudiaron aleaciones Al-Si con concentraciones de Si entre 0,6% y 7,1% en peso. Se determinaron las temper...

  4. Ab interno Schlemm's Canal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Akil, Handan; Bert, Benjamin B

    2017-01-01

    In primary open-angle glaucoma, the site of greatest resistance to aqueous outflow is thought to be the trabecular meshwork (TM) and inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Augmentation of the conventional (trabecular) outflow pathway can facilitate physiologic outflow and subsequently lower intraocular pressure. The most recent approach to enhancing the conventional outflow pathway is via an internal approach to the TM and Schlemm's canal. Ab interno Schlemm's canal surgery includes 4 novel surgical approaches: (1) removal of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal by an internal approach (ab interno trabeculectomy), (2) implantation of a microstent to bypass the TM, (3) disruption of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno trabeculotomy), and (4) dilation of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno canaloplasty). The first category includes the Trabectome (Neomedix, Tustin, CA, USA), and Kahook Dual Blade (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA). The second category includes the iStent (Glaukos, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), as well as the investigational Hydrus Microstent implant (Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA). The third category includes gonioscopic-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (iSciences catheter; Ellex, Adelaide, Australia), and 360° suture trabeculotomy (TRAB360, Sight Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). The fourth category includes ab interno canaloplasty or AbiC (Ellex), and Visco360 (Sight Sciences). In contrast to external filtration surgeries, such as trabeculectomy and aqueous tube shunt, these procedures are categorized as internal filtration surgeries and are performed from an internal approach via gonioscopic guidance. Published results suggest that these surgical procedures are both safe and efficacious for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A relação cartográfica e geometria diferencial de Mercator a Gauss

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Filho, Antonio [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa que vislumbra encontrar relações entre a Cartografia e a Geometria Diferencial. Toma como ponto de partida os problemas adjacentes à Projeção de Mercator e explicita sua influencia na história do Cálculo e da Geometria Diferencial nas análises das obras de Pedro Nunes, Edward Wright e Gauss. A falta do trabalho original impediu a análise do verdadeiro método usado por Mercator na construção de sua projeção. Nos tratados, Sobre Certas Dúvidas da Navega...

  6. Compêndio de matemática de Sebastião e Silva: cálculo diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria Dulce de Oliveira Henriques Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende fazer um estudo, numa perspectiva histórica e didáctica, do Cálculo Diferencial no Ensino da Matemática em Portugal, tendo como ponto de partida o Compêndio de Matemática de Sebastião e Silva e como pano de fundo a Matemática Moderna. Seguindo esta perspectiva e após referência aos temas tratados no Compêndio de Matemática, o estudo deste trabalho focaliza-se na abordagem do Cálculo Diferencial nesta importante obra. O trabalho contempla uma menç...

  7. Diferencial salarial público-privado e desigualdade de renda per capita no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. G. F. Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo estima a contribuição específica do diferencial salarial entre trabalhadores com características semelhantes dos setores público e privado para a desigualdade na renda domiciliar per capita no Brasil. A estimação baseia-se em simulações contrafactuais e o cálculo das contribuições para a desigualdade em uma decomposição de fatores do coeficiente de Gini. Os dados são provenientes da PNAD 2009. O diferencial equivale a cerca de 17% da massa salarial dos servidores públicos, é regressivo e altamente concentrado, mas tem volume pequeno na renda total (1% e, por isso, contribui para cerca de 3% da desigualdade total. Os efeitos sobre a desigualdade da composição da força de trabalho nos setores são muito maiores que efeitos da segmentação do mercado de trabalho entre os dois setores. Essas conclusões são pouco sensíveis a modificações de definições de setor e diferentes técnicas de estimação.

  8. Contribuição para o diagóstico diferencial da distrofia muscular progressiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Os dados fornecidos pela anamnese assim como a sintomatologia nem sempre permitem estabelecer, com segurança, o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva (DMP; o diagnótico é facilitado quando são obtidos dados heredológicos depondo por afecção de caráter familiar ou quando se trate de casos de longa evolução, mostrando a característica fundamental da irreversibilidade. As provas laboratoriais propostas até agora, embora úteis para a avaliação do estado da consunção do tecido muscular, não fornecem elementos seguros para o diagnóstico diferencial, pois os resultados podem ser idênticos tanto na DMP (especialmente nas fases, iniciais ou de evolução subaguda como nas polimiosites e nas neuromiosites. De grande importância para o diagnóstico diferencial são a eletromio-grafia e a biopsia muscular: a eletromiografia mostra, na DMP, diminuição da voltagem e redução da duração média dos potenciais de ação, com elevada incidência de potenciais polifásicos; o exame histológico mostra grande variação no calibre e degeneração das fibras musculares com proliferação de tecido conjuntivo, sem infiltrações de caráter inflamatório e sem atividade regenerativa útil. Entretanto, êstes exames complementares não bastam, por si sós, para o diagnóstico diferencial de todos os casos e seus resultados devem ser interpretados cuidadosamente. Neste trabalho são referidos 21 casos que exigiram cuidadoso diagnóstico diferencial. Em 17 (casos 1 a 17, com base na anamnese e na sintomatologia, fôra feito o diagnóstico de DMP; entretanto em todos êles o exame mais minucioso, acrescido de dados fornecidos pela eletromiografia e especialmente pela biopsia, conduziu à formulação de outro diagnóstico. Em dois casos (18 e 19, ambos de moléstia de Charcot-Marie-Tooth, o exame histo-patológico sugeria o diagnóstico de DMP. Em um caso (20 o quadro clínico sugeria DMP e o exame eletromiográfico indicava haver les

  9. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  10. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  11. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  12. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    ] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...

  13. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  14. El grado de reflexión de los alumnos de cálculo diferencial. Una

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carolina Ramos; Margarita del Valle Veliz; Sonia Patricia Ross

    2007-01-01

    .... En este trabajo se midió el grado de reflexión de los alumnos de Cálculo Diferencial en el año 2005. Se consideró una muestra de 200 alumnos, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple, sobre un total de 601 alumnos...

  15. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations. That...

  16. Material de Apoio às aulas de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral I

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Maria do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Desenvolvimento de material didáctico ou pedagógico. Topologia da recta; Limites de funções reais de variável real; Continuidade de f.r.v.r.; Funções Hiperbólicas; Cálculo Diferencial; Funções Inversas das Funções Circulares; Sucessões de Números Reais; Séries Numéricas; Séries Alternadas e Séries de Potências; Primitivação; Primitivação Por Partes; Regras Práticas Para Primitivar Potências de Funções Circulares e Hiperbólicas; Primitivação de Funções Racionais; Primitivação Por Substit...

  17. Paracoccidioidomicose e tuberculose: diagnóstico diferencial Paracoccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis: differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara Aline Bertoni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador de paracoccidioidomicose (PCM, supostamente há 15 anos, que, apesar de a baciloscopia sempre ser negativa, foi tratado empiricamente para tuberculose, por duas vezes sem melhora clínica. O diagnóstico de PCM após longo tempo, por meio de metodologia simples, chama atenção para a importância da investigação paralela de tuberculose e paracoccidioidomicose como diagnóstico diferencial em respiradores sintomáticos crônicos.This study reports the case of a patient who allegedly had paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM for fifteen years. Despite the fact that his baciloscopy result had always been negative, he was empirically treated for tuberculosis twice without clinical improvement. PCM diagnosis through simple methodology draws attention to the importance of parallel investigation into tuberculosis and paracoccidioidomycosis as differential diagnosis in chronic symptomatic patients.

  18. Geometria diferencial de curvas e dinâmica da partícula

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Jr.,Antônio Duarte; Lemos, Nivaldo A.

    2011-01-01

    A geometria diferencial de curvas é aplicada à dinâmica de uma partícula em movimento no espaço tridimensional. As propriedades geométricas da trajetória são expressas em termos de grandezas dinâmicas associadas ao movimento. Estudamos, em particular, a conexão entre a curvatura, a torção e a força a que a partícula está sujeita. São encontradas as condições gerais que uma força deve satisfazer para que a trajetória seja plana independentemente das condições iniciais. The differential geom...

  19. Aspectos Motivacionais na Disciplina de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odileia da Silva Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investigamos a motivação e o uso de estratégias de aprendizagem como um fator que influencia o aprendizado em Cálculo Diferencial e Integral. Buscamos traçar um perfil motivacional de turmas da referida disciplina nos cursos de Engenharia Ambiental, Engenharia Elétrica e Matemática em duas diferentes instituições de ensino superior, uma pública e outra privada. Utilizamos como ferramenta para levantamento de dados uma adaptação do Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ. Aplicamos os questionários em dois momentos, no início e no final do semestre. Os dados da primeira aplicação nos permitiram traçar o perfil motivacional da turma, servindo de parâmetro para, na segunda aplicação, verificarmos o impacto do primeiro contato dos alunos com a disciplina de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral. Diante dos resultados, após o levantamento do perfil das turmas citadas, nos foi possível apontar algumas ações a serem desenvolvidas tanto para o professor como para cada turma envolvida em nossa investigação. Assim, a nossa pretensão, apesar de simples, pode servir como mais um meio de contribuição na área de Educação Matemática, focada essencialmente em prol do processo de ensino e de aprendizagem na Matemática.

  20. [Tomography of the pterygoid canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, S V; Kalenov, V E; Russkikh, N A

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an X-ray scheme for calculating the depth of pterygoid canals required for accurate tomography. The scheme includes three lines: line A corresponds to the physiological horizontal line, line B is drawn, normally to line A through the tip of the nose, and line C is the perpendicular from line B to the upper third of the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The length of line B plus 1 cm (thickness of external nose soft tissues) is the value to be determined. Twenty-six patients underwent X-ray examinations by an EDK-750B unit (70 kV, 150 mA, 1.65 s). In all cases 1-3 images were sufficient to obtain good visualization of the pterygoid canals.

  1. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  2. Endometriosis en el canal inguinal

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, José Luis; Corrales, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Endometriosis se define como la presencia de tejido glandular y estromal endometrial fuera de la cavidad uterina y este tejido ectópico es dependiente de la estimulación estrogénica. Usualmente se presenta en ovarios, fondos de saco, ligamento ancho, ligamento uterosacro, útero, trompas de Falopio, tracto gastrointestinal y geniturinario. Sin embargo, puede presentarse en otras localizaciones, como en el canal inguinal. Prevalece en 10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Existen mu...

  3. Microbiology of normal external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, D W; Roland, P S; Dohar, J; Burt, W

    2001-11-01

    To isolate and characterize bacteria and fungi from the healthy ear and to obtain susceptibility profiles on each bacterial isolate. Prospective. Specimens were collected from the external canals and cerumen of healthy subjects. Species-level identification was obtained by combining phenotypic and genotypic data. End-point minimal inhibitory concentration testing was performed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended methods. One hundred sixty-four subjects were cultured. Seventeen canal and 16 cerumen specimens showed no growth. One hundred forty-eight cerumen specimens yielded 314 organisms, including 23 fungi. One hundred forty-seven canal specimens yielded 310 organisms, including 7 fungi. Of 291 bacteria isolated from cerumen, 99% were Gram-positive. Of 302 bacteria isolated from the canal, 96% were Gram-positive. Staphylococci were 63% of both the cerumen bacteria and the canal bacteria. Coryneforms represented 22% of the bacteria in cerumen and 19% in the canal. Turicellaotitidis was the primary coryneform isolated from both the canal and the cerumen. Streptococci-like bacteria were 10% from the cerumen, 7% from the canal. In both cerumen and canal, Alloiococcusotitis was more than 95% of the streptococci-like bacteria. Fifteen gram-negative organisms were isolated from the canal and cerumen, including four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The percentages of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates that had high-level resistance (> or =8 microg/mL) were as follows: to neomycin, 28% from cerumen and 11% from the canal; to oxacillin, 28% from cerumen and 25% from the canal; and to ofloxacin, 15% from cerumen and 19% from the canal. Turcellaotitidis and A. otitidis were present with a much higher frequency than previously described, lending evidence that they be considered normal otic flora. Corynebacterium auris, previously reported only in children, was isolated from normal adults.

  4. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  5. Development of the anterior chordal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Moser, Gerhard; Patonay, Lajos; Oláh, Imre

    2006-01-01

    Resent advances have led to the reexamination of the intraosseous pathway of the chorda tympani a few years ago and they stated that the nerve never enters the mandibular fossa and its exit the skull base in the sphenopetrosal fissure. In our report, 58 temporal bones were investigated after maceration and formalin fixation in order to understand the development of the anterior chordal canal. Our study revealed that the chorda tympani leaves the tympanic cavity through the tympanosquamosal fissure before formation of the anterior chordal canal of Huguier. This canal is situated parallel to and in front of the musculotubal canal and formed by the processus inferior tegminis tympani and the sphenoid bone between the second and fifth years of age. Prior to the age of 2, only the exit of the bony canal exists which is gradually followed by the appearance of a groove in the growing processus inferior tegminis tympani. The borders of the groove elevate and develop to upper and lower plates which lengthen with similar plates of the sphenoid bone, completing the anterior chordal canal by the fifth postnatal year. The entrance of the canal develops above the petrotympanic fissure and similar to the canal itself, it is also completely formed in the fifth year. In case of an incomplete development the anterior chordal canal remains partially opened laterally which might allow the head of the mandibula to effect the chorda tympani mechanically causing Costen's syndrome.

  6. Aplicación de las Redes Neuronales en la Protección Diferencial de Generadores Sincrónicos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villada, Fernando; Valencia, Jaime A; Orille, Angel L

    2006-01-01

    .... Esto se hace con el fin de generar los patrones de entrenamiento de las redes neuronales. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que los nuevos esquemas propuestos para la protección diferencial son...

  7. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Abdulwahhab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.

  8. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment...

  9. Diferencial salarial público-privado e desigualdade de renda per capita no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. G. F. Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo estima a contribuição específica do diferencial salarial entre trabalhadores com características semelhantes dos setores público e privado para a desigualdade na renda domiciliar per capita no Brasil. A estimação baseia-se em simulações contrafactuais e o cálculo das contribuições para a desigualdade em uma decomposição de fatores do coeficiente de Gini. Os dados são provenientes da PNAD 2009. O diferencial equivale a cerca de 17% da massa salarial dos servidores públicos, é regressivo e altamente concentrado, mas tem volume pequeno na renda total (1% e, por isso, contribui para cerca de 3% da desigualdade total. Os efeitos sobre a desigualdade da composição da força de trabalho nos setores são muito maiores que efeitos da segmentação do mercado de trabalho entre os dois setores. Essas conclusões são pouco sensíveis a modificações de definições de setor e diferentes técnicas de estimação.We estimate the contribution of the wage differential between workers with the same attributes in the public and private sectors to the household per capita income inequality in Brazil. The estimate is based on counterfactual simulations and the contribution to inequality on a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient. Data comes from the Brazilian National Household Survey PNAD 2009. The differential corresponds approximately to 17% of the wage bill of workers in the public sector, is regressive and highly concentrated. However, because it amounts to a small share of the total income (1% its contribution to the total inequality is of 3%. The sector composition effects on inequality are times higher than the segmentation (price effects. These conclusions are robust to changes in the definition of the sectors and to different estimation techniques.

  10. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  11. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the...

  12. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  13. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  14. Impacto del cigarrillo en el tracto gastrointestinal: Efecto diferencial en Enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Berkowitz Fiebich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El impacto del consumo de cigarrillo a nivel respiratorio y cardiovascular ha sido extensamente investigado, sin embargo, aún queda mucho por estudiar sobre su impacto en el tracto gastrointestinal. Está demostrado que el tabaquismo es un importante factor de riesgo para desórdenes gastrointestinales, incluyendo úlceras pépticas, Enfermedad de Crohn y distintos tipos de cáncer. Los mecanismos propuestos incluyen daños a nivel de la mucosa, alteraciones en la irrigación del tejido y cambios en la respuesta inmune. Paradojalmente, el consumo de cigarrillo constituye un factor protector para el desarrollo y la progresión de la Colitis Ulcerosa. Esta patología, junto a la Enfermedad de Crohn, conforman las dos entidades más importantes dentro de las Enfermedades Inflamatorias Intestinales y comparten diversas características. El impacto diferencial del consumo de cigarrillo entre ambas ha sido un tema de gran interés en los últimos treinta años, y aún no ha logrado ser esclarecido. En esta revisión describiremos los efectos conocidos del tabaquismo sobre el tracto gastrointestinal, y particularmente en la inflamación intestinal, profundizando en los estudios disponibles que intentan explicar el efecto opuesto del cigarrillo en la Enfermedad de Crohn y la Colitis Ulcerosa

  15. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  16. Experiencias de calorimetría diferencial de barrido en aleaciones Al-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina López-Eckerdt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La observación de agujas características de una transformación displaciva en aleaciones U-Al-Si en el entorno del compuesto U3Si5 evidencia la necesidad de analizar las distintas transformaciones que ocurren durante el enfriamiento utilizando una técnica dinámica de identificación de transformaciones (calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Para evaluar la versatilidad de esta técnica, se estudiaron aleaciones Al-Si con concentraciones de Si entre 0,6% y 7,1% en peso. Se determinaron las temperaturas liquidus y eutéctica de cada aleación y se estimó la entalpía de formación de los precipitados de Si y de la reacción eutéctica. Los resultados reproducen las temperaturas de ambas reacciones según el diagrama de equilibrio del sistema binario Al-Si. Para el cálculo de las entalpías de transformación resulta indispensable obtener el porcentaje de fase transformada por otras técnicas de caracterización una vez finalizado el ensayo.

  17. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  18. Updated regime equations for alluvial Egyptian canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy Salah Abdelhaleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Real accuracy of several regime relationships for designing stable alluvial channels in Egypt was determined. Extensive field measurements had been carried out on 26 Egyptian stable canals, which cover various categories of irrigation canals starting from distributary, branch to carrier canals in Egypt. Analysis of 1484 velocity profiles for 371 cross sections was employed in order to formulate new regime equations characterizing Egyptian canals. The functional formulations to include the flow depth, cross section area, hydraulic radius and mean velocity were achieved. This research compared the deduced formulas from the measured data with the equations derived by other researchers for stable channel design. It was found that the derived formulas are reliable and could help in the design of Egyptian canals to convey a discharge ranging from 0.11 to 287.5 m3/s (0.0095–24.84 millions m3/day.

  19. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

  20. Análisis de la utilización y comprensión del cálculo diferencial en la enseñanza de la física

    OpenAIRE

    López Gay, Rafael; Martínez Torregrosa, Joaquín; Gras Martí, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Se presenta un amplio resumen de la evolución del concepto de diferencial, resaltando los desencuentros entre física y matemáticas, así como las dudas sobre su significado. Se identifican los indicadores de una adecuada comprensión del concepto de diferencial en física y se analizan las incomprensiones y errores cometidos por estudiantes y profesores cuando utilizan el cálculo diferencial en el contexto de la física. Se incluyen ejemplos desarrollados de cómo utilizar la diferencial y el cálc...

  1. Wave Mechanics of the Vestibular Semicircular Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marta M; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2017-09-05

    The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability. The model takes the form of a dispersive wave equation and predicts canal responses to angular motion, sound, and mechanical stimulation. Numerical simulations were carried out for the morphology of the human lateral canal using known physical properties of the endolymph and perilymph in three diverse conditions: surgical plugging, rotation, and mechanical indentation. The model reproduces frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in cases of canal plugging. During rotation, duct deformability extends the frequency bandwidth and enhances the high frequency gain. Mechanical indentation of the membranous duct at high frequencies evokes traveling waves that move away from the location of indentation and at low frequencies compels endolymph displacement along the canal. These results demonstrate the importance of the conformal perilymph-filled bony labyrinth to pressure changes and to high frequency sound and vibration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  3. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  4. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  5. Funcionamento Diferencial do Item no Inventário de Depressão Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Jezus Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos mostram o Funcionamento Diferencial do Item (DIF em itens do Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI, ao compararem homens e mulheres. A presença de um grande número de itens com DIF no BDI é uma severa ameaça à validade da medida da intensidade de sintomas depressivos obtida pela Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI e às conclusões baseadas nos escores derivados dos itens com e sem DIF. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar esses itens do BDI, ajustar o modelo de TRI para itens constrangedores (modelo 2, o qual acomoda itens com a presença de DIF, e comparar esses resultados com os do ajuste do modelo logístico de dois parâmetros tradicional da TRI (modelo 1. MÉTODOS: Os resultados obtidos com ambos os modelos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Os itens que apresentaram DIF foram: tristeza, sentimento de fracasso, insatisfações, culpa, punição, choro, fatigabilidade e perda da libido. Os resultados do ajuste dos dois modelos são similares quanto à discriminação, gravidade (à exceção dos itens com DIF e no cálculo de escores para os indivíduos. Apesar disso, o modelo 2 é vantajoso, pois mostra as diferenças em gravidade do sintoma depressivo para os grupos avaliados, trazendo, dessa forma, mais informação ao pesquisador sobre a população estudada. CONCLUSÃO: Esse modelo, que tem um alcance mais amplo em termos de população-alvo, pode ser uma ótima alternativa na identificação e acompanhamento de indivíduos com potencial depressivo.

  6. Adipositas cordis: um difícil diagnóstico diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A infiltração gordurosa do miocárdio representa desafio diagnóstico para o clínico e para o patologista, pois pode ser um achado compatível com a normalidade como ser responsável por doenças que apresentem desfechos fataiscomo, por exemplo, morte súbita, arritmias, disfunção do miocárdio e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva.O diagnóstico diferencial entre as doenças relacionadas à infiltração gordurosa do miocárdio de evolução desfavorável como a Adipositas Cordis e a Displasia/CardiomiopatiaArritmogênica do Ventrículo Direito também é difícil, sendo necessário avaliá-las com bases em achados clínico-laboratoriais e histopatológicos.Os autores apresentam o caso de um paciente sem qualquer comorbidade prévia, não obeso, que inesperadamente apresentou hipotensão refratária após estresse fisiológico, caracterizado pelo pós-operatório imediato de hemicolectomia,evoluindo a óbito. O achado da necropsia foi de infiltração gordurosa do ventrículo direito que caracteriza Adipositas Cordis, explicando a insuficiência de ventrículo direito e conseqüente hipotensão refratária.

  7. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico bolhoso: diagnóstico diferencial com dermatite herpetiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Simão Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico bolhoso é um subtipo raro do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que ocorre ainda de forma mais incomum nos pacientes pediátricos. Relatamos o caso de uma adolescente de 12 anos, apresentando lesões vésico-bolhosas em face, pescoço, tronco, mucosas oral e genital, anemia, leucocitúria estéril, FAN: 1/1280 padrão nuclear pontilhado grosso, Anti-Sm e Anti-RNP positivos. O estudo anatomopatológico sugere dermatite herpetiforme e a imunofluorescência direta revela IgG, IgA e fibrina ao longo da zona de membrana basal. Apresentamos um caso típico de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico bolhoso e enfatizamos a importância do diagnóstico diferencial com a dermatite herpetiformeBullous systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare subset of systemic lupus erythematosus that is even rarer in pediatric patients. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a vesiculobullous eruption on her face, neck, trunk and genital and oral mucosa, as well as anemia, sterile pyuria, ANA (1:1280, speckled pattern and positive anti-Sm and anti-RNP. Pathological examination suggested dermatitis herpetiformis, and direct immunofluorescence revealed IgG, IgA and fibrin in the epithelial basement membrane zone. We present a typical case of bullous systemic lupus erythematosus and emphasize the importance of clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis with dermatitis herpetiformis

  8. La displasia cemento ósea florida y su diagnóstico diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ulisses Carvalho de Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones benignas fibro-óseas de los maxilares constituyen un grupo diverso de enfermedades con una característica histológica común: la sustitución de hueso normal por tejido compuesto de colágeno y fibroblastos, con cantidades variables de una sustancia mineral que puede ser de hueso, cemento o ambos. Estas lesiones incluyen la displasia fibrosa, la displasia cemento-ósea en sus variantes: periapical, focal o florida, el cementoma gigantiforme familiar y el fibroma osificante cemento-osificante. La osteomielitis es un proceso inflamatorio agudo o crónico de los espacios medulares o corticales del hueso, que se extiende más allá del sitio inicial de desenvolvimiento. La osteomielitis esclerosante difusa es más frecuente en adultos, principalmente en la mandíbula. Se presenta radiográficamente como una lesión radiopaca difusa adyacente a los dientes, que puede ser multifocal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un caso inusual de lesión fibro-ósea, cuyo diagnóstico diferencial se hizo también con la osteomielitis de los maxilares. Se concluyó que las lesiones fibro-óseas benignas, presentaron muchas similitudes con respecto a sus aspectos clínicos, radiográficos e histológicos. Por lo tanto, es fundamental el análisis conjunto de estas informaciones para obtener un diagnóstico definitivo.

  9. Importancia diferencial de los componentes fundamentales de la esquizotipia: un metaanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Fumero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La esquizotipia puede entenderse como un trastorno incluido en el espectro de la esquizofrenia o como rasgo psicométrico que comprende 3 dimensiones: cognitivo-perceptual, interpersonal y desorganización cognitiva. La primera se relaciona con creencias extrañas y experiencias perceptuales inusuales; la segunda, con anhedonia y déficit en relaciones interpersonales, y la desorganización se identifica con pensamientos, conductas y lenguaje raros. Diferentes estudios han intentado esclarecer cuál de estas dimensiones es el componente esencial del constructo. Para dar respuesta a esta cuestión se llevó a cabo un metaanálisis en el que se realizó una revisión sistemática de las principales bases de datos que comparan las dimensiones de esquizotipia asociadas con diferentes áreas temáticas: composición factorial, síntomas clínicos y marcadores de vulnerabilidad. A partir de 300 artículos encontrados, se seleccionaron 27 estudios. Los resultados indicaron que la dimensión interpersonal parece estar más relacionada con la sintomatología clínica, mientras que la dimensión cognitivo-perceptual predomina en la investigación sobre marcadores de vulnerabilidad. La desorganización cognitiva contribuye a ambas temáticas. Se concluye que las dimensiones de esquizotipia tienen una importancia diferencial en función de las áreas de funcionamiento psicológico en estudio.

  10. FERRAMENTAS DE BENCHMARKING COMO DIFERENCIAL COMPETITIVO EM EMPRESAS DE FASTFOOD NA CIDADE DE NATAL-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available É notório, na contemporaneidade, o aumento da procura pelos produtos disponibilizados pelas redes de fastfood, gerando consequentemente o crescimento econômico das organizações do setor. Logo esse trabalho objetiva demonstrar o sistema de monitoramento de arranjos produtivos – SIMAP as empresas estudadas para que estas possam vislumbrar novas atividades de gestão com o intuito de ter um diferencial competitivo. Para alcançar esse objetivo utilizou-se a metodologia exploratoria explicativa, com estudo de caso nas empresas Pittsburg e McDonald´s na cidade de Natal-RN, obtendo-se as informações através de questionário semi-estruturado. Analisando-se os dados, percebeu-se que as empresas estudadas, encontram-se acima da média das empresas dos setor cadastradas no SIMAP. Em comparação cruzada entre as empresas estudadas, observou-se que a empresa Pittsburg possui pontos a aperfeiçoar, nos diversos indicadores de gestão, em especial no indicador sistema de gestão integrada, no qual essa empresa ficou abaixo de 25%. Observou-se também que em relação a gestão financeira, a empresa Pittsburg esta melhor qualificada perante sua concorrente McDonald´s. Ficou evidenciado que as empresas estudadas estão em conformidade com os requisitos mínimos exigidos pelos seus clientes.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  12. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  13. Canal and isthmus debridement efficacy using a sonic irrigation technique in a closed-canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meenal; Sidow, Stephanie J; Looney, Stephen W; Lindsey, Kimberly; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    This in vitro study compared debridement efficacies of a sonic irrigation technique (Vibringe; Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) with side-vented needle irrigation (SNI) in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Twenty roots with narrow isthmuses (≤ 1/4 canal diameter) were selected using micro-computed tomography scanning. Collagen solution was injected into canals/isthmuses and reconstituted with NH(4)OH to simulate canal debris. Each root was sealed apically and embedded in polyvinyl siloxane simulating a closed-canal system. Canals were instrumented to size 40/.04 taper 1 mm short of the anatomic apex. The final irrigation was performed with the Vibringe or SNI. Roots were demineralized, sectioned at 6 levels (1.2-3.2 mm) from the anatomic apex, and stained using Masson trichrome stain. The areas occupied by canals and isthmus and the debris-containing areas were statistically analyzed with repeated-measures analyses using "irrigation technique" as the between factor and "canal level" as the within factor (α = 0.05). Canals had significantly more debris at 1.2 and 1.6 mm (P .05). Considerably more debris remained at 1.2 and 2.0 mm for the Vibringe (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the canal and the isthmus (P < .001). There is no difference between the Vibringe and SNI in their overall debridement efficacy in apical one third of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Semicircular canal modeling in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2017-07-26

    The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models. The aim of this review is to determine the most consistent and reliable mathematical semicircular canal models that agree with experimental results and theoretical analyses, and offer reliable approximations for the semicircular canal functions based on the existing studies. Selecting and formulating accurate mathematical models of semicircular canals are essential for implementation into the MCA and for ensuring effective human motion perception modeling.

  15. Estudio del funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems en una Escala de Habilidades Sociales para Adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Galindo Garre, Francisca; Inglés Saura, Cándido José; Campoy Menéndez, Guillermo; Ortiz Soria, Beatriz

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el posible funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems (DIF) que componen la Escala de Habilidades Sociales para Adolescentes (EHSPA) como una parte del proceso de análisis de ítems. Este estudio implementa dos procedimientos de detección del DIF (estadístico de Mantel-Haenszel y Modelos Logit) para examinar si los ítems de la EHSPA funcionan de forma distinta en grupos igualados en función del género.

  16. Voto dual y abstención diferencial en Canarias: análisis del comportamiento electoral canario

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Melián Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El análisis del comportamiento electoral es una de las ramas más importante y prolífera dentro de la Ciencia Política. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar por primera vez un análisis descriptivo del comportamiento dentro de los procesos electorales, al Parlamento de Canarias desde 1999 hasta las elecciones de 2007; haciendo un especial hincapié en dos conceptos poco trabajados por la disciplina: el voto dual y la abstención diferencial. Fenómenos que han sido estudiado...

  17. ¿Varía el Recuento Diferencial de Leucocitos en Colibries (Trochilidae) Infectados por Hemoparásitos? -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Jeimy Beltrán-Castañeda; Y Paola Gonzalez-Hernández; I Lotta-Arévalo; N Salcedo-Porras; Nubia E Matta-Camacho

    2014-01-01

    Trochilidae cuenta con 331 especies distribuidas desde Alaska hasta Tierra de Fuego en América del Sur‚ presentes en gran variedad de ambientes. En Colombia se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos‚ tanto en tierras bajas como en tierras altas. En muchas especies animales se ha demostrado que la infección produce cambios en los valores hematológicos y específicamente en el recuento diferencial de leucocitos‚ sin embargo‚ hasta el momento se desconocen los valores hematológicos normales para las...

  18. Um panorama das disciplinas de fundamentos sobre a disciplina de cálculo diferencial e integral

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Lia; Almouloudg, Saddo

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo refere-se a uma parte da nossa pesquisa de Doutorado, a qual se encontra em desenvolvimento, surgida das inquietações da prática ao lecionar a disciplina de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral no curso de licenciatura plena em Matemática. As disciplinas de nivelamento são organizadas adequadamente com conteúdos do ensino médio e cursadas anteriormente à disciplina de Cálculo. Nossa intenção é mostrar a sua importância para que se tenha um referencial de aproveitamento do ensino de Cálc...

  19. Solución de una ecuación diferencial parcial de difusión

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes Álvarez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta un algoritmo que permite obtener la solución de la ecuación diferencial parcial producto de la aplicación de la segunda ley de difusión de Fick, utilizando la transformada de Laplace. La solución de la ecuación no requiere de series de potencias, series de Fourier u otros argumentos más especializados, lo que facilita su uso en diversos procesos de difusión a través de membranas celulares. Utilizing the Laplace transform, an algorithm is shown that solves th...

  20. Validez diferencial y sesgo en la predictividad de las pruebas de admisión en la universidades chilenas (PSU)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, Jorge; Bosch, Angélica; Bravo, David; Pino, Guido del; Donoso, Graciela; Pizarro, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    La preocupación por la equidad en la medición educacional ha llevado a desarrollar diversos procedimientos para evaluar el potencial sesgo asociado a características sociodemográficas de los examinados. Estos procedimientos incluyen la validez y la predicción diferencial de los tests. En el primer caso, se analiza el grado de asociación entre los tests y alguna variable criterio (como el rendimiento académico), comparando dicha asociación entre grupos. En el segundo caso, se trata de establec...

  1. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  2. Compatibilidad química del piracetam determinada por calorimetría diferencial de barrido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la primera etapa de preformulación de un medicamento se seleccionan los excipientes y es importante la realización de los estudios de compatibilidad química entre el ingrediente activo farmacéutico (IFA y excipientes. Una de las técnicas más rápidas para realizar dichos estudios es la Calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC, y como técnica complementaria la Termogravimetría (TG. Objetivo: empleando DSC y TG, se realiza un estudio de compatibilidad química entre IFA y excipientes preseleccionados, para comprobar la existencia o no de interacción química. Métodos: el equipo empleado fue el TA3000Mettler, aco­plado a la celda DSC20 y al horno TG50. El IFA utilizado fue Piracetam, y los excipientes: Kollidon VA 64, Estearato de magnesio, Celulosa microcristalina, Polietilenglicol 20 000 y Aerosil. Dichos excipientes se caracterizaron por DSC al igual que el IFA, al cual se le detectó la transición física de fusión. Para el estudio de compatibilidad se prepararon mezclas físicas binarias en una relación de concentración 1:1 Resultados: la figura 1 muestra la detección del punto de fusión por DSC del IFA. Se obtuvieron dos transiciones endotérmicas, comprobándose por TG cuál era la de fusión. La figura 2 muestra los termogramas de las mezclas formadas entre IFA y excipientes. Conclusiones: no se detectó aparición de nuevos picos, por lo que se infiere que no hay incompatibilidad química entre las sustancias estudiadas y se recomienda el uso de los excipientes para el desarrollo de la formulación farmacéutica.

  3. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  4. El ensayo de solubilidad diferencial como método de caracterización de la estructura fina de las fibras químicas

    OpenAIRE

    Gacen, J.; Maillo, J.; Cayuela, D.; J. Baixauli; Gacen, I.; Tzvetkovay, M.; Mercado, L

    2010-01-01

    La solubilidad diferencial es un ensayo físico-químico para la caracterización de la estructura fina de las fibras de poliéster, poliamida, acrílicas y fibras químicas de celulosa. En esta publicación se describe esta técnica, así como la influencia de las variables del ensayo. También se interpreta la curva de solubilidad diferencial vs. temperatura del ensayo. Por último, se citan ejemplos de campos de aplicación de este ensayo a diferentes grupos de sustratos de las mencionadas fibras....

  5. Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Juliana de Lima [UNIFESP; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio [UNIFESP; Andrade, Alexsandro Luiz de; Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico ...

  6. Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Juliana de Lima; Nogueira-Martins,Luiz Antonio; Andrade,Alexsandro Luiz de; Barros,Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico ...

  7. Voto dual y abstención diferencial en Canarias: análisis del comportamiento electoral canario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Melián Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del comportamiento electoral es una de las ramas más importante y prolífera dentro de la Ciencia Política. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar por primera vez un análisis descriptivo del comportamiento dentro de los procesos electorales, al Parlamento de Canarias desde 1999 hasta las elecciones de 2007; haciendo un especial hincapié en dos conceptos poco trabajados por la disciplina: el voto dual y la abstención diferencial. Fenómenos que han sido estudiados principalmente en Cataluña, y que se caracterizan por “cambiar su voto entre las elecciones legislativas y las autonómicas” (Montero y Font 1991:7. Tras este análisis se puede esbozar un cierto perfil de comportamiento electoral canario caracterizado por una participación inferior a la media española, una mayor dispersión del voto y un número efectivo de partidos casi el doble que el nacional. Observándose una alta volatilidad electoral total entre las dos últimas elecciones. No se aprecia una abstención diferencial especialmente significativa, con una mayor participación a nivel de elecciones nacionales; y cierto comportamiento de voto dual en el que los partidos nacionales ven claramente aumentado su caudal electoral en las elecciones generales y viceversa con los nacionalistas.

  8. Control por Modos Deslizantes y Planitud Diferencial de un Convertidor de CD/CD Boost: Resultados Experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta el control del convertidor de potencia de CD a CD Boost. En este sistema existen dos problemas de control, a saber; la regulación alrededor de un punto de equilibrio y la de seguimiento de trayectoria del voltaje de salida. Nosotros enfocamos nuestra atención al segundo problema de control. Debido a las propiedades de fase que satisface este convertidor, para realizar la tarea de seguimiento de trayectoria se diseña un controlador indirecto basado en modos deslizantes en combinación con planitud diferencial, el cual permite el seguimiento de trayectoria de la variable de fase no mínima (voltaje basado en el seguimiento de trayectoria de la variable de fase mínima (corriente. La síntesis de este controlador se realiza con la ayuda de una tarjeta de adquisición de datos National Instruments™ PCI-6025E junto con el software de aplicación MATLAB®-Simulink®. Se aplica este controlador al prototipo del convertidor Boost desarrollado y se obtienen resultados experimentales satisfactorios. Palabras clave: Control Indirecto, Convertidor de CD/CD Boost, Modos Deslizantes, Planitud Diferencial, Seguimiento de Trayectoria

  9. Caracterización mineralógica de tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes para su beneficio por molienda diferencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Menéndez-Aguado

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron mineralógicamente las tobas zeolitizadas del yacimiento Caimanes de la región de Moa, con vistas a beneficiar y concentrar las fases zeolíticas mediante la molienda diferencial. Se emplearon técnicas de difracción de rayos X, análisis químico, análisis térmicos, microscopía óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido para determinar, en la muestra inicial, la composición mineralógica cualitativa y cuantificar las fases presentes, establecer la textura, el grado de intercrecimiento y el tamaño de los granos. El software AUTOQUAN permitió determinar cuantitativamente las fases minerales en las diferentes clases granulométricas. Mediante la molienda diferencial se logró un concentrado del 95 % de zeolitas y contenido de clinoptilolita del 72 % en las fracciones menores de 0,074 mm al emplear molienda en seco durante 5 minutos y clasificación granulométrica por vía húmeda.

  10. Management of C-shaped canals: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Suryakant Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A C-shaped canal with varying configuration is commonly observed in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Cooke and Cox (1979 first documented the C-shaped canal in endodontic literature. The presence of high incidence of transverse anastomoses, lateral canals, and apical deltas makes it difficult to clean and seal the root canal system in these teeth. The main reason for failure in endodontic treatment of mandibular second molars is the inability to detect the presence of C-shaped canals prior to an endodontic therapy. This case report presents successful management of two rare cases of C-shaped canal configurations.

  11. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  13. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments.

  14. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Maram E

    2017-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic.

  15. METODOLOGÍA PARA EL AJUSTE DE LAS RESTRICCIONES ARMÓNICAS EN LA PROTECCIÓN DIFERENCIAL PORCENTUAL DE TRANSFORMADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Rosales Hernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo establecer un método para ajustes de las pendientes de lasrestricciones armónicas en la protección diferencial de transformadores. This paper introduces a procedure to determine the slope of the percentage differentialcharacteristic of a differential protection for power transformers.

  16. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377125202; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy.

  17. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  18. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  19. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  20. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  1. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  2. DIFICULTADES EN LA APLICACIÓN DEL CÁLCULO DIFERENCIAL E INTEGRAL EN LA RESOLUCIÓN DE PROBLEMAS DE CAMPO ELÉCTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Coello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue el determinar los conceptos en acción y teoremas en acción que tienen los estudiantes cuando aplican el cálculo diferencial e integral en la resolución de problemas de campo eléctrico utilizando la teoría de los campos conceptuales de Vergnaud.  Participaron en este estudio seis estudiantes registrados en un curso de física básico con cálculo en el tópico de electromagnetismo y que tiene como prerrequisito el cálculo diferencial y como correquisito el cálculo integral. Los estudiantes resolvieron un problema de campo eléctrico que involucró el uso del cálculo diferencial e integral utilizando el pensamiento en voz alta y a partir de la resolución del problema se establecieron los conceptos en acción y teoremas en acción equivocados. Los conceptos en acción y teoremas de acción incorrectos se presentan principalmente en la representación gráfica del problema y se concentran más en el dominio del cálculo diferencial e integral. Esto en gran medida se debe a que los esquemas de resolución de problemas del cálculo diferencial e integral no se transfieren adecuadamente a la resolución de problemas de física con este componente.

  3. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels being...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  5. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal...

  6. Maxillary First Premolar with Three Root Canals: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. Keywords: Maxillary First Premolar, Endodontic Treatment, Elective, Root Canal Morphology ...

  7. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  8. Determinación de un polimorfo de la cimetidina mediante la calorimetría diferencial de barrido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martínez Álvarez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció la diferencia entre 2 sustancias de masa molecular similar -la cimetidina A y la B-, pero de estructuras internas distintas, mediante el empleo de la técnica de calorimetría diferencial de barrido donde solamente una de ellas, la cimetidina B, posee la actividad farmacológica requerida, es decir, cumple con las especificaciones de la farmacopea.The difference between two substances of similar mollecular mass but of different internal structuras -cimetidine A and B- was established by using the differential scanning calorimetry. It was proved that only one of them, cimetidine B, has the required pharmacological activity, which means that it fulfills the pharmacopoeia specifications.

  9. La Gran Recesión y el diferencial salarial por género en España

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Huertas, Inés P.; Simón Pérez, Hipólito J.

    2014-01-01

    El artículo examina la evolución de las diferencias salariales entre hombres y mujeres en España entre los años 2002 y 2010. La evidencia obtenida sugiere que el notable empeoramiento de la coyuntura económica tras el inicio de la Gran Recesión ha tenido dos impactos reseñables sobre el diferencial salarial por razón de género. El primero es que se ha revertido la tendencia hacia la reducción de la brecha salarial por género que se venía produciendo en la economía española con anterioridad, d...

  10. Funcionamiento diferencial del ítem en pruebas de matemática para educación media

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Elena Moreira-Mora

    2011-01-01

    El tema de esta investigación concierne al funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems (FDI) y sus posibles fuentes en la población de estudiantes reportados con conductas del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), en la prueba de Matemática de Bachillerato en Educación Media del sistema educativo formal. En la actualidad, esta temática del FDI es fundamental en el proceso de validación de pruebas con propósitos de selección, promoción y certificación. A pesar de tal relevan...

  11. A lousa digital e o uso do maple no cálculo diferencial e integral: potencialidades mediativas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiber, Carmen; Vecchia, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    As potencialidades das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC) para com o processo de ensino e a aprendizagem da Matemática é uma linha de investigação que vem se consolidando dentro do campo da Educação Matemática. Nesse universo é de nosso interesse investigar a relação entre a lousa digital e o uso do software Maple no estudo do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral. O trabalho apresentado visa investigar como o ambiente informático constituído pela presença da lousa digital pode contribuir...

  12. Antígeno carcinoembrionário no diagnóstico diferencial dos derrames pleurais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro Junior

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a sensibilidade e a especificidade da dosagem do CEA no diagnóstico diferencial do derrame pleural de pacientes portadores de doenças benígnas e malígnas. MÉTODO: Estudo contemporâneo de série de casos, realizado do Serviço de Cirurgia Torácica do Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Entre julho de 2000 e julho de 2001, 64 pacientes foram submetidos à investigação etiológica de efusão pleural,e submetidos aos seguintes exames: pH, LDH, dosagem protêica, densidade, glicose, citologia diferencial, pesquisa de fungos e BAAR, gram e cultura com antibiograma, citopatologia, dosagem de CEA e biópsia pleural. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com derrames de etiologia maligna (n=26 tiveram resultado do CEA variando de zero a 5000ng/ml, enquanto nos de etiologia benígna os valores variaram de zero a 4,8ng/ml. Nível médio de CEA na efusão carcinomatosa foi de 431 ± 1237 ng/ml (média ± desvio padrão, significativamente maior que nos benignos (1,1 ± 1,0 ng/ml; p<0,001. A sensibilidade, para um ponto de corte de 5 ng/ml, foi de 61,5% e a especificidade de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com efusão pleural, quando investigados do ponto de vista etiológico, a dosagem do CEA pode ser útil para critério diagnóstico.

  13. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  14. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000. M...

  15. Infrared typmanic tempature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  16. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  17. Residuos de antimicrobianos en canales de vacas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GESCHE, E; EMILFORK, C

    1998-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de residuos de antibióticos y sulfamidas en animales de abasto, se analizaron las canales de 300 vacas faenadas en una Planta Faenadora de Carnes de la X Región de Chile...

  18. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, RuYong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically...

  19. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  20. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  1. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Carr, Carrie M; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R; Haughton, Victor M

    2016-08-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7.

  2. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLARS WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: TWO CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha UĞUR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the dentists have sufficient information about possible variations in the expected root canal configurations in order to achieve success in endodontic treatment. In addition to having adequate knowledge on the variations of the root canal anatomy, periapical radiographs from different angles, careful examination of the pulp chamber floor, and use of dental operation microscope during the procedure are also important factors that contribute to the diagnosis of the additional roots and canals. The aims of this article are to present the diagnostic approach and root canal treatments of two maxillary first premolar teeth with three canals in two patients.

  3. A new system for classifying tooth, root and canal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Dummer, P M H

    2017-10-12

    Understanding the normal anatomical features as well as the more unusual developmental anomalies of teeth, roots and root canals is essential for successful root canal treatment. In addition to various types of root canal configuration and accessory canal morphology, a wide range of developmental tooth, root and canal anomalies exists, including C-shaped canals, dens invaginatus, taurodontism, root fusion, dilacerations and palato-gingival grooves. There is a direct association between developmental anomalies and pulp and periradicular diseases that usually require a multidisciplinary treatment approach to achieve a successful outcome. A number of classifications have categorized tooth, root and canal anomalies; however, several important details are often missed making the classifications less than ideal and potentially confusing. Recently, a new coding system for classifying root, root canal and accessory canal morphology has been introduced. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new system for classifying tooth, root and canal anomalies for use in research, clinical practice and training, which can serve as complementary codes to the recently described system for classifying root, as well as main and accessory canal morphology. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Measurements of semicircular canal space direction with MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaokai; Wu, Shuzhi; Ye, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Measure the space direction of semicircular canals to provide the anatomical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. We calculated angles among semicircular canals of 24 patients using MRI scaning with 3D-CISS sequence. The angle between the left and right posterior semicircular canals was 106.61 degress ± 8.58 degrees, so the angle among the posterior semicircular canals and sagittal head plane was 53.31 degrees ± 4.29 degrees. Pairs of contralateral synergistic canal planes were not parallel, forming 171.67 degrees ± 4.36 degrees between the left and right horizontal semicircular canal planes, 154.37 degrees ± 10.87 degrees between the left posterior and right anterior semicircular canal planes and 156.84 degrees ± 9.34 degrees between the right posterior and left anterior semicircular canal planes. Our measurement of the angles among semicircular canals coincided with those of previous reports. The angles between contralateral synergistic canal planes were close to parallel, but the angle between the posterior semicircular canals and sagittal head plane was great than 45 degrees that traditionally thought to be.

  5. Angioma cavernoso do meato acústico interno envolvendo o complexo VII e VIII nervos cranianos: relato de caso Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal encasing the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leal Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de homem de 21 anos, leucoderma, portador de angioma cavernoso do meato acústico interno direito envolvendo o complexo VII e VIII nervos cranianos tratado cirurgicamente. Apenas 18 casos de angiomas cavernosos dessa localização foram relatados na literatura. São comentados os aspectos clínicos, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.We report the surgically treated case of a 21-year-old caucasian male harboring a cavernous hemangioma of the right internal auditory canal encasing the seventh and eighth cranial nerves complex. Only 18 cases of cavernous hemangiomas of this location have been previously reported. The clinical features, the differential diagnosis and the treatment are discussed.

  6. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. Root Canal Filling after Revascularization/Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Cruz, Álvaro; Díaz, Mariana; Jiménez, Ana Laura; Solís, Rodrigo; Bernal, Cesar

    Revascularization/revitalization therapy is considered an alternative procedure for management of teeth with an immature apex and necrotic pulp, mainly when root development is interrupted in the early phases of formation. However, this clinical treatment protocol should be considered a permanent procedure? A maxillary central incisor with a previous and successful RR treatment was intentionally filled with a biocompatible material with the periapical tissues due to the patient's lack of adherence to the follow-up protocol. The 20-month follow-up showed absence of clinical, radiological and tomographic signs and symptoms of an endodontic re-infection. This case demonstrates that once the increased thickening of the canal walls, incrementing the root length, apical closure and the total resolution of the apical lesion are observed, the main canal of a previously treated tooth with an RR procedure can be filled.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  9. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...... five showed haemorrhoids. In all cases, neuronal hyperplasia was located in the submucosa beneath squamous epithelium and extended over an area from 5 to 12 mm. Immunohistochemically, the foci of hyperplasia were found to consist of both neuronal and Schwann cell components. Staining for vasoactive...... intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene related peptide, did not demonstrate any increased terminal density. It is suggested that anal neuronal hyperplasia in these cases represents an acquired lesion due to local mechanical influence....

  10. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  11. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  14. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  15. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  16. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  17. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated.

  18. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Su

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT.Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10. The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05.The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p0.5. SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste.The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated.

  19. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh-ali Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1, warm vertical condensation (G2 and thermoplasticized injectable gutta percha (G3. The teeth were exposed to human saliva. Observing the turbidity of the BHI broth for a period of 63 days the number of days required for the complete contamination of root canals was recorded. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS statistical software. Results: Warm vertical condensation (G2 needed a significantly greater average time for leakage than the two other methods. No significant differences were found between lateral condensations and thermoplasticized injectable G.P techniques. Conclusion: warm vertical condensation provides a better seal against bacterial leakage than lateral condensation and obtura II method in obturating oval-canals.

  20. Anterior canal lithiasis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, Augusto Pietro; Cerchiai, Niccolò; Dallan, Iacopo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    To describe the clinical and oculographic features in patients with anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to determine the efficacy of a canalith repositioning procedure for its management. Case series with chart review of patients presenting positional vertigo and positional downbeating nystagmus during a 2-year period. Outpatients' tertiary referral center for balance disorders. Eighteen patients suffering from positional vertigo and presenting positional downbeating nystagmus were treated with a maneuver based on a modification of the procedure proposed by Crevits. disappearance of positional downbeating nystagmus. Positional downbeating nystagmus was elicited unilaterally with the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 6 cases. In 4 patients, it was triggered by both left and right Dix-Hallpike tests. In 8 patients, the positional nystagmus was elicited by a straight head-hanging maneuver. The positional nystagmus was purely downbeating in 12 patients. In the remaining, a torsional component was detected. After the treatment, only 1 patient showed positional nystagmus at 30 days. In anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the presence of a positional downbeating nystagmus in response to positional tests is key for diagnosis. In a significant number of patients, the affected side may not be detected because of the inconstant presence of a torsional component. Treatment with a simplified maneuver based on Crevits's technique can be considered an effective method for the treatment of anterior canal lithiasis, especially when the affected side cannot be detected clearly.

  1. Método de diagnóstico diferencial entre el Linfoma de Burkitt y el Linfoma Difuso de Células B Grandes

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Privado, Irene; Campanero, Miguel R.; Rodríguez-Martínez, María

    2009-01-01

    Método de diagnóstico diferencial entre el Linfoma de Burkitt y el Linfoma Difuso de Células B Grandes. La presente invención se encuadra dentro del campo de la biología molecular y la medicina. Específicamente, se refiere a un método de obtención de datos útiles para el diagnóstico diferencial entre el Linfoma de Burkitt (LB) y el Linfoma Difuso de Células B Grandes (LDCBG) mediante el análisis de las formas truncadas de la proteína I2PP2A, a un método de diagnóstico ...

  2. DIFICULTADES EN LA APLICACIÓN DEL CÁLCULO DIFERENCIAL E INTEGRAL EN LA RESOLUCIÓN DE PROBLEMAS DE CAMPO ELÉCTRICO

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Coello; Jorge Flores

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue el determinar los conceptos en acción y teoremas en acción que tienen los estudiantes cuando aplican el cálculo diferencial e integral en la resolución de problemas de campo eléctrico utilizando la teoría de los campos conceptuales de Vergnaud.  Participaron en este estudio seis estudiantes registrados en un curso de física básico con cálculo en el tópico de electromagnetismo y que tiene como prerrequisito el cálculo diferencial y como correquisito el cálculo ...

  3. Compatibilidad química por calorimetría diferencial de barrido y termogravimetría del auranofin tabletas 3 mg

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez; Marlene Montes Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Como parte de la pre-estabilidad de la preformulación de auranofin tabletas, se realizó un estudio de compatibilidad química, para lo cual se emplearon técnicas de análisis térmico como la calorimetría diferencial de barrido y la termogravimetría. Previo a dichos estudios se caracterizó térmicamente por calorimetría diferencial de barrido el principio activo y cada uno de los excipientes. Posteriormente se procedió a la realización del estudio de compatibilidad química, mediante la preparació...

  4. Heterogeneidad social y valoración diferencial de servicios ecosistémicos : un abordaje multi-actoral en el oeste de Córdoba (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Tapella, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Tesis (Doctor en Ciencias Agropecuarias)--UNC- Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, 2012. Esta investigación aborda la compleja y problemática relación entre el hombre y la naturaleza en un contexto territorial al Oeste de Córdoba, Argentina. Utilizando un enfoque interpretativo y desde la perspectiva de múltiples actores, el estudio se concentra sobre alta heterogeneidad social y la valoración diferencial de los ecosistemas del Chaco Seco. La investi...

  5. Micosis Fungoide Intersticial: Diagnóstico diferencial con el Granuloma Anular Intersticial Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: Differential diagnosis with Interstitial Granuloma Annulare

    OpenAIRE

    RE Achenbach; LJA Lococo; GF Sánchez; S Monroy; MI Jorge; EH Pittaro

    2011-01-01

    La micosis fungoide en su variante histopatológica intersticial, puede ser confundida con el granuloma anular intersticial. Se ejemplifican dos casos de micosis fungoide intersticial y se subrayan los criterios histopatológicos para el diagnóstico diferencial, entre estas dos entidades.The interstitial type of mycosis fungoides and the interstitial type of granuloma annulare have several findings in common, in some cases may be difficult to differentiate them. Two cases of interstitial mycosi...

  6. Formulación y cálculo numérico de una destilación diferencial para una mezcla de multicomponentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes A. Rangel Jara

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available La técnica numérica presentada en este trabajo soluciona el sistema diferencial de una destilación "Raylelgh", como una de las mejores aproximaciones al evento físico que sucede en esta operación. La varlación infinitesimal de la composición de los componentes, en la mezcla liquida, se obtiene al solucionar la respectiva ecuación diferencial y la nueva temperatura de punto de burbuja se evalúa mediante una técnica numérica adecuada. Una revisión exhaustiva de las técnicas numéricas para la integración del sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales y de la valoración del respectivo punto de burbuja, permite presentar un algoritmo apropiado para un cálculo con gran exactitud y efciciente en términos del tiempo de computación. El sistema diferencial se integra numéricamente mediante un método de Runge Kutta de cuarto grado y la temperstura del punto de burbuja se evalúa por un método mejorado de memoria -IMM-. El programa elaborado calcula el grado de la destilación, la temperatura, las composiciones instantáneas del liquido y del vapor y la composición media del destilado.

  7. Formulación y cálculo numérico de una destilación diferencial para una mezcla de multicomponentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes A. Rangel Jara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La técnica numérica presentada en este trabajo soluciona el sistema diferencial de una destilación "Raylelgh", como una de las mejores aproximaciones al evento físico que sucede en esta operación. La varlación infinitesimal de la composición de los componentes, en la mezcla liquida, se obtiene al solucionar la respectiva ecuación diferencial y la nueva temperatura de punto de burbuja se evalúa mediante una técnica numérica adecuada. Una revisión exhaustiva de las técnicas numéricas para la integración del sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales y de la valoración del respectivo punto de burbuja, permite presentar un algoritmo apropiado para un cálculo con gran exactitud y efciciente en términos del tiempo de computación. El sistema diferencial se integra numéricamente mediante un método de Runge Kutta de cuarto grado y la temperstura del punto de burbuja se evalúa por un método mejorado de memoria -IMM-. El programa elaborado calcula el grado de la destilación, la temperatura, las composiciones instantáneas del liquido y del vapor y la composición media del destilado.

  8. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin I.; Filip, Laura M.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-04-01

    The root canal fillings are destined to seal the root canal especially in the apical areea. Invasive techniques are known which are used to assess the quality of the seal. These lead to the destruction of the probes and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively novel non-invasive imaging technique which presents potential in assessing the microleakage of the apical area in the root canal fillings with micron depth resolution. 3D reconstruction allows a complete view with obvious display of gaps in the apical root canal filling. For this study, 30 monoradicular teeth were prepared by conventional and rotative methods. Afterwards, root canal fillings were produced in each tooth. The images obtained show some microleakage in all the investigated root canal fillings. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution.

  10. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Mitchell A. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, James E. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Gastroenterology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  11. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... Post‑operative pain in multiple‑visit and single‑visit root canal treatment. J Endod 2010;36:36‑9. 13. Ferranti P. Treatment of the root canal of an infected tooth in one appointment: A report of 340 cases. Dent Dig 1959;65:49‑53. 14. Ufomata D. One‑visit root canal therapy: A preliminary clinical study in ...

  12. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  13. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik Herzog; Siegfried Steltenkamp; Adrian Klein; Simon Tätzner; Elisabeth Schulze; Horst Bleckmann

    2015-01-01

    Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificia...

  14. ESTUDIO TERMOXIDATIVO NO ISOTERMICO POR CALORIMETRÍA DIFERENCIAL DE BARRIDO DE POLIETILENO DE BAJA DENSIDAD FORMULADO CON LIGNINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irama Piña-Saenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante de la lignina (LLN en el polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD a través de un método no isotérmico empleando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Las muestras bajo estudio, obtenidas de la formulación de PEBD con LLN, se sometieron a tratamientos térmicos a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento (β = 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 ° C/min, en presencia de oxígeno para favorecer la termo-oxidación del material. Se empleó un modelo cinético de degradación termoxidativa isoconversional, ajustada a la ecuación de Arrhenius, para determinar el factor de protección (PF de la lignina en la resina polimérica. Los resultados indican que bajo las formulaciones estudiadas, la lignina presenta una baja capacidad antioxidante en comparación con el Irganox1010. Sin embargo, en las formulaciones que contiene una mezcla de Irganox 1010 y lignina se observó un efecto sinergético en la capacidad antioxidativa de la lignina sobre el aditivo comercial.

  15. Voto dual y abstención diferencial. Un estudio sobre el comportamiento electoral en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARA RIBA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio empírico sobre los motivos del cambio sistemático de resultados electorales que se da en Cataluña según el ámbito de la convocatoria electoral de que se trate. La hipótesis, contrastada positivamente con datos del período 1982-1993, es que la victoria del partido nacionalista de centro-derecha en las elecciones autonómicas en un territorio donde vencen siempre los socialistas en las elecciones legislativas se debe a la combinación de los fenómenos del voto dual y del abstencionismo diferencial. La aproximación metodológica de la elección racional permite construir grupos de electores que tienen distintas percepciones del espacio en el que se dirime la competición política, hecho que les induce a un comportamiento electoral diferenciado. Combinando estos resultados con los obtenidos del análisis con datos socioestructurales agregados, se establece un cierto perfil de los votantes duales y de los abstencionistas diferenciales. Finalmente, se realiza una interpretación de los resultados de las elecciones catalanas de 1995 y 1999 a la luz de los resultados de este estudio.

  16. El grado de reflexión de los alumnos de cálculo diferencial. Una

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La ejecución de las tareas exige del estudiante justificar tanto las acciones que realiza, como los criterios en que basa su trabajo, lo que contribuye a incentivar la reflexión. En este trabajo se midió el grado de reflexión de los alumnos de Cálculo Diferencial en el año 2005. Se consideró una muestra de 200 alumnos, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple, sobre un total de 601 alumnos que concluyó el cursado de la misma, haciéndose un análisis comparativo de los niveles de reflexión al comienzo y al finaldel cursado de la asignatura. Se trabajó con guías de estudio preparadas especialmente, con elementos de autorregulación y autoevaluación, en las que se puso énfasis en actividades de reflexión, autocorrección y autocontrol. Estas guías se elaboraron según la concepción sistémica del proceso de enseñanza – aprendizaje, teniendo en cuenta los tres modelos: de objetivos, de contenidos y del proceso de asimilación, siguiendo las teorías enmarcadas en la psicología cognitiva. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados logrados luego del trabajo con dichas guías.

  17. Capital Humano Como Diferencial Competitivo Para As Organizações / Human Capital How Competitive Edge For Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Kelsen Arcângelo Ferreira e; Faculdade Santo Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Em  função do cenário global, o capi­tal  humano  é  visto  como  diferencial  competitivopara as organizações. O atual mundo competiti­vo  e  dinâmico  como  conseqüência  daglobalização e  seus efeitos  remete as organiza­ções a buscarem em seus campos de atuação efora deles meios para alcançar  seus objetivos emanter­se em poder de competição  frente a ou­tros mercados. Em função de tal conjuntura, per­cebe­se a relevância do tema em questão abor­dando­o e desenvolvendo um  trabalho biblio...

  18. PROCEDIMIENTO DE CALIBRACIÓN EN TEMPERATURA Y FLUJO DE CALOR DE UN CALORÍMETRO DIFERENCIAL DE BARRIDO (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Reynoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El calorímetro diferencial de barrido no es un dispositivo de medición absoluta, por lo que su utilización requiere indispensable mente una calibración. En esta contribución se presenta un procedimiento de calibración para el cual s e consideraron las temperaturas y calores de fusión aceptados en la literatura de 5 materiales puros . S e prepararon 6 muestras de dife rentes masas para cada material y s e sometió cada una de ellas a ci clos de calentamiento , desde temperatura ambiente hasta 50 ºC por encima de las temperaturas de fusión , utilizando 6 velocidades distintas por cada probeta. Luego, p ara determinar una relación de ajuste entre los datos experimentales obtenidos y los valores aceptados , se utilizó un método de regresión no lineal mediante un procedimiento matricial desarrollado en el entorno MATLAB . Los resultados obtenidos muestran una corrección con una desviación estándar de 1,2 ºC para el ajuste en temperatura y 2,1 5 J/g para el flujo de calor.

  19. Funcionamiento diferencial del ítem en pruebas de matemática para educación media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Elena Moreira-Mora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema de esta investigación concierne al funcionamiento diferencial de los ítems (FDI y sus posibles fuentes en la población de estudiantes reportados con conductas del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH, en la prueba de Matemática de Bachillerato en Educación Media del sistema educativo formal. En la actualidad, esta temática del FDI es fundamental en el proceso de validación de pruebas con propósitos de selección, promoción y certificación. A pesar de tal relevancia, en Costa Rica no existen estudios en este campo. Por ello, dentro de este contexto y necesidades, se pretende brindar, por un lado, un aporte metodológico al demostrar las potencialidades estadísticas del método Mantel Haenszel para identificar el FDI y, por el otro, aportar algunos presupuestos teóricos sobre FDI en la población reportada con conductas del TDAH, así como generar hipótesis para prevenir el FDI en futuras pruebas de matemática.

  20. [Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal.

  1. Mandibular second premolar with three canals: Re-treatment of a case with unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4%. The mandibular second premolar is particularly difficult to treat owing to the fact that a wide variation in the number, location and curvature of the roots and canals exist. Added to this is the fact that the access opening is restricted and location of the lingually placed orifices is difficult. This case report details the re-treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three canals and three separate orifices using the surgical microscope.

  2. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  3. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  4. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  5. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  6. [Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasković, Mirjana; Karadzić, Branislav; Miletić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  7. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular left first molar with six root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, of which three canals were located in the mesial root and three in distal root. Third canals were found between the two main root canals. This case presents a rare anatomic configuration and points to the importance of expecting and searching for additional canals.

  16. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  18. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  19. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment procedures. Many investigators have reported the anatomical variations associated with mandibular canines. Mandibular canines are recognized as usually having one root and one root canal in most cases. This case report describes a clinical case of mandibular canine with two canals. Human mandibular canines do not present internal anatomy as simple as could be expected; there are such canines with a single root and two canals, two roots or fused roots. The existence of mandibular canines with more than one root canal is a fact that clinicians ought to keep in mind, in order to avoid failure during endodontic treatment. In spite of the low incidence of lower canines with one root and two canals, this possibility cannot be forgotten, inasmuch as the presence of a second canal in these teeth leads to difficulties in endodontic treatment. The precise knowledge of the dental endocanalicular system′s anatomy is essential in the success of the root canal therapy, because the failure to detect the accessories canals and the incomplete radicular obturation leads to the infection of the periapical space, which will ultimately result in the loss of the tooth.

  20. Technical quality of root canal treatment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, L-H; Chen, S-C; Lee, C-M; Hsu, Y-Y; Pai, S-F; Kuo, M-L; Chen, C-S; Duh, B-R; Yang, S-F; Tung, Y-L; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the current technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) in Taiwan. A total of 1085 RCT cases, randomly selected from a large sample and representative of the Taiwanese population from April to September 2000, were evaluated by eight endodontic specialists. The qualitative evaluation of RCT cases was based on two variables: length of the root filling and density of the obturation. A root canal with both adequate filling length (the apical termination of the root filling within 2 mm of the radiographic apex) and complete obturation (no lateral or apical canal lumen visible in the apical one-third of the root canal) was defined as having good-quality endodontic work (GQEW). A tooth was defined as having a GQEW when all its canals were categorized as GQEW. From a total of 1867 root canals, overfilling occurred in 235 (12.6%), adequate filling length in 1152 (61.7%), underfilling in 466 (25.0%) and no filling in 12 (0.6%). Of the 1867 root canals, 710 (38.0%) demonstrated complete obturation and 1157 (62%) demonstrated incomplete obturation. GQEW was found in 650 (34.8%) root canals and 329 (30.3%) teeth. The percentage of teeth with GQEW in hospital cases (38.1%) was significantly greater (P RCT in Taiwan were either of inadequate filling length or sealing density.

  1. Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-04-01

    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

  2. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the...

  4. Segmental carpal canal pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Tomita, Katsuro

    2006-01-01

    To clarify which part of the median nerve is the most compressed and to compare carpal canal pressure with the latency of the sensory nerve potential and the duration of symptoms. Fifteen patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were studied using a pressure guidewire system to record canal pressure. The wire was introduced from the distal end of the carpal canal to 2 cm proximal to the distal wrist crease (DWC) and then retracted in 5-mm increments using an image intensifier to guide the progress. A nerve conduction study was performed, and all patients were asked how long the symptoms lasted. Carpal canal pressure was significantly higher 5 to 15 mm distal to the DWC. The most compressed point was 10 mm distal to the DWC, with a pressure of 44.9 +/- 26.4 mm Hg. The correlation coefficient between the highest canal pressure and the latency was 0.393 and between highest canal pressure and duration of symptoms was 0.402. Our study showed that the most compressed part of the median nerve in the carpal canal is 10 mm distal to the DWC. The carpal canal pressure was related to the latency and to the duration of symptoms.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  6. Morphology of root canals in lower human premolars | Baroudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The knowledge of the root canal morphology and the possible anatomical variations of mandibular premolars are important for the successful endodontic treatment of such cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of two or three root canals in extracted first and second mandibular premolars ...

  7. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation.

  8. Displasia fibromuscular: um diagnóstico diferencial para as vasculites Fibromuscular dysplasia: a differential diagnosis of vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís de Carvalho Pontes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A displasia fibromuscular (DFM envolve artérias de pequeno e médio calibre e é uma causa bem conhecida de hipertensão em mulheres jovens caucasianas, quando envolve as artérias renais. A etiologia da DFM permanece desconhecida, a despeito de inúmeras teorias. Há suspeita de um componente genético, já que a doença atinge primariamente caucasianos. Também é descrita associação entre DFM e antígeno de histocompatibilidade HlA-DRw6. Os principais sítios acometidos são as artérias renais, cerebrais, carótidas, viscerais, ilíacas, subclávias, braquiais e poplíteas. As manifestações clínicas correlacionam-se com o sítio acometido, e a hipertensão arterial sistêmica é um sintoma frequente pelo acometimento das artérias renais em 60%-75% dos casos. O diagnóstico da DFM é feito por meio de exame histopatológico e/ou angiográfico. A DFM pode apresentar-se como doença vascular sistêmica, mimetizando vasculites. Essa compreensão é importante porque tanto a vasculite quanto a DFM podem ter curso clínico grave, e exigem tratamentos diferentes. O diagnóstico diferencial pode ser difícil diante de uma apresentação clínica atípica ou da incapacidade de obter a confirmação histopatológica. Há relatos isolados de DFM mimetizando poliarterite nodosa, síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos, síndrome de Alport, feocromocitoma, síndrome de Marfan e arterite de Takayasu. Os reumatologistas devem estar atentos para fazer esse diagnóstico diferencial. O tratamento da DFM é recomendado apenas em casos sintomáticos, e consiste em revascularização (cirúrgica ou por angioplastia percutânea transluminal. Na DFM, efeitos da corticoterapia podem ser direta e rapidamente deletérios para a parede vascular, levando à piora das lesõesFibromuscular dysplasia (FMD involves small- and medium-sized arteries, being a well-known cause of hypertension in young Caucasian women, when renal arteries are involved. The etiology of FMD remains

  9. Traditional and contemporary techniques for optimizing root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Richard; Alani, Aws

    2014-01-01

    Canal irrigation during root canal treatment is an important component of chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system. Traditional syringe irrigation can be enhanced by activating the irrigant to provide superior cleaning properties. This activation can be achieved by simple modifications in current technique or by contemporary automated devices. Novel techniques are also being developed, such as the Self-adjusting File (Re-Dent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Ozone (Healozone, Dental Ozone, London, UK), Photoactivated Disinfection and Ultraviolet Light Disinfection. This paper reviews the techniques available to enhance traditional syringe irrigation, contemporary irrigation devices and novel techniques, citing their evidence base, advantages and disadvantages. Recent advances in irrigation techniques and canal disinfection and debridement are relevant to practitioners carrying out root canal treatment.

  10. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  11. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  12. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  13. Compatibilidad química por calorimetría diferencial de barrido y termogravimetría del auranofin tabletas 3 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Octavio Martínez Álvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la pre-estabilidad de la preformulación de auranofin tabletas, se realizó un estudio de compatibilidad química, para lo cual se emplearon técnicas de análisis térmico como la calorimetría diferencial de barrido y la termogravimetría. Previo a dichos estudios se caracterizó térmicamente por calorimetría diferencial de barrido el principio activo y cada uno de los excipientes. Posteriormente se procedió a la realización del estudio de compatibilidad química, mediante la preparación de mezclas físicas binarias entre el principio activo y cada uno de los excipientes. Se detectó por ambos métodos que el principio activo tuvo una transición física de fusión, no reportada en la literatura, lo que permitió poder calcular su pureza por calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Mediante la técnica calorimétrica fue posible inferir la ausencia de incompatibilidad química entre el principio activo y los excipientes estudiados. Además, mediante el cálculo de la energía de activación se estableció el siguiente orden de estabilidad térmica: auranofin:PVP> auranofin:lactosa> auranofin:explotab> auranofin:estearato> auranofin:aerosil> auranofin:celulosa, por lo que se recomienda el uso de estos excipientes en la elaboración de la formulación farmacéutica.

  14. [The effect of left bacteria in the root canal on prognosis of the root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-mei; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Ming-wen; Fan, Bing

    2004-06-01

    To study the effect of the left bacteria on the root canal therapy. 50 single-rooted teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were divided into two groups, one was instrumented with step-back technique and 2.5%NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation for 3 min, then filled with Thermafil. Samples were taken after instrumentation to culture. The other was treated with traditional RCT at three visits. In 24 months the apical radiolucency were greatly reduced in all cases. There weren't significant relationship among the postoperative pain and the left bacteria, the degree of the obturation or the pre-operative symptoms (P > 0.05). The effect of left bacteria in root canal filled with Thermafil wasn't observed.

  15. Evolución diferencial aplicada a la sintonización de clasificadores difusos para el reconocimiento del lenguaje de señas

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo, Miguel; Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas; Villate, Andrea; Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas; Rincon, David; Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una propuestametodológica para la sintonizaciónde clasificadores difusos aplicadosal reconocimiento del lenguaje deseñas australiano para dos contextosparticulares. Se expone la arquitecturade clasificación y la metodología desintonización basada en evolución diferencial.Los resultados de validaciónmuestran que es posible encontrar unclasificador difuso cuyo porcentajede error está alrededor del 13,0%sobre una muestra de palabras derivadasde varios intérpretes para cada...

  16. Diseño y construcción de un Analizador Térmico Diferencial de alta presión para bajas temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro Aparicio, Alvaro

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es el diseño, construcción y calibración de un analizador térmico diferencial (ATD) de alta presión para bajas temperaturas. El uso de esta máquina se requiere en el Laboratorio de Caracterización de Materiales en la planta 11 de la ETSEIB para analizar sustancias, de entre las que cabe destacar diversos medicamentos. El aparato diseñado trabaja a presiones constantes y tiene variaciones regulares de temperatura con el objetivo de poder visualizar los cambios...

  17. Gestión diferencial de recursos humanos: una revisión e integración de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, Andrea Gabriela; Dabos, Guillermo Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Desde finales del siglo xx, la diferenciación de la fuerza laboral emerge como un desarrollo teórico central para la gestión estratégica de recursos humanos. La diferenciación se fundamenta en el mayor valor que ciertos empleados aportan a la organización. A partir de una revisión bibliográfica sobre gestión diferencial de recursos humanos, se examinan los criterios utilizados para diferenciar y gestionar estratégicamente a distintos grupos de empleados. Como resultado, se identifican dos per...

  18. Teorías y Concepciones de la Matemática Educativa: una puesta en práctica en un curso de Cálculo Diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Víctor

    2003-01-01

    La intención de este trabajo es presentar algunas teorías y concepciones de la Matemática Educativa y su implementación concreta en cursos de Cálculo Diferencial en una y varias variables. Se expondrán algunas ideas de la Resolución de Problemas, Investigación - Acción, Constructivismo Social (Teoría de Aprendizaje de Vigotsky) y algunos elementos de Ingeniería Didáctica. De todas estas teorias, se mencionan diversos ejemplos, implementados en los cursos de la Universidad de la República (Mon...

  19. Micosis Fungoide Intersticial: Diagnóstico diferencial con el Granuloma Anular Intersticial Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: Differential diagnosis with Interstitial Granuloma Annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La micosis fungoide en su variante histopatológica intersticial, puede ser confundida con el granuloma anular intersticial. Se ejemplifican dos casos de micosis fungoide intersticial y se subrayan los criterios histopatológicos para el diagnóstico diferencial, entre estas dos entidades.The interstitial type of mycosis fungoides and the interstitial type of granuloma annulare have several findings in common, in some cases may be difficult to differentiate them. Two cases of interstitial mycosis fungoides are presented and the histopathological features for the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  20. Análisis de la percepción de confort en la Biblioteca de Arquitectura (UPV) mediante semántica diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    SANCHEZ PUCHALT, LAURA

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto analiza las necesidades y exigencias de los usuarios con respecto a las bibliotecas de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, para trasladarlas a sus características o aplicarlas a futuras construcciones, cumpliendo así, las expectativas y deseos del cliente (U.P.V. año 2011). Para poder alcanzar dichos objetivos, se usan diferentes técnicas estadísticas, como el Diferencial Semántico y la metodología Kansei, que permiten captar las percepciones más importantes del usuario a la...

  1. De la Teoría Fonológica a la Identificación Temprana y el Diagnóstico Diferencial de la Dislexia Evolutiva

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoy Castro, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo general de este estudio consiste en contribuir a la construcción de un instrumento de diagnóstico diferencial de la dislexia evolutiva a partir del marco de la teoría fonológica. Para ello, validamos el procedimiento de evaluación de la Batería DIS-ESP, estudiando el valor predictivo de sus pruebas fonológicas con respecto a la adquisición de los mecanismos básicos de la lectura; pero también valoramos si DIS-ESP constituye un instrumento adecuado y preciso para realizar el diagnó...

  2. Closing a chapter on Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The toxic wastes that were dumped in the 1950s at Love Canal in New York and then seeped into groundwater and the basements of local residents in the late 1970s are to be finally incinerated, according to a plan recently announced by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This last, five-year stage in the cleanup will entail the building of an incinerator for burning 35,000 cubic yards of dioxin-contaminated sediment dredged from creeks and sewers in the area at a cost of up to $31 million. The incinerated residue - which will be purified of detectable levels of dioxin, says EPA - will be returned to the site and spread several feet deep.

  3. 8. Le TGV et le canal

    OpenAIRE

    Fortier, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    7. Le TGV près du Creusot Une double rame du tgv Sud-Est se dirige vers Paris. Elle vient de franchir le viaduc du canal du Centre qui longe l’un de ses réservoirs d’alimentation, l’étang de Longpendu, visible sur la droite. Elle croise la voie « plm » dont on note le discret ballast en avant de l’étang. Plusieurs lignes à très haute tension partent d’un important équipement de répartition tout proche. L’une d’elles sert notamment à l’alimentation du tgv. La photographie est prise d’un des ra...

  4. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  6. [Latest treatment of lumbar canal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko

    2009-06-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is a degenerative disease involving the lumbar vertebrae, discs, and ligamentum flavum that result in neurological deficit to some extent. The natural history of symptoms of LCS is highly important because they do not necessarily worsen with progressive degeneration. Therefore, a observation therapy is adopted for the treatment of this condition. Although invasive treatment is required for some patients, surgery cannot be performed solely on the basis of radiological findings and careful evaluation of neurological symptoms is necessary. In the event that spinal surgery is required, it is important to minimize degree of invasiveness; various devices and operative approaches and methods have been developed to this end. Our strategy for the surgical treatment of LCS involves microscopic decompression via a posterior approach. In our method, modified bilateral decompression via the splitting of the spinous process using an ultrasonic bone curette (SONOPET), and the results of this approach have been excellent. Our method is less invasive, facilitates the preservation of the paraspinal muscle, and represents a useful approach to posterior spinal elements. Our findings indicate that this method involves less muscle damage as compared to other methods. LCS should be differentiated from conditions other than those involving the spinal canal such as foraminal stenosis and far-out syndrome, piriformis syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The incidence of these conditions is higher than appreciated and they present with neurological deficits similar to observed in LCS. Here, we report our criteria of operative indications for surger and the procedures that we developed for the treatment of LCS, based on a review of the available literature.

  7. Comparison of two canal preparation techniques using mtwo rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Faeze; Honardar, Kiamars; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file system can be used in single length technique (simultaneous technique) without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods' shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimental groups. In group A, single length technique was used and in group B root canals were prepared by crown-down technique. Pre- and post-preparation canals were photographed in a standardized manner and were superimposed. The inner and outer walls of canal curvature were evaluated at three points (apical, middle and coronal) to determine the greatest change. The data was statistically analyzed using the Student t-test by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software. Statistical analysis revealed that in group B, dentine was equally removed within the canal coronal to the curvature, whereas in group A, the inner wall was predominantly removed (Plength method and crown-down technique using Mtwo for preparation of apical and middle portion of canal curvature.

  8. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  9. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  10. Variations in the Anatomical Structures of the Guyon Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Zahir T; Samargandi, Osama A; Tang, David T

    2017-05-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Extensive manual review of references of the included studies was performed. We also describe a case report of an aberrant muscle crossing the Guyon canal. This study identified several variations in the anatomical structures of the Guyon canal reported in the literature. Variations of the ulnar nerve involved its course, branching pattern, deep motor branch, superficial sensory branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, and the communication with the median nerve. Ulnar artery variations involved its course, branching pattern, the superficial ulnar artery, and the dorsal perforating artery. Aberrant muscles crossing the Guyon canal were found to originate from the antebrachial fascia, pisiform bone, flexor retinaculum, the tendon of palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, or flexor carpi radialis; these muscles usually fuse with the hypothenar group. The diverse variations of the contents of the Guyon canal were adequately described in the literature. Taking these variations into consideration is important in preventing clinical misinterpretation and avoiding potential surgical complications.

  11. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  12. Antibacterial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Federico; Ceci, Matteo; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis, prior and subsequent to setting. Material and Methods Agar diffusion test (ADT) was used for evaluating the antibacterial activity of non-set sealer while the direct contact test (DCT) was used for after setting. Results ADT: Except for TotalFill BC Sealer all the others sealers tested showed antibacterial activity. BioRoot™RCS, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer showed the lowest antibacterial activity, a significant increase in antibacterial effect for both Pulp Canal Sealer™ and AH plus sealers were found. Significantly higher were the mean diameters of the bacterial inhibition zone by both EasySeal or N2 sealers. DCT: AH plus and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer doesn’t show any bactericidal effect after 6 min of contact. After 15 and 60 min of contact a significant increment for AH plus and for Sealapex Root Canal Sealer of the bactericidal effect was found. Significantly much higher was the antibacterial effect of Sealapex Root Canal Sealer compare to that observed for AH plus. BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer™ and N2 showed at least means of the number of colonies formed in milliliter after 6 min of contact. Except for N2, a significant increase in bactericidal effect after 15 and 60 min for the other compared sealers (BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex and Pulp Canal Sealer™). Conclusions For every contact times considered, both TotalFill BC Sealer and EasySeal were bactericidal against E. faecalis and killed all bacteria. Key words:Agar diffusion test, antibacterial activity, direct contact test, Enterococcus faecalis, root canal sealer. PMID:28638549

  13. [Effect of quality of root canal obturation on the long-term results of root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-ping; Zhu, Ya-qin; Fan, Lin-feng; DU, Rong; Gu, Ying-xin; Qin, Feng

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality of obturation affecting the long-term results of root canal therapy (RCT) by radiographic evaluation. Teeth of RCT for 2 or more than 2 years were chosen, and periapical radiographs were taken with paralleling technique. The patients' age, gender, etiology, the time of therapy were recorded. The current apical periodontal status of these endodontically treated teeth were examined and recorded. The data were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis with SPSS13.0 software package. This study investigated 215 cases with 376 endodontically treated teeth. The success rate was 54.79%. If counted by root canal, there were 513 root canals, the success rate was 61.4%. The quality of obturation including obturation position and obturation density affected significantly the results of root canal therapy (Pobturation position for successful treated canals was 0.5-2mm from the radiographic apex. The success rate was higher for a good obturation density, especially in the apical third. No statistically significant differences were found based on gender, age and obturation time. The quality of root canal obturation significantly affected the long-term results of root canal therapy.

  14. A scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the cleanliness of un-instrumented areas of canal walls after root canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah J Dohaithem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleanliness of the canal space is the ultimate goal of its preparation. Nevertheless, some portion of the canal walls are left un-instrumented during preparation. Therefore, the aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the cleanliness of un-instrumented canal walls after root canal preparation for the presence or absence of debris and smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared with the crown-down technique using Protaper universal rotary file system. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT was used to scan the specimens before and after instrumentation. The un-instrumented area was measured and localized. The roots were split longitudinally and then subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The presence of debris and smear layer in the instrumented and un-instrumented areas of the canal were evaluated by analysing the SEM images with a five-score evaluation system based on the reference photographs. Results: High levels of root canal cleanliness (≤ score 2 were found for the instrumented areas were detected (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Under the condition of this study, un-instrumented areas of the canal were less clean in comparison to instrumented portion.

  15. Expresión diferencial de los genes de algunas enzimas lignocelulolíticas en biopelículas de Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretty K. Villena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación génica preliminar a nivel transcripcional de biopelículas de Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 desarrolladas sobre poliéster respecto a algunas enzimas lignocelulolíticas. El análisis de expresión de genes de enzimas lignocelulolíticas y genes reguladores mediante RT-PCR mostró que los genes eng1, eglC, exo y eglA, eglB y xynB son diferencialmente expresados ya sea temporalmente o mediante más de un transcripto en comparación con cultivos sumergidos. Asimismo, los genes reguladores xlnR y creA mostraron patrones temporales de expresión distintos en ambos sistemas. Los resultados obtenidos aportan la evidencia molecular inicial de expresión diferencial de genes en biopelículas así como patrones de regulación diferencial muy probablemente ligada a la adhesión celular.

  16. Plan de estudio del paciente con demencia y diagnóstico diferencial con el Alzheimer Study plan for dementia patients and differential diagnosis with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopera Restrepo

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available La demencia es un síndrome con múltiples etiologías. Antes de iniciar el estudio de un paciente con demencia debe trazarse un plan que se elabora con base en la anamnesis y el examen físico y neurológico. La primera deberá ser dirigida hacia la búsqueda de datos clave para el diagnóstico diferencial en la historia de la enfermedad o en la personal y familiar del individuo demente. Aunque la demencia tipo Alzheimer es la más frecuente su diagnóstico sólo debe establecerse cuando se han descartado todas las otras formas de demencia. En este artículo se exponen los pasos a seguir en la clínica para llegar de manera racional a un diagnóstico etiológico y hacer el diagnóstico diferencial. Dementia is a disorder with multiple etiologies. A diagnostic plan must be established before starting the study of a dementia patient, including clinical history, and physical and neurological exams. Key data should be searched through the history on the development of the disease and the familiar background of dementia. Even though Alzheimer's dementia (AD is the most frequent one, the diagnosis of this disorder should only be established when other causes have been ruled out. This paper proposes a sequential and stepwise program in order to get a proper diagnosis.

  17. Validez de la prueba de adenosina deaminasa y del recuento diferencial de leucocitos para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pleural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Boris Quiñones-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la validez de la prueba de adenosina deaminasa (ADA y el recuento diferencial de leucocitos para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pleural. Diseño: Estudio retrospectivo de precisión diagnóstica. Institución: Hospital Regional de Huacho, Ministerio de Salud, Huacho, Perú. Material: Historias clínicas de pacientes con prueba de ADA en líquido pleural. Intervenciones: Estudio de historias clínicas de pacientes a quienes se les realizó la prueba de ADA en líquido pleural, desde enero 2005 hasta diciembre 2007. El valor de la prueba de ADA y el recuento diferencial de leucocitos fueron analizados mediante la curva ROC. La sensibilidad (Se, especificidad (Sp, valores predictivos (VPP y VPN y los cocientes de verosimilitud (CVP y CVN fueron hallados para cada variable. Principales medidas de resultados: Punto de corte para la prueba de ADA para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pleural. Resultados: La tuberculosis fue culpable de la mayoría de los derrames pleurales; 47,5 fue el punto de corte hallado para la prueba de ADA, con Se y Sp de 73% y 90%, respectivamente (IC 95%: 0,74 - 0,95; p72% incrementaría la sospecha de tuberculosis pleural.

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  19. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  20. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    50. How to cite this article: Hema BS, Chandu GS, Shiraguppi VL. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. Niger J.

  1. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal : case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primaquine, atovaquone and pentamidine isethionate.1,3 Although there is usually resolution of symptoms after medical therapy, surgical excision of lesions in the external auditory canal may be clinically indicated. Disseminated pneumocystosis, like ...

  2. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  3. Comparison of Two Canal Preparation Techniques Using Mtwo Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Hamze, Faeze; Honardar, Kiamars; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file system can be used in single length technique (simultaneous technique) without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods’ shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimenta...

  4. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit. PMID:26213546

  5. Nanodiamond?Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.; Ho, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable...

  6. Mesiodens within the nasopalatine canal: an exceptional entity

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Aoun; Ibrahim Nasseh

    2016-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with ...

  7. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

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    Ramachandran Ragunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual.

  8. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

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    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  9. The Nicaragua Canal:Security And Economic Boom Or Bust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    but is the property of the United States government. Abstract Since the 1800s nations and entrepreneurs have sought a maritime route across...across Central America to compete with the Panama Canal and thus secure his future with Nicaragua. Since the 1800s nations and entrepreneurs have...for the environmental effects that construction and operation of a canal could have on the regional ecosystem . As a result, environmentalists have

  10. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

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    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  11. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Nathan C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2014-01-01

    The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the larval stage ensures that the

  12. A novel anatomical ceramic root canal simulator for endodontic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberecht, L; Chai, F; Dehurtevent, M; Marchandise, P; Bécavin, T; Hornez, J-C; Deveaux, E

    2017-11-01

    Endodontic therapy is often complicated and technically demanding. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible biomimetic root canal model for pre-clinical and postgraduate endodontic training. A specific ceramic shaping technique (3D printing and slip casting of a root canal mould) was developed to reproduce canal systems with the desired shape and complexity using a microporous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-based matrix. The microstructural morphology, pore size and porosity, as well as the Vickers microhardness of the ceramic simulators (CS) were assessed and were compared with natural dentin and commercial resin blocks. The reproducibility of the root canal shapes was assessed using the Dice-Sørensen similarity index. Endodontic treatments, from refitting the access cavity to obturation, were performed on the CS. Each step was controlled by radiography. Many properties of the CS were similar to those of natural dental roots, including the mineral component (HAp), porosity (20%, porous CS), pore size (3.4 ± 2.6 μm) and hardness (120.3 ± 18.4 HV). We showed that it is possible to reproduce the radio-opacity of a tooth and variations in root canal morphology. The endodontic treatments confirmed that the CS provided good tactile sensation during instrumentation and displayed suitable radiological behaviour. This novel anatomic root canal simulator is well suited for training undergraduate and postgraduate students in endodontic procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Could spinal canal compression be a cause of polyneuropathy?

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    Richard Bostelmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Causality between spinal cord compression and polyneuropathy is difficult to define, especially under the circumstances that polyneuropathy can have many causes. Seven patients with spinal cord compression and electrophysiological signs of polyneuropathy were treated surgically on decompression of their spinal canal stenosis in the time from April 2010 to January 2013. Median follow up time was 9 months (2-23 months. Causes of polyneuropathy were: 1 patient with methotrexate-induced polyneuropathy, 1 endocrine-dysfunction-induced, 2 with diabetic- polyneuropathy, and 3 patients had unknown reasons. The localization of the spinal canal stenosis was also varying: 2 patients suffered of cervical spinal canal stenosis and 5 of lumbar. Decompressive surgery led to pain relieve in all patients initially. Surprisingly, also symptoms of polyneuropathy seemed to regress in all 7 patients for the first 5 months after surgery, and in 5 patients for the time of 9 months after surgery. There are two points we would like to emphasize in this short report. Since 5/7 patients with polyneuropathy and spinal canal stenosis improved clinically after surgery, surgery has a place in the treatment of such a combined pathology. Since it seems to be a possible causality between polyneuropathy of unknown origin and spinal cord stenosis, decompression of the spinal canal could also be a therapeutic step in a specific kind of polyneuropathy. Which patients could possibly have a spinal canal stenosis induced polyneuropathy remains a subject of further studies.

  14. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

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    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  15. Effectiveness of Transmastoid Plugging for Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakis Hartl, Renee M; Cass, Stephen P

    2018-01-01

    Objectives (1) Evaluate changes in subjective symptoms in patients following transmastoid canal plugging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome. (2) Quantify changes in hearing in patients who have undergone transmastoid canal plugging for SSCD syndrome. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Single tertiary care institution. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients with SSCD who underwent repair with canal plugging via a transmastoid approach between January 2012 and January 2017. Symptom severity was assessed prospectively (autophony, sound/pressure-induced vertigo, disequilibrium, aural fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus) and after surgery. Pure-tone and speech audiometry were measured before and after surgery. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to evaluate changes in subjective symptoms and audiometric outcomes. Results Seventeen patients (19 ears) met inclusion criteria. The superior canal was successfully plugged via the transmastoid approach in all cases. Patients reported a statistically significant improvement in autophony, vertigo, aural fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus ( P study, patients with SSCD demonstrated excellent hearing outcomes and resolution of most otologic symptoms after surgical repair. Transmastoid canal plugging, which has been described to date only in smaller case series, is a safe and effective alternative to the traditional middle cranial fossa approach.

  16. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

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    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  17. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  18. Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Miano, Lucas Martinati; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI). Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level). EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals. Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.

  19. Significance of temporal bone CT scan for exposure of the facial canal and the lateral semicircular canal in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Kweon, Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    By reviewing retrospectively the HRCT findings in 130 surgically proven cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability of the HRCT compared to surgical findings. For exposure of the facial canal, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability was 59.7%, 84.9%, and 85.2% respectively. For exposure of the lateral semicircular canal, the sensitivity was 80.6%, the specificity 99.0%, and the positive predictability 96.2%. Conclusively, the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative temporal bone CT regarding the state of the lateral semicircular canal seems to be highly reliable. Gross invasion of the facial canal can be usually detected. However, relatively low sensitivity suggests that evaluation of the ultra-thin structures of the tympanic segment is often problematic.

  20. RESPUESTA DIFERENCIAL A LA SALINIDAD DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. EN PRIMERAS ETAPAS FENOLÓGICAS

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    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La salinidad afecta tanto el crecimiento vegetativo como el desarrollo reproductivo de las plantas: puede reducir el número de flores, incrementar la esterilidad y alterar la duración de la floración y la maduración. En México, el tomate es una de las especies hortícolas de mayor importancia económica y social, en virtud del valor de su producción y por la demanda de mano de obra que genera, por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad en variables morfológicas, en dos etapas fenológicas (germinación y crecimiento vegetativo inicial, de ocho genotipos de tomate, “Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Río Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita y Floradade”, los cuales fueron expuestos a estrés salino mediante la adición de NaCl en concentraciones de 0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 mM, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones. En la etapa de germinación se midieron las variables morfométricas: porcentaje de germinación, peso fresco y seco de parte aérea, peso fresco de raíces. En la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial se midieron: longitud de tallo, peso fresco de tallo, numero de hojas y área foliar. Los resultados de la etapa de germinación muestran que conforme se incrementó la concentración salina, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó, siendo “Tropic y Yaqui” los que mostraron valores superiores. Por su parte, “Tropic y Missouri” mostraron el mayor peso fresco y seco de parte aérea, mientras que los genotipos con menor tolerancia en esta etapa fueron “Feroz, Vita y Ace”. En la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial se determinó que los cultivares que presentaron mejor respuesta o mayor tolerancia al estrés salino fueron “Missouri, Tropic, Feroz y Vita”, mientras que los genotipos con menor tolerancia a la salinidad en esta etapa fueron “Floradade y Ace”. Se concluye que en ambas etapas fenológicas existe un diferencial potencial entre los

  1. Necrotic pulp tissue dissolution by passive ultrasonic irrigation in simulated accessory canals: impact of canal location and angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, A; Paqué, F; Attin, T; Zehnder, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of 2.5% NaOCl would dissolve necrotic pulp tissue from simulated accessory root canals (SACs) better than passive placement of the irrigant, when temperature was equilibrated between the two treatments. Transparent root canal models (n = 6) were made from epoxy resin. SACs of 0.2 mm diameter were placed at defined angles and positions in the mid-canal and apical area. SACs were filled with necrotic bovine pulp tissue. PUI was performed five times for 1 min each with irrigant replenishment after every minute. Main canal temperature was measured after each minute, and a digital photograph was taken. In control experiments, mock treatments were performed with the same set-up without activation of the file using heated NaOCl to mimic the temperature created by PUI. Experiments were repeated five times. Digital photographs were analysed for the distance of dissolved tissue into the SACs in mm. Overall comparison (sum of dissolved tissue from all five accessory canals) between treatments was performed using paired t-test. Differences between SAC angulation and position after PUI were investigated using anova/Bonferroni (alpha temperature in the main canal to 53.5 +/- 2.7 degrees C after the fifth minute. PUI dissolved a total of 6.4 +/- 2.1 mm, mock treatment controlled for heat: 1.4 +/- 0.6 mm (P temperature.

  2. The effect of working length and root canal preparation technique on crack development in the apical root canal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of working length and root canal preparation technique on crack development in the apical root canal wall. Seventy extracted mandibular premolars were mounted in a resin block with simulated periodontal ligaments and divided into seven groups according to preparation technique and working length: group A, step-back preparation with stainless steel files with working length set at the apical foramen and defined as root canal length (CL); group B, same as for A, except that the working length was CL-1 mm; group C, crown-down preparation with Profile instruments followed by an apical enlargement sequence with CL as working length and group D, same as for C, except that the working length was CL-1 mm. Groups E, F and G served as controls. Groups E and F were prepared only with the crown-down sequence up to CL and CL-1 mm, respectively. Group G was left unprepared. Digital images of the apical root surface (AS) were recorded before preparation, immediately after instrumentation and after removing the apical 1 mm (AS-1 mm) and 2 mm (AS-2 mm) of the root end. Working length significantly affected crack development at AS (P crack development at AS-1 mm (P crack development on the canal wall. Root canal preparation alone, regardless of the technique used, can potentially generate cracks on the apical root canal wall as well as the apical surface. Working 1- mm short of the apical foramen might produce fewer cracks in the apical region.

  3. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

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    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  4. Semicircular canal plane head impulses detect absent function of individual semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, P D; Halmagyi, G M; Aw, S T; Curthoys, I S; McGarvie, L A; Todd, M J; Black, R A; Hannigan, I P

    1998-04-01

    We studied the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to head 'impulses': brief, unpredictable, passive, high-acceleration (up to 4000 degrees/s2), low-amplitude (20-30 degrees) head rotations. We delivered the head impulses approximately in the plane of the semicircular canal (SCC) being tested. To test the anterior and posterior SCCs, the head impulses were delivered in a diagonal plane, midway between the frontal (roll) and sagittal (pitch) planes. We recorded head and eye position in three dimensions with scleral search coils in nine normal subjects, seven patients following unilateral surgical vestibular neurectomy and three patients following unilateral posterior SCC occlusion. In the post-surgical patients we demonstrated a severe, permanent VOR gain deficit (0.2-0.3) for head impulses directed toward any single non-functioning SCC. The sensitivity of the test depends on the physiological properties of primary vestibular afferents, and its specificity depends on the anatomical orientation of the SCCs. The diagonal head impulse is the first test of individual vertical SCC function in humans, and together with the horizontal head impulse, forms a comprehensive battery of SCC-plane tests. These canal-plane impulses could be useful in evaluating patients with vertigo or other vestibular disorders.

  5. Virus influenza y el diagnóstico diferencial de sintomáticos febriles en la costa norte del Perú (Mayo, 2001

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    Yvonne Torres de Yon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar el virus influenza y otros agentes etiológicos relacionados con la presentación de síndrome febril en los departamentos de Piura, Tumbes, Lambayeque y La Libertad, en mayo de 2001. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Incluye pacientes febriles que acudieron a los puestos de salud centinelas y que presentaban fiebre mayor de 38°C y gota gruesa negativa. Se obtuvieron dos muestras de sangre con un intervalo de 15-45 días. Se registró la sintomatología asociada a fiebre, y se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos mediante pruebas serológicas para dengue, influenza, sarampión y rubéola, además de pruebas para aislamiento y tipificación viral. Resultados: Se registraron 174 pacientes, 58,6% de ellos mujeres, siendo el grupo etáreo más frecuente de menores de 16 años (32,2%. Además de la fiebre se informaron como síntomas más frecuentes el dolor de cabeza (90,1% y dolor de huesos (81,9%. En 89 pacientes (51,1% se pudo obtener muestras de sueros pareados, los cuales fueron incluidos en el estudio serológico; 62 pacientes (69,6% presentaron serología positiva para dengue, 53 (59,5% para influenza y sólo uno (1,1% para rubéola. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico diferencial de pacientes sintomáticos febriles en los departamentos de la costa norte del Perú, luego de descartarse malaria, debe incluir además entre otras etiologías al virus influenza. Un diagnóstico diferencial adecuado permitirá un tratamiento precoz y efectivo. Se hace necesario implementar la vigilancia epidemiológica para mejorar el diagnóstico diferencial en sintomáticos febriles, que incluya a influenza.

  6. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  7. Comparative evaluation of canal cleaning ability of various rotary endodontic filesin apical third: A scanning electron microscopic study

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    Ganesh Ranganath Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In apical third of root canal, SAF showed statistically significant canal cleaning ability due to combined effect of continuous streaming irrigation with effectively replacing the irrigant from the apical portion of the root canal, irrigants activation through the creation of turbulence, and its self-adapting design to root canal anatomy with a scrubbing motion on the canal walls.

  8. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

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    Ankur Mahesh Banode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography.

  9. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

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    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  10. Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Alhadainy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2% followed by Type V (16.4%, Type IV (13.2%, Type II (5.6% and Type III (2.8%. Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4% and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population.

  11. Lumbar spinal canal size of sciatica patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurme, M.; Alaranta, H.; Aalto, T.; Knuts, L.R.; Vanharanta, H.; Troup, J.D.G. (Turku City Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery; Social Insurance Institution, Turku (Finland). Rehabilitation Research Centre; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Orthopaedic and Accident Surgery)

    Seven measures at the three lowest lumbar interspaces were recorded from conventional radiographs of the lumbar spines of 160 consecutive patients with low back pain and sciatica admitted for myelography and possible surgery. Eighty-eight patients were operated upon for disc herniation, and of the conservatively-treated 72 patients, 18 had a pathologic and 54 a normal myelogram. The results were evaluated after one year using the occupational handicap scales of WHO. Correlations of radiographic measures to stature were moderate and to age small. After adjusting for stature and age, only the male interpedicular distances and the antero-posterior diameter of intervertebral foramen at L3 were greater than those of females. The males with a pathologic myelogram had smaller posterior disc height at L3 and a smaller interarticular distance at L3 and L4 than those with normal myelogram, likewise the midsagittal diameter at L3 and L4 in females. In all patients other measures besides posterior disc height were smaller than those for low back pain patients (p<0.001) or for cadavers (p<0.001). The only correlation between measures and clinical manifestations was between pedicular length at L3 and limited straight leg raising. Where the disc material had been extruded into the spinal canal, the interpedicular distance was significantly wider. Only anterior disc height at L3 revealed differences between good and poor outcome one year after surgery, as did the interarticular distance at S1 in patients with normal myelogram after conservative treatment. (orig.).

  12. Introducción a la topología y geometría diferencial en el lenguaje de sheaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Caicedo, Juan Diego

    2003-01-01

    El libro consta de cinco capítulos. El primer capítulo es el preliminar al resto de la obra. En él se desarrollan los preliminares del álgebra multilineal, y se hace un repaso de los conceptos y resultados básicos de topología general y calculo diferencial que serán usados en capítulos posteriores. Este capítulo contiene además una introducción auto-contenida a la teoría de sheaves y espacios anillados. En el segundo capítulo se introducen los objetivos básicos de estudio, los manifolds suave...

  13. Evaluación fisioterapéutica en el diagnóstico diferencial de la Distonía Ocupacional

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosa-Guzman, Ingrid-Alexandra; María Constanza Trillos Chacón

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Las autoras presentan una propuesta de evaluación fisioterapéutica con el fin de contribuir al diagnóstico diferencial en los desórdenes de movimiento de origen ocupacional en la mano, para lo cual se seleccionaron dos desórdenes del movimiento relacionados con mecanismos de repetición: distonía del escritor y síndrome de túnel del carpo. Materiales y métodos: A través de una revisión de artículos científicos se establecieron las características clínicas y etiológicas de cada en...

  14. Uso de evolución diferencial para la búsqueda de semillas en el método de Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Alejandro Hernandez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Una adecuada performance del método de Newton requiere una eficiente elección de la semilla, fundamentalmente en los casos en que la convergencia para la obtención de raéces sea altamente sensible a este punto inicial. En este trabajo se propone el uso de un método de optimización, denominado evolución diferencial, para generar los puntos iniciales necesarios que aseguren un eficiente uso del método de Newton. Este método es una metaheuréstica que tiene origen en las ideas de algoritmos evolutivos y el método del gradiente. Aquí se presentan la implementación de la propuesta -codificada en MATLAB-, ejemplos de aplicación y comparación de resultados obtenidos, con y sin la inclusión de esta mejora.

  15. A personalidade como critério para o diagnóstico diferencial entre experiências anômalas e transtornos mentais

    OpenAIRE

    Alminhana, Letícia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Há uma alta prevalência de experiências psicóticas na população geral. Muitas dessas experiências possuem fenomenologia semelhante a experiências religiosas/espirituais (R/E), também chamadas de experiências anômalas (EA), as quais não são necessariamente patológicas. Desse modo, é importante encontrar critérios que possam nortear os profissionais da saúde mental para realizarem um diagnóstico diferencial entre uma EA e um transtorno mental (TM). A análise do perfil...

  16. Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2012-09-01

    Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Strategies of Coping With Stress During Root Canal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Jahromi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Endodontic treatment is one of the stress producing situations. Objectives The purpose of this article was to determine the most stressful stage of root canal therapy among endodontists, endodontic residents, and undergraduate dental students and offering some strategies for reducing stress during this treatment. Patients and Methods This descriptive survey comprised three groups. Thirty-six endodontists, 41 endodontic residents, and 47 undergraduate dental students selected by convenience sampling. Participants were asked about age, sex, the most stressful stage of root canal therapy and stress reducing strategies during the procedure. Results The most stressful stage of root canal therapy was endodontic treatment for children in male endodontists and residents, preparing access cavity on crowns in female endodontists, obturation of apically root Resorped canals in female residents, obturation in female students, and preparing access cavity on molar teeth in male students. The most suggested strategy for reducing stress during root canal therapy was related to experience, knowledge, enough study, and technical mastery. Conclusions It is required to consider the strategies during student education in dental schools for both under and post-graduation dental students and better to follow them in workshops for other dentists and even endodontists.

  18. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W. [Condor Earth Technologies, Inc., Sonora, CA (United States); Liebersbach, D.C. [Turlock Irrigation District, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  19. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  20. Stereomicroscopic Dye Leakage Measurement of Six Different Root Canal Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vinay, Vusurumarthi; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Devalla, Srihari; Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Balla, Sagarika

    2017-06-01

    Hermetic sealing of the root canal is the most desirable outcome of any root canal treatment, but almost always the filling of the root canal is defective, which is a multifactorial outcome. One such factor majorly influencing the obturation is the root canal sealer used. The present study was done for evaluating microleakage in different root canal sealers. Sixty extracted human single rooted teeeth were used in this in-vitro study. Sealers tested for microleakage in this study were zinc oxide eugenol based sealer, Sealapex, AH Plus, MTA Plus, EndoRez, Endosequence BC. All the specimens were examined under stereomicroscope for microleakage and the obtained data were statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple comparision tests using the software GraphPad Prism 7.02. The Endosequence BC group showed the least dye leakage and the highest leakage was seen in Zinc oxide Eugenol based sealer. Bio ceramic salers being hydrophilic show better sealing ability compared to resin based and eugenol based sealers.

  1. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Herzog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificial lateral line system can estimate bulk flow velocity from the spatio-temporal propagation of flow fluctuations. Based on the modular sensor design, we were able to detect flow rates in an industrial application of tap water flow metering. Our sensory system withstood water pressures of up to six bar. We used finite element modeling to study the fluid flow inside the canal system and how this flow depends on canal dimensions. In a second set of experiments, we separated the flow sensors from the main stream by means of a flexible membrane. Nevertheless, these biomimetic neuromasts were still able to sense flow fluctuations. Fluid separation is a prerequisite for flow measurements in medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  2. Labyrinthine artery aneurysm as an internal auditory canal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

    2014-08-01

    We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6 × 7 mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack of central uptake filling the right internal auditory canal. The patient elected to proceed with translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal for definitive resection of the mass as well as to decompress the neural structures of the internal auditory canal in an attempt to recover neural function, particularly of the facial nerve. Intraoperatively, the internal auditory canal mass was resected with minimal difficulty, with intraoperative dissection notable for brisk bleeding at the medial base of the tumor just as the tumor was dissected off its medial fibrous attachments. Final pathology of the resected mass revealed a blood vessel with mucinous degeneration of the medial layer of the vessel wall, with immunohistochemical staining confirming the presence and structure of aneurysmal blood vessel.

  3. Partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Keeble, E; Kovalik, M; Yool, D A

    2013-06-01

    Six lop rabbits were presented with clinical signs of otitis media or externa. The presence of disease was confirmed by computerized tomography examination, with two rabbits suffering from bilateral disease. The rabbits were anaesthetized and underwent surgery of the affected bulla. Rabbits with bilateral disease had a minimum of 2 weeks between procedures. A single vertical incision was made over the base of the vertical canal, which was bluntly dissected free from surrounding tissue. The ventral portion of the vertical canal was removed and a lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The mucosa at the base of the dorsal vertical canal was apposed and the aural cartilage sutured to form a blind-ending pouch open at the pretragic incisure. Histopathological samples taken from the dorsal margin of the vertical canal yielded subtle and non-specific changes in the six samples submitted. All rabbits were discharged within 48 hours of surgery. The cosmetic outcome was excellent with animals retaining visually normal aural anatomy. The partial ear canal ablation/lateral bulla osteotomy procedure is quick and has a good cosmetic result when performed in rabbits. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  5. LLC: critérios diagnósticos, imunofenotipagem e diagnóstico diferencial CLL: diagnostic criteria, immunophenotyping and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lorand-Metze

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico da LLC é baseado em dados do hemograma e da imunofenotipagem dos linfócitos periféricos: linfocitose acima de 5 (ou 10 x 10(9/L com fenótipo CD19, CD5, CD23 e expressão fraca de imunoglobulinas de superfície monoclonais. A expressão de CD38 ocorre em cerca da metade dos casos e tem relação com o estado não mutado de Ig V. A biópsia de medula só deverá ser realizada antes do tratamento ou quando os dois exames acima não permitirem um diagnóstico definitivo. O diagnóstico diferencial é com os outros linfomas B indolentes, que freqüentemente apresentam células neoplásicas circulantes. Este diagnóstico diferencial é baseado na imunofenotipagem, biópsia de medula ou linfonodo.The diagnosis of CLL is based on the finding of peripheral lymphocytosis of over 5 (or 10 x 10(9/L presenting the CD19, CD5, CD23 phenotype and a weak monoclonal expression of membrane immunoglobulins. The CD38 expression is observed in half of the cases and is correlated with the unmutated status of the Ig V gene. Bone marrow biopsy should only be performed before starting treatment or if necessary for the differential diagnosis with other low-grade lymphomas. This differential diagnosis is based on the morphology of circulating lymphocytes, their immunophenotypes and pattern of bone marrow infiltration.

  6. Desplazamiento forzado y enfoque diferencial una posibilidad de intervención / Acción en ámbitos de exclusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Torres Vega

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la población vulnerable se encuentran los refugiados, los desplazados, personas en condiciones de extrema pobreza y en general todos los llamados excluidos, población ésta que debe recibir orientación, ayuda, protección y asistencia con soluciones duraderas. Esta clasificación es aceptada por organismos nacionales e internacionales que prestan ayuda humanitaria como la Cruz Roja Colombiana, C.R.C, la Agencia de las Naciones Unidas para Refugiados, ACNUR, El Comité Internacional de la Cruz Roja, CICR, la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones, OIM y el Consejo Noruego para Refugiados, N.R.C., entre otros. Las políticas públicas de atención a la población desplazada en Colombia, no han logrado contrarrestar el grave deterioro de las circunstancias de vulnerabilidad, situación reflejada en la débil aplicación del enfoque diferencial de atención integral, especialmente en niños, niñas y jóvenes. Este es un artículo de reflexión, resultado de una revisión documental, que permite deducir que la precariedad de la atención diferenciada radica, en gran parte, en la falta de reconocimiento de las víctimas como sujetos de derechos, debido a la incoherencia entre la normatividad y su aplicación. La atención integral con enfoque diferencial a la población desplazada, es una alternativa que mejora el desarrollo psicosocial y el restablecimiento de todos los derechos y libertades.

  7. The best radiographic method for determining root canal morphology in mandibular first premolars: A study of Chinese descendants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Combined X-ray analyses, such as performing the buccolingual view for identification of canal bifurcation and canal continuity, may increase the accuracy of identifying complex root canal morphology.

  8. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Brajkovic, Denis [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia); Ilic, Dragan [Department of Restorative Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany); Rakocevic, Zlatko [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute for Nuclear Science “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Djuric, Marija [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Busse, Björn, E-mail: b.busse@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different irrigation solutions and disinfectants were used for treatment of root canal dentine and gutta-percha points. • Materials surface characteristics were assessed using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, reference point indentation, and contact angle analyzer. • The most significant differences in mineralization, indentation, and adhesive outcomes were observed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. • Irrigation solutions confer to superior sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. • Micromechanical characteristics of dentine after irrigation are considerable reduced. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples’ microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  9. Evaluation of a new nickel-titanium system to create the glide path in root canal preparation of curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amario, Maurizio; Baldi, Mario; Petricca, Roberto; De Angelis, Francesco; El Abed, Rashid; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2013-12-01

    Nickel-titanium rotary instruments recently have been introduced with the purpose of creating an initial glide path. The purpose of this study was to compare the maintenance of canal anatomy, the occurrence of apical transportation, and the working time observed using mechanised instrumentation with the new G-File rotary system (Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France) with those observed using instrumentation with the PathFile system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and manual instrumentation with K-type files (Micro-Mega) to create a glide path in curved root canals. The mesial canals of 45 mandibular molars (with curvature angles between 25° and 35°) were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups with 15 canals each, and canal preparations were performed by an endodontist using #12-17 G-File rotary instruments (group GF), #13-16-19 PathFile rotary instruments (group PF), and #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files (group M). A digital double radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation and the change in the angle of curvature. The working time was also calculated. No statistically significant differences in the angle of canal curvature and apical transportation were found between the groups. However, concerning the working time, specimens from the group who underwent canal preparation using #12-17 G-File rotary instruments achieved significantly lower mean values when compared with the other 2 groups, whereas the group who underwent canal preparation using the #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files had the highest values. The G-File rotary instruments, the PathFile system, and the manual instruments did not have any influence on the occurrence of apical transportation nor did they produce a change in the angle of canal curvature. The G-File instruments seemed to be the most rapid system in creating a safe glide path. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  11. El fomento ilustrado. Un ejemplo significativo: el Canal de Castilla

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Martín, José María

    2016-01-01

    El Canal de Castilla es la obra de ingeniería hidráulica más importante y de mayor envergadura que se llevó a cabo en España durante la Época Moderna. A través del desarrollo de la historia del Canal se analizará la repercusión económica de la región castellana y su importancia tanto a nivel cultural como patrimonial. El Canal representaría la vía fluvial de comunicación entre Castilla y el mar del norte para transportar los excedentes de cereales a otros países y al propio, siendo años de gr...

  12. [Benign postural vertigo and nystagmus of the horizontal semicircular canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waespe, W

    1997-02-22

    Benign paroxysmal vertigo and nystagmus are induced not only by the posterior but also by the horizontal semicircular canal. Benign positional nystagmus of the horizontal canal is more often observed than was previously thought. In 10 patients we analyzed the characteristics and the variability of nystagmus which accompanies positional vertigo of the horizontal canal. There are two forms of nystagmus: primary-geotropic, most often paroxysmal nystagmus (7 patients), and primary-apogeotropic, non-paroxysmal nystagmus (3 patients). Interestingly, in 2 patients with the primary-apogeotropic form the nystagmus converted during the examination into the primary-geotropic form. The reverse was not observed. We discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms which could be relevant for provoking manoeuvres.

  13. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  14. Application of Different Algorithms to Optimal Design of Canal Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kentli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the increased world population and therefore the growth demand has forced the researchers to investigate better water canal networks distributing much more water while at least keeping its quality. Canal design formulas are explicitly obtained for different cross-sections considering minimum area but optimal design of canal sections considering seepage and evaporation losses are still an open area to study. In this study, two different algorithms are applied to this problem and results are compared with the one in literature. Genetic algorithm and sequential quadratic programming technique are used in optimization. Triangular, rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sections are optimized. It is seen that both algorithms are giving more accurate results than in literature.

  15. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIGNON J.

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  16. Morphological examination of the obturator notch and canal in Cervidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer.

  17. A RARE CASE OF HYDROCOELE OF CANAL OF NUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hydrocele of canal of Nuck of female is a rare developmental disorder corresponding to the hydrocele of the spermatic cord of males It results from the failure of obliteration of the distal portion of evaginated parietal peritoneum within the inguinal canal which forms a sac containing fluid. It can be diagnosed on the operating table at the time of operation of suspected incarcerated inguinal hernia. We present a rare case of a 15 year old girl with right-sided groin swelling over 4 years, diagnosed as hydrocele of canal of Nuck. Patient underwent surgical exploration and excision of hydrocele. This entity should be considered in young females presenting with an inguinal swelling.

  18. blood in the canal space of the teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apical seal in blood or dry root canal is a problem in endodontic treatment. Failure of apical seal causes inflammatory reaction and failure root canal treatment. Because of the sealer properties, root canal should be dry for obturation. But hydrophilic sealers can adhere to root canal walls nowadays and this problem is still controversial. This study aimed at determining the apical microleakage of AH26 and MTA Fillapex sealers in dry and bloody condition. Methods: This experimental in vitro study was done on 48 extracted central teeth. The researchers used the Mtwo rotary files for root canal instrumentation. In this process, the teeth were divided into four groups (2 dry groups and 2 bloody groups and two groups as positive and negative control (each group of 4 teeth. All sealers were prepared according to the factory instruction and the obturation was done with gutta-percha and sealer. After 7 days in 100% moisture condition, the teeth were placed in the ink for 3 days and then were cut across longitudinal axis and the level of microleakage was measured by stereomicroscope.Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS software, ANOVA, Chi-Square and t-test statistical tests. Results:The mean of MTA Fillapex and AH26 apical microleakage in blood groups were (448.61± 34.67 Mm and (429.84± 31.63 Mm respectively. The minimum microleakage belonged to AH26 sealer, but it was not significant. Conclusion: AH26 sealer is a better barrier against microleakage in comparison with MTA Fillapx, although it is not significant. Also, the evidence suggests drying the canal leads to a better apical seal and the blood significantly increases apical microleakage. 

  19. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; Morita, Norimasa; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-03-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matched normal control temporal bones were also examined. In the age group of 4 years, 68.9 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 71.9 % of controls had the facial nerve canal dehiscence. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.61). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls (P = 0.53). In the age group under 4 years, 88.2 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 76.5 % of controls had the dehiscence. No significant difference was found between them (P = 0.66). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls in the age group under 4 years (P = 0.43). In chronic otitis media, the incidence of facial nerve canal dehiscence was high and was not statistically different from controls. These results suggest that there is no association between chronic otitis media and the presence of facial nerve canal dehiscence.

  20. Ligament structures in the tarsal sinus and canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Yuan; Hou, Zhi-Dian; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hong-Liang; Ding, Zi-Hai; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-12-01

    The concrete anatomy and functional characteristics of the subtalar ligaments have been a matter of debate that some believe has hampered the progress of clinical ligament reconstruction. In 32 fresh-frozen cadaver feet, the course of the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) and other subtalar ligaments was carefully measured and photographed both from the portal of the tarsal sinus and from a posterior view. The IER inserted inside the tarsal sinus and canal by means of 3 roots: a lateral, an intermediate, and a medial one. These roots, along with the tarsal canal, divided the subtalar space into 3 parts. In front of the IER and inside the tarsal sinus, the thick cervical ligament (CL) lay at a 45-degree angle to the calcaneus. Behind the IER and inside the posterior capsule, in most cases (25 of 32 specimens), the posterior capsular ligament (PCaL) lay directly in front of the posterior talocalcaneal facet. Inside the tarsal canal, the fan-shaped medial root of the IER spread from outside upper lateral to lower medial, and the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament (ITCL) ran from upper medial to lower lateral; fibers of these 2 ligaments blended tightly together to form a V-shaped ligament complex. Just anterior to this complex in some cases (20 of 32 specimens), a short narrow upright ligament, the tarsal canal ligament (TCL), was located behind the middle talocalcaneal joint. The results of this study show that the CL is the primary ligament in the tarsal sinus and that the ITCL is a thin single band rather than a strong bilaminar ligament located inside the tarsal canal. Instead, the medial root of the IER is the primary ligamentous structure in the tarsal canal. The anatomical description provided here may provide a more accurate theoretical foundation for clinical subtalar stability restoration.

  1. Funcionamento diferencial dos itens na Escala de Motivos para Evasão do Ensino Superior (M-ES = Differential item functioning in the Higher Education Dropout Reasons Scale (M-ES = Funcionamiento diferencial del ítem en la Escala de Razones para Deserción de la Educación Superior (m-es

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambiel, Rodolfo Augusto Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou verificar a adequação da Escala de Motivos para Evasão do Ensino Superior via rating scale model e investigar a presença de funcionamento diferencial dos itens (DIF de acordo com o tipo das instituições dos participantes da pesquisa, pública ou particular. Participaram da pesquisa 327 estudantes universitários, de universidades públicas e particulares, de todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. As idades variaram entre 17 e 58 anos, sendo 80,1% do sexo feminino. O instrumento utilizado foi a Escala de Motivos para Evasão do Ensino Superior (M-ES. Os resultados apontaram que em relação à adequação do instrumento as análises foram satisfatórias e que houve a presença de funcionamento diferencial em alguns itens, sendo que a maior parte dos itens com presença de DIF tiveram como grupo privilegiado os alunos de instituição pública. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com a literatura e novos estudos são sugeridos

  2. Root Canal Treatment for Deciduous Teeth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Daloğlu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The early loss of deciduous teeth leads to many negations in terms of physiological, functional and aesthetic. The structure of the deciduous teeth causes decay to progress much easier and less time and this is the need for frequent dental pulp treatment to be kept in the mouth. The new materials that will increase the success of deciduous teeth root canal treatment are continuing to investigate. In this study, it is aimed that recently prominent current approaches are to be compiled in root canal treatment of deciduous teeth.

  3. Mesiodens Within the Nasopalatine Canal: An Exceptional Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim

    2016-10-24

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with a cone-beam computed tomography examination.

  4. Mesiodens within the nasopalatine canal: an exceptional entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Aoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with a cone-beam computed tomography examination.

  5. Agrandamiento gingival por bloqueantes de canales de calcio

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaña Diestra, Tania; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú; García Linares, Sixto; Departamento Académico Médico Quirúrgico, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia del agrandamiento gingival en pacientes hipertensos que consumen fármacos bloqueantes de canales de calcio y compararlo con otro grupo de pacientes hipertensos que no consumen dichos fármacos. Métodos: En el estudio descriptivo transversal se evaluaron a 50 pacientes hipertensos que consumían bloqueantes de canales de calcio (grupo de estudio) y a 50 pacientes hipertensos que recibían tratamiento con otro tipo de antihipertensivos (grupo control). Se les rea...

  6. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.

    2015-01-01

    theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline......, respectively (P=0.25). Seven subjects had a reduction in muscle strength, but there was no difference betweengroups (P=0.85). Conclusions: For an ACB, the dose closest to the ED95 needed to fill the adductor canal distally was 20 ml. There was nosignificant correlation between volume and proximal spread...... or muscle strength.Clinical trial registration: NCT02033356....

  7. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  8. Root canal obturation of primary teeth: Disposable injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to outline a simple, cost-effective technique for obturation of primary tooth root canals. A total of 75 primary teeth were treated in 52 subjects by the technique discussed, i.e. injecting plastic flowable material into the root canals after desired preparation, using disposable needle and syringe. All the patients were followed up for 3 years and 6 months, with no clinical or radiologic evidence of pathology or need for untimely extraction. In conclusion, the technique described is simple, economical, can be used with almost all filling materials used for the purpose, and is easy to master with minimal chances of failure.

  9. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  10. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  12. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Echo-Integrated Trawl Surveys, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  13. Evaluation of Mandibular Anterior Nutrient Canals in Periodontal Diseases: A Prospective Case Control Radiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of nutrient canals was higher in patients with periodontitis. As age advanced, prevalence was more. Increased frequency of nutrient canals of 3 or more than 3 was seen with increased seventy of bone loss.

  14. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between external and internal mandibular morphology in adult or adolescent normal anthropological mandibles. Lateral radiographs of 31 symmetrical mandibles were analysed. The external morphology was defined by the gonial and beta-angles....... In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman...... correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the angles. Internal morphology: a statistically significant correlation was found between the mental and mandibular angles (correlation coefficient: -0.60, P=0.0004). When the mental angle was narrow, the mandibular angle tended...

  16. Maxillary first molars with six canals confirmed with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahra Mohammad Al-Habboubi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary first molar exhibits unpredictable root canal morphology. Different number of root canals has been reported with the aids of new tools. It is very important to clinically detect all canals for better outcome results. The purpose of the present case is to present a case of the maxillary first molar in a Saudi male patient with an anatomical variation of having six root canals that were confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography.

  17. Macroanatomic and radiologic characteristics of the superior genial spinal foramen and its bony canal

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewalle, Giovani; Liang, Xin; JACOBS, Romain; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, size, location, course, and content of the superior genial spinal foramen and its bony canal. Materials and Methods: Three hundred eighty dry human cadaver mandibles were morphometrically analyzed by measuring the distance from the foramen to the mandibular base and the size of the foramen and bony canal. Radiologically, the course of the bony canal and its relation to the mandibular incisive canal were investigated after injecting contrast medium (Omnipaq...

  18. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  19. Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevanandan, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instrument are widely used for root canal preparation in permanent tooth compared to primary teeth. Hand instrumentation technique remains the conventional method for root canal preparation in primary teeth. The time taken for root canal preparation with the conventional method is more resulting in patients and clinicians fatigue. Recently Ni-Ti rotary files designed for permanent tooth has been used for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Using rotary instruments...

  20. Five Root Canals for a Maxillary First Molar Tooth – A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aminul Islam; Md. Shamsul Alam

    2012-01-01

    This case report represents assessment and management of a maxillary left first molar tooth containing five root canals by endodontic treatment. In this case Mesiobuccal 2 (MB2), Mesiopalatal (MP) and Distobuccal (DB) canals were missed as well as very poor obturation at palatal and mesiobuccal1(MB1) canal during previous treatment history. Three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MP), DB and palatal canals were identified and endodontic retreatment was done followed by final restoration. This case p...

  1. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  2. Retrieval of a metallic obstruction from the root canal of a premolar using Masserann technique

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekananda Pai, A R; Mir, Shugufta; Jain, Rachit

    2013-01-01

    A metallic obstruction in the root canal blocks canal cleaning and shaping procedures and requires either bypassing or retrieval. Many methods have been recommended to retrieve a metallic obstruction from the root canal. This article describes the retrieval of a metallic obstruction from the root canal of a premolar using Masserann technique to facilitate endodontic retreatment. Masserann technique is said to have limited application in posteriors. However, in this case, the obstruction was s...

  3. The revised anatomy of the canals connecting the orbit with the cranial cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    Orbits are connected with the middle cranial fossa via the optic canal, the superior orbital fissure, the M-type orbitomeningeal foramen, the metoptic canal, an accessory anterior opening of the foramen rotundum, and Warwick's canal. They are also in communication with the anterior cranial fossa via the ethmoidal canals and the A-type orbitomeningeal foramen. The anatomy of these conduits has been recently enriched with several details that are summarized and reviewed in this article.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  5. Endodontic treatment of two-canalled maxillary central and lateral incisors: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Sheykhrezaee, Mohammad Saeed; Assadian, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Familiarity with the intricacies and variations of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic treatment. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are known to be single-rooted with one canal, however, this case report describes endodontic treatment of maxillary central and lateral incisors with two buccopalatal root canals.

  6. Endodontic treatment of two-canalled maxillary central and lateral incisors: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Sheykhrezaee, Mohammad Saeed; Assadian, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Familiarity with the intricacies and variations of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic treatment. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are known to be single-rooted with one canal, however, this case report describes endodontic treatment of maxillary central and lateral incisors with two buccopalatal root canals. PMID:23940491

  7. A central incisor with 4 independent root canals: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar Portoles, C.; Moinzadeh, A.T.; Shemesh, H.

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth with the least anatomic variations. Despite the fact that several studies have reported a prevalence of 100% for the presence of a single canal, root canal aberrations of maxillary central incisors with up to 3 canals have also been reported. Such cases

  8. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells hg19 Unclassified Others Schlemms canal cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells hg19 DNase-seq Others Schlemms canal cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells hg19 Unclassified Others Schlemms canal cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Others Schlemms canal cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells.bed ...

  13. Measurement and visualization of file-to-wall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Walmsley, A.D.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim (i) To quantify in a simulated root canal model the file-to-wall contact during ultrasonic activation of an irrigant and to evaluate the effect of root canal size, file insertion depth, ultrasonic power, root canal level and previous training, (ii) To investigate the effect of file-to-wall

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 No description Cardiovascular Atriovent...icular canals http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Atrioventicula...r canals http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: NoD.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  8. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and...

  9. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  10. THE USE OF CUSTOMIZED GUTTA PERCHA FILLING MATERIAL IN WIDE ROOT CANAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu N. P. A. Dewa Ayu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The necrotic tooth with incomplete formed roots and wide root canal should be treated by apexification. Gutta-percha combined with root canal sealer is widely used as an obturation material. The aim of this case report is to figure out that the use of customized gutta-percha in wide root canal to produce compact and hermetic filling.

  11. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or...

  12. The Ohio & Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Deborah

    In the 19th century, canal boats pulled along by mules carried much cargo. The canal boat was the family business, their livelihood, and their home. In Ohio, these boats glided gracefully along the Ohio and Erie Canal, heavily laden with lumber on its way north to Lake Erie where it was transferred to a lake freighter and sent to Buffalo (New…

  13. Page 1 Steady flow Simulation in irrigation canals 967 Note :- 1 - 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steady flow Simulation in irrigation canals 967. Note :- 1 - 5 correspond to cases listed in table & Case". #. 400 800 1200 1600 20 *. 0 - 00 m Figure 5. Effect of canal con-. Distance dition on flow depth. 6.3 Backwater effect. By and large, canals are designed based on uniform flow criterion and control structures are also ...

  14. File list: Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: His.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: ALL.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Oth.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 No description Cardiovascular Atrioventicular cana...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Others Schlemms canal cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells.bed ...

  3. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  4. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  5. Evaluation of complications of root canal treatment performed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothanna K. AlRahabi

    2017-07-05

    Jul 5, 2017 ... This study evaluated the technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) and detected iatrogenic errors in an undergraduate dental clinic at the College of Dentistry, Taibah. University, Saudi Arabia. Dental records of 280 patients who received RCT between 2013 and 2016 undertaken by dental students ...

  6. Radiologic classification of superior canal dehiscence : Implications for surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookabaugh, Sarah; Kelly, Hillary R.; Carter, Margaret S.; Niesten, Marlien E F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377125202; McKenna, Michael J.; Curtin, Hugh; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgical access to repair a superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is influenced by the location of the bony defect and its relationship to surrounding tegmen topography as seen on computed tomography. There are currently no agreed-upon methods of characterizing these radiologic findings. We

  7. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...

  8. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is well known to cause interstitial plasma cell pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. It has been implicated as a rare cause of infections in other anatomical sites.¹ We report a rare case of P. jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal. This was the first manifestation of a previously unknown ...

  9. Assessment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis by magnetic resonance phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Masakazu; Komagata, Masashi; Endo, Kenji; Imakiire, Atsuhiro [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that cauda equina intermittent claudication is caused by local circulatory disturbances in the cauda equina as well as compression of the cauda equina. We evaluated the role of magnetic resonance phlebography (MRP) in identifying circulatory disturbances of the vertebral venous system in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Extensive filling defects of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus were evident in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (n=53), whereas only milder abnormalities were noted in patients with other lumber diseases (n=16) and none in normal subjects (n=13). The extent of the defect on MRP correlated with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. In patients with lumber spinal canal stenosis, extensive defects of the internal vertebral venous plexus on MRP were noted in the neutral spine position, but the defect diminished with anterior flexion of the spine. This phenomenon correlated closely with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. Our results highlight the importance of MRP for assessing the underlying mechanism of cauda equina intermittent claudication in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and suggest that congestive venous ischemia is involved in the development of intermittent claudication in these patients. (author)

  10. Microtensile bond strength between adhesive cements and root canal dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillaguet, Serge; Troesch, Sabra; Wataha, John C.; Krejci, Ivo; Meyer, Jean Marc; Pashley, David H

    2003-01-01

    The hypotheses tested were that the bond strength of adhesive cements to root canal dentin (1) would be reduced as a function of configuration factor, polymerization process and type of luting material and (2) would be lowered near the apex of the tooth.

  11. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... Root canal preparation for all the teeth was carried out with. 3 different types of rotary instruments. ... which enabled removal of overlapping dentin walls. After completing the preparation of the coronal third of ... on dentine or other surfaces after instrumentation with either rotary instrument or endodontic files, ...

  12. Evaluation of complications of root canal treatment performed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dental records of 280 patients who received RCT between 2013 and 2016 undertaken by dental students were investigated by retrospective chart review. Root canal obturation was evaluated on the basis of the length of obturation being ≤2 mm from the radiographic apex, with uniform radiodensity and good adaptation

  13. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. ... presence or absence of debris and smear layer and the photographs were taken at coronal, middle and apical 1/3 with a magnification of ~200 and ~1000 respectively.

  14. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various methods to determine working length of root canal. Materials and Methods: Tactile method was assessed using digital radiography and ...

  15. Assessment of Irrigation Performance along the Canal Reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of irrigation performance assessment made along the canal reaches of community-managed Hare irrigation scheme in. Southern Ethiopia. Field measurement, interview, group discussion and measurement of water supply were undertaken, and output performance indicators were assessed.

  16. Microhardness of different resin cement shades inside the root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria-Victoria; Garrido, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez, Jesús; Ceballos, Laura

    2012-09-01

    To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X∘Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core∘X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (pmicrohardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected.

  17. Vessel electrification feasibility study for the New York state canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of repowering a diesel-fueled : New York State Canal Corporation (NYSCC) work boat with a diesel hybrid-electric or full-electric powertrain. : The project team instr...

  18. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  19. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  20. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Farzaneh; Haraji, Afshin; Boostani, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured. Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm. Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions. PMID:24910651

  1. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  2. Source location encoding in the fish lateral line canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, B; van Netten, SM

    2006-01-01

    The position of a hydrodynamic dipole source, as encoded in a linear array of mechano-detecting neuromasts in the fish lateral line canal, was electrophysiologically investigated. Measured excitation patterns along the lateral line were compared to theoretical predictions and were found to be in

  3. Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.

  4. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  5. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  6. Digestive enzymes in the alimentary canal of Clarias anguillaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of digestive enzymes were observed in the alimentary canals of the fingerlings and adults of Clarias anguillaris. The enzymes were carbohydrases including amylase, sucrase, lactase and maltase, proteases including peptase, tryptase and peptidase, and lipase. The activities of the protease were found to be ...

  7. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 distal roots of mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned into three main ...

  8. Clinical evaluation of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, successful treatment is dependent on accurate identification of the implicated canal and the form of lithiasis. Furthermore, clinicians should note that there is no place for pharmacological treatment of BPPV; unless it is to facilitate repositioning. Keywords: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, canalith repositioning ...

  9. External Auditory Canal Stenosis After Traumatic Auricular Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong Chung, J.E.; Chussi, D.C; Heerbeek, N. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The auricles are easily injured or amputated in case of head trauma. Inadequate treatment of the external auditory canal (EAC) after auricular injury is often seen and can lead to significant complications of the EAC. CASE REPORT: The authors report 4 cases of auricular injury or

  10. Evaluation of Various Filling Techniques in Distal Canals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... among the groups, the analysis was continued with post hoc comparisons using Tamhane's, Dunnett's, or Mann-. Whitney U-test. Bonferroni's correction was applied (P. < 0.05/n; where n = a ..... canal preparation with NiTi rotary instruments: Rationale, performance and safety. Status report for the American.

  11. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation

  12. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  13. Position and course of the mandibular canal in skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ayla; Potluri, Anitha; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the topography of the mandibular canal (MC) in both vertical and occlusal dimensions. Fifty-two adult skulls deposited in the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine skull collection were evaluated in this study. Cone-beam computerized tomographic scans of each skull were obtained. The vertical course of MC was classified into 3 types: straight projection (12.2%), catenary-like configuration (51.1%), and progressive descent from posterior to anterior (36.7%). The evaluation of the buccolingual dimension showed that the mandibular canal was located either in contact with or close to the lingual cortical plate (≤ 2 mm) in the molar region of the majority of the cases. As it proceeds anteriorly it moves toward the buccal aspect of the mandible, where it finally emerges through the mental foramen. Three emerging patterns of mandibular canal were observed: sharp turn (53.2%), soft curved exit (28.8%), and straight path (17.4%). The examination of the vertical dimension showed that the canal was located almost 1 cm above the inferior border of the mandible and then ascended to reach the mental foramen, which is located ~16 mm (range 13.4-20.3 mm) above the inferior border of the mandible. We found a strong correlation between height of the mandible and location of the mental foramen (r = 0.64; P mandibular canal described in vertical and axial dimensions and variation in its path have been classified. In addition to variation in location of MC, it has different anatomic configurations which clinicians should be familiar with in any surgical procedures involving the posterior mandible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of spatial and temporal coding by semicircular canal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highstein, Stephen M; Rabbitt, Richard D; Holstein, Gay R; Boyle, Richard D

    2005-05-01

    The vestibular semicircular canals are internal sensors that signal the magnitude, direction, and temporal properties of angular head motion. Fluid mechanics within the 3-canal labyrinth code the direction of movement and integrate angular acceleration stimuli over time. Directional coding is accomplished by decomposition of complex angular accelerations into 3 biomechanical components-one component exciting each of the 3 ampullary organs and associated afferent nerve bundles separately. For low-frequency angular motion stimuli, fluid displacement within each canal is proportional to angular acceleration. At higher frequencies, above the lower corner frequency, real-time integration is accomplished by viscous forces arising from the movement of fluid within the slender lumen of each canal. This results in angular velocity sensitive fluid displacements. Reflecting this, a subset of afferent fibers indeed report angular acceleration to the brain for low frequencies of head movement and report angular velocity for higher frequencies. However, a substantial number of afferent fibers also report angular acceleration, or a signal between acceleration and velocity, even at frequencies where the endolymph displacement is known to follow angular head velocity. These non-velocity-sensitive afferent signals cannot be attributed to canal biomechanics alone. The responses of non-velocity-sensitive cells include a mathematical differentiation (first-order or fractional) imparted by hair-cell and/or afferent complexes. This mathematical differentiation from velocity to acceleration cannot be attributed to hair cell ionic currents, but occurs as a result of the dynamics of synaptic transmission between hair cells and their primary afferent fibers. The evidence for this conclusion is reviewed below.

  15. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  16. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  17. Utilidad de la prueba torniquete en el diagnóstico diferencial de Dengue de otros síndromes febriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Méndez Duarte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El dengue es la infección transmitida por mosquitos más importante en el mundo. Siendo más susceptible a infectarse la población infantil. En la etapa inicial de la enfermedad los síntomas son indiferenciables de otros síndromes febriles agudos, situación que hace complejo, tardío y poco sensible el diagnóstico clínico en la fase aguda de la enfermedad. La prueba torniquete es utilizada como un criterio de clasificación para definir la severidad del dengue hemorrágico por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, podría utilizarse en el diagnóstico diferencial del dengue. Objetivo: Evaluar en población infantil las características operativas de la prueba torniquete en el diagnóstico diferencial del dengue de otros síndromes febriles agudos. Métodos: Entre junio de 2006 y Abril del 2008 se incluyeron del servicio de urgencias pacientes entre dos y 12 años de edad que presentaban un cuadro febril sin origen aparente. Se les realizó un examen físico estandarizado junto con la prueba de torniquete, calculándose la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y negativo (VPN a la prueba. Resultados: Se captaron 129 pacientes y se diagnosticaron 66 casos de dengue. La prueba torniquete tuvo sensibilidad de 60.6% (IC95%=48.8-72.4, especificidad 55.9% (IC95%=43.3-68.6, VPP 60.6% (IC95%=48.8-72.4 y un VPN 55.9%. (IC95%=43.3-68.6. El resultado de la prueba estuvo asociado al tiempo de tolerancia del torniquete (p<0.001. Conclusiones: La prueba torniquete por sí sola no es útil como herramienta clínica para diferenciar el dengue de otros síndromes febriles en niños entre los dos y los 12 años de zonas endémicas.

  18. Análise Complexa e Geometria Diferencial de certas Superfícies do Espaço hiperbólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sa Earp

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde os tempos de Gauss, Riemann e de outros que a GeometriaDiferencial entrelaça-se com a Análise Complexa. Um dos mais belos efeitos disto é a bem conhecida representação de Weierstrass para superfícies mínimas de R^3, consistindo de dados meromorfos (f,g que descrevem inteiramente uma tal superfície. O estudo da análise complexa aplicado neste contexto, ao longo das últimas décadas,tem produzido vertiginosos resultados e tem desenvolvido esta teoria para além das expectativas. Já é bem conhecido que as superfícies mínimas simplesmente conexas de R^3 pode-se associar suas primas no espaço hiperbólico tridimensional H^3 que possuem curvatura média igual a 1. Tal relação segue do teorema fundamental da Geometria, calcado nas equações de Gauss e de Codazzi-Mainardi. O fato é quetambém existem dados meromorfos sobre as superfícies de curvatura média 1 em H^3, o que sob um ponto de vista filosófico é de se esperar. Este é o escopo destas notas: Explicar um pouco as origens desta teoria e suas ligações com a teoria clássica das superfícies mínimas de R^3 e apresentar os dados meromorfos e exemplos, segundo um trabalho recente do autor com Toubiana. Como o espço hiperbólicopossui vários modelos naturais, diferentemente do espaço Euclideano, existem vários pontos de vistas alternativos nesta teoria revelando a riqueza inigualável da Geometria Hiperólica. Isto tem sido estabelecido por R. Bryant, Umehara,Yamada que são os pioneiros na moderna abordagem deste assunto. Notáveis trabalhos nesta área também têm sido compilados por Rossman, Small, Rosenberg, Collin, Hausswirth e Toubiana. De modo que fervilham resultados que exibem a pujança do link Análse Complexa, Geometria Hiperbólica & Geometria Diferencial.

  19. [Canal Finder System 89!!! Improvements and indications after 4 years of experimentation and use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, G

    1990-01-01

    Actually, the CANAL FINDER SYSTEM is the only entirely automated endodontic device. After four years of existence, many evaluations were able to show the qualities of this system regarding root canal penetration, cleaning and shaping. The earlier concerns such as ergonomical problems were solved: automated extraction of the K-file, automated sodium hypochlorite irrigation. A new file was created, particularly well adapted to the root canal shaping of curved canals. This addition has improved the efficiency of the automated instrumentation. The CANAL FINDER SYSTEM has reached a maturity level permitting an excellent reliability and ease of use.

  20. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Eskandarinezhad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires thorough knowledge regarding each root canal system of any tooth and probability of extra canals should be considered. Second maxillary molar with two palatal root canals is not frequent and its incidence reported in literatures is about 0.4–2%. The present case report describes non-surgical retreatment of maxillary second molar with two palatal root canals. Radiographic interpretation is difficult in this region; so, very careful examination of pulpal space and using supportive devices such as loupe and operating microscope is recommended to discover any unusual anatomic features like extra canals.

  1. Managing a mandibular second premolar with three-canal and taurodontism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Niknami, Mahdi; Zand, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Root canal anatomy diversity and aberrations are common especially in permanent dentition. A thorough understanding of the basic root canal anatomy and its diversities are necessary for successful endodontic treatment. Mandibular second premolars are usually single-rooted and have one root canal. Incidence of three separate root canals in this tooth is quite rare and taurodontism with three separate canals has never been reported in literature so far. The use of cone-beam computed tomography scan in this rare case greatly contributed to making a confirmatory diagnosis and successful nonsurgical endodontic management thereafter.

  2. MIMO LPV State-Space Identification of Open-Flow Irrigation Canal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bolea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canal systems are complex nonlinear, distributed parameter systems with changing parameters according to the operating point. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV state-space canal control model is obtained by identification in a local way using a multimodel approach. This LPV identification procedure is based on subspace methods for different operating points of an irrigation canal covering the full operation range. Different subspace algorithms have been used and compared. The model that best represents the canal behavior in a precise manner has been chosen, and it has been validated by error functions and analysis correlation of residuals in a laboratory multireach pilot canal providing satisfactory results.

  3. A cone-beam computed tomography study of the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolars and the location of root canal orifices and apical foramina in a Chinese subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibing; Tian, Cheng; Li, Guoju; Yang, Lin; Han, Xuan; Wang, Yan

    2013-04-01

    Successful root canal treatment is dependent on detailed knowledge of the morphology of the root canal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the root canal systems of mandibular first premolars and the location of root canal orifices and apical foramina in a Chinese subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography scanning. A total of 440 cone-beam computed tomographic images of mandibular first premolars were obtained from 238 patients. Tooth position, root canal morphology, the distance between the apical foramen and the anatomic apex, and the distance between the 2 root canal orifices of mandibular first premolars with 2 root canals were investigated. The Fisher exact test was used to analyze the correlation between the number of root canals and tooth position. Overall, 1.14% (n = 5) of the teeth had a C-shaped root canal system, 77.14% (n = 335) had 1 root canal, and 22.05% (n = 97) had 2 root canals from type II to type V. The remaining 0.68% (n = 3) were classified as type VIII, which had 3 root canals. The most frequent distribution of the distance between the apical foramen and the anatomic apex in 335 mandibular first premolars with 1 root canal was 1-2 mm (n = 192). The distance between the apical foramen and the anatomic apex of mandibular first premolars with 2 root canals was in accord with that of mandibular first premolars with 1 root canal. The distance between the 2 root canal orifices of mandibular first premolars with 2 root canals was approximately 13 mm. Most mandibular first premolars had 1 root canal. More than 1 of 5 mandibular first premolars had complex root canal systems (with 2 or more root canals). This study provides supplemental information about the root canals of mandibular first premolars in a Chinese subpopulation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-03-20

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment.

  5. Bifid mandibular canal: confirmation of limited cone beam CT findings by gross anatomical and histological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, K; Shiozaki, K; Mishima, A; Kuribayashi, A; Hamada, Y; Kobayashi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were (1) to assess the validity of limited cone beam CT (CBCT) in detecting the distribution of bifid mandibular canals in the retromolar region by comparing its findings with those of panoramic radiography and spiral CT imaging, and (2) to confirm the contents of such canals depicted on limited CBCT images by using gross anatomical and histological methods. Methods Bilateral bifid mandibular canals of a Japanese cadaver were investigated. The canals depicted on panoramic radiography, spiral CT and limited CBCT images were compared. Cross-sectional limited CBCT images of these canals were compared with gross anatomical sections of the mandible and their contents were confirmed histologically. Results The spiral CT and limited CBCT images showed the bilateral bifid mandibular canals in the retromolar region whereas the panoramic radiographs indicated the presence of only the left bifid mandibular canal. The canal distribution was more distinct in the limited CBCT images than in the spiral CT images and the cross-sectional limited CBCT images were consistent with the gross anatomical sections. Histologically, the canals contained several nerve bundles and arteries among which the largest nerve and artery were of a similar size. Conclusion Limited CBCT is valuable for assessing the distribution of bifid mandibular canals. It is clinically significant to accurately localize a bifid mandibular canal of the retromolar region because it contains a nerve bundle and artery. PMID:22116121

  6. The effect of four different irrigation systems in the removal of a root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischke, J; Müller-Heine, A; Hülsmann, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sonic, ultrasonic, and hydrodynamic devices in the removal of a root canal sealer from the surface and from simulated irregularities of root canals. Fifty-three root canals with two standardized grooves in the apical and coronal parts of longitudinally split roots were covered with AH Plus root canal sealer. Compared were the effects of (control) syringe irrigation, (1) CanalBrush, (2) passive ultrasonic irrigation, (3) EndoActivator, and (4) RinsEndo on the removal of the sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups (N = 12) and one control group (N = 5) via randomization. The amount of remaining sealer in the root canal irregularities was evaluated under a microscope using a 4-grade scoring system, whereas the remaining sealer on the root canal surface was evaluated with a 7-grade scoring system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the other tested irrigation systems or syringe irrigation in removing sealer from root canal walls (p irrigation shows a superior effect on sealer removal from the root canal surface during endodontic retreatment. Cleaning of lateral grooves seems not to be possible with one of the techniques investigated. Incomplete removal of root canal sealer during re-treatment may cause treatment failure. Passive Ultrasonic irrigation seems to be the most effective system to remove sealer from a root canal.

  7. Endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canines with an unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Rijal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canines with unusual root canal anatomy in a patient. The right mandibular canine had two separate roots (buccal and lingual, each root having a single canal. The left mandibular molar had two separate canals coronally joining into a single canal in the apical 3 rd (Vertucci Type II. While the presence of two roots and two canals in one root is not uncommon, finding a combination of these morphological variations in the same patient has not been reported previously. This emphasizes the perception of the clinician that a given tooth will contain a specific number of roots and/or root canals canal should be changed, and such variations should be kept in mind during the endodontic treatment of permanent mandibular canines.

  8. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

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    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  9. Dimension, anatomy and morphology of the mesiobuccal root canal system in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerness, Randy A; Bowles, Walter R

    2010-06-01

    To increase our understanding of the root canal system, we examined the mesiobuccal (MB) roots of maxillary first and second molars, which are considered to be one of the most complex root canal systems. Uninstrumented MB roots from 153 teeth were imbedded, sectioned, and observed at 8x using a stereomicroscope for main canal numbers, isthmus presence, and dimensional size of canals and dentin walls. The number of canals observed in maxillary first and second molars was 20% and 38.1% for one canal, 79.8% and 60.3% for two canals, and 1.1% and 1.6% for three canals, respectively. The buccal canal was larger than lingual or middle canals at all levels of the root. The average distance between the two main canals was 1.2 +/- 0.6 mm in first molars and 1.78 +/- 0.6 mm in second molars. Isthmus tissue increased greatly at 3.6 mm from the apex, suggesting optimal root resection at this level. Little differences in thickness between mesial and distal canal walls were seen until reaching the coronal sections of the root where the average canal wall thickness was found to be thinner (33%) on the distal, suggesting a "danger zone" for maxillary molars at a level where the root joins the crown of the tooth. The observations made here provide a more precise understanding of the maxillary MB root system. Orthograde and retrograde root canal therapy might be improved with a comprehensive understanding of pulpal morphology throughout the entire MB root. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  11. The use of expert systems on the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence Uso de los sistemas especialistas en el diagnóstico diferencial de la incontinencia urinaria Uso de sistemas especialistas para o diagnóstico diferencial de incontinência urinária

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    Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence classes is sometimes difficult to establish. As a rule, only the results of urodynamic testing allow an accurate diagnosis. However, this exam is not always feasible, because it requires special equipment, and also trained personnel to lead and interpret the exam. Some expert systems have been developed to assist health professionals in this field. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to present the definition of Artificial Intelligence; to explain what Expert System and System for Decision Support are and its application in the field of health and to discuss some expert systems for differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence. It is concluded that expert systems may be useful not only for teaching purposes, but also as decision support in daily clinical practice. Despite this, for several reasons, health professionals usually hesitate to use the computer expert system to support their decision making process.El diagnóstico diferencial de los tipos de incontinencia urinaria es algunas veces difícil. En general, solamente los resultados de exámenes urodinâmicos permiten uno diagnóstico preciso. Entretanto, no es siempre posible hacer ése examen porque requiere equipo especial y personal entrenado hacia realizar y interpretar lo examen. Sistemas especialistas tienen sido hechos hacia asistir los profesionales de salud en ese campo. Propone-se presentar aquí lo que es inteligencia artificial; explicar lo que son sistemas especialistas, sistemas hacia apoyo a la decisión y suya aplicación en el área de la salud y discutir sistemas especialistas hacia el diagnóstico diferencial de la incontinencia. Concluye-se que los sistemas especialistas puedan ser usados no solamente hacia la enseñanza, mas también como apoyo a la decisión en la práctica clínica. A pesar de eso, por varias razones, profesionales de salud usualmente resisten en emplear el sistema especialista computacional hacia

  12. Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing

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    Juliana de Lima Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the

  13. Gestión diferencial de recursos humanos: una revisión e integración de la literatura

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    Andrea Gabriela Rivero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde finales del siglo xx, la diferenciación de la fuerza laboral emerge como un desarrollo teórico central para la gestión estratégica de recursos humanos. La diferenciación se fundamenta en el mayor valor que ciertos empleados aportan a la organización. A partir de una revisión bibliográfica sobre gestión diferencial de recursos humanos, se examinan los criterios utilizados para diferenciar y gestionar estratégicamente a distintos grupos de empleados. Como resultado, se identifican dos perspectivas dominantes que explican la base de la diferenciación, destacándose que un empleado puede ser valioso por sus características individuales o por el puesto de trabajo ocupado. De esta forma, este artículo integra ambas perspectivas, que permanecían demasiado disociadas en la literatura, y plantea nuevos interrogantes para futuras investigaciones.

  14. O ensino e a aprendizagem de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral: características e interseções no centro-oeste brasileiro

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    Karly Barbosa Alvarenga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva apresentar os índices de aprovação, reprovação e cancelamento da disciplina de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em três instituições de ensino superior do Centro-Oeste brasileiro e, além disso, mapear ações desenvolvidas por essas universidades que visem dar subsídios aos estudantes para aprenderem os conteúdos ensinados na referida disciplina. Os dados foram coletados por meio de informações fornecidas pelas Pró-reitorias de Graduação e de entrevistas realizadas com os docentes. As reflexões levantadas se enquadram nas discussões realizadas a partir da Cultura Escolar de Viñao (2008. Observou-se que a cultura escolar, nas três universidades, é muito parecida e que elas desenvolvem ações, buscando qualificar a aprendizagem do Cálculo para, desse modo, diminuir a reprovação.

  15. Cálculo Diferencial e Integral e Geometria Analítica e Álgebra Linear na educação a distância

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    Aline Fornari

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo apresenta reflexões sobre a oferta das disciplinas de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral I e de Geometria Analítica e Álgebra Linear na modalidade à distância, pela UTFPR, a qual teve início no ano de 2014. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de questionários aplicados aos alunos ao final de cada um dos semestres letivos, em diversos câmpus onde o projeto foi implantado. Os dados indicam que, apesar das dificuldades inerentes ao conteúdo específico e da modalidade, os alunos estão cientes de que a Educação a Distância exige autodisciplina, responsabilidade e motivação, uma vez que preconiza a autonomia discente frente à sua aprendizagem. Os alunos que estudam todo o conteúdo, participam das monitorias e atendimentos e realizam todas as atividades, têm tido maior aprovação nas disciplinas. Frente às análises realizadas, houve alterações no projeto e no material disponibilizado, visando à melhoria contínua no processo de ensino e a aprendizagem.

  16. Funcionamento diferencial dos itens do teste não-verbal de inteligência SON-R 2½-7[a

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    Camila Akemi Karino

    Full Text Available A presença de uma quantidade considerável de itens com funcionamento diferencial (DIF pode tornar um teste menos válido. Assim, este estudo investigou a existência de DIF no teste de inteligência SON-R 2½-7[a]. O teste é a versão abreviada do SON-R 2½-7, normatizado e validado em vários países da Europa. Os dados de 1.200 crianças da normatização brasileira foram utilizados para identificar a presença de DIF em relação à gênero e região, usando o método da TRI. Os resultados indicaram que, de um total de 60 itens, 5 itens apresentaram DIF entre os sexos e 13 itens apresentaram DIF entre as regiões. Conclui-se que há adequabilidade da maioria dos itens, o que viabiliza o uso do SON-R 2½-7[a] em contexto nacional.

  17. Análisis diferencial por niveles de edad de las actitudes hacia el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes españoles

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    María María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La adolescencia representa un estadío vital identificado con la sucesión de crisis de identidad y conflictos psicoafectivos y sociorelacionales varios debido a los cambios que se interrelacionan a nivel psicosocial y en los ámbitos familiar, educativo y lúdico. Se analiza a nivel teórico la vinculación entre el estilo de ocio juvenil y la experimentación con sustancias psicoactivas, aportando un análisis diferencial por niveles de edad de las actitudes hacia su consumo. Para ello, se ha seleccionado una muestra integrada por 755 alumnos de educación secundaria del Principado de Asturias (España de entre doce y dieciocho años. Se confirma que, a medida que se avanza en edad, se manifiesta una tendencia permisiva ante el consumo, una más frecuente aceptación de las incitaciones y una más baja percepción de riesgo de las consecuencias derivadas de la experimentación con drogas institucionalizadas (alcohol y tabaco y drogas ilegales.

  18. Calorimetria diferencial de barrido. Influencia de la composición del aceite de oliva virgen en su perfil térmico

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    Uceda Ojeda, M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of olive oil from the cultivars ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Picual’, with different contents in polyphenols, were analyzed by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Three speeds of cooling/heating (1, 5 and 10ºC/min were analyzed with the differences between duplicates being lowest when the analysis was carried out at 5°C/min. An important varietal effect (pMuestras de aceite de las variedades ‘Arbequina’ y ‘Picual’, con diferentes contenidos en polifenoles, son analizadas mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido a 1, 5 y 10 °C/min de velocidad de enfriamiento y de calentamiento, obteniéndose las diferencias entre duplicados más bajas cuando el análisis se efectúa a 5 ºC/min. Se observa un efecto varietal importante (p<0.05 en los perfiles DSC de estos aceites; estas diferencias son más apreciables en los perfiles y valores de temperaturas de los picos de transición, obtenidos durante proceso de calentamiento. También se observa que aceites con niveles medio-altos en el contenido en polifenoles (250 ppm presentan diferencias significativas (p<0.05 entre valores de las temperaturas de los picos de transición.

  19. Mineral trioxide aggregate root canal filling of traumatized immature tooth

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    Maha A Kanfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female patient reported to the dental clinic seeking a help to save her traumatized maxillary left central incisor. The tooth had been treated with a temporary filling by a general dentist. The coronal tooth structure was intact, discolored, and a temporary filling was placed on the access opening. She gave a history of trauma about 3 years back. An intraoral periapical radiograph revealed an open apex and dentin bridge in the middle of the root canal. The root canal and the access opening were filled with very poor filling. The tooth was managed successfully by conservative means using intracanal calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament, followed by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA filling. The access opening was filled with glass ionomer and composite resin restoration. One year and 6-month follow-up demonstrated a clinically asymptomatic and adequately functional tooth, with radiological signs of apical regeneration.

  20. Cord Cystic Cavities: Syringomyelia and Prominent Central Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blaise V

    2017-04-01

    Syringomyelia is the term given to cystic cavities in the spinal cord, most of which are associated with congenital malformations of the craniocervical junction and represent dilation of the central canal of the cord. As such, syrinxes can be considered analogous to hydrocephalus. The exact etiology of syrinx formation remains a subject of debate, but there is ample evidence that they are the result of obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid between the intracranial and spinal compartments. The chances that a syrinx will progress over time are much greater when they are associated with a causative lesion (Chiari malformation, tumor, infection, and trauma), but asymptomatic central canal dilation may be a stable incidental finding. Although spinal cord neoplasms are a recognized etiology for syrinx formation, especially in adults, it is not always necessary to administer contrast when evaluating a syrinx for the first time with magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

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    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  2. [A case of congenital double pyloric canal (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, J C; Dumke, K; Kaiser, K

    1978-01-01

    In the case of 47-year-old patient who had been suffering for several months from a duodenal ulcer disease, a so called double pylorus was traced by applying fiberoptic gastroscopy. At the same time proof was found for the ulcera duodeni. Owing to the fiberoptic result of two regularly pyloric canals it was already doubted, that this was only a question of a secondary pyloro duodenal fistula caused by peptic ulcer. A particular and differentiating pathological anatomical examination of the surgical specimen showed as a result, that the patient was suffering from a congenital duplication of the pyloric canal by a pyloric ligament. The duodenal ulcers, proofed by x-ray examination and gastroscopy, were recognised as a secondary disease of a locus minoris resistentiae.

  3. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  4. Herpes zoster sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Masao; Mannoji, Chikato; Oikawa, Makiko; Murakami, Masazumi; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Okawa, Akihiko; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2015-07-29

    Symptom of herpes zoster is sometimes difficult to distinguish from sciatica induced by spinal diseases, including lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis. Here we report a case of sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis. A 74-year-old Chinese male patient visited our hospital for left-sided sciatic pain upon standing or walking for 5 min of approximately 1 month's duration. At the first visit to our hospital, there were no skin lesions. A magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis between the 4th and 5th lumbar spine. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with sciatica induced by spinal canal stenosis. We considered decompression surgery for the stenosis of 4th and 5th lumbar spine because conservative therapy failed to relieve the patient's symptom. At that time, the patient complained of a skin rash involving his left foot for several days. A vesicular rash and erythema were observed on the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the great toe and lateral malleolus. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster in the left 5th lumbar spinal nerve area based on clinical findings, including the characteristics of the pain and vesicular rash and erythema in the 5th lumbar spinal dermatome. The patient was treated with famciclovir (1,500 mg/day) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After 1 week of medication, the skin rash resolved and pain relief was obtained. In conclusion, spinal surgeons should keep in mind herpes zoster infection as one of the possible differential diagnoses of sciatica, even if there is no typical skin rash.

  5. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

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    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  6. Single visit root canal treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, J I; Shaba, O P; Umesi, D C

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the success rate of single visit root canal treatment (RCT) and thus encourage clinicians to offer this treatment option appropriately. This was a longitudinal clinical study involving all teeth of the secondary dentition except third molars in the upper and lower jaws. Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Forty-five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18-56 years (34.4+/-12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present in 84.4%, tenderness to percussion in 53.3%, and periapical radiolucency in 24.4% teeth. Forty percent had irreversible pulpitis and 60% had apical periodontitis. Post-operatively, pain reduced to 51.1% on day 1, 15.5% at 1 week, and 0% for the rest of the period. Tenderness to percussion reduced to 15.6% at 1 week and 0% by 1 month. Periapical radiolucency reduced to 9.5% at 6 months. Favorable outcome of 33.3% was recorded on day 1 and increased to 90.5% at 6 months. Six months success rate for teeth which had irreversible pulpitis was 100% and 83.3% for apical periodontitis. The mean time needed to complete a single visit RCT ranged from 77 min for a tooth having one canal to 132 min for one having four canals. Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis irrespective of tooth type or number of canals. A lot of patients are lost to follow-up visits for teeth requiring RCT once the pulp is extirpated at the first visit due to cessation of pain, subsequently leading to treatment failure. Single visit endodontics eliminates the need for follow-up visits and improves treatment prognosis.

  7. OCC and state of New York settle Love Canal claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Following a 14-year legal battle, the state of New York and Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) have entered into a consent judgement in the Love Canal litigation. The June 21, 1994 judgement, which was approved by the US District Court for the Western District of New York on July 1, 1994, requires that OCC pay the state $98 million in exchange for a release of all state claims remaining against the company.

  8. Rehabilitation of teeth with root canal treatment. Multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Concha, Pompeyo H.; Residente 3° año, Segunda Especialidad en Rehabilitación Oral, UNMSM.; Canales Huarhua, Johnny; Residente 2°año, Segunda Especialidad en Periodoncia, UNMSM.; García Linares, Sixto; Especialidad en Periodoncia y Coordinador de Posgrado en Periodoncia, UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case details the teeth reconstruction and root canal retreatment, with recovery of the lost biological space invaded by maladjusted crowns and its subsequent reconstruction with fiberglass preformed poles for the cementation of splinted crowns by the decrease of the crown-root proportion. It is concluded that we must take into account the amount of remaining dental tissue, the periodontal status (biological width), the aesthetic requirements, the root morphology, the location of...

  9. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

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    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  10. Usefulness and limitations of neuroradiological examinations in lumbar canal stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Shogo; Hanakita, Junya; Suwa, Hideyuki; Ohta, Fumito; Sakaida, Hiroshi (Shizuoka General Hospital (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    Since 1983, we have performed 434 spinal surgery operations. Among them are included 51 cases of lumbar canal stenosis. For these 51 cases, we performed several neuroradiological examinations, such as lumbar plain X-ray, myelography, metrizamide-CT scan (Met-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On myelography, these 51 patients were divided into three types; a complete block type with 29 patients, soy-beans type with 7 patients and strangulation type with 15 patients. Met CT was performed in 37 cases. In both strangulation type and soy-beans type which had been showed through myelography, Met-CT could clearly demonstrate the subarachnoid space, and several structures around the lumbar spinal canal could be clearly identified. In cases which myelography revealed as complete-block type, we identified two subtypes. In the first type subarachnoid space was clearly demonstrated by Met-CT. The second type was comprised of those cases where Met-CT scan could not demonstrate subarachnoid space at all. MRI was performed on 21 patients. MRI clearly showed the anatomical relationship of disc, subarachnoid space, yellow ligament and hypertrophied bony structure. MRI was thus able to bring useful information about lumbar canal stenosis even in cases where Met-CT gave little information due to the lack of metrizamide penetration of the stenotic subarachnoid space. (J.P.N.).

  11. Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Brakefield-Goswami, Linzy

    2010-01-01

    The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. Four different hydraulic conductivity configurations, with values ranging over several orders of magnitude, were evaluated with the model. For all of the conditions evaluated, aquifer salinization was initiated by the formation of dense, hypersaline fingers that descended downward to the bottom of the 30-m thick aquifer. Saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom in times ranging from a few days to approximately 5 years for the lowest hydraulic conductivity case. Aquifer salinization continued after saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom and coalesced by lateral movement away from the site. Model results showed that aquifer salinization was most sensitive to aquifer heterogeneity, but was also sensitive to CCS salinity, temperature, and configuration.

  12. Photodynamic therapy: An adjunct to conventional root canal disinfection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Sashi Prabha

    2015-08-01

    Although chemical-based root canal disinfectants are important to reduce microbial loads and remove infected smear layer from root dentin, they have only a limited ability to eliminate biofilm bacteria, especially from root complexities. This paper explores the novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) for antimicrobial disinfection of root canals. The combination of an effective photosensitizer, the appropriate wavelength of light and ambient oxygen is the key factor in PDT. PDT uses a specific wavelength of light to activate a non-toxic dye (photosensitizer), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen molecules can damage bacterial proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, which promote bacterial cell death. In, addition PDT may enhance cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the dentin matrix and thereby improving dentin stability. The concept of PDT is plausible and could foster new therapy concepts for endodontics. The available knowledge should enable and encourage steps forward into more clinical-oriented research and development. This article discusses PDT as related to root canal disinfection, including its components, mechanism of action, reviews the current endodontic literature and also highlights the shortcomings and advancements in PDT techniques. © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  13. Conductive neuromagnetic fields in the lumbar spinal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Senichi; Kawabata, Shigenori; Tomizawa, Shoji; Tomori, Masaki; Sakaki, Kyohei; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Sekihara, Kensuke; Sato, Tomoya; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Okawa, Atsushi

    2012-08-01

    To measure neuromagnetic evoked fields in the lumbar spinal canal. Using a newly developed superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) fluxmeter, neuromagnetic fields of 5 healthy male volunteers were measured at the surface of the lower back after stimulation of the tibial nerves at the ankles. For validation, we inserted a catheter-type electrode percutaneously in the lumbar epidural space in 2 of the subjects and measured cauda equina action potentials after tibial nerve stimulation. Neuromagnetic fields propagating from the intervertebral foramina into the spinal canal were measured, and the latencies of the magnetic fields corresponded largely with those of the cauda equina action potentials. We successfully measured ascending neuromagnetic fields originating at the nerve root and the cauda equina with high spatial resolution. Future studies will determine whether neuromagnetic field measurement of the lumbar spine can be a useful diagnostic method for the identification of the disordered site in spinal nerves. We successfully measured neuromagnetic fields in the lumbar spinal canal, which have previously been difficult to verify. Future studies will determine whether neuromagnetic field measurement of the lumbar spine can be a useful diagnostic method for identifying disorders of spinal nerves. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

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    Nayara Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair.

  15. Mudflow utilization for construction materials of tertiary irrigation canal lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Subandiyah; Kustamar

    2017-11-01

    Mudflow in Siring Village, Sidoarjo Regency, Indonesia, has been in eruption since May 29, 2006. It still shows irregular large bursts which loaded in a sludge reservoir with capacity of 59 million m3. From 2007 until 2015, there were more than 20 studies which concluded that the mudflow could be used as a mixture of building materials. However, the studies were not detailed and needed further research. This research aims to investigate the use of mudflow as tertiary irrigation canal lining material. This research comes with several laboratory tests to obtain a mixture that is solid and water-resistant. The methods that were used are descriptive methods as follows: 1). Sampling of mudflow, to be analyzed in Material Testing Laboratory. 2). Sampling of soil at research site, to be analyzed in Soil Mechanics Laboratory 3). Mixing of materials which are consist of mudflow and other materials and doing strength test in the laboratory. 4). Installation of tertiary irrigation canal lining using materials that have been tested. 5). Observation of lining's strength inactive soil pressure-bearing and its impermeability. It is expected that the results of this research will be applied extensively throughout the tertiary irrigation canals, so mudflow can be utilized as raw materials that are environmentally friendly, which are able to help preserving the environment, also to reduce the removal of sand / rock in the river, which has been used for lining materials, that benefits in preventing damage to the river ecosystem.

  16. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  17. Seepage study of six canals in Salt Lake County, Utah, 1982-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, L.R.; Cruff, R.W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study of selected reaches of the Utah and Salt Lake, Utah Lake Distributing, Provo Reservoir, Draper Irrigation, East Jordan, and Jordan and Salt Lake City Canals in Salt Lake County, Utah, was made to determine gains or losses of flow in those reaches. Three to five sets of seepage measurements were made on each canal during 1982 or 1983. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations during the time of each seepage run.The study showed an overall net loss of about 9.5 cubic feet per second in the Utah and Salt Lake Canal, 11.0 cubic feet per second in the Utah Lake Distributing canal, 20.5 cubic feet per second in the Provo Reservoir canal, 1.5 cubic feet per second in the Draper Irrigation Canal, and 4.0 cubic feet per second in the East Jordan canal. It also showed a net gain of about 6.0 cubic feet per second in the Jordan and Salt Lake City Canal. The gains and losses are attributed primarily to the relation of the canals to the depth of the water table near the canals.

  18. Identification of possible factors impacting dental students' ability to locate MB2 canals in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth.

  19. Comparing the Fracture Rate of Hero 642, FlexMaster and Mtwo in the Simulated Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaf, Hosein; Haghgoo, Roza; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Mohamadibasir, Mahshid

    2014-01-01

    File fracture is one of the main procedural mishaps in endodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture rate of three NiTi rotary systems; Hero 642, Mtwo and FlexMaster in artificial canals. In this study, bovine long bone was used. After primary preparation of bones, longitudinal sections with 4-cm diameter were cut and encoded. Subsequently, semicircular sections were prepared. A total number of 500 canals were created in the same way; the upper 3 mm of the canals were initially prepared with orifice shapers and then canals were filed with FlexMaster files sizes 25/0.02 and 25/0.04 to 13 mm of canal length. The prepared canals were assigned into 3 groups of the following systems: Hero 642, Mtwo and FlexMaster. Six selected instruments were used from each system; the files were applied 13 mm along the canals for 10 sec with manufacturer's suggested speed and torque. The number of the canals prepared by each file before its separation was recorded; finally the data was analyzed with ANOVA test. Mean number of prepared canals in Mtwo, FlexMaster and Hero groups before file separation was 15, 25 and 32, respectively. RESULTS of this study showed that the number of prepared canals by Hero 642 was more than FlexMaster and Mtwo systems.

  20. A comparison of the shaping ability of reciprocating NiTi instruments in simulated curved canals

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    Young-Sil Yoo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The study was to compare the shaping ability of Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer instruments compared with ProTaper, Profile and hand instrument during the preparation of simulated root canals. Materials and Methods Five groups (n = 5 were established. Reciproc, WaveOne, ProTaper, Profile and K file (K-flexo file were used to prepare the resin simulated canals. A series of preoperative and postoperative images were taken by a microscope and superimposed in 2 different layers. The amount of resin removed from both the inner and the outer sides of the canal was measured to the level of 10 mm from the apical tip, with a 1 mm increment. Results The mean of resin removal from the inner canal wall was not different from the outer canal wall for Reciproc and WaveOne groups at apical third (1 - 3 mm level. There was no difference in the change of working length and maintenance of canal curvature. NiTi instruments are superior to stainless-steel K file in their shaping ability. Conclusions Within the limitation of this present study, Reciproc and WaveOne instruments maintained the original canal curvature in curved canals better than ProTaper and Profile, which tend to transport towards the outer canal wall of the curve in the apical part of the canal.

  1. Regulation of drainage canals on the groundwater level in a typical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Mou, Xia; Cui, Baoshan; Ping, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Activities related to reclamation alter wetland hydrological regimes and inevitably cause changes to groundwater level, which can result in the ecological degradation of coastal wetlands. Decreasing the groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals is an approach that has been widely used to control levels of root zone soil salinity as well as to protect freshwater wetlands or to expand agricultural land area in coastal wetlands. In this study, we assessed the influences of different drainage canal designs on the groundwater level using the Visual MODFLOW (VMOD) interface. We also provided an optimized drainage canal design suitable for the Yellow River Delta (YRD). Results showed that: (i) the groundwater level decreased in areas close to drainage canals, while only negligible effects were found on the groundwater level in areas with no drainage canals; (ii) the influence of drainage canals on the groundwater level decreased as distance increased; and (iii) a drainage canal network design of a depth of 5 m, with canal configuration of north-south direction and canal spacing of 1000 m was more effective in reducing the groundwater level in the study area. Our findings indicated that changes in groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals could help in our understanding of how groundwater influences freshwater wetlands and also aid in maintaining the integrity of coastal wetlands.

  2. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

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    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  3. Investigations into in situ Enterococcus faecalis biofilm removal by passive and active sodium hypochlorite irrigation delivered into the lateral canal of a simulated root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmmed, S A; Vianna, M E; Penny, M R; Hilton, S T; Mordan, N J; Knowles, J C

    2017-11-27

    To investigate in situ Enterococcus faecalis biofilm removal from the lateral canal of a simulated root canal system using passive or active irrigation protocols. Root canal models (n = 43) were manufactured from transparent resin materials using 3D-printing. Each canal was created with an 18 mm length, apical size 30, a .06 taper, and a lateral canal of 3 mm length, 0.3 mm diameter. Biofilms were grown on the lateral canal and apical 3 mm of the main canal for 10 days. Biofilm of three models was examined using SEM. The other forty models were divided to four groups (n = 10). The models were observed under a fluorescence microscope. Following 60 s of 9 mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated using gutta-percha, sonic or ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The residual biofilm percentages were measured using image analysis software. The data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. A significance level of 0.05 was used throughout. The greatest level of biofilm removal was with ultrasonic agitation (66.76%) followed by sonic (45.49%), manual agitation (43.97%), and passive irrigation groups (38.67%) respectively. The differences were significant between the residual biofilm in the passive irrigation and both sonic & ultrasonic groups (P = 0.001). Agitation resulted in better penetration of the 2.5% NaOCl into the lateral canal of an artificial root canal model. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl improved the removal of biofilm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

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    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  5. Canal lombar estreito: sinal da sedimentação

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    Vera Alice Correia Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença do sinal de sedimentação nos pacientes com canal lombar estreito (CLE comparando-os com os pacientes sem CLE. MÉTODOS: Realizado um estudo retrospectivo, transversal e descritivo. Realizada a revisão dos processos imagiológicos dos pacientes com CLE operados entre 1 de janeiro de 2008 e 31 de dezembro de 2009, comparando-os com os dos pacientes sem CLE observados em consulta externa. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I com 34 pacientes com diagnóstico de CLE. Critérios diagnósticos: existência de lombalgia e/ou claudicação neurogénica e/ou radiculopatia, associados a um diâmetro anteroposterior do canal menor que 10mm e grupo II com 40 pacientes observados em consulta externa por lombalgia sem clínica de CLE. Foi feita a medicação do diâmetro do canal e verificada a presença do sinal de sedimentação entre D12 a S1. RESULTADOS: O sinal da sedimentação foi positivo em 31 dos 34 pacientes do grupo I (91,2%, em dois destes 31 pacientes apenas abaixo da estenose. Este sinal não foi encontrado em nenhum paciente do segundo grupo. Verifica-se uma correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis "diâmetro do canal" e a "presença do sinal da sedimentação" (p<0.01 no grupo de pacientes com canal lombar estreito. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico de CLE nem sempre é fácil atendendo à frequente dissonância entre os achados clínicos e imagiológicos. O sinal de sedimentação é positivo em pacientes com CLE entre os níveis L1 e L5, podendo ser um sinal válido para complementar o diagnóstico de CLE.

  6. [Effect comparison of arachnoid cysts in sacral canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baichuan; Shao, Zengwu; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Shuhua; Wu, Yongchao; Ma, Zhilin; Yu, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of two different surgical treatments for arachnoid cysts in sacral canal. From January 2004 to March 2009, 55 cases of arachnoid cysts in the sacral canal were treated by traditional simple sacral laminectomies with resection of the cysts (group A, 25 cases) and novel CT-guided percutaneous fibrin glue therapy of arachnoid cysts (group B, 30 cases). Of them, there were 23 males and 32 females, aging 15-66 years with an average of 42.6 years; the duration of symptoms was 6 months to 15 years with an average of 3.5 years. L5-S1 was involved in 22 cases, S1,2 in 25 cases, S2,3 in 12 cases, S2 in 8 cases, and presacral in 2 cases. The size of cysts was 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 2.8 cm. The MRI examination showed that all patients had cysts in the sacral canal. There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sex, ages, disease duration and cysts size between two groups. Preoperative data and postoperative lumbosacral pain and function improvement were analyzed and compared between two groups. All operations were performed successfully. The operative time, blood loss and hospitalization days of group B were significantly less than those of group A (P root irritation (8 cases) occurred; in group B, mild meningitis (3 cases) and low grade fever (5 cases) occurred. Except for nerve injury, other complications were cured after symptomatic management. During the follow-up, 2 recurrent cases were found in group A and 1 case in group B. Of them, 2 recurrent cases were treated with CT-guided percutaneous fibrin glue therapy of arachnoid cysts, and cysts disappeared. For two groups, there were significant differences in Oswestry functional disability index and visual analogue scale score between preoperation and postoperation (P cysts in the sacral canal is a mini-invasive, safe, effective, and economical method, it may be better choices for the treatment of arachnoid cysts in the sacral canal.

  7. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal Arachnoideal extradural cyst of the spinal canal. A case report

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    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.The case of a pacient with thoracic arachnoideal cyst is reported. There was a neurological picture of a spinal cord compression in thoracic level with analgesia and anesthesia in T12 and L1 at left. Radiographs showed compression of the pedicles with widening of interpedicular spaces of the eight to twelfth thoracic vertebrae. The myelogram and the laminectomy confirmed the hypothesis of aracnoideal cyst. This case of extradural cyst of the spinal canal is added to the 76 previously described in the literature. The incidence, etiology, phisiopathology, clinical-picture, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  8. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

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    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  9. Second mesiobuccal canal detection in maxillary first molars using microscopy and ultrasonics.

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    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal; Genç, Ozgür; Kayaoglu, Guven

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of operating microscope in combination with ultrasonics increased the rate of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal detection in permanent maxillary first molar teeth. A hundred extracted human maxillary first molars were assessed. After location of the main canals, the MB2 canal was sought in all teeth first without microscopy, then with the aid of the operating microscope and finally with the combined use of the operating microscope and ultrasonics. With these techniques, the MB2 canal was detected in 62%, 67% and 74% of the teeth, respectively. The combination of the operating microscope and ultrasonics detected significantly more MB2 canals than when no microscopy was utilized (P ultrasonics increased the detection of MB2 canals in maxillary first permanent molars.

  10. Maxillary first molar with 7 root canals diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomography

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    Evaldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Root canal anatomy is complex, and the recognition of anatomic variations could be a challenge for clinicians. This case report describes the importance of cone beam computed tomographyic (CBCT imaging during endodontic treatment. A 23 year old woman was referred by her general dental practitioner with the chief complaint of spontaneous pain in her right posterior maxilla. From the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was made and endodontic treatment was suggested to the patient. The patient underwent CBCT examination, and CBCT scan slices revealed seven canals: three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MB3, two distobuccal (DB1 and DB2, and two palatal (P1 and P2. Canals were successfully treated with reciprocating files and filled using single-cone filling technique. Precise knowledge of root canal morphology and its variation is important during root canal treatment. CBCT examination is an excellent tool for identifying and managing these complex root canal systems.

  11. Estructuras sintácticas de subordinación en la composición escrita: análisis evolutivo y diferencial

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    Francisco SALVADOR MATA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el marco teórico de la Psicolingüística de orientación cognitiva, se pretendió detectar la evolución y las diferencias (en función del sexo y la clase social de los sujetos de algunos aspectos sintácticos (estructuras de subordinación en la oración compuesta en la composición escrita de los alumnos del Ciclo Superior de la E.G.B. En una amplia muestra (300 composiciones escritas, representativa de la población (por curso, sexo, clase social y centro docente, se analizaron 13 variables dependientes (tipos de subordinación y proposiciones subordinadas en un diseño cuasi experimental (análisis de varianza 3 x 2 x 2 . En los límites de esta investigación, se pueden establecer las siguientes conclusiones generales: Ia La composición escrita de las niñas tiene un nivel de complejidad sintáctica mayor que la de los niños; 2a La clase social no es un factor diferencial; 3a El factor diferencial más significativo es el nivel instructivo. Por tanto, las variables lingüísticas analizadas se pueden considerar como índices de desarrollo.ABSTRACT: In the framework of language and cognitive development, the aim of this research were both to describe development and so differences according pupil's sex and social class of the subordination in compound-complex sentence, in written composition at the upper level of Primary Education. A selected corpus of 300 texts, written by pupils both boys and girls of different social-class, were analysed within the paradigm of spanish grammmar, elaborated by Royal Academy of Spanish Language. 13 linguistic variables (syntactic characters were analyzed in a statistical design (factorial variable analysis 3 x 2 x 2 within a quasi-product paradigm. Some relevant results are summarized: 1 Sintactic complexity correlated with the instrucctional pupil's level; 2 Sex is a différential factor in syntactic development; 3 No significative differences were found related to social-class; 4 Results

  12. O diferencial de salários formal-informal no Brasil: segmentação ou viés de seleção?

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são investigados os determinantes do diferencial de salários entre os mercados de trabalho formal e informal no Brasil. Utiliza-se um método econométrico de cross-section repetidas (pseudo-paineis, no qual o agrupamento dos dados por geração, tempo e escolaridade permite controlar o fenômeno estudado por características observáveis e não observáveis dos indivíduos. Há fortes evidências de viés de auto-seleção, indicando que os salários mais altos no setor formal decorrem dos melhores atributos individuais não observáveis dos empregados neste setor e não de características intrínsecas a este setor, como seria de se esperar pela hipótese de segmentação.The paper examines the determinants of the wage differential between workers in the formal and informal sectors of the Brazilian labor market. An econometric method of repeated cross-sections (pseudo-panel is used, that allows the researcher to control for observed and unobserved characteristics of the individuals in the sample. We present strong evidence of self-selection bias, meaning that the wage differentials are the consequence of better individual non-observable characteristics of the workers in the formal sector and not to the characteristics of this sector.

  13. Funcionamento diferencial de itens para avaliar a agressividade de universitários Differential items functioning to assess aggressiveness in college students

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    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa buscou-se evidência de validade de construto relacionada ao funcionamento dos itens para diferenciar sexos em um instrumento de agressividade. Participaram 445 universitários, de ambos os sexos, dos cursos de Engenharia, Computação e Psicologia. A escala de agressividade composta por 81 itens foi aplicada coletivamente, em sala de aula, nos estudantes que consentiram em participar do estudo. Os itens do instrumento foram analisados por meio do modelo Rasch. Vinte e oito itens apresentaram funcionamento diferencial, sendo 15 condutas mais características de pessoas do sexo feminino e outras 13 mais características do masculino. Os índices de precisão foram de 0,99 para os itens e 0,86 para as pessoas. Conclui-se que a agressividade pode ser medida separadamente em razão do sexo.In this research evidences of construct validity were searched analyzing the differential functioning items related to aggressiveness. The participants were 445 college students of both genders, attending the courses of Engineering, Computing and Psychology. The scale of aggressiveness composed by 81 items was collectively applied, in the classroom, to the students who consented to participate in the study. The items of the instrument were studied by means of the Rasch model. Twenty-eight items presented differential functioning item, 15 were characterized as typical for females and 13 for males. The reliability coefficients were 0.99 to the items and 0.86 to the persons. It was concluded that the aggressiveness can be measured separately on the basis of gender.

  14. Estudio cinético de la síntesis del poliuretano producido a partir de aceite de ricino mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Fuentes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta un estudio de la cinética de formación del poliuretano producido a partir de aceite de ricino e isoforona diisocianato. La velocidad de reacción fue monitoreada por calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se evaluaron comparativamente tres modelos de reacción con sus correspondientes ecuaciones de velocidad de reacción para representar el comportamiento de los datos experimentales. El modelo de orden n y el modelo de autocatálisis fueron descartados por inconsistencias con las bases de la ecuación de Arrhenius y por bajo índice de correlación de datos. Se propone un modelo de reacción que considera los efectos químicos y físicos (difusión presentes en la reacción de un monómero poli funcional como es el caso objeto del presente estudio. Este modelo permite un buen ajuste de los datos experimentales de velocidad de reacción. Se aplicaron métodos de isoconversión y regresión no lineal para el cálculo de los parámetros cinéticos. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de la magnitud de las resistencias y se encontró que la difusión es la mayor resistencia a la reacción en casi todo el intervalo de conversión.

  15. Genes e epilepsia II: expressão gênica diferencial Genes and epilepsy II: differential gene expression in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo N. Romcy-Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão, introduzimos abordagens investigativas, assim como discutimos os principais achados de expressão gênica diferencial em tecido epiléptico humano e em modelos experimentais. As alterações observadas no cérebro de indivíduos epilépticos sugerem que eventos moleculares específicos refletem diferentes expressões do quadro fisiopatológico. É possível que diferentes combinações da expressão de genes associados à morte celular, metabolismo de radicais livres, transmissão sináptica, resposta imune e de neurotrofinas reflitam propriedades características de diferentes populações neuronais e gliais, que determinam as distintas respostas de cada área cerebral. A compreensão dessas particularidades moleculares será muito importante para o desenvolvimento de uma estratégia de intervenção visando reduzir neurotoxicidade e disfunções sinápticas que ocorrem durante a epileptogênese e a fase crônica em pacientes epilépticos.We introduce some investigative appnacher and findings on differential gene expression in human epileptic time as well as in animal models of epilepsy. Molecular alterations observed in the epileptic brain suggest that they may disclose different psychopathological stages. It is possible that different gene expression combinations involved in cell death, reactive oxygen metabolism, synaptic transmission and immune response and of neurotrophins reflect distinct functional properties of different neuronal and glial populations, which determine specific brain region responses. Understanding the molecular patterns of gene expression following epileptogenic insults will be of great importance for the development of treatments aiming to reduce neurotoxicity and subtle synaptic dyfunctions present in the early stages as well as during the chronic phase of epilepsy.

  16. O uso de um painel restrito de anticorpos monoclonais no diagnóstico diferencial das síndromes linfoproliferativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand-Metze Irene

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso da imunofenotipagem, ao lado da morfologia do sangue periférico, é um elemento imprescindível no diagnóstico diferencial das síndromes linfoproliferativas. Empregamos com este propósito um painel de anticorpos monoclonais: CD19/CD10, CD20/CD5, CD23, CD3/CD4, CD3/CD8, além de anticorpos contra cadeias leves de imunoglobulina de superfície lidos em citometria de fluxo. Aplicamos este painel em 44 pacientes do nosso Serviço usando como confirmação a morfologia do sangue periférico. Em 29 pacientes foi encontrado o fenótipo típico de Leucemia Linfóide Crônica-B e dois casos foram Leucemia Linfóide Crônica-T. Em oito casos o imunofenótipo foi insuficiente para fechar o diagnóstico que foi confirmado pela morfologia do sangue periférico: seis casos de imunocitoma e dois de leucemia prolinfocítica. Nos cinco casos de linfoma de células do manto, em três deles a imunofenotipagem do sangue periférico ou do aspirado de linfonodo fechou o diagnóstico. Nos outros dois o diagnóstico foi confirmado pela biópsia de linfonodo. Estes achados ressaltam o papel da imunofenotipagem no diagnóstico correto das síndromes linfoproliferativas. O painel usado, apesar de pequeno, foi suficiente, necessitando do apoio da morfologia em poucos casos.

  17. Aplicación de la Calorimetria Diferencial de Barrido (CDB en la caracterización del aceite de oliva virgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Maza, G.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC to Virgin Olive Oil has been evaluated. Thermal profile of olive oil from six cultivars were analysed by DSC. Crystallization and melting curves were obtained between -100ºC and 50ºC, at 5ºC/min, showing profiles differentiated according to each. Temperature peak (Pt from exothermic and endothermic transitions show a good correlation with the triacylglycerol composition. Oxidation DSC curves were obtained between 50ºC to 300ºC, under air flow rate of 100 mL/min. The oxidation times (To obtained from each oil show a high correlation, r>0.95, with the oxidative stability measured by Rancimat method.Se analiza la viabilidad de la calorimetría diferencial de barrido (CDB en su aplicación a la caracterización del aceite de oliva virgen. Las curvas de cristalización y de fusión obtenidas, entre - 100ºC y 50ºC a una velocidad de 5ºC/min y a partir de seis variedades distintas de aceite de oliva, presentan perfiles diferenciados según la variedad a la que pertenece el aceite, mostrando picos de temperatura exotérmicos y endotérmicos cuyos valores mantienen una estrecha correlación con respecto a las diferentes composiciones triglicerídicas de las distintas variedades. Igualmente, las curvas de oxidación CDB, realizadas en atmósfera oxidante entre 50ºC y 300ºC y flujo de aire de 100 mL/min, proporcionan datos del tiempo de oxidación de estos aceites con una correlación de r>0.95 respecto de los datos de estabilidad proporcionados por el método Rancimat.

  18. Value of conventional cytology in the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos,Lêda Pereira de; Russomano, Fábio; Coutinho,José Ricardo Hildebrandt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify the value of conventional cytology for the diagnosis of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal and to describe the limitations of the samples.METHOD: We evaluated 395 conventional cytology samples obtained by brushing the anal canal of patients (predominantly male, HIV-positive) and compared them to the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal observed under anorectal examination.RESULTS: Of the total, 91.6% of samples were classified as adequate. Cellular elemen...

  19. Efficacy of three methods for inserting calcium hydroxide-based paste in root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Thales; Camargo, Bernardo; Armada, Luciana; Alves, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Background To compare the quality of calcium hydroxide paste fillings performed by three different techniques. Material and Methods Sixty extracted maxillary central incisors, with previous root canal treatment, were decoronated and the gutta-percha was completely removed from the root canals. Subsequently, the canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste composed of calcium hydroxide, bismuth carbonate, and glycerin. The study samples were divided into the following three groups o...

  20. Partial absence of the posterior semicircular canal in Alagille syndrome: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Egelhoff, John; Benton, Corning [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati (United States); Goold, Amy [Tripler Army Medical Center, Family Practice, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We report a case of bilateral partial absence of the posterior semicircular canals (with normal lateral semicircular canals) imaged with CT in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Similar histologic findings have been reported in the pathology literature. This association has been previously reported only for Waardenburg syndrome in the imaging literature. We review the imaging findings and embryology of the semicircular canals, and suggest that this abnormality is specific to patients with Alagille or Waardenburg syndrome. (orig.)

  1. A Digital Stereomicroscopic Study of the Radicular Wall Thickness of Two-Canal Mandibular Incisors

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Khedmat; Sohayla Mohamadian; Fatemeh Dibaji; Mohamad Javad Kharrazifard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the radicular wall thickness in mandibular incisors with two canals and find the maximum and minimum thickness to prevent root canal treatment (RCT) procedural errors.Materials and Methods: A total of 160 extracted mandibular incisors were selected and radiographed; out of which, 55 had two canals. Three parallel transverse sections were made in each tooth at 1mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), mid-root and 1 millimeter to the apex. Specimens wer...

  2. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  3. Management of the Nasopalatine Canal and Foramen Associated With Dental Implant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, John; Tsuji, Shota; Chiu, Tzu-Shan; Greenstein, Gary

    2016-06-01

    In some patients, the contents of the nasopalatine canal must be removed to facilitate placement of a dental implant into the canal. Reasons to enucleate the canal in preparation for a bone graft or a dental implant include inadvertent perforation into the canal when creating an osteotomy for an implant, severe atrophy of the maxilla, and a large foramen that precludes placing an implant into the desired location along the bony ridge. The authors searched the dental literature for clinical reports in humans that addressed placement of dental implants into or adjacent to the nasopalatine canal. They found that the nasopalatine canal is usually around 10-mm long and 4-mm wide and slants from the horizontal plane at a 66-degree angle, and there is considerable variation regarding these measurements. Several clinical reports demonstrate that the canal can be enucleated and bone grafted before successful implant placement. It is also possible to place an implant into the canal at the time of surgery and this procedure may or may not be combined with an adjunctive bone graft. Numerous case reports indicate there is usually no permanent loss of sensation of the anterior palate when an implant is placed into the nasopalatine canal. The authors concluded that placing an implant into the nasopalatine canal is a viable procedure as part of a surgical and prosthetic treatment plan when there is a dearth of alternate sites for implant placement. In patients with severe atrophy of the maxilla, combination syndrome, or who have a large or malpositioned nasopalatine canal, the canal can be used as a site to place a dental implant to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis.

  4. A clinical and radiographic study of four different root canal fillings in primary molars

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa O Al-Ostwani; Bashier M Al-Monaqel; Mohamed K Al-Tinawi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful treatment of infected primary teeth aims to preserve the child′s health. However, the complex morphology of primary root canals and the desire for shorter therapy sessions put the necessity to search for the ideal root canal paste. Aims: To evaluate pulpectomy of nonvital primary molars using four different root canal filling pastes zinc oxide and propolis (ZOP) as a new paste, endoflas-chlorophenol-free as a new paste free of chlorophenol, metapex paste, and zinc oxide...

  5. Incidence of two canals in extracted mandibular incisors teeth of Saudi Arabian samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid S Al-Fouzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study is to provide clinical data on the presence of the second canal in mandibular incisor teeth of Saudi Arabian Samples. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted human mandibular incisors were collected from Saudi patients. The teeth were accessed by small round bur then placed in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 24 hours to dissolve the organic debris. Indian ink was injected inside the root canal systems under negative pressure. The teeth were decalcified in 5% nitric acid for three days then dehydrated in different concentrations of ethyl alcohol. Following the decalcification process, the teeth were cleared in methyl salicylate and evaluated according to Vertucci′s classification. Result: Fifty six of both mandibular central and lateral incisor teeth (70% had type I canal configuration (one main canal and one main apical foramen, while the remaining 30% of the sample (24 teeth had a type III canal configuration (two separate canals and merged into one canal before exiting the tooth through single apical foramen. Conclusion : The incidence of two canals in mandibular incisor teeth is about one third of the examined Saudi Arabian samples with no difference between the centrals and laterals. The clinician should deal with these teeth as if they have two canals unless it is proved otherwise.

  6. Evaluation of Morphology and Anatomical Measurement of Nasopalatine Canal Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

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    Mehrdad Panjnoush

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Precise radiographic assessment of the nasopalatine canal is required to prevent implant failure. The purpose of the current study was to determine the three dimensional (3D morphology, as well as the dimensions of the nasopalatine canal using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, maxillary CBCT images from 300 patients (150 men, 150 women were retrospectively evaluated. Sagittal and coronal views were reviewed to determine the nasopalatine canal morphology and dimensions. The difference in canal dimensions between men and women was evaluated using the Student’s t-test while the difference in canal morphology between the two sexes was assessed using Chi-square test.Results: A total of 199 (66.3% patients had type A canal (cylindrical without a branch, 69 (23% had type B canal (a canal with a branch in the upper part, and 32 (10.7 % had type C canal (a canal with a branch in the middle part. Incisive foramen diameter was 4.7±1.11mm on the sagittal section. Alveolar bone width in the anterior part of the canal was 12.3±1.7mm in the upper one third, 10.7±1.7mm in the middle one third, and 9.8±1.4mm in the lower one third. The angle of canal with palate was 109.5±5.7°. On the coronal sections, canal length was 14.1±3.0mm, incisive foramen diameter was 4.6±1.0mm, and canal diameter in the nasal floor was 5.1±1.0mm.                          Conclusions: Significant differences in canal morphology were observed among the patients and CBCT was useful in determining nasopalatine canal morphology and its dimensions before implant placement.Keywords: Anatomy; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Dental Implants; Maxilla

  7. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

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    Vita Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal medicament during the endodontic treatment could sterilized and decreased the number of pathogenic microorganism of root canal. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganisms, non toxic and economical. The best irrigation solution has maximum antimicrobial effect with minimum toxicity. Division of calcium hydroxide into Calcium and hydroxyl ions is responsible for alkalinization of cavity, subsequently it makes the condition of cavity to be inappropriate for bacterial endotoxin in vitro as well as in vivo, and considered as the only clinically effective medicament in inactivating bacterial endotoxin. Calcium hydroxide is the only medication which has the ability to clinically inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro in vivo and accepted as the best of root canal medication.

  8. Chandra Mukerji, Impossible Engineering : Technology and Territoriality on the Canal du Midi

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Ertsen

    2012-01-01

    Chandra Mukerji nous propose un ouvrage important sur la conception et la construction du Canal du Midi, appelé Canal royal du Languedoc sous l’Ancien Régime. Ce canal exceptionnel fut en effet construit durant le règne de Louis XIV, en parallèle avec les travaux de Versailles. Ce fut le plus vaste chantier de génie civil de son temps et il formait alors le plus grand canal jamais construit dans le monde occidental. Ce livre est important pour une série de raisons. La première est qu’il a tou...

  9. Le Canal du Midi au 17e siècle :

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Guy Degos; Christian Prat Dit Hauret

    2010-01-01

    Pierre-Paul Riquet fit construire au 17e siècle le canal royal du Languedoc, qui devint ensuite le canal du Midi. En son temps, ce fut le projet européen le plus important. Inspiré par d'autres modèles de canaux construits depuis l'Antiquité, il servit de modèle ou d'exemples à beaucoup d'autres. Pour construire leur canal, Riquet et ses collaborateurs choisirent une approche systémique et surent concilier l'aspect global et les détails techniques du projet. Le financement du canal ne doit pa...

  10. Lingual vascular canals of the interforaminal region of the mandible: evaluation with conventional tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, H; Frederiksen, N L; Benson, B W

    2004-01-01

    The presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal region may increase the risk of surgical complications during implant placement, bone grafting procedures and osteodistraction...

  11. Detection of a second mesiobuccal canal in the mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena; Khraisat, Ameen

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the MB2 canal in the mesiobuccal root (MBR) of maxillary first molars could be identified through a clinical access cavity preparation, with and without magnification. One hundred extracted maxillary first molar teeth were collected. After a clinical access cavity preparation with careful use of bur to locate any additional canal (dentine troughing), the MB2 canals were located in 2 stages. Stage I was located with unaided vision and stage II was located under moderate magnification with x3.5 magnifying dental loupes. All specimens were stained, rendered transparent, and then classified. The number of canals detected by stage was analyzed statistically by a chi-square test. Statistical significance was considered to be P magnification, the number of detected MB2 canals was increased from 55 (56.7%) to 61 (62.9%) teeth. Cleared teeth showed 77.32% of MB2 canals. The effectiveness of MB2 location was 73.3% and 82.7% in stage I and stage II, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 methods of detecting the MB2 canal (P = .3). The use of magnification enhanced the ability to detect the MB2 canals, although the difference was not statistically significant. The MB2 canals could not be detected in 16.5% of the teeth, mainly because of pulpal calcification.

  12. Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Berisha, Merita

    2013-06-13

    Root canal shaping without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files. Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and were divided into 2 groups of 30. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-CT. Then, 30 teeth were prepared with stainless steel files and the remaining 30 with ProTaper rotary files. Canal transportation and centering ability before and after root canal shaping were assessed using micro-CT. The amount and direction of canal transportation and the centering ratio of each instrument were determined in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. The 2 groups were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA. ProTaper rotary files gave less transportation (p<0.001) and better centering ability (p<0.00001) compared with stainless steel files. The manual technique for preparation of root canals with stainless steel files produces more canal transportation, whereas rotary files remain more centered in the canal.

  13. Configuration and corticalization of the mandibular bifid canal in a Taiwanese adult population: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Fu, Earl; Fu, Martin Ming-Jen; Peng, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The configuration and degree of corticalization of bifid mandibular canals were examined using medical computed tomography (CT) images from 170 hemimandibles obtained from 308 Taiwanese adults. The configurations of the bifid canals were assessed according to their anatomical position in relation to the ramus, molars, premolars, and mental foramen; their course (anterior/posterior or superior/inferior); the presence or absence of confluence with the main mandibular canal; and the presence or absence of penetration through the mandible to form an accessory foramen. The percentage of the canal length that was corticalized was measured. Two different classifications of bifid canals were also briefly summarized and compared. When bifid canals are present (41.2% of patients; 27.6% of hemimandibles), the bifid canals were primarily located in the ramus and retromolar regions (67.7%) running anteriorly (95.9%) and superiorly (95.9%) without confluence with the main mandibular canal (91.1%). Up to 16.5% of bifid canals form accessory foramina on the cortical surface of the mandible. Approximately 78% of the bifid canals have varied degrees of corticalization around the bifid canals. The configuration and course of 170 mandibular bifid canals were evaluated with CT images. The bifid canals were primarily located in the ramus and retromolar regions; however, 32.4% of the bifid canals were located in potential positions for dental implant placement. Most of the bifid canals ran anteriorly superior to the main mandibular canal, did not rejoin with the main mandibular canal, and diminished within the mandibular body. Approximately half of the bifid canals (45%) were completely corticated.

  14. Removal of Root Canal Fillings in Curved Canals Using Either Mani GPR or HyFlex NT Followed by Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Stephanie B; Alves, Flávio R F; Marceliano-Alves, Marília F; Sousa, Júlio Cézar N; Vieira, Victor T L; Siqueira, José F; Lopes, Hélio P; Provenzano, José C

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the efficacy of HyFlex NT (HF; Coltene, New York, NY) and Mani GPR (MN; Mani Inc, Tokyo, Japan) systems followed by a supplementary approach with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in removing the filling material from curved root canals during retreatment. The mesial canals from 20 extracted mandibular molars with Vertucci type IV configuration were instrumented and obturated (N = 40). Each mesial canal was retreated using either HF or MN instruments, alternating the system used per canal from root to root. The final preparation size was 40/0.04 for both systems. The volume of canal filling material was assessed by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging before and after retreatment, and the working time was recorded. Canals still showing remnants of filling material were subjected to a supplementary approach with PUI, and another micro-CT scan was taken. The percentage of filling material removed with MN instruments and HF was similar (95.5% and 92.7%, respectively) (P > .05). MN required significantly less time to remove the filling material (P < .05). The supplementary approach with PUI significantly enhanced the removal of filling material (P < .05). Both systems were equally effective in removing the root canal filling during retreatment. MN was faster than HF. The supplementary approach with PUI significantly improved filling material removal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file for the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Ashoksingh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file (MAF for the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP from root canal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two single rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper up to the size number F2 and dressed with TAP. TAP was removed with Canal Brush technique (Group I, n: 6, sonic (EndoActivator (Group II, n: 6, and MAF (Group III, n: 6. Four teeth served as positive (n: 2 and negative (n: 2 controls. The roots were split in the buccolingual direction and prepared for SEM examination (×1000 at coronal, middle, and apical third. Three examiners evaluated the wall cleanliness. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Difference in cleanliness between three groups is statistically significant in cervical region only. Pairwise comparison in cervical region Canal Brush and sonic activation showed more removal of TAP than MAF. Conclusions: Canal Brush and sonic activation system showed better result than MAF in the cervical and middle third of canal. In the apical third, none of the techniques showed a better result. None of the techniques showed complete removal of TAP from the canal.

  16. Radiographic evaluation of the quality of root canal obturation of single-matched cone Gutta-percha root canal filling versus hot lateral technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Suleiman Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal filling in mesiodistal and buccolingual view when comparing matched cone condensation and warm lateral Gutta-percha condensation using system B heating instrument in a low-heat warm lateral condensation technique in0 vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 mandibular premolars with straight single canals were divided into two groups with 20 each. The root canals were shaped by hand file and Revo-S rotary files to size (25, 0.06 at the end point, then they filled by Gutta-percha cone and meta-seal sealer. In group A, a single matched cone technique was used to fill the root canals. In group B, a hot lateral condensation using system B instrument at 101°C was performed. Result: The result of this study showed no significant difference in density of Gutta-percha fill in apical and coronal two-third when comparing matched cone root canal filling and hot lateral technique (P > 0.05. The only significant difference (P < 0.05 was in matched cone between buccolingual and mesiodistal view in the coronal two-third. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, single matched cone technique has a good density in the apical one-third as that of the hot lateral technique so it may be used for filling narrow canals. In the coronal two-third of the root canal, single matched cone technique showed inferior density of root canal filling which can be improved by using accessory cones Gutta-percha in wide canal.

  17. Air-leak effects on ear-canal acoustic absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groon, Katherine A; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1-0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables exhibited consistent dependence on

  18. Canal preparation with nickel-titanium or stainless steel instruments without the risk of instrument fracture: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Yared

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a novel technique that allows a safe and predictable canal negotiation, creation of a glide path and canal preparation with reciprocating nickel-titanium or stainless steel engine-driven instruments in canals where the use of rotary and the newly developed reciprocating instruments is contraindicated. In this novel technique, the instruments are used in reciprocating motion with very small angles. Hand files are not used regardless of the complexity of the canal anatomy. It also allows achieving predictable results in canal negotiation and glide path creation in challenging canals without the risk of instrument fracture.

  19. Modeling of Unsteady Flow through the Canals by Semiexact Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ehsani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of free-surface and pressurized water flows in channels has many interesting application, one of the most important being the modeling of the phenomena in the area of natural water systems (rivers, estuaries as well as in that of man-made systems (canals, pipes. For the development of major river engineering projects, such as flood prevention and flood control, there is an essential need to have an instrument that be able to model and predict the consequences of any possible phenomenon on the environment and in particular the new hydraulic characteristics of the system. The basic equations expressing hydraulic principles were formulated in the 19th century by Barre de Saint Venant and Valentin Joseph Boussinesq. The original hydraulic model of the Saint Venant equations is written in the form of a system of two partial differential equations and it is derived under the assumption that the flow is one-dimensional, the cross-sectional velocity is uniform, the streamline curvature is small and the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The St. Venant equations must be solved with continuity equation at the same time. Until now no analytical solution for Saint Venant equations is presented. In this paper the Saint Venant equations and continuity equation are solved with homotopy perturbation method (HPM and comparison by explicit forward finite difference method (FDM. For decreasing the present error between HPM and FDM, the st.venant equations and continuity equation are solved by HAM. The homotopy analysis method (HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ that allows us to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The study has highlighted the efficiency and capability of HAM in solving Saint Venant equations and modeling of unsteady flow through the rectangular canal that is the goal of this paper and other kinds of canals.

  20. Analyzing endosonic root canal file oscillations: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Simon C; Walmsley, A Damien; Lumley, Philip J

    2010-05-01

    Passive ultrasonic irrigation may be used to improve bacterial reduction within the root canal. The technique relies on a small file being driven to oscillate freely within the canal and activating an irrigant solution through biophysical forces such as microstreaming. There is limited information regarding a file's oscillation patterns when operated while surrounded by fluid as is the case within a canal root. Files of different sizes (#10 and #30, 27 mm and 31 mm) were connected to an ultrasound generator via a 120 degrees file holder. Files were immersed in a water bath, and a laser vibrometer set up with measurement lines superimposed over the files. The laser vibrometer was scanned over the oscillating files. Measurements were repeated 10 times for each file/power setting used. File mode shapes are comprised of a series of nodes/antinodes, with thinner, longer files producing more antinodes. The maximum vibration occurred at the free end of the file. Increasing generator power had no significant effect on this maximum amplitude (p > 0.20). Maximum displacement amplitudes were 17 to 22 microm (#10 file, 27 mm), 15 to 21 microm (#10 file, 31 mm), 6 to 9 microm (#30 file, 27 mm), and 5 to 7 microm (#30, 31 mm) for all power settings. Antinodes occurring along the remaining file length were significantly larger at generator power 1 than at powers 2 through 5 (p < 0.03). At higher generator powers, energy delivered to the file is dissipated in unwanted vibration resulting in reduced vibration displacement amplitudes. This may reduce the occurrence of the biophysical forces necessary to maximize the technique's effectiveness. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.