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Sample records for canadian environmental protection

  1. Off-road compression-ignition engine emission regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 : guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide explained the requirements for Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Emission Regulations established under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The regulations are enforced by Environment Canada, which authorizes and monitors the use of the national emissions mark. The regulations prescribe standards for off-road engines that operate as reciprocating, internal combustion engines, other than those that operate under characteristics similar to the Otto combustion cycle and that use a spark plug or other sparking device. The regulations apply to engines that are typically diesel-fuelled and found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines such as tractors, excavators and log skidders. Four different types of persons are potentially affected by the regulations: Canadian engine manufacturers; distributors of Canadian engines or machines containing Canadian engines; importers of engines or machines for the purpose of sale; and persons not in companies importing engines or machines. Details of emission standards were presented, as well as issues concerning evidence of conformity, importing engines, and special engine cases. Compliance and enforcement details were reviewed, as well as applicable standards and provisions for emission control systems and defeat devices; exhaust emissions; crankcase and smoke emissions; and adjustable parameters. Details of import declarations were reviewed, as well as issues concerning defects and maintenance instructions. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  3. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  4. A Canadian perspective on environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leading environmental concerns in Canada are acid rain, ozone depletion, toxic substances, climate change, and biodiversity. These concerns have a number of elements in common, including a need for international actions for their solution, a high degree of scientific complexity, long life cycles from a policy point of view, and large differences in priorities between developing and developed countries. Canadians have favorable attitudes toward sustainable development and expect government and industry to be active in protecting the environment. Canadians also demand and expect a secure supply of competitively priced energy. Although industry may be concerned that incorporating environmental considerations into their business may impede competitiveness, this view is shown to be unsound for the following reasons: productivity is closely linked to a healthy environment; pollution prevention is less costly than cleanup; environmental protection can create new business opportunities; and the market is demanding more environmentally friendly industries. In the energy sector, a number of successful initiatives are under way to integrate environmental considerations into their decision making. The challenge is for industries to go beyond individual activities and build a case for sustainable energy development. The role of government includes informing Canadians about environmental risks and government priorities, ensuring that environmental assessment rules are clear and fair, streamlining regulatory processes, and using a balanced mix of legislation and regulation with market-based approaches to environmental protection

  5. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  6. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.)

  7. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  8. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  9. Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Regina; Diewald, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Nature protection and conservation are fundamental elements of environmental protection as this is an important part of the human existence; it is a vital component of the present and future harmonious socio economic development. The ecosystems and the organisms, like the marine and atmospheric terrestrial resources used by humankind, must be administrated in such a way that their optimum and continuous productivity may be assured and maintained. It is necessary to take rigorous measures agai...

  10. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  12. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  13. Environmental Economics for Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekko van Ierland

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental economics deals with the optimal allocation of production factors and correcting market failure in protecting the environment. Market failure occurs because of externalities, common property resources, and public goods. Environmental policy instruments include direct regulation, taxes/subsidies, tradable permits, deposit systems, voluntary agreements, and persuasion.

  14. Environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable

  15. Environmental protection law; Umweltschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on the entire environmental protection law in a systematic survey. The book attaches great importance to the presentation of the legal fundaments, the European legal background, to the constitutional law and considers the ministerial draft bill to the environmental law book. The book under consideration is addressed to students of the law as well as junior lawyers. It is suitable for the preparation on the examination.

  16. Wuskwatim generation project : Canadian Environmental Assessment Act comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study report described the plan by Manitoba Hydro and the Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation (NCN) to construct a new 200- megawatt (MW) generating station at Taskinigup Falls on the Burntwood River, near the outlet of Wuskwatim Lake. This hydroelectric power project will allow Manitoba Hydro to meet its projected energy needs within the next two decades as identified in its 2002/03 Power Resource Plan. It will also allow Manitoba Hydro and NCN to obtain additional export revenues and profits by advancing the in-service date of the Project from 2020 to 2009. A formal environmental assessment is required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) because Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has determined that the Project would cause fish habitat losses requiring an authorization under the Fisheries Act. Many of the structures to be built in navigable waters would also require formal approval under the Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA), which has prompted this application of the CEAA. This environmental assessment report has been prepared by DFO in consultation with Transport Canada and other federal authorities concerned. It provides a summary of the Wuskwatim Generation Project and the environment in which it will be built and operated. In addition, the results of public consultations are discussed. It presents an assessment of the Project's influence on fish and fish habitat, birds, species at risk, human health (local air quality, quality of drinking water and consumption of fishery products), navigation, use of renewable resources, and current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginal persons (hunting, trapping, gathering, subsistence fishing and heritage sites). It was concluded that the proposed Project, as defined by the scope of the study, is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs., 3 appendices

  17. Canadian critical environmental zones: Concepts, goals and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical environmental zones are those ecosystems that are so degraded that the health or well-being of human inhabitants is threatened. A conceptual framework is presented for considering criticality and a rationale for a Canadian research project on critical zones. A model of pathways to criticality is outlined and some examples of environmental degradation in Canada are presented, including acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions. Societal response to, and public perception of, critical environmental zones is described. Media, format, and target audiences for output from a Canadian project are considered and some central scientific and policy questions are identified under such categories as environmental stresses, buffering capacity, indicators, human driving forces, and societal responses. An inventory of pertinent international and national activities is included. 53 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Environmental protection at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primer for households clarifies in a popular scientific form, how environmental protection can be practised in the domestic family circle. It is pointed out to the fact in how for a first step to the reduction of water and energy consumption can be made through a critical self control. Important hinds are given for waste avoidance and waste reutilization. It can be achieved through information and deliberation that the environment conscious household keeps away from products and arises endangering the health and impacting the environment. (orig./BBR)

  19. The increasing environmental challenge for the Canadian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental challenge facing the Canadian petroleum industry involves the increasing public call for a clean environment and a more intense pressure on the technological and economic means to achieve such an environment. It is estimated that the potential economic impact on the petroleum industry of national environmental response strategies under Canada's Green Plan could amount to ca $17 billion over the next 15-20 years. Leading environmental issues of relevance to the petroleum industry are toxic contamination of groundwater and surface land, particulates in the air, ground-level emissions such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, acid rain, oil spill prevention, waste reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions. Increased environmental costs pose a problem for the petroleum industry since profitability is suffering, due to oversupply and low prices. It is suggested that more attention is needed in three areas of environmental policy development in Canada: determination of environmental priorities, reflecting response strategies that achieve the greatest reduction in risk at an affordable cost; increased understanding of the links between trade and the environment; and harnessing of market forces to achieve environmental goals

  20. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan

  1. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... across the country for their outstanding contributions to environmental education and stewardship. Read the press release Meet ... across the country for their outstanding contributions to environmental education and stewardship. Read the press release Meet ...

  2. Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation

  3. Discussion of Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁和毓

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about environment issues was introduced. The influence of pollution on human beings as well as ecosystem was analyzed. And the management of environment protection and the roles that both the local government and central government should play were discussed. Finally, the legislation and supervision for environment protection were put forward.

  4. Environmental Protection Agency Metadata Editor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Metadata Editor allows users to create geospatial metadata that meets EPA's requirements. It provides a customized editing environment that is embedded...

  5. Environmental protection and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area 'Environmental protection and competition policy' follows the introductory guideline by Sir Leon Brittan, vice-president of the EC-Commission: 'We must seek the most market driven, dynamic approach to solutions, such that competition and technological advance bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits'. From this concrete measures are derived. (HSCH)

  6. Radiological protection and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  7. Environmental protection support and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of environmental protection. PNL's technical assistance included development of revised DOE guidance for estimating population doses from exposure to radioactive materials, preparation of the annual DOE environmental summary, initial development of a standardized environmental protection information system, and development of a draft budgetary priority ranking method for identified ES and H upgrade projects. As part of the PNL ad hoc efforts, an independent evaluation was provided to OOS of the potential radiation doses to the public for the historical (1953-1984) uranium effluents to air and water resulting from operations at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) located near Fernald, Ohio. PNL also supported OOS by providing extensive planning, local arrangements, and coordination of the published proceedings for the Fifth DOE Environmental Protection Information Meeting, which was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico November 6-8, 1984

  8. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia's enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada's reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia's sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It's co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the

  9. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  10. Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. Aiming the development of consensus mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures, it appears that the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among these approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

  11. Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. In researching mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures consensus searching, the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among the approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

  12. INNA of human scalp hair for environmental monitoring of Indonesian and Canadian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been selected for use to measure the level of 11 environmentally significant trace elements in human scalp hair of Indonesian, Canadian and Canadian-of-Indonesian-origin (INCN) population groups. Concentration ranges and geometric means are presented. Concentration ratios of each group are evaluated to find a possible relationship between the elemental concentrations of scalp hair and the environmental condition in which the donors live. (author) 16 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  13. Tentative criteria for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of the view that protection of humans from detrimental effects of ionising radiation adequately - although indirectly - protects other living organisms as well, is discussed in relation to biological diversity, biological resources and sustainability, as defined in the documents from UNCED 1992. These aspects are not covered by recommendations relevant to radiological protection, and it appears both timely and justified to integrate radiological protection with environmental protection in general, e.g. by discussing the possibility to define effect-related criteria, such as dose limits, for non-human species inhabiting different environmental media. On the basis of an eco-toxicological approach and existing data on radiosensitivity, doses in the range 1-50 mGy y-1 to relevant organisms in the natural environment could be useful as screening levels for protection of non-human species in limited assessments, whereas anticipated or observed doses above this level would require more detailed assessment. Guidelines for assessment need to be developed, drawing on ecotoxicological experience

  14. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted. PMID:18192793

  15. ENEA's role in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990-1994 Five-Year Plan of ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) stipulates that the Agency must reconcile its objectives related to energy with those related to the environment by aiming at a more efficient and rational exploitation of energy sources. This necessity has been reiterated in Italian Law 282/91 which assigns ENEA the task of providing technical and scientific support to the Ministry of the Environment. The aims, work schedule and financing of this task have been laid down in an environmental protection program whose main goals include: the protection and use rationalization of water supplies; the development of waste processing and disposal systems which incorporate energy and materials recovery systems; and the setting up of environmental monitoring networks. Within the framework of these activities, this paper reports on the management and organization aspects of five integrated projects which involve research efforts on: the reduction of the environmental impact of industrial activities; the characterization, status and dynamics of the environment; the interrelationships between environmental quality and the health of human populations; the effects of agricultural-industrial activities on global climate; the effects of human activities on the environmental quality of the Mediterranean Sea

  16. Water power and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study illuminates the first large environmental debate after World War 2: the struggle against the harnessing of the northern Swedish rivers. The fascinating question is raised of how it was possible for an unparliamentary environmental protection movement to make itself heard, and influence the Swedish energy policy, though their arguments were contrary to the outspoken interests of the industry, the trade unions, and the social democratic government. This was the more fascinating because the values the opinion stressed wore of ethic, esthetic, biological, and conservation economical nature

  17. Environmental Law or Environmental Protection Law? A Comparative Legal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rakoczy, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The problem of environmental law and environmental protection law is not only a terminology issue. Using either of the two terms, the lawmaker reveals its vision of regulating environmental issues in the system of law. In environmental protection law the protective nature of a legal norm is emphasized, and at the same time the control and supervisory powers of public administration authorities are increased. In the case of environmental protection law the confrontation element is in the foreg...

  18. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO2 and NOx removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where direct

  19. Environmental Scanning: Preliminary Findings of Interviews with CEOs in Two Canadian Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Ethel; Choo, Chun Wei

    1993-01-01

    Discusses results of the final part of a study of the environmental scanning behavior of chief executive officers in two Canadian industries--publishing and telecommunications. The results of personal interviews were analyzed to determine their main sources of environmental information and how they made use of the information in decision making.…

  20. Environmental protection using social costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions and other residual wastes come from industrial production, commercial and household activities, and transportation. These wastes damage the environment, including human health. As economies grow, so does concern about balancing that growth with the desire for environmental protection. At issue is how much environmental protection we should have. We address this issue using the concept of social costing. The issue is discussed in the context of electric power generation. There is particular concern about the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum, the major fuel used in the Republic of China, and coal which is the most common fuel used in the U. S. Electric power generation is a major source of airborne pollutants such as SO2, NOx particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, CO, and CO2. It also results in liquid and solid wastes, and other effects such as changes in land use. To generate electric power, fuel (such as petroleum, coal or enriched uranium) or some other resource (e.g., wind or geothermal) is needed. A fuel cycle consists of a sequence of activities and processes involved in generating electric power. These activities include fuel extraction, treatment and processing; fuel conversion into electricity; transmission; waste disposal; and transportation of fuel and wastes between the different stages of the fuel cycle. Each stage results in emissions or other residuals. Several recent-studies have been about the environmental costs of electricity

  1. Environmental protection and management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    In British Columbia, oil and gas activities on private or Crown land are subject to regulations in terms of environmental practices. This environmental protection and management guidebook seeks to provide information on the Oil and Gas Activities Act. All sections from the regulation: water, riparian values, wildlife and wildlife habitat, conserving soil, forest health, invasive plants, natural range barriers, seismic lines, areas to be restored and old growth management areas, resource features and cultural heritage resources, are covered in this document. The minimum acceptable operational standards and practices for oil and gas activities in British Columbia are described. This guide is intended to provide clients and stakeholders with recommendations concerning the planning phase, before any permits are applied for, and concerning permissions or authorizations generally for oil and gas activities in British Columbia.

  2. Canadian contributions to the safety and environmental aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since next-step fusion devices will be fuelled with mixtures of tritium and deuterium, the knowledge base and tritium handling experience associated with the operation of CANDU reactors is viewed as relevant to the development of safe fusion technology. Fusion safety issues will be compared with fission safety experience, after which specific Canadian activities in support of fusion safety will be overviewed. In addition, recommendations for appropriate fusion safety criteria will be summarized. 18 refs

  3. Traditional Tibetan Beliefs and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DERONGCERINGDENZHCB

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: Traditional Tibetan culture contains a conscious awareness of environmental protection. It advocates balance between human beings and the natural environment, protection of the ecosystem,treasuring resources, and consideration of the benefits that should be left for future generations. In Tibetan history, the goal of environmental protection was achieved by means of traditional customs, moral obligations, religious beliefs and taboos, associated with unwritten routines of environmental protection to regulate people's behavior through self-conscious effort.

  4. Environmental Protection Put High on CNPC Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xingru; Qiu Bing; Wang Kefu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Environmental Performance in the Eighth FiveYear Plan Period (1991-1995) All the enterprises under China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) consistently implemented the policies, laws and regulations set by the State on environmental protection and made great efforts in this field during the Eighth FiveYear Plan period. The efforts were focused on stepping up the leadership over environmental protection and establishing a responsibility system of environmental protection targets for leaders at various levels; making the work system of environmental protection legally and scientifically perfect; beefing up education and propaganda of environmental protection to raise the public awareness:promoting technical progress in environmental protection to boost the capacity for prevention of pollution; and bringing up the management level in this field.

  5. The Canadian environmental assessment process: current process, expected reforms, and implications for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order (EARP) was the Canadian federal law governing environmental assessment of projects. EARP had been subject to misinterpretation, had been significantly modified in different directions as a result of numerous court cases, and no longer accurately reflected government policy. Parliament therefore passed the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), which received Royal Assent in 1992, but had still not been proclaimed at the time of the conference, pending a review of draft regulations. CEAA will speed up stalled projects, particularly in the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry, by removing uncertainty and by permitting more focussed, flexible, and consistent public reviews; it defines what kind of government projects require approval; it provides for integration of environmental concerns into federal decision making, e.g. by the AECB; it will allow less expensive and more timely environmental assessments

  6. Environmental Radiation Protection in Medical Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to measure the levels of radiation protection for radiologists in medical institutions in three environmental categories (physical, administrative and social) and to establish a data base which can be used to increase awareness of environmental radiation protection in medical institutions within Korea. The study surveyed 10% of radiologists working in radiology departments in medical institutions which are supervised by the National Dose Registry overseen by the Korean Food and Drug Administration(KFDA). This study found that the level of environmental radiation protection was higher in the capital area and in larger hospitals. On the other hand, the study shows environmental radiation protection was lower in the Youngnam area and in clinics. Results from the questionnaires indicate the level of environmental radiation protection was higher when radiologists were given an individual dosimeter but lowest when the radiation protection apron quality test was conducted. Environmental radiation protection is an important factor for radiologists to conduct activities in a safe and protected environment. However, this study shows there are differences in the level of environmental radiation protection in medical institutions and location within Korea. In particular, the level of environmental radiation protection was lower in clinics, appropriate intervention strategies befitting these conditions are needed based on medical institution classification and location in order to improve the level of environmental protection

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenpu; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Environmental Protection in Offshore Field Development Since its establishment in 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)has paid attention to marine environment protection, the main task in environmental protection management is to take advanced and effective measures to minimize the influence of oil development practice on marine ecologic environment.

  8. INAA of human scalp hair for environmental monitoring of Indonesian and Canadian population group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For monitoring and comparison of environmental condition of Indonesian and Canadian population groups, human scalp hair has been selected for use to assess the levels of various trace elements in each group. The samples studied included: 50 samples from an Indonesian population group residing near industrial and oil refinery sites and an unpolluted rural area, 50 samples from a Canadian group in a remote area near a metal smelter as well as 50 samples of a control group, plus 30 samples of Indonesians residing in an urban area of Canada for more than one year. By means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), eight trace elements which are considered to be environmentally-important, namely Al, As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Zn, as well as three other trace elements, namely K, La, and W, were also of interest. Accuracy of these INAA hair analysis was checked by reference to SRM-1571, NIES-5, and a Chinese hair standard (agreement was generally from 5-15%). Of these elements, As, Cr, Mn, and Sc were found to be higher in the Canadian industrial groups, whereas Al and Zn were found to be higher in the Indonesian oil refinery group. Hg found to be higher in the industrial groups of both Canadian and Indonesian population. The concentration of all these elements in the hair of Indonesians residing in Canada were comparable to the Indonesian rural group. Other elements in both the Canadian and Indonesian groups were comparable

  9. Environmental Scanning: Preliminary Findings of a Survey of CEO Information Seeking Behaviour in Two Canadian Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Ethel; Choo, Chun Wei

    1992-01-01

    Reports the preliminary results of a survey of the environmental scanning behavior of 207 chief executive officers (CEOs) in the Canadian publishing and telecommunications industries. Topics addressed include information sources, perceived source accessibility, perceived source quality, and frequency of source use. (16 references) (LRW)

  10. Uneven environmental management: a Canadian comparative political ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen G. Reed

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary researchers of environmental management argue for community-based approaches in which local circumstances, skills, and concerns are respected. However, relying on local capacity opens up the possibility of establishing highly uneven management practices. The purpose of this paper is to explore the roots and effects of uneven environmental management. I develop a conceptual framework that identifies key elements of regional environmental-management regimes and then use it to compa...

  11. Canadian ice caps as sources of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven surface-to-bedrock ice cores, varying from 129 to 337 m in length, have been recovered from Canadian high Arctic ice caps since 1964. While one (Meighen Island) consists entirely of Holocene ice, the others (Devon and Agassiz ice caps) cover time spans of 100,000 years, similar to those from Greenland. The authors relatively thin ice caps provide simple drilling conditions but give records of various parameters from several holes down a flow line. Comparison of these records continues to provide information on signal-to-noise ratios and ice cap rheology. The major disadvantage of thin ice caps is poor resolution in ice more than 5,000 to 10,000 years old. This is offset, however, by the relative ease of retrieval of significant numbers of pollen grains from all levels in the ice. Thus the authors have been able to use pollen as a paleoenvironmental tool leading, for example, to identification of basal ice layers as Sangamonian in age. Similarly, although annual melting of snow at the surface precludes the possibility of using ice cores for gas analysis, the persistence of variable melt layer concentrations through the Holocene ice has given a continuous melt layer record showing gradual deterioration of summer climate from a warm peak 8,000 to 9,000 years ago, to a cold minimum 200 years ago

  12. Introduction to China's Environmental Protection Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntao, Li; Wenzeng, Li

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with China's environmental protection laws. In order to coordinate the relationship between humankind and the environment, protect and improve the environment, protect people's health, and safeguard sustainable and steady economic and social development, the Chinese government has formulated a series of laws and regulations in…

  13. Environmental aspects of the Canadian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers a brief history of uranium mining in Canada, environmental problems, control measures, monitoring of various contaminants in air and water, the development and adherence to standards and limited information on cancer incidence and effects of smoking. (author)

  14. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs. PMID:17368921

  15. Environmental protection in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workbook is a compilation of the most important facts and data that are relevant today for environmental protection in thermal power plants. Unlike the other issues the text is not in the form of a random collection of data but in the form of a complete presentation. Possible elaboration projects for pupils can be easily derived from the individual sections. These deal with: the discussion about environmental protection; forest decline; sources of emission; nuisances in the Federal Republic of Germany; environmental protection in fossil-fuel power plants - clean air - cooling water utilization and water protection - noise; environmental protection in nuclear power plants - radioactive material produced in nuclear reactors and the retention of such materials - radioactive waste materials - monitoring of radioactive emissions; accessory materials and hints. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  17. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.)

  18. NUCLEAR ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša TOMIC

    2010-01-01

    In this paper are analyzed prospects for nuclear energy utilization in the future paying special attention to the protection of environment. Shadow of global crisis appeared over all of us during these days. The most important story in media in 2009. in all countries of the world was economic crisis, with fight against terorism, as well as the protection of the Planet Earth. More and more energy is needed, but as the branch of economy, energy is the greatest pollutant of environment. Environm...

  19. River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWELL, P.A.

    2000-03-29

    This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of six core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities of the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) Environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy; Define the Scope of Work; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Perform Work within Controls; and Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement.

  20. Critical considerations on the environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author critically examines in this literature study the problem of environmental protection maintaining living conditions even with further development of technology. He deals in detail with the succes-promising slogans put forth plastics and hydrochloric acid, nuclear energy, as well as keeping the air clean, sulphur dioxide as main topic from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Furthermore, the technical regulatory guide in maintaining clean air and flue gas purification are treated. (HK)

  1. Listed installations for environmental protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the implications of different French rules and regulations concerning the environmental protection in hospitals. A special place is given to listed installations for environmental protection, because of their importance. A summary of important regulatory texts is presented concerning these installations, and also an inventory of installations or activities concerned, and the definition of the necessary procedures. Some ideas are also given about the much needed creation of an 'environmental network' inside hospitals, in order to cope with these concerns. Then, we briefly deal with more recent developments concerning the environmental protection, which will, no doubt, extend to hospitals, such as the French water law, air law, and procedures for the management of medical waste. Finally, the stakes of environmental decisions in hospitals and the chemist's place in these decisions are debated. (authors)

  2. Radiological Protection and Environmental Monitoring in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main activities of the Department of Radiological Protection, Nuclear Energy Commission of Bolivia. The following topics are covered: organization, environmental control of air, water, milk and plants, personal dosimetry, instrumentation and calibration, protection in uranium mines. Standard setting and international cooperation aspects are also presented

  3. SEPAAnnounces Projects in Serious Violation of Environmental Protection Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On January 10th, 2007 the Deputy Director of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) circulated a list of 82 projects in serious violation of environmental protection evaluation and related environmental protection regulations.

  4. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    OpenAIRE

    Venselaar, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is becoming the incentive for much of the research and development in chemistry and engineering. Visions and approaches on the role of chemistry and the way chemistry is done, change. New knowledge is co...

  5. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  6. Economy and environmental protection. Wirtschaft und Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyhaupt, F.J.; Geissler, A.; Hausmann, K.; Hulpke, H.; Kunert, K.H.; Markmann, H.; Massing, H.; Seeliger, J.; Storm, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    The meeting on the topic of 'Economy and environmental Protection' was held at the end of 1985 in the 'German Academy of Judges'. The book contains a major part of the lectures held there. The aim of the meeting was to gain insight into the pollution of the environment due to industry and into the maximum limits of pollution which the environment can bear. Among others, the lectures deal with the following questions: what effects do the environmental protection measures have upon the safeguarding of jobs. Do economical development on one hand, and environmental protection on the other, really represent such a big conflict of interests which will never be solved. Which problems arise e.g. from water pollution abatement, from mining and firing of hard coal, from offences involving environmental damage. (HSCH).

  7. China's environmental protection: challenges and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The following suggestions are made to improve environmental quality in China: control population growth, develop ecofarming, protect biodiversity, explore new energy sources, practice safe and sustainable consumption, adopt an efficient strategy for use of natural resources, use industrial production to maintain sustainable development, strengthen management, guide urbanization, and increase international cooperation. The environmental problems are identified as the low use of industrial technology for preventing undesirable waste or emissions, increased sewage discharges in rural areas, water pollution, increased acid rain, increased pollution from solid waste and toxic chemicals, soil erosion and desertification, and agricultural pollution from chemical fertilizers. Environmental pollution is the result of economic development. Economic development should, therefore, take responsibility for the solutions. Current funding for environmental protection is an inadequate 0.67% of the gross national product. Environmental management needs to be strengthened, given greater priority, and balanced with sustainable development. The entire population should be made aware of the importance of protecting the environment. Progress has been made in increasing cultivated forest preserves, in decreasing discharges of wastes into the water, and in decreasing noise pollution. 1098 districts in 216 cities meet environmental noise control standards. The 1991 environmental protection staff consisted of 71,000 persons who were employed in 2199 monitoring stations for soot control, 61 natural reserves, and 6400 environmental pollution projects. A total investment of 1.74 billion RMB yuan was invested in environmental pollution control projects. Environmental quality has been maintained at 1980 standards, and further environmental pollution has been avoided. Atmospheric pollution in the third quarter of 1991 in large and medium-sized cities was 0.067 to 0.450 milligrams per cubic meter

  8. Environmental protection the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What does a businessman do when he has a legal responsibility for potential damage? If he has at least some common sense he takes out insurance and forgets about the issue. When something happens the insurance will take care of it. However it can happen that the legal liability cannot be fully covered by an insurance policy. And this is the situation created by the European Commission Directive on environmental liability. Although according to the Directive it is not obligatory to have an insurance policy, it does stipulate that a polluter is responsible for remedying the damage. Slovak legislation that will enter into force in May next year already covers the insurance issue. 'According to the Directive we are obliged to establish a system of remedying environmental damages. And so the regulation requires either insurance or an adequate financial guarantee,' explained Darina Kobzova from the Ministry of Environment. The legislation does not define a minimal scope of insurance, i.e. it is up to each business to decide on the extent of insurance coverage. So this cannot be considered to be mandatory insurance. Businesses without insurance will run the risk of a 200-thousand Sk (5 555 EUR) penalty. Insurance companies took part in the commenting process and are thus fully informed regarding the new legislation. But they also stress that they will not be in the position to create products that cover all aspects of the legal liability. 'There are too many unknowns which we cannot take into consideration,' explained the head of QBE Poistovna, Marian Batovsky. What would happen if for instance an ecological disaster kills endemic species that do not live anywhere else? Will the responsible person have to pay for each dead animal in addition to remedying the damage? And if so, what would be the price taking into account how rare these animals are? Neither the EU nor the Ministry of Environment can answer this question. The businessman should not count on such a case not

  9. Nuclear power for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power does not produce CO2 or other greenhouse gases, and also does not produce any SO2, NOx or other gases which contribute to acid rain. These characteristics of nuclear power are especially important in comparison to coal-fired generation of electricity. As an example, in comparison with a coal-fired power plant of the same size, with abatement systems, a 1300 MW(e) nuclear power plant eliminates annually emissions to the air of about: 2000 t of particulates; 8.5 million t of CO2: 12,000 t of SO2; and 6,000 t of NOx, the precise quantities being dependent on coal quality, power plant design and thermal efficiency, and on the effectiveness of the abatement systems. Opponents of nuclear power concede these facts, but argue that nuclear power is such a small part of the world energy balance that it is insignificant to the big issue of CO2. This is hardly correct. Today, 16% of the world's electricity (and 5% of the world's total primary energy) is generated using nuclear power. If this electricity were to have been generated using coal, it would have resulted in about 1600 million tons of CO2 annually. This is 8% of the 20,000 million tons of CO2 now emitted annually from the burning of fossil fuels, an amount which the Toronto Conference proposed should be cut by 20% up to the year 2005. A further major difference in the two energy systems is that the relatively smaller amount of nuclear wastes is fully isolated from the environment. In addition to discussing the global contributions of nuclear power to environmental improvement, the paper presents actual results achieved in a number of countries, demonstrating the positive contribution which nuclear power has made to reducing the environmental impacts of electricity production. 7 figs, 12 tabs

  10. Nuclear low and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imperceptible character of nuclear radiation on the human senses and their harmful effects on living beings and the environment is emphasised. This is based on a review of published works about the concepts of energy and ecology. The potential hazards of a possible nuclear accident and the damage it would cause to a community as well as the problem of radioactive waste disposal are raised. The conclusions and recommendations of the Brazilian Physics Society's Report on Nuclear Pollution are endorsed. The general guidelines of Brazilian Legislation are presented. The legal aspects of nuclear reactor licensing in West Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Brazil are shown from the point of view of the applicable legal system, the licensing bodies, the general frame and scope, public participation, technical safety bodies, as well as the inspection procedures. The concepts of absolute and objective civil responsibility for nuclear damage are reviewed. The judicial principle of equity is considered in view of the exceptional character of the nuclear risk. The main aspects of the international Conventions of Paris, Brussels and Viena on civil ability of nuclear damage are presented. Some philosphical and judicial questions are discussed emphasising the instrumentality of the law control and effective protection. The final suggestion is the exchange of ideas with a view to obtain the maximum safety in the operation of nuclear installations. (author)

  11. Environmental protection through technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding force of limiting values regarding nuisances and emissions and of descriptions of technical processes is dependent on the legal nature of the technical rules. Licensing authorities do not have to deal in their own responsibility with the legal obligations of owners under section 5, sub-section 1, number 1,2 BImSchG and section 7, subsection 2, number 3 AtG if authoritative legal regulations and general administrative rules exist, while the courts of administration are dispensed from full control of executive decision only if technical rules exist which have been issued as ordinances. Judges of courts of administration will only escape the dilemma of issuing necessary judgements on highly complex, technic-scientific matters without possessing adequate expert knowledge if the technical rules defining the legal obligations of owners are laid down, not only in part but comprehensively, as ordinances having the force of law. On account of their judging and weighing elements, technical rules cannot be considered in court-proceedings as reflecting experience generally, although they represent natural-scientific, technical expertise. At the level of the individual person's rights to guard himself from nuisances, technical rules do not have the force to render norms more concrete, irrespective of their legal nature. Lack of binding force of technical rules also characterizes their worth as regards compensation claims made and damages demanded under section 906, sub-section 2, number 2 BGB, section 14, number 2 BImSchG, and section 823, subsection 1 BGB. Only under section 823, subsection 2 BGB and as long as they have been issued as ordinances and relate to the plant owner's protection obligations, do technical rules immediately substantiate a claim to damages. It is the emitting plant owner's obligation to comprehensively prove that the preconditions for damages or compensation claims are not given if the technical rules are not fulfilled. (orig./HP)

  12. The Canadian experience in environmental assessment for offshore hydrocarbon development project/proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, the federal government plays an important role in the national economic development by providing funding support and other incentives to stimulate economics growth. Coinciding with growth of the energy demand and the increase in oil and gas exploration activities including offshore projects, environmental awareness. Offshore oil and gas development projects, by their nature, are monumental in design and cost; they often pose serious threats to the environment. The project has potential for significant biophysical and related socio-economic impacts and it generated considerable public concern. The Canadian government has now processed a number of proposals for exploration of hydrocarbon resources through the federal environmental assessment process. Based on the experience gained through these reviews one can conclude that certain aspects of environmental assessment of hydrocarbon resources development proposal require special attention for improving the planning process. (A.B)

  13. Food and environmental quality protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer techniques are now well established as a powerful research tool. In combination with chromatographic and other fractionation techniques they are widely used for basic studies of the behaviour, fate and significance of residues of pesticides (e.g. insecticides, fungicides, herbicides), drugs, detergents, industrial chemicals and wastes, etc. which find their way as trace contaminants into food, environment and living organisms. Radiotracer studies on metabolism and fate of pesticides are no longer just a means of satisfying academic curiosity on compounds which are already in use; on the contrary, they are now generally a necessary and critical step in understanding the persistence and action of a pesticide before it enters actual use. The use of stable isotopes as tracers, as distinct from the knowledge of their existence, was effectively made possible by H.C. Urey in 1931 by his successful concentration of deuterium (2H), and used as a tracer, also by Hevesy, soon afterwards. given a novel and powerful research tool it is tempting to build a programme on problems which fit the tool. The value of this approach is debatable. There is, however, no doubt at isotope techniques coupled with their almost invariably associated facilities (high standards of laboratory design and safety, instrument maintenance, expertise, etc.) have a major contribution to our understanding of the behaviour and significance of chemical and radioactive contaminants and indeed of the capacities of environmental ecosystems themselves to receive such contaminants without unacceptable effects. Moreover, it might be argued cogently that such understanding deserves higher priority than at present if the really critical situations or pathways are to be identified and 'monitoring' programmes developed more rationally

  14. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  15. Environmental protection in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of a series of articles on the work of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region (OSS) and its Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute (ARRRI), this discusses the environmental protection function of the OSS and the role of the ARRRI in achieving this

  16. Environmental protection and traffic regulation in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaš Plevnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the proposed chapter on traffic in the National programme for environmental protection. The main theme focuses on the suggested goals and measures to reach sustainable development in Slovenia. The goals and measures are derived from the current situation and traffic development trends and their influence on the environment, from international guidelines and the current Slovene policies.

  17. National environmental protection in the Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consideration of the awful ecological situation, the further development of environmental protection is the task of the Community institutions and the individual member states. The environmentalists advance this improvement by increasingly setting further protectionist measures within their power, such as those already existing in other member states or those community established. The legally motivated environment protection measures of individual member states could create a non-tariff trade barrier between member states; business and industry situated there must adapted to the environmental conditions of the particular member state, if they wish to launch their product in that state. These safeguard clauses, concerning environmental law are of different nature, are thoroughly analysed and systematized by the author. The thesis gives priority to Article 100A, paragraph 4 and 5, and to Article 130T or 130R, paragraph 2, subparagraph 2, which has recently been introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht for the European Union. These articles are represented concerning their substantive and adjective requirements and are critically reviewed. Problems that have arisen in the course of the review are dealt with dogmatically and are discussed at length. The problems of national discrimination and the consideration of fundamental rights in the Community law are treated as well as the mixture of competences in the environmental law of the Community or the options on legal protection against national environmental acts, which can be made use of by Community institutions and by member states. (orig./HP)

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix P: Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The purpose of this technical appendix is to provide the environmental review necessary to enter into agreements regarding the distribution between Federal and non-Federal project owners with respect to delivery of the Canadian Entitlement obligation to Canada for the period 1998 through 2024

  19. Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions statement of principles for a made in Canada solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions has come up with a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that includes immediate actions with a realistic time frame. The plan addresses air quality as a whole and is not limited to greenhouse gases alone. The plan keeps capital in Canada to invest in new environmental technologies. It also negotiates agreements with economic sectors on emissions performance targets, and it implements energy conservation awareness campaigns that promote the reduction of energy consumption.The plan considers trade relationships with the United Sates and recognizes Canada's role as an important energy exporter. Under the proposed plan, both generators and consumers of renewable energy would receive incentives for their efforts in addressing the climate change challenge

  20. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  1. Handbook of environmental protection and environmental protection technology. Vol. 1. Emission and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is the first volume of the Handbook of Environmental Protection and Environment Protection Technology. After a short introduction, emission and its effect on the environmental media of air, water and soil are dealt with separately. Further, acoustic emission and the possibilities of noise reduction and radio-active emission and corresponding radiation protection measures are shown. The controversial discussed subject of electromagnetic fields and non-ionising radiation are also not excluded. The last chapter contains the effect of environmental contamination on psychic functions. This series of books will become an essential tool for every engineer and scientist who has to deal with environmental problems and environment protection. (orig.). 167 figs., 152 tabs

  2. Study of the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program of the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partnership between the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre (CETC) of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and the Canadian coal and steel industries, the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA) which conducts research and development activities with its partners. This document summarizes the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program administered by the CCRA. More than 25 research programs have been undertaken by the CCRA since it was established in 1964. The activities dealt with specific technical challenges which the Canadian coal industry faced with regard to the production and marketing of metallurgical coal, as well as the uses of coal and alternative fuels such as natural gas to make coke used in blast furnaces. The report detailed the scope of CETC's energy for high temperature processes, then addressed program resources and study methodology. Three categories of impacts were discussed: general-level impacts, economic and environmental impacts, and quantitative estimates of economic impacts. The attribution of impacts was examined and future directions were examined in the last section of the report. It was determined that CETC participation in the research program is still required, due to the fact that it is Canada's only technical support available to the Canadian coking coal industry. The survival of Canadian coal producers owes something to the economic impacts derived from the CCRA under the current decreasing metallurgical coal prices conditions. 2 tabs

  3. Manual of plant producers and services in environmental protection. Database in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of an enquiry, the Stuttgart Chamber of Industry and Commerce produced a database of the services offered by regional and supraregional companies in the field of environmental protection. The data are presented in this manual, classified as follows: noise protection systems; sanitation systems and services; other systems and services. (orig.)

  4. Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brasoveanu Florica

    2013-01-01

    Since 1970 after scientific discoveries about the ozone hole humanity began to reconsider the environment. Environmental messages had different intensities depending on their sources Scientific messages proved the harshest, the political ones had a powerful declarative impact, but the administrative apparatus, both worldwide and local didn't turn very perceptive. Towards the implementation of actions to protect the environment and sustainable development economic and social factors intervened...

  5. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures. PMID:27048755

  6. 2001 ECR annual report : the annual report of the Environmental Commitment and Responsibility Program of the Canadian Electricity Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides a comprehensive review of the Canadian electricity industry's environmental performance in 2001. In 1997 the Canadian Electricity Association launched the Environmental Commitment and Responsibility (ECR) Program which is based on individual initiatives of member utilities. The program is designed to address the industry's commitment to sustainable development and better environmental performance. This annual report focuses on air quality issues for the electricity industry with emphasis on energy efficiency and the challenge of climate change. Member utilities are developing and deploying alternative energy technologies, such as wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and small run of river hydro electric power. These sources are becoming more cost competitive and have potentially less impact on the environment. The industry is also enhancing the many different fuel types available throughout Canada. Environmental performance highlights and trends for the year 2001 were also presented for each member utility. tabs., figs

  7. INTELLIGENT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protection of the environment and environmental remediation requires the cooperation -at all levels- of government and industry. ntelligent processing equipment, in addition to other artificial intelligence based tools, has been used by the Environmental Protection Agency to prov...

  8. Radiation and environmental protection - applications and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution is a report about the activity in the radiation protection domain carried out in the frame of the Environmental and Civil Radiation Protection Laboratory of IRN Pitesti. In the field of radioprotection the following issues are addressed: operational radioprotection of exposed professionals (radiation monitoring by dose and dose rate measurements for the working places and personnel); gamma spectrometry and radiation field analysis; surveillance of the professional activities with open radiation sources; monitoring methodologies; dose calculations and models; operational exposure management. Concerning the open source operation, alpha, beta and gamma measurements on air and surface samples are performed in order to evaluate the contamination as well as to determine the uranium, tritium and carbon - 14 concentration in water, air, urine, etc. The environmental protection is approached by: - determining the concentration of natural uranium in environmental samples of soil, water, vegetation, etc.; - determining the concentration of the gamma emitting radionuclides of different samples as soil, water, air, vegetation, milk, fish, etc.; - 'in situ' gamma spectrometry for radionuclide concentration measurements for soil; - gross beta radioactivity measurements for different soil samples. Concerning the management of the releases in environment, procedures for monitoring the release of different radioactive effluents were established as well as a program of surveillance of radioactivity in the neighbourhood of nuclear facilities. The civil protection program includes annual exercises (accident scenarios implying the TRIGA reactor and other nuclear installations, monitoring and quarterly exercises with operation teams, planning and emergency measures, monitoring radioactivity in emergency situation, data base creation for specific data (meteorological, agricultural, demographic, etc.) to be used in the evaluation of nuclear accident radiological

  9. On the Design of Environmental Protection Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ioannou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, it has come to the attention of many scientists, working on the fields of environmental protection, that there is a tendency for the appearance of extreme environmental phenomena (floods, extreme temperatures, prolonged dry seasons etc. Additionally the frequency of these phenomena tends to shorten, which means that although they started as rare, nowadays they are more common. Many scientists believe that their appearance is directly connected to the global climate change; nonetheless however since they become more frequent there is a need for developing monitoring methods in order to protect sensitive regions from their destructive force. Additionally the protective actions must be implemented in a new framework, which mainly consists on budget cuts, personnel reductions etc. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of a methodology which can be used in order to deploy monitoring networks, which can be modular and installed in problematic regions. Additionally we present a case study of the proposed methodology for a Greek area of special interest.

  10. 45 CFR 673.4 - Environmental protection information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental protection information. 673.4... FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.4 Environmental protection information. (a) Any... States shall notify expedition members of the environmental protection obligations of the...

  11. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  12. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein

  13. Ultrasound in environmental protection - Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.J. [Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom). School of Science and the Environment

    2002-07-01

    There can be little doubt that there is an increasing interest in the development of new methods for environmental protection and remediation. Driven by the interests of scientists and engineers but increasingly by legislation a very wide range of new technologies is being examined. Amongst these power ultrasound is proving to be a front-runner and offers a wide range of applications. Not all of these are likely to become industrial realities nevertheless there are a few which have a real chance of adoption. Some of the stronger contenders are reviewed below. (orig.)

  14. Environmental protection and nuclear energy. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present energy supply has to be reconsidered based on the continous increase of CO2-concentration in the air. For this, questions on environmental protection, nuclear energy, safety of usable plants and estimation of technical subsequences serve for contributions to a discussion as a result of the consideration, 10 theses on an ethic of energy technology have been elaborated. The Union of Catholic Employers is considered that the improved reactor technology has a new chance in our country. The minimization of risks and damages of this technology has proceeded in a way that it can be shared with regard to Christian responsibility. (orig./DG)

  15. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). PMID:24632369

  16. Environmental research organizations and climate change policy analytical capacity : an assessment of the Canadian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is a topic of increasing interest to contemporary decision makers. In order for governments to make informed decisions in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, environmental policy makers require strong research and analytical capabilities to design and implement effective policies to deal with wide-ranging and complex policy issues. This articles presented a 7-criteria model of policy analytical capacity (PAC) and applied it to 3 prominent Canadian environmental policy research organizations. The 2 governmental organizations examined in this study were Environment Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, while the non-government organization was the David Suzuki Foundation. Following the 7 principles that determine the PAC of an organization, each case study examined the education/training of the organization's employees; the types and mix of policy analysis techniques used by the organization; the culture and structure of decision making in the organization; the nature and source of demand for the organization's research; and the organization's access to necessary data and information to conduct work at a high level of competence. Interview data provided information on the status of each organizations' current research capacity and the effect this has on overall government policy-making capability in the face of climate change challenges. 75 refs.

  17. Abstracts and electronic proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2009 annual conference : protecting people, property and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Dam Association (CDA) is the Canadian leader in advancing knowledge and practices related to dams. This annual conference provided a professional development opportunity on a broad range of dam-related topics. The technical sessions addressed issues such as adaptation to climate change; the application of safety design for discharge facilities; risks associated with rockfill dams; underlying problems of design floods and dam safety; guidelines for public safety around dams and psychology of safety; the dam safety review process; and run-of-river hydro dams. During the related sessions, Canadian members of the International Committee on Large Dams (ICOLD) commented on international practice and developments. The workshops focused on incident investigations; reliability-centered maintenance; flow discharge gate reliability; piping damage to till core dams; and mining dams. The sessions of the conference were entitled: design floods and dam safety; dam breach flood modelling; dam safety management; public safety; mining dams; flood handling and modelling; case studies; ice loads on structures; seepage control; dam safety reviews and remediation; remote sensing for dams; protecting the environment; seismic hazard and response modelling; and the performance of dams in 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, China. The conference featured 61 presentations, of which 59 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Rio conference global environmental protection Agenda 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reviewing the work packages included in the Rio Earth's Summit Agenda 21, intended as an activities guideline for international cooperation to ensure environmental protection with sustainable growth for all nations, this paper points out the areas which present the greatest obstacles in the establishment of common accords and discusses the directions being taken to surmount these obstacles. A major obstacle concerns uncertaindes in specifying limits on carbon dioxide emissions and their effects on world climate. Another concerns suitable methods to help finance effective technology transfer to developing countries. With regard to the former problem, a 'no regret' approach has been proposed to limit current C02 reduction interventions to those levels which, in all certainty, would not incur any future regrets once scientific knowledge has advanced enough to allow more accurate assessments of greenhouse gas/climate change inter-relationships. With regard to the latter problem, attempts are being made to reduce possible negative impacts on the petroleum industry due to energy surcharges suggested as a source of funding for technology transfer/environmental protection programs

  19. Environmental protection at Akdala deposit - Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Akdala uranium deposit is located in the northern portion of Shymkent province in South Kazakhstan. Current plans call for the extraction of uranium by in situ leaching (ISL) methods from Cretaceous sandstone at an average depth of 185m. Annual production capacity for the project will be 500 t U. Although the project is located in a desert region and the quality of groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption, evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of the project is given a high priority, equal to that assigned to other projects such as Kanzhugan, Moyinkum, Karamurun, Mynkuduk, Uvanas. The baseline environmental conditions at Akdala have been characterized and are described. Two basic production complexes, mining and milling, are considered separately as each has distinct impacts on the environment. It is assumed that ore will be mined with typical mining complexes (TMC). Each complex will have an annual production of 150 to 500 t U. The Technical-Economic Substantiation1 (TES) or Environmental Impact Assessment does not consider any impact on flora and fauna due to the small size of the deposit in comparison with the ecosystem of the Betpakdala steppe (less 1%). Electromagnetic and noise impacts were not considered due to strict adherence to relevant equipment instructions. Because of the absence of significant surface drainage, impact on surface water was not considered. Only air, groundwater, ore formation, land and social media will be exposed to the proposed industrial activity. Air will potentially be affected by radioactive and chemical impacts from mining and milling complexes. Groundwater will be affected by radioactive and chemical impact from mining complexes and chemical impact from the auxiliary zone. Land (soil and ground) will be affected by mechanical, radioactive and chemical impact from mining and milling complexes. Surface and air contamination will be possible from uranium and technical water extracted from the mineralized

  20. The Canadian light source: A novel tool in the search for environmental sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As applied research moves into the 21st century, industry is discovering that traditional analytical techniques are not answering all of their questions. For example, new materials are being developed daily that may have significantly different properties but are chemically indistinguishable using current analysis techniques. It is important for industry to understand these differences and be able to go back to the laboratory and impart those unique properties to a new product. Therefore, today, industry is turning to new tools to shed light on old and new questions. In a similar manner, environmental waste management is motivating many proactive industries to move toward new technologies that will provide answers to environmental questions yet to be asked. Within the mining sector, the ability to understand and predict the long-term stability and future bioavailability of metals (e.g., arsenic) in mine waste is critical for operation and absolutely essential to their capacity to decommission that site in the future. Currently, the environmental impact of tailings is monitored and stability is predicted by combining thermodynamic models with powder x-ray diffraction data to determine material composition and with assorted wet chemistry techniques to determine total species concentrations. Although these techniques have supplied a significant amount of important ecological information, increasing pressure from environmental groups demand more detailed information beyond the range of these procedures. To obtain this increasing level of detail, scientist are turning to more sophisticated analytical tools such as such as synchrotron radiation-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for insight. XAS is a powerful probe that can directly determine the oxidation states and local chemical surroundings of a metal and thereby increase our understanding of its long term environmental impact. With environmental stewardship being of global concern, the Canadian Light Source

  1. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  2. Discussion on the Marketization of Rural Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to discuss the marketization of rural environmental protection in China.[Method] We firstly analyzed the inevitability of rural environmental protection take the marketization road in China,then put forward some effective ways to make rural environmental protection take the marketization road.[Result]In order to protect the rural environment of China better,it is inevitable to take the marketization road.In addition,strengthening legal construction,formulating and implementing pol...

  3. Environmental protection and fight against poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective global environmental protection can be achieved only when industrialized countries provide developing nations with 'clean' energy technological know-how along with the necessary financial assistance necessary for its application. The World Bank is directly involved in actuating this exchange. The main directions currently being taken by the World Bank in order to meet the difficulties of developing countries struggling, with limited financial and technological resources, to sustain growing populations, are: to ensure that these countries develop systems for adequate water supplies; to sponsor research for the development of better agricultural techniques; to encourage industrialized countries to practice energy conservation so as to alleviate pressure on the world's energy resources; to sponsor wide-scale re- forestation; and to help third world countries put greater emphasis on family planning, health and education programs

  4. Environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the responsibility of setting site-specific health and safety standards for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The same legislation that gave the Agency that responsibility, mandated a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to provide input into the bases for the EPA standards. The NAS has completed and presented a report to the Agency; this paper summarizes the report's recommendations and conclusions. Following receipt of the report, the Agency opened a comment period and held public meetings to gather comments; the major issues from the comments are summarized. Based upon the report from NAS and the public comments, EPA has started formulating proposed standards which will be known as 40 CFR Part 197. It is planned for the proposal of 40 CFR Part 197 to occur in the summer of 1996

  5. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology

  6. Environmental protection and cost/visual impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hastily thought out section (article 5) of a recent Italian decree intended for the protection of the environment against the effects of electric and magnetic fields will wind up in fact creating a large waste of resources and will perhaps even damage the environment it originally was intended to defend The paper first points the efficacy of the European Communities/ICRP (International Commission on Radiation Protection) approaches taken towards the planning of overhead power transmission line safety guidelines in which engineering feasibility and cost considerations were balanced with safety requirements on a global scale. It then points out that, whereas the Italian decree wisely made use of the EC guidelines, it also added other guidelines which simply specified minimum distances from living/working areas and the nearest power cable in function of the voltage it carries. This philosophy is neither cost effective nor environmentally sound because it doesn't take into account specific engineering and aesthetic aspects related to the geometric configuration of transmission towers, the correlation between cable spacing and generation of electromagnetic radiation, and the technical/cost feasibility of all possible remedial actions (e.g., tower retrofitting with compact overhead configurations)

  7. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  8. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    , despite their aforementioned differences. In conclusion, a probabilistic approach was used to develop an LCA that systematically dealt with uncertainty in the data when comparing multiple environmental impacts measures in pig farming systems for the first time. The method was used to identify differences between Canadian pig production systems but can also be applied for comparisons between other agricultural systems that include inherent variation. PMID:26115299

  9. Environmental radionuclide monitoring of Canadian harbours: a decade of analyses in support of due diligence activities by the Royal Canadian Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Canadian Navy has conducted a comprehensive programme of safety, security and environmental monitoring since the first visits of nuclear powered and nuclear capable vessels (NPV/NCVs) to Canadian harbours in the late 1960s. The outcomes of baseline monitoring and vessel visit sampling for the period 2003–2012 are described for vessel visits to Halifax (NS), Esquimalt (BC) and Nanoose (BC). Data were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy using high purity germanium detectors. No evidence was found for the release of radioactive fission or activation products by NCV/NPVs during the study period, although anthropogenically produced radionuclides were observed as part of the study's baseline monitoring. Background activities of Cs-137 can be observed in sediments from all three locations which are derived from well-documented radioactivity releases. The detection of I-131 in aquatic plants is consistently observed in Halifax at activities as high as 15,000 Bq kg−1 dry weight. These data are tentatively assigned to the release of medical I-131, followed by bioaccumulation from seawater. I-131 was also observed in aquatic plants samples from Esquimalt (33 Bq kg−1) and Nanoose (20 Bq kg−1) for a single sampling following the Fukushima Daiichi accident. - Highlights: • The safety record of nuclear powered and nuclear capable vessels has been demonstrated. • Baseline and vessel specific sampling and gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis are reported. • I-131 bioaccumulation in aquatic plants related to medical use and transport from Fukushima Daiichi are reported

  10. Environmental protection at RAG; Umweltschutz bei der RAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettgens, Dirk [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Abt. Umweltschutz; Lenz, Ralf; Schabronath, Joachim [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Zentralbereich Arbeits-, Gesundheits- und Umweltschutz

    2011-06-15

    Environmental protection is extremely important at RAG. In addition to the conventional aspects of environmental protection such as immission and water protection as well as disposal and hazardous substances initially environmental management and subsequently integrated labour, health and environmental protection management systems have been developed. In this connection internal labour health and environment audits and for the Saar mine additionally an external certification according to ISO 14001 are carried out. Under the slogan ''Green RAG'' RAG Montan Immobilien is developing projects with the aim of utilisation of mining sites to recover renewable energy. (orig.)

  11. Food and environmental protection newsletter. V. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of food irradiation, environmental impacts of pesticides; radionuclide migration and related topics. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in food and environmental protection

  12. Environmental protection - global and regional relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the broadest sense, environmental protection is a task of extraordinary urgency, needed to conserve water, soil and air in a state which preserves the health of flora and fauna. In the foreseeable future, there will be widespread changes leading to the substantial decimation of mankind, unless men themselves, i.e. those in responsible positions in the industrial nations, take immediate serious steps, supported by a high level of resources, to ensure their own survival. The following measures are necessary in order to avert the impending catastrophe: 1. Radical reduction of CO2, methane and FCC emissions to stop the greenhouse effect and the growth of the ozone hole. 2. Removal of CO2 and methane from the atmosphere. 3. Radical reduction of the birth-rate. 4. Prevention of further growth in desert and steppe regions and reclamation of new fertile areas. 5. Development of technical systems for producing large quantities of cheap energy, to stop the greenhouse effect and supply fresh water for the irrigation of steppe and desert areas. Apart from exploitation of alternative energy sources, which will not themselves suffice, nuclear fusion and nuclear power should be extended and developed. (orig.)

  13. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually

  14. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  15. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy -- Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG ampersand G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG ampersand G Idaho Program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG ampersand G Idaho organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. EG and G Idaho Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the EG G Idaho strategy for implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (a DOE-Headquarters directive establishing environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities). Preparation of this Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is a requirement of DOE Order 5400.1. Additionally, this report is intended to supplement the Department of Energy--Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Environmental Protection Implementation Plan by detailing EG G Idaho Environmental Protection Program activities. This report describes the current status of the EG G Idaho program, and the strategies for enhancing, as necessary, the current program to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Aspects of the Environmental Protection Program included in this report are the assignment of responsibilities to specific EG G organizations, a schedule for completion of enhancements, if necessary, and requirements for documentation and reporting. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiyong; LIU Wei; HU Yi

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s,China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy.Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country.This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution,and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade,environmental protection and sustainable economic growth.In addition,this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade structure,enforcing environmental protection and promoting sustainable economic growth in China.

  18. Environmental sciences: general. 4. Radiological and Chemical Risks in the Canadian Uranium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    management area for disposal. Although there are many aboveground tailings management areas in Canada, the current approach is to place tailings in mined-out open pits that have been re-engineered to receive tailings. While the radioactivity released to the environment is a concern both during operation and following decommissioning, the potential release of arsenic and other ore constituents to the aquatic environment can be as contentious as the release of radioactivity. In refining, uranium concentrate (yellowcake) from uranium mills is converted to uranium trioxide for subsequent processing in the conversion facility to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) or to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2).The UF6 is sent to the United States or overseas for enrichment and use in nuclear power reactors; the UO2 is sent directly to fuel fabrication facilities where it is made into fuel assemblies for use in Candu reactors. In addition to the potential radiological hazards, there is also some potential for the release of anhydrous ammonia from the refining facility and of anhydrous ammonia (NH3), anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF), or UF6 from the conversion facility. It could be argued that the refining and conversion facilities are in fact largely chemical plants that simply happen to have a radioactive feed material. Detailed assessments of the potential for, and consequences of, accidental releases of these chemicals have been carried out. The potential hazards considered in this paper are summarized in Table I. This paper describes the front end of the Canadian fuel cycle and briefly examines the risks arising from the major radiological and chemical hazards noted in Table I and comments on the ways in which the risks are managed. The potential risks and the ways they are managed are illustrated with specific examples for both safety and environmental hazards. The ways in which the radiological and chemical hazards are assessed and managed are compared. The author concludes that

  19. Environmental protection in AGIP hydrocarbons E and P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes review some of the most important experiences and studies that AGIP has carried out in the environmental protection field and geodynamics with respect to E and P activities in the last two decades. These are part of an environmental policy that the Company follows in order to operate towards minimizing impacts on the environment, thus making a considerable contribution to environmental science progress in Italy and foreign countries in which it operates, and contributing to an improved land protection. (author)

  20. Foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Jiyong; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy. Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country. This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution, and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth. In addition, this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade ...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING, AN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION INSTRUMENT USED BY ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA CORNELIA STANCIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present certain aspects regarding environmental accounting and the environmental costs, which are instruments that the entities can use to identify and prevent the effects of their activities on the environment. The main objectives aimed by the article were to present the state of knowledge starting with the 1970s, when the concept of environmental accounting emerged for the first time, up until now; to define the concepts of environmental accounting and environmental costs; to present an analysis of how economic agents in Romania, and implicitly, accounting regulations, are getting involved in environmental issues.

  2. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  3. Environmental radiation protection: Views of the WWF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WWF is working on energy policy, the effects and management of contaminants, and environmental assessment and decision making. These topics are quite relevant for the main subject of this conference: development of a framework for assessing and managing environmental impacts of radioactive substances. WWF believes existing principles and frameworks for environmental decision making should be applied to decisions regarding radioactive substances. This article presents about the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) and its approach to questions involving radioactive substances, including nuclear power. Then it discusses radioactivity in the context of traditional environmental decision making, drawing on experiences from non-radioactive contaminants and the ecosystem approach

  4. Environmental protection and employment: the link for a worthwhile future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Driven by increasing environmental awareness as well as numerous environmental policy measures, the market for environmental goods has expanded over the last few years, bringing a growing number of jobs. A study of leading German economics research institutes shows that the employment effects of environmental protection have attained considerable dimensions, with nearly a million jobs in 1994 alone, with the service sector being the main beneficiary. And of particular importance: In terms of both population and economic performance, the new Laender are in a better position than the old Laender (the former FRG states) in respect of environmental jobs. In the new Laender important impulses towards creating and safeguarding jobs have emerged from environmental clean-up and development. The concern of this publication is not to promise a job-creation miracle by means of environmental protection alone. Nor is it a matter of legitimising environmental protection in terms of employment policy, for environmental protection does not require employment policy for legitimisation. Rather, the paper wants to provide up-to-date background information to point out the synergies between environmental and employment objectives. It also presents fields of activity which can be helpful to address both environmental and employment policy problems. I do hope that this study can provide some incentives for further action. (orig.)

  5. The justification for developing a system of environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents concluding points relevant to the question whether (and why) it is justified to spend resources for the development of a system of environmental radiation protection. The paper puts the issue in historical perspective to radiation protection philosophy and to current trends in ecology and 'green' politics. It also looks at the issue of scientific rationality, paradigms and beliefs. Among the arguments for the development of a System the paper considers public concerns, integration in overall environmental policy, uncertainties and sustainable development. The paper also examines the prospects for the development of a System within the EU and offers some general considerations on the scope of environmental protection. (author)

  6. Ecotourism Environmental Protection Measures and Their Effects on Protected Areas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-en Wang; Linsheng Zhong; Yangjian Zhang; Bin Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Ecological and environmental protection is the core content of ecotourism development. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of ecotourism environmental protection (hereinafter referred to as EEP) measures on protected areas is conducive to a deeper understanding of the key issues related to ecotourism development in China, thus providing the theoretical basis for formulating the relevant national policies of sustainable ecotourism development in China. This paper first discusses the evalu...

  7. Ecotourism Environmental Protection Measures and Their Effects on Protected Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-en Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and environmental protection is the core content of ecotourism development. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of ecotourism environmental protection (hereinafter referred to as EEP measures on protected areas is conducive to a deeper understanding of the key issues related to ecotourism development in China, thus providing the theoretical basis for formulating the relevant national policies of sustainable ecotourism development in China. This paper first discusses the evaluation index system and then establishes an index evaluation model of EEP measures and their effects on protected areas. Using surveys of more than 1110 protected areas in 27 provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities, we evaluated the EEP measures and their effects from a quantitative and spatial perspective. The completeness of EEP measures for Chinese protected areas was moderately effective, and the implementation status of the protection measures varied with the protection region. The effectiveness of EEP measures in different provinces and regions showed significant differences. The effectiveness decreased from east to west. The evaluation index values of the environmental protection measures displayed a high correlation with the effects of environmental protection on protected areas. The ecological protection measures should be further improved and strengthened according to their regional differences during ecotourism development.

  8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Complete Enterprise Dataset Inventory (EDI) listing all agency data assets for compliance with federal Project Open Data mandate (https://project-open-data.cio.gov/).

  9. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  10. Environmental attitude, motivations and values for marine biodiversity protection

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Matsiori, Steriani

    2015-01-01

    This study explores people’s environmental attitudes and motives for putting economic values to marine biodiversity and its protection. Primary data were collected from a sample of 359 people living in two important Greek coastal port cities: Thessaloniki and Volos. Respondents’ environmental attitude was measured with the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale, and economic values were derived from a referendum, contingent valuation method (CVM) survey for protecting marine biodiversity. Use of...

  11. Environmental protection and economic policy decisions in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Christian

    1992-01-01

    In view of the extent of environmental destruction in the Third World, it is necessary to make urgent use of all the instruments available in order to protect the environment and conserve natural resources. However, the priorities both of the people there and of their governments are more often aimed at economic growth than environmental protection, due to the low standards of living prevailing in these countries. How can this conflict of interests, which will be one of the main issues being ...

  12. The Research of the Digital Environmental Protection Intellectualization Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Junqing Liang; Ling Bing; Feifei Qiu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, using the advanced technology and the method such as the IT technology, the Earth remote sensing and the remote sensing technique, the digitization and the intellectualization of the environmental protection material were realized. Moreover, the three problems of the digital environmental protection intellectualization platform are demonstrated emphatically: the major function, the system network construction chart, the system overall construction chart. It supplied a feasible ...

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP covers the time period of November 9, 1993, through November 8, 1994. It will be updated annually. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies. Contents of this report are: (1) general description of the UMTRA project environmental protection program; (2) notifications; (3) planning and reporting; (4) special programs; (5) environmental monitoring programs; (6) quality assurance and data verification; and (7) references

  14. Who does what? Critical energy infrastructure protection in the Canadian government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.B. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, both the United States and Canada reorganized several federal government departments and agencies with a view to ensuring greater protection against further terrorist action. Cross-border transfers of oil, gas and electricity between the 2 countries have endowed the protection of energy infrastructure with high political importance in both governments. However, federal authority over energy is constrained in Canada, and the energy sector is regulated largely on a provincial basis. The role of the federal government in protecting critical energy infrastructure remains unclear. This paper examined federal government policies and programs designed to address the protection of critical energy infrastructure in Canada, and presented details of their interactions with other departments as well as their engagement with the private industries that own approximately 85 per cent of Canada's energy assets. An overview of energy infrastructure in Canada was presented, and the complexities of sectoral and geographic regions and their resulting organizational structures were reviewed. Issues concerning legislative and regulatory provincial authority were discussed, and a chronology of policy development and organizational changes implemented since 9/11 was presented. 22 refs.

  15. Sicilian Protected Areas Among Tourist Exploitation and Environmental Guardianship

    OpenAIRE

    Genna, Vito

    2006-01-01

    This report pursues the objective to define the connection that ties exploitation of the environment quality in the protected areas and the opportunities of economic and tourist development. Sicilian protected areas involve a territory full of an extraordinary variety and concentration of historical, artistic and environmental resources, so that they represent one of the main tourist attractions of the Island. Unfortunately, the Sicilian protected areas system shows serious backwardnesses, so...

  16. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs

  17. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  18. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  19. The polish proposal for environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    R.H. Kozłowski; E. Kozłowska; LL.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Th article presents the type of environment-related problem, and discusses the development of the concept of the sustainable development from the perspective of the international law. Over the past two hundred years, the mankind has exploited more than 50 percent of all natural resources, including energy minerals. The twenty-first century will be, out of necessity the period of intensive development of energy based on renewable resources. The protection of the environment is a globa...

  20. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities

  1. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D. [comp.

    1994-08-10

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities.

  2. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  3. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  4. Environmental protection systems for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of petroleum products and other chemicals can involve spillage and leaks despite being closely controlled. Human error in the loading of road tankers or consumers refuelling their vehicles at service stations can lead to spillage accidents. Seepage through permeable concrete and its expansion joints can occur for diesel underground tanks with serious environmental consequences. This article describes methods which could be adopted by the petroleum industry to prevent these accidental incidents from causing environmental pollution. Service station forecourts could be constructed, using precast concrete hexagonal blocks with dry sand between them and then have a coating of sealant to prevent spills from seeping into ground water. Secondary containment for underground tanks should be given an elastomeric membrane coating. (UK)

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project environmental protection implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. The UMTRA EPIP is updated annually. This version covers the time period of 9 November 1994, through 8 November 1995. Its purpose is to provide management direction to ensure that the UMTRA Project is operated and managed in a manner that will protect, maintain, and where necessary, restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to public health and the environment, and comply with environmental regulations and DOE policies

  6. Environmental radiological protection of Bariloche Atomic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan of monitoring radiological environmental routine fits on environmental policy of CNEA, satisfying national and international recommendations for licensed facilities. Sampling matrices are related to direct routes of exposure: air and water (river, lake, sediments, drinking water). Soil samples are also analyzed for having integrated matrices. They are considered as minimum three points of measurement: a white point (water or winds up), a point of maximum (water or winds down) and a point corresponding to the location of the individual representative or a point of public interest. Measurements in air estimate KERMA rate with thermoluminescent dosimeters, bi-monthly, and concentrations of particulate material and aerosols. For water samples (monthly), soil and sediments (quarterly), radionuclides that have download limits are analyzed, according to its importance in the dosages produced in the representative individual. In these cases artificial radionuclides using gamma spectrometry, beta total and Sr-90 by radiochemical techniques if the value of total screening (1 Bq/L) is exceeded. Foods are not included because no possible matrices were detected, either by their distance. by located not predominant wind direction. They are however still looking for milk producers that fulfills the minimum requirements.The data collected are compared with environmental baselines to set trends that might point to future significant changes in the environment during the life of the facilities. So far it was not observed significant differences with respect to baseline values

  7. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  8. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN)

  9. Environmental protection issues in uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which the environment in the vicinity of the Ranger uranium mine has been protected throughout the past twenty years has been assessed on the basis of radiological, chemical and biological monitoring. Based on this experience, a risk assessment of the proposed development of the Jabiluka mine has been carried out. It is concluded that mining of uranium at Ranger has not given rise to adverse effects on the people or the ecosystems of Kakadu National Park and the natural values of the Park are not threatened by the development of the Jabiluka mine

  10. Ecological education and environmental protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of important directions of teaching processes in Lithuania now is ecological education and environment protection training. The real possibility to involve scientists into students, teachers ecological education appeared since 1993 when scientific programme 'Ignalina NPP and the Environment' was launched. Scientists working at Drukshiai Ecological Station together with specialists from Pedagogical University and Institute of Pedagogy prepared teaching programmes, methodical aids. During 1993 - 1997 31 measures - ecological camps for schoolchildren and students as well as seminars and workshops for teachers were organized; 551 participants took part. (author)

  11. Nuclear power station and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution has become a major problem of the present times. In addition to the pollution of air, water, noise and food, there is pollution by industries and factories. Nuclear power plant is the best option to meet the increasing demand for power and to make use of available uranium and thorium in the country. It is generally believed that nuclear power plants increase pollution and are hazardous and not safe. An attempt has been made to analyse these beliefs on a scientific basis. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. Linking Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction in Africa: An Analysis of the Regional Legal Responses to Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-01-01

    Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the pr...

  13. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials - approaches and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The ‘open access’ approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The ‘restricted access’ approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who ‘needs to know’ about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes

  14. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials--approaches and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sue; Magee, Laura; Walker, Mark; Wood, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The 'open access' approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The 'restricted access' approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who 'needs to know' about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from

  15. Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1991--November 9, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Program,'' established environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to assure that the Department of Energy (DOE) operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 required that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order by no later than November 9, 1989, and update the plan annually. Therefore, the Department of Energy/Field Office, Nevada (DOE/NV) has prepared this second annual update of its Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP). The Order and corresponding guidances also require estimated budgetary resources necessary for implementation of the Order be identified in the Environmental Protection Implementation Plan. To satisfy this requirement, the estimated costs to effectuate necessary changes in existing programs or processes and to institute new programs or processes for compliance with the Order are provided in the following sections of this plan. The DOE/NV Assistant Manager for Operations (AMO), in consultation with other organizations responsible for line management of plan implementation, is responsible for annual plan revisions. 7 figs

  16. Training for effective environmental protection in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the role of environmental training in the delivery of effective environmental protection programs for construction projects in the nuclear industry. The paper uses a case study approach, based on Point Lepreau Generating Station's Refurbishment Project, to demonstrate how the underpinning principles of 'training, awareness and competence' can be delivered within a structured environmental management framework, to achieve sustained excellence in environmental management and performance. Key issues addressed by the paper include the early identification of different target audiences, making effective use of communication themes, and the importance of reinforcement and follow-up in support of training goals. (author)

  17. International viewpoints on environmental protection: goals and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental protection of natural ecosystems against the effects of radiation has been largely predicated upon human radiological protection regimes. It has been explicitly assumed that if human populations are adequately protected then this will also confer protection to other species at the population level and hence to the 'environment'. Accordingly, non-human organisms have principally been incorporated into regulatory and assessment frameworks in recognition of their role as part of diverse critical pathways of radionuclide transfer to human populations. Hence, the utility of these non-human organisms in assessing hazards to ecosystems is strictly limited since their selection for monitoring purposes relates more to human perspectives than to their role and importance in natural ecosystems. By contrast, a multispecies ecosystem level approach should work on the basis of selecting 'keystone' species and evaluating the effects of radiation upon natural ecosystem dynamics. This would accommodate the full range of sub-lethal effects, differential life-stage sensitivity, reproductive sensitivity and interspecific interactions. While such an approach would undoubtedly improve the current situation, experience from chemical ecotoxicology suggests that the selection and verification of suitable endpoints will prove difficult beyond an organismal level. Thus, a regulatory regime based upon this approach is almost certain to be less than effective at protecting the environment. The precautionary approach to environmental protection has largely grown from an awareness of the limitations of ecotoxicological studies and protocols. This paper, therefore, considers the need for application of such an approach in relation to environmental protection requirements of the nuclear industry

  18. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Delauney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week.

    Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months.

    This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  19. Environmental radioactivity monitoring for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research was conducted in the frame of a program of routine radioactivity surveillance around the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1) as well as for the investigation of contamination due to nuclear weapons tests. Samples of air, water, fallout, soil, grass, vegetables, seafood, fish, and meat were collected from five stations throughout the country and measured for gross alpha, beta, and gamma radioactivity and for Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. The methods used were the standard oneswell established in routine laboratory practice. Cumulative annual radiation dose from natural gamma radiation exposure of the population was also measured by TLD LiF dosemeters. Indoor and outdoor exposures were also compared. Results indicate that the gross radioactivity and the concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in environmental samples do not exceed values considered normal. The average cumulative annual radiation dose from natural gamma radiation during the period 1978-1980 was 80.4+-27 mrem. Comparison between in- and outdoor doses showed that the latter are higher in the two (out of five) locations where the data were available. No indication is given on the type of building material used in the areas under examination, whether wood or any other traditional material of natural or artificial origin

  20. Consensus and dissension among contemporary environmental activists: preservationists and conservationists in the US and Canadian context

    OpenAIRE

    B S Steel; M A E Steger; N P Lovrich; Pierce, J C

    1990-01-01

    The longstanding conservationist versus preservationist perspective among environmentalists is investigated among contemporary environmental group members in Michigan and Ontario. Based upon survey data, it is clear that this dissension continues to exist among contemporary environmental activists. Moreover, a number of background characteristics, use preferences for public lands, and political and environmental belief constructs effectively predict conservationist and preservationist orienta...

  1. Guidelines for the environmental protection in peat mining; Turvetuotannon ympaeristoensuojeluohje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The objective of these guidelines is to accelerate environmental protection in peat mining and to reduce the harmful effects caused by its related activities. The guidelines promote achievement of environmental objectives set both in legislation and government programmes through uniform practices and interpretations. The guidelines are based on current valid legislation. The guidelines provide up-to-date information on best practices in peat mining, especially in water protection but also in reducing noise and dust. They are intended to ease the work of both peat producers and the licensing and controlling authorities. The guidelines are not legally binding and must be applied on case-by-case basis. The current guidelines replace the 'Guidelines for environmental protection in peat mining' given in 2008. (orig.)

  2. The polish proposal for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Kozłowski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Th article presents the type of environment-related problem, and discusses the development of the concept of the sustainable development from the perspective of the international law. Over the past two hundred years, the mankind has exploited more than 50 percent of all natural resources, including energy minerals. The twenty-first century will be, out of necessity the period of intensive development of energy based on renewable resources. The protection of the environment is a global issue which requires to be specially safeguarded by the international law.Design/methodology/approach: The average geothermic gradient for the Earth`s crust (30°C/1km can give us 10-20 MWe as a result (electrical energy from one deep borehole heat exchanger. The value of electrical energy may be increased by introduction of a binary system with low-boiling medium into the energy system.Findings: Geothermic power plant of high capacity characterized by the fact that the steam superheater section, which is traditional in a conventional power plants, is replaced by the system of heat exchanger in the form of u-tubes with a single length ranging from 1000 meters to up to several thousand meters, initially placed in a metal casing with a transition to the rock layers of high temperature.Research limitations/implications: From the hot rock mass we can collect renewable resources of ,,dry” ascending energy from the paleo heat flow coming from the great nuclear furnace - the magma.Practical implications: The subject invention is the use of geothermic energy using a closed water cycle in heat exchangers, made of high-temperature creep resisting steam superheater steel tubes or titanium pipes. Thermal energy of water vapour, which is obtained in this way, is transformed into mechanical energy in the turbine, powering the generator.Originality/value: The role of a condenser can be fulfilled by a cascade system of thermal energy utilization (heat engineering

  3. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully co...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Theodor Ghindă; Theodora Ardeleanu

    2012-01-01

    The existing solutions for small hydropower plants were consideredconvenient from the technical point of view over a long period, while general environmental concerns of society increased in all directions during the last decades.This paper refers to how to include environmental protection measures during the selection of the sites for a small hydropower plant and its water intake, during the preparation of the project, and then during operation. Investments for modernization of old small hyd...

  5. Notification procedure in the Finnish environmental protection act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental guide deals with the notification procedures according to the Finnish Environmental Protection Act. A notification must be done on temporary activities causing noise and vibration, experimental activities, exceptional situations and treatment of polluted soil and groundwater. The aim of the guide is to assist permit authorities dealing with notifications. Also operators obligated to make notification may benefit from this guide. As annexes to this guide there are models of permits of notification procedures and appeal address. (orig.)

  6. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  7. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops. PMID:24154954

  8. Economic factor environmental protection. Extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Blazejczak, Juergen [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Walz, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Innovations- und Systemforschung (FhG ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Within the bounds of a research project, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation. The stocktaking and evaluation of more important documents prove that despite the differences in the estimation of individual ranges an international consent insists according to central ecological challenges on global level. The consent covers the following target areas: Climate protection, preservation of the biological variety, water supply including waste water disposal and water protection, health protection. It is to be expected that in the next decades its validity will keep these ecological challenges although defusing or new environmental problems may result in single areas. It is to be expected that due to the world-wide economic development some emphasis of important ecological challenges will shift gradually to developing countries, in particular China and India.

  9. Reconstruction of Centennial and Millennial-scale Climate and Environmental Variability during the Holocene in the Central Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, N.; Porinchu, D.; MacDonald, G.; Moser, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic and sub-Arctic regions are experiencing dramatic changes in surface temperature, sea-ice extent, glacial melt, river discharge, soil carbon storage and snow cover. According to the IPCC high latitude regions are expected to warm between 4°C and 7°C over the next 100 years. The magnitude of warming and the rate at which it occurs will dwarf any previous warming episodes experienced by latitude regions over the last 11,000 years. It is critical that we improve our understanding of how the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions responded to past periods of warming, especially in light of the changes these regions will be experiencing over the next 100 years. One of the lines of evidence increasingly utilized in multi-proxy paleolimnological research is the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera). Also known as non-biting midge flies, chironomids are ubiquitous, frequently the most abundant insects found in freshwater ecosystems and very sensitive to environmental conditions. This research uses Chironomidae to quantitatively characterize climate and environmental conditions of the continental interior of Arctic Canada during the Holocene. Spanning four major vegetation zones (boreal forest, forest-tundra, birch tundra and herb tundra), the surface samples of 80 lakes recovered from the central Canadian Arctic were used to assess the relationship of 22 environmental variables with the chironomid distribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) identified four variables, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), pH, summer surface water temperature (SSWT) and depth, which best explain the variance in the distribution of chironomids within these ecoregions. In order to provide new quantitative estimates of SSWT, a 1-component weighted average partial least square (WA-PLS) model was developed (r2jack = 0.76, RMSEP = 1.42°C) and applied downcore in two low arctic continental Nunavut lakes located approximately 50 km and 200 km north of modern treeline. This robust midge-inferred temperature

  10. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators : air quality indicator : data sources methods 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions were established in 2004 by the Canadian government in recognition that public health and economic well-being are linked to the quality of the environment. These indicators build on a base of an established national monitoring network and are communicated to the public by Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada in an effort to provide reliable information on the state of the environment. Each indicator reported in a given year has an associated data sources and methods report to provide technical detail and background information that will help interpret the indicator. This particular report focused on the basic methods and data for the air quality indicator as it was reported in 2005. It approximated public exposure to ground-level ozone, a key component of smog and a harmful pollutant. Since ozone levels are influenced by weather and transboundary flows of pollutants, this report analyzed observed concentrations in relation to where people live. The indicator measures the seasonal average of the highest 8-hour average ground-level ozone concentration for each day. The indicator reflects possible health impacts related to ozone over the entire season. It is population-weighted and assumes that ozone concentrations are constant within a radius of 40 km around each monitoring station. It was noted that future improvements for the air quality indicator will include measures of fine particulate matter and improvements in monitoring methods. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Linking Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction in Africa: An Analysis of the Regional Legal Responses to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the protection of the environment is critical to the achievement of poverty reduction initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals in Africa . Hence, it can be argued that there is a mutual relationship between the achievement of environmental protection and reduction of poverty in Africa . This article therefore examines the extent to which the various regional legal instruments for the protection of the environment in Africa recognise this mutual linkage by providing for the promotion of poverty reduction and socio-economic development as integral aspect of their objective of ensuring the protection of the environment in the region.

  12. ECR 2000 : the annual report of the Environmental Commitment and Responsibility Program of the Canadian Electricity Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Commitment and Responsibility (ECR) Program is an industry-wide initiative of the Canadian Electricity Association. The program, launched in 1997, builds on individual initiatives of member utilities and provides a forum to address the industry's commitment to sustainable development and better environmental performance. This annual report focuses on air quality issues for the electricity industry with emphasis on the challenge of airborne mercury and climate change. It also includes a report card from the public advisory panel. In their Letter to the Industry, the panel members expressed their support for the ECR initiative and commended the program participants. This report also presented a series of actions that may be taken to address all of the Panel's recommendations. Some member utilities have put principles into action by developing and deploying alternative energy technologies, such as wind, solar and small run of river hydro electric power. These sources are becoming more cost competitive and have potentially less impact on the environment. The industry is also enhancing the many different fuel types available throughout Canada. Environmental performance highlights and trends for the year 2000 were also presented. While no new trends emerged in 2000, indicators show a continuing and steady improvement in environmental performance in all areas, even with the significant increase in fossil fuel power generation. It was emphasized that in order to meet the rising demand for energy, other measures must be taken, including new capacity and infrastructure, and energy management programs. The increased capital investment for these initiatives will require adequate market prices that reflect the long term value of electrical energy. This report demonstrates the industry's commitment to conduct their business with respect for the natural environment and social expectations. tabs., figs

  13. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed

  14. Environmental protection and uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author outlines the environmental measures and describes th legislative and administrative arrangements that have been established by the Federal and Northern Territory Governments to ensure that the environment of the Alligator Rivers Region is properly protected. The functions and operation of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region are discussed

  15. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE's Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled open-quotes Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Makingclose quotes. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments

  16. Environmental Protection in the City of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbud, Merril

    1970-01-01

    Reviews New York City's Environmental Protection Administration two-year effort in air, water, noise, and solid waste pollution control. Successes and difficulties are seen as applicable to other urban areas. Long-term planning considers population control, poverty programs, traffic management, and land use. (JM)

  17. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  18. Regulation and decision-making in environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-funded project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental impact), which completed in 2003, has developed an assessment framework for evaluating the environmental impact of ionising radiation on biota in natural ecosystems. The FASSET framework comprises: source characterisation and initial hazard analysis; ecosystem description and selection of reference organisms (ca 30, with defined geometry and life history); exposure analysis, including conversion of input data to external and internal radionuclide concentrations, and subsequent conversion to dose rates; effects analysis, supported by an effects database; and, guidance for interpretation. The framework provides practical and scientific support to the international development of recommendations for radiological protection of the environment through the International Commission on Radiological Protection (cf. ICRP Publication 91). However, on the basis of experiences from FASSET and other recent developments, it can be concluded that there are challenges remaining before environmental radiological protection can be seen as a natural component of general environmental protection. The major future challenge is the development of an integrated approach where decision-making can be guided by sound scientific judgements. This requires, inter alia, filling in gaps in basic knowledge of relevance to assessment and protection, through targeted experimental, theoretical (including expert judgements) and real case studies; development of risk characterisation methodologies, based on both theoretical and experimental studies; development of screening standards, where appropriate; development of user-friendly assessment tools; and stakeholder involvement, including development of supporting communication strategies. A new EC-funded project, ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and management), has recently started. The project has four operational work packages, being devoted to

  19. The State Environmental Protection Standards Planning During 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ This planning is stipulated to reinforce Decision by State Council on Reinforcing Environmental Protection with Views of Scientific Development, to give impetus to the environmental enforcement and supervision along legal, standardized and scientific lines, to strengthen well-structured laws and regulations for environmental protection, to improve the system of technical laws, regulations and standards for environmental protection, scientifically establish environmental standards and to dovetail environmental protection standards and targets.

  20. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  1. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  2. Markets for environmental hazardous waste, solid waste and air products and services in New York and Pennsylvania : a guide for Canadian firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes environmental industry opportunities in upstate New York and Pennsylvania. Market information related to the environmental products and services industry in New York State and Pennsylvania was presented for the benefit of Canadian firms looking for trade opportunities. The report focuses on solid waste, hazardous waste and air pollution. An overview of the New York Clean Water/Clean Air Bond Act of 1996 was included. Regulations are no longer the only driving force behind the environmental industry. New standards and drivers for the industry include cost-effect solutions for environmental problems. The sector slowed somewhat in the 1990s, but the report indicates that both New York and Pennsylvania offer several expanding markets for innovative Canadian companies that can respond to specialized industry niches. Each segment of the report provides a classification of the major industry sub segments, describes demand determinants and growth prospects, and summarizes relevant laws and regulations. Customers and specific leads were also described where possible. Various channels of distribution and marketing support for Canadian firms looking for trade opportunities were also described. 9 tabs., 1 fig., 15 appendices

  3. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-01-01

    The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soi...

  4. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  5. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  6. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  7. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  8. Environmental protection from ionising contaminants in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional ICRP doctrine concerning environmental protection, in essence expressing that the dose limits in place for man ensure that flora and fauna are protected from the effects of ionising radiation, has been recently criticised. In its place, a system for the radiological protection of the environment has been promoted to include agreed quantities and units, selected reference organisms, reference dose models and tables of effects for reference organisms. The EC project 'Environmental Protection for Ionising Contaminants in the Arctic 'EPIC' adopts a practical perspective in developing a protection framework for the Arctic environment. The objectives of the project were:(1) collate the information about environmental transfer of selected radionuclides (2) identify reference Arctic biota; (3) model the uptake of radionuclides; (4) develop a reference set of dose models (5) compile data of dose-effects relationships for reference biota, and (6) integrate assessment of environmental impact from radionuclides with those for other contaminants. In the selection of reference organisms, several key criteria have been identified: ecological niche, radiosensitivity, radioecological sensitivity, distribution and amenability to further research. The application of these criteria has allowed an informed selection of suitable Arctic reference organisms to be made. Field studies were performed in the area of residual radioactive contamination in the Republic of Sakha, Yakutia. Biological material and soils were sampled, notes on plant morphology in elevated dose area were made, and seeds from high dose rate areas were sampled and tested for germination rate. A database on dose-effects relationships has been constructed. The database is subdivided into radiation effects on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The database will help to establish dose-effect relationships for different end points. At present, effort has been concentrated on populating the database; In

  9. Large-scale projects between regional planning and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the work discusses the current law of land-use planning, municipal and technical construction planning, and licensing under the atomic energy law and the federal law on immission protection. In the second part some theses suggesting modifications are submitted. In the sector of land-use planning substantial contributions to the protection of the environment can only be expected from programs and plans (aims). For the environmental conflicts likely to arise from large-scale projects (nuclear power plant, fossil-fuel power plant) this holds good for the most part of site selection plans. They have bearings on environmental protection in that they presuppose thorough examination of facts, help to recognize possible conflicts at an early date and provide a frame for solving those problems. Municipal construction planning is guided by the following principles: Environmental protection is an equivalent planning target. Environmental data and facts and their methodical processing play a fundamental part as they constitute the basis of evaluation. Under the rules and regulations of the federal law on immission protection, section 5, number 2 - prevention of nuisances - operators are obliged to take preventive care of risks. That section is not concerned with planning or distribution. Neither does the licensing of nuclear plants have planning character. So far as the legal preconditions of licensing are fulfilled, the scope for rejection of an application under section 7, subsection 2 of the atomic energy law in view of site selection and requirement of a plant hardly carries any practical weight. (orig./HP)

  10. Individual, social, environmental, and physical environmental correlates with physical activity among Canadians: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Craig Cora; Morrison Howard; DesMeules Marie; Cameron Christine; Pan Sai; Jiang XiaoHong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The identification of various individual, social and physical environmental factors affecting physical activity (PA) behavior in Canada can help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Canada. This study examined the influences of various individual, social and physical environmental factors on PA participation by gender, age and socioeconomic status, using data from the 2002 nationwide survey of the Physical Activity M...

  11. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tepić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the protection of the planet from global warming, as well as the preservation of life and survival.

  12. Environmental protection directory. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in this form in Germany, this handbook provides a comprehensive collection of mainly non-commercial environmental protection addresses. It covers the federal, community, scientific and jounalistic areas as well as business and society associations and groups, educational and advisory services and institutions. The addressbook contains the addresses and telephone numbers of the seperate institutions, as well as the names and extension numbers of public officials, representatives and media relations personned of the associations, the party environmental spokesperson and assigned people from the churches, and the ecology editors in media, radio and television. (orig.)

  13. INVESTMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investment decision can be regarded as one of the most important decisions taken by the management company. By the correct foundation of investment decisions depend the market position of the company, increasing its market share and gain a competitive advantage over competitors. Investments for environmental protection brings together all available money-makers, private and mixed distribute to finance activities and actions aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of environmental degradation resulting from production processes or consumption of goods and services.

  14. Private power development and environmental protection in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

    1997-12-01

    This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

  15. Environmental protection in exploration and production by AGIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a panorama of environmental protection activities being undertaken by AGIP (Italian General Petroleum Company). The Company has developed a wide-ranging program based on 20 years experience in world-wide on- and off-shore exploration and production. The research studies on technologically innovative on-site waste management, noise abatement and subsidence control and monitoring techniques are co-operative efforts involving the joint participation of national research institutions, universities and leading international petroleum companies. Given the intense oil carrier traffic along Italy's tourism dependent coastlines, one of the key projects is the creation of a national emergency plan to deal with oil spills. AGIP is also actively involved in the training of national and foreign site personnel in environmental protection techniques

  16. Organizational Environmental Protection Climate of a Rubber Products Factory in China

    OpenAIRE

    Haibin Qiu; Yanan Song; Tingdi Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between 1) the variables of position and working age of each objective and 2) responses variables on organizational environmental protection climate of an organizational climate in a rubber products factory located in North China. Organizational environmental protection climate can be measured by organizational environmental protection climate survey using an environmental protection question-naire. Themes of organizational environmental pro...

  17. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act screening report (draft) proposal for the Petitcodiac River Trial Gate Opening Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Memorandum of Agreement has been signed by the federal government and the Government of New Brunswick concerning a trial opening of the Petitcodiac River Causeway gates at Riverview, New Brunswick. The structure has significantly impeded upstream and downstream diadromous fish migration. Several renovations have been undertaken to solve the problem. Environment Canada and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans have conducted an environmental assessment to address relevant environmental issues concerning the trial gate opening. This report is the draft of the environmental assessment, providing a description of the scope, time table and methodology of the assessment and a list of the various consultations undertaken during the assessment. The project is expected to begin as early as April 1, 1999, with a pre-trial flushing and the drawdown of the head pond. Once the river flow is low enough to allow the management of the gates, the trial gate will be opened. The project will end with the refilling of the head pond, possibly as late as November 1999. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 1 append

  18. Integrating Environmental Protection and North American Free Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Peter M.; Nessman, Alan C.

    1995-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) represents significant developments in both regional trade liberalisation and environmental protection. Pre-agreement negotiations offered non-government organisations (NGOs) considerable opportunity to reduce areas of potential conflict between these two objectives. The Agreement deals with both boundary problems and common standards without dictating uniformity of standards or impinging greatly on each nation's sovereign control over matters w...

  19. Policy Paper 53: European Legal Integration and Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Cichowski, Rachel A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has operated to expand the integration project and has done so by serving as a forum for transnational political action by domestic and supranational policy actors. In particular, I study this integrative dynamic through the evolution of environmental protection policy in the European Union (EU). The purpose of this analysis is to reveal how the Court’s construction of supranational norms operates to fuel the integration process, a...

  20. Environmental protection in actual circumstances of EPS recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a brief summary of the state of environmental protection in the vicinity of Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS) power facilities, both when economy of FR Yugoslavia (FRY) was at an acceptable level and the current situation resulting from a drastic decline of economic power of country and EPS itself, from unfavourable political development from the past period, from the sanctions imposed by UN Security Council, from a prolonged isolation from modern courses worldwide as well as from bombing of facilities during NATO aggression against Yugoslavia. The paper is focused on the analysis of the possibilities of taking certain activities aimed at environmental protection under expected realistic circumstances of EPS recovery and its further development, in accordance with the overall economic recovery and development of the country, and to estimate the price of all environmental protection measures which, would otherwise have been realised in the course of the past period if sanctions of UN Security Council have not been imposed on FR Yugoslavia. (author)

  1. Modern environmental ethics and the possible implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental ethics is concerned with the moral relations that hold between humans and the natural world. The ethical principles governing those relations determine our duties, obligations, and responsibilities with regard to the Earth's natural environment and the animals and plants that inhabit it. When a life-centered view is accepted as has been done by Taylor, the obligations and responsibilities we have with respect to the wild animals and plants of the Earth are seen to arise from certain moral relations between ourselves and the natural world itself. Considering the shift of ethical values that have occurred in the world, we may now be at a point in history when it is timely and when there also exist scientific reasons to set up a protection policy equivalent to the ICRP principles for protection of humans (justification, optimisation and dose limits) for the protection of environment (including animals) against the harmful effects of radiation

  2. International activities in environmental radiation protection - a radiation biologists perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolving integration of environmental impact assessments into the regulatory process together with Society's concern about environmental protection have emphasised the importance of developing a common international approach that demonstrates protection of the environment from ionising radiation. ICRP has expressed their wish to play a key role, both in advising and in providing the basic interpretation of existing scientific knowledge for such an approach. The European Union launched a research project three years ago, aiming at developing a methodology to be used for environmental risk assessments for ionising radiation (Framework for ASSessment of Environmental impacT). The main objective of FASSET has been to produce a system for the environmental risk assessments which links together exposures, doses and effects. This is accomplished by use of reference organisms including radioecological and dosimetric modelling. Within FASSET a database on biological effects was also set up including more than thousand references and ca 25 000 data entries. Most of the information in the database, however, originates from studies on acute exposures while the focus for non-human organisms must be on chronic exposures to long-lived radionuclides in the environment. It therefore seems necessary to perform several extrapolation tasks in order to characterize the risks. The heterogeneity of exposure conditions in the environment along with non-uniform deliverance of doses of main practical relevance must be considered. This will have great impact on the final biological effects. Applications of weighting factors may be anticipated which are already an established method in radiation protection dosimetry. A summary of the work that has been completed to date in FASSET and ICRP will be presented. Some aspects will be further given on the RBE key issues

  3. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  4. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  5. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem. PMID:23137912

  6. Mobile laboratory-based environmental radioactivity analysis capability of the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster presentation will highlight the capability of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air to process and analyze environmental and emergency response samples in mobile radiological laboratories. Philosophy of use, construction, analytical equipment, and procedures will be discussed in the poster presentation. Accompanying the poster presentation, EPA will also have a static display of its mobile laboratories at the meeting site. (author)

  7. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  8. WINRE '92 - 3rd workshop on information management in nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop puts much emphasis on the exchange of experience between experts from the West and from the Central and Eastern European countries. The representatives from the various countries and organisations are going to introduce their respective data banks, products, or services. The combination of papers and practical presentations will provide all with a qualified and comprehensive insight into the tried and tested as well as the new information management technologies in the specialist areas of nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection. Furthermore, it should also contribute to the promotion of the transfer of know-how between experts throughout the whole of Europe. (orig./DG)

  9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 500 meter Grid Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file geodatabase layer contains 500 meter grid cells for the extent of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, as clipped at shoreline and state...

  10. Sole Source Aquifers, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon layer of sole source aquifers in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6. The sole source aquifers represented are: Edwards I and Edwards II in...

  11. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 9, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As indicated in the July 2005 issue of our newsletter, future 2006-2007 activities of the Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint Programme and the Agrochemicals Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf will encompass a coordinated and comprehensive 'farm to fork' approach to food production systems, i.e. strengthening compliance with food and environmental safety standards through good agricultural practices. Laboratories and trained staff capable of establishing reliable sampling and analytical regimes for quantifying potential hazards within specific production practices or in individual food products are indispensable for informed decision-making and improved food safety and environmental protection. In this regard, we recently concluded a training workshop on an Introduction to QA/QC Measures in Pesticide Residue Analytical Laboratories at our Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf from 12 September to 7 October 2005. The Workshop was attended by 23 participants from 22 developing countries and to date, both verbal and written feedback indicates that the workshop was very successful. We are planning to hold similar workshops on an annual basis in the future so that we might better respond to our Member State requests for laboratory training that further strengthens our efforts in enhancing good agricultural practices. Further details on the workshop are highlighted in the Feature Article Section of this newsletter

  12. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.10 Limitation on Environmental Protection... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on Environmental Protection... Protection Agency: (1) A new precedent or a new point of law is involved; or (2) A question of policy is...

  13. PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN COAL MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立杰; 傅贵辰

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems about the environmental pollution of the coal mines in China and analyses the main reasons which caused the pollution of coal mining areas and puts forward the view that we should get rid of our traditional concepts about social development and take the paths of sustained development. This paper also gives the suggestion that strict rules and laws for the protection of environment of the coal mining ares should be set up and favourabh policies be worked out to promote the improvement of coal mining area's environment.

  14. Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

  15. Environmental Correlation Analysis for Genes Associated with Protection against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Margaret J; Ndila, Carolyne; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Snow, Robert W; Band, Gavin; Rautanen, Anna; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Williams, Thomas N

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide searches for loci involved in human resistance to malaria are currently being conducted on a large scale in Africa using case-control studies. Here, we explore the utility of an alternative approach-"environmental correlation analysis, ECA," which tests for clines in allele frequencies across a gradient of an environmental selection pressure-to identify genes that have historically protected against death from malaria. We collected genotype data from 12,425 newborns on 57 candidate malaria resistance loci and 9,756 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected at random from across the genome, and examined their allele frequencies for geographic correlations with long-term malaria prevalence data based on 84,042 individuals living under different historical selection pressures from malaria in coastal Kenya. None of the 57 candidate SNPs showed significant (P ECA in the discovery of novel genes and pathways affecting infectious disease. PMID:26744416

  16. Environmental protection through self-powered plants for isolated communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Palma, L.; Merli, C.; Petrucci, E. [Universita di Rome, La Sapienza (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegnaria Chimica

    1998-07-01

    The possibility exists of creating wastewater-treatment systems with very low levels of energy consumption for areas with particularly high requirements from the environmental standpoint. One low-energy system for small communities capable of meeting effluent standards involves the use of an Imhoff tank followed by a rotating biological contactor (RBC) and by another settling tank. In such a system, the only energy consumption involved is connected with the rotation of the biological contactor disks. This energy requirement can be met by a system transforming solar energy into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The other phases of treatment involve gravity flow and settling and hence require no further energy, it being possible to harness gravity also for the extraction of sludge to be dried on drying beds. One further advantage of such a unit lies in the reduced environmental impact involved, making an attractive option for use in parks or protected areas. (author)

  17. Advances in analytical technologies for environmental protection and public safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, O A; Wanekaya, A K; Andreescu, S

    2004-06-01

    Due to the increased threats of chemical and biological agents of injury by terrorist organizations, a significant effort is underway to develop tools that can be used to detect and effectively combat chemical and biochemical toxins. In addition to the right mix of policies and training of medical personnel on how to recognize symptoms of biochemical warfare agents, the major success in combating terrorism still lies in the prevention, early detection and the efficient and timely response using reliable analytical technologies and powerful therapies for minimizing the effects in the event of an attack. The public and regulatory agencies expect reliable methodologies and devices for public security. Today's systems are too bulky or slow to meet the "detect-to-warn" needs for first responders such as soldiers and medical personnel. This paper presents the challenges in monitoring technologies for warfare agents and other toxins. It provides an overview of how advances in environmental analytical methodologies could be adapted to design reliable sensors for public safety and environmental surveillance. The paths to designing sensors that meet the needs of today's measurement challenges are analyzed using examples of novel sensors, autonomous cell-based toxicity monitoring, 'Lab-on-a-Chip' devices and conventional environmental analytical techniques. Finally, in order to ensure that the public and legal authorities are provided with quality data to make informed decisions, guidelines are provided for assessing data quality and quality assurance using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) methodologies. PMID:15173903

  18. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 8, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1964, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has been in a unique position to promote the mandates of both FAO in its efforts to eliminate world hunger and poverty through sustainable agricultural development, improved nutrition and food security and the IAEA through peaceful uses of atomic energy to accelerate and expand the contributions of these technologies to health and prosperity worldwide. The Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint Division and the Agrochemicals Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf comprise a sub-programme that provides assistance related to risk analysis methodologies and capacity building for compliance with food safety standards. These activities include the elaboration and application of international standards and guidelines on the use of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment for food and agricultural commodities as well as the use of analytical methods and strengthened capacities for risk analysis related to food through program activities related to coordination and support in research, providing technical and advisory services, providing laboratory support and training, and collecting, analyzing and disseminating information. The success of these activities is reflected in part by the publication of two IAEA technical documents in early 2005 on the use of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities (IAEA TECDOC 1427) and on the Determination of Human Pathogen Profiles in Food by Quality Assured Microbial Assays (IAEA TECDOC 1431). In addition, one combined TECDOC on the Validation of Thin-Layer Chromatographic Screening Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis and on Alternative Methods to Gas and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Grain will be published in the near future. Several documents are also currently under consideration or in the process of

  19. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of 'environmental protection', and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach. PMID:23089025

  20. A theological view of environmental protection in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mwambazambi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available African theologians, and indeed all humanity, should individually and collectively make a permanent commitment to environmen- tal protection. Using conceptual tools as well as sociological and theological critical analysis, it can be demonstrated how closely such concepts as politics, economics, war, culture, tech- nology, urbanisation, the Internet, globalisation, missiology, and theology are related to ecology and our natural environment. Consequently, African theologians and concerned people need to take into account, and observe ecological norms as part of the fulfilment of their world mission. Mugambi and Mika (2001:4 affirm that “human beings and nature as such are valuable and deserve to survive”. Therefore, global and local role players must assume appropriate responsibility in order to ensure the necessary ecological balance to sustain life on this planet. This article analyses and demonstrates the importance of environ- mental protection of the African continent. The overall objective is to promote environmental awareness and active engagement in assessing the environmental impact on all human activities.

  1. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  3. Environmental protection of geothermal waters and travertines at Pamukkale, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, S.; Gunay, G.; Elhatip, H.; Ekmekci, M. [International Research and Application Center for Karst Water Resources (UKAM), Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-10-01

    Tourism, and associated commercial activities have led to physical damage and discolouration of the famous white travertine terraces at Pamukkale, a World Heritage Site. To mitigate these environmental impacts, scientific studies were started in 1993 by UKAM and the Ministry of Culture. These show that an aquifer within Paleozoic marbles and Mesozoic limestones, with a capacity of delivering 510 1/s, feeds the hot springs associated with the terraces. The discolouration results from algae, whose growth is enhanced by the use of open channels to convey the water to swimming pools, and by subsequent discharge of the water onto the terraces. Leakage of effluent from septic tanks has encouraged algal growth near the base of the terraces. To protect the terraces and enhance travertine deposition, covered concrete channels have been built to reduce algal growth and a road across the terraces closed. Recommendations for additional protective measures include reduction in commercial tourist activities, removal of septic tanks and swimming pools, prohibition of walking on the terraces, and the creation of special regulation and protected zones. (Author)

  4. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  5. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the ‘legal requirement’ discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The ‘common ground’ regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less

  6. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  7. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. As of July 1, 1989. 5. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment.The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.)

  8. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of ‘environmental protection’, and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  9. Protection of the environment - views from the nordic meeting on environmental radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NKS is a scientific co-operation program mainly financed by the national Nordic authorities in nuclear safety, radiation protection and emergency preparedness, with additional support from the nuclear power industry, research establishments and the academic world in the Nordic countries. The purpose of NKS is to carry out joint, cost-effective Nordic projects, thus producing research results, exercises, reports, scientific papers, manuals, recommendations and other material. This material serves as an input to decision-makers and other concerned staff members from the organisations involved in the NKS activities. In the present program, a number of projects are carried out in the fields of reactor safety, radioactive waste, emergency preparedness, radioecology and nuclear threats in Nordic surroundings. The aim of the consensus conference was to provide a forum for discussion of current issues in radiation protection and the environment, to provide input into international developments related to the protection of the environment, and to encourage wider participation in the debate. There were 45 participants, about 50% from the Nordic countries, representing various disciplines including Environmental Science, Health Physics, Radioecology, Ethics and Philosophy. They represented a wide spectrum of perspectives bearing on the question of radiation protection of the environment. There were stimulating and thought provoking presentations in plenum followed by constructive and intensive group discussions. These were reported and continued in plenum. In this way the main areas of agreement concerning guiding principles and consensus statements were developed. (author)

  10. New EPA ban stymies Canadian exports of PCB waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to a 1996 EPA ruling permitting the importation to the USA of PCBs for incineration, a unanimous three-judge panel of the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth District in San Francisco ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) did not have the authority to permit the import of PCB wastes into the USA for disposal. Prior to the decision, 35 applications from Canada to export some 37,000 tonnes of PCB to the USA for disposal have been approved. Canadian brokers are upset with the decision, claiming that the decision will create a virtual monopoly for Bovar Inc., of Calgary, the only PCB-disposal facility in Canada. The loss (at least for the time being) of the alternate disposal opportunity will likely have the effect of forcing Canadian customers to pay more for PCB disposal. The Canadian government is monitoring the situation and is waiting to see whether an appeal is filed against the ruling

  11. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  12. What the new EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) rules mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.; Friedland, D.M.

    1990-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has issued its first proposed New Source Performance Standards for municipal incinerators in 18 years. EPA's 1971 NSPS set only particulate limits. The new NSPS also sets combustion standards, acid gas and dioxin emission limits, and a materials separation requirement. The latest NSPS, plus proposed emission guidelines for existing facilities, both regulate municipal waste combustors (MWCs) under the Clean Air Act. They both contain new emission limitations for the various pollutants emitted by MWCs, and materials separation requirements. The emission limitations, and the control technologies on which they are based, are different for different size facilities. The proposed regulations also contain operating requirements, testing and record-keeping provisions, and requirements for operator certification and training. The New Source Performance Standards are summarized. The emission guidelines for existing facilities are then described. These include: best demonstrated technology, combustion controls, and materials separation.

  13. Marine environmental protection, sustainability and the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global oceans provide a diverse array of ecosystem services which cannot be replaced by technological means and are therefore of potentially infinite value. While valuation of ecosystem services is a useful qualitative metric, unresolved uncertainties limit its application in the regulatory and policy domain. This paper evaluates current human activities in terms of their conformity to four principles of sustainability. Violation of any one of the principles indicates that a given activity is unsustainable and that controlling measures are required. Examples of human uses of the oceans can be evaluated using these principles, taking into account also the transgenerational obligations of the current global population. When three major issues concerning the oceans: Land based activities, fisheries and climatic change are examined in this way, they may easily be shown to be globally unsustainable. It is argued that effective environmental protection can best be achieved through the application of a precautionary approach. (author)

  14. Ecological risk assessment in the function of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an appropriate methodology for ecological risk assessment. The methodology has been applied in the region of Boka Kotorska Bay (Bay, Montenegro. The emphasis of the research is on the analysis of the impact of various stressors on the ecological components of Bay. The consequences of that impact can be seen in an increased level of eutrophication of water environment, mostly through the influence of nitrogen and its compounds. The actual research at/about the region of Boka Kotorska Bay was performed in the period of 2008. The study emphasized the importance of the acquisition, processing and analysis of various ecologically related data for more efficient monitoring and management of the environment. The suggested methodology of the ecological risk assessment is, therefore, a remarkable scientific and expert contribution in the area of environmental protection in our country and in general.

  15. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  16. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qun; LIU Ying-tao; MAO Han-ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  17. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Ying-Tao; Mao, Han-Ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA. PMID:17294667

  18. Organizational Environmental Protection Climate of a Rubber Products Factory in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Qiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the relationship between 1 the variables of position and working age of each objective and 2 responses variables on organizational environmental protection climate of an organizational climate in a rubber products factory located in North China. Organizational environmental protection climate can be measured by organizational environmental protection climate survey using an environmental protection question-naire. Themes of organizational environmental protection climate are listed and an organizational climate question-naire containing eighteen environmental protection-related questions is developed. Fifty-fifty multivariate analysis of variance is used to reveal the relationship between 1 the variables of position and working age of each objective and 2 responses variables on organizational environmental protection climate. It is concluded that 1 the factor of position affects total environmental protection climate; 2 objectives in efferent position have significant dissimilar perceptions in the performance of environmental protection of the organization; 3 objectives in efferent position have significant dissimilar perceptions in the priority of environmental protection when the organization suffers from stress of production tasks in the Chinese rubber products factory.

  19. Environmental Protection Versus Intellectual Property: The U.S-Mexico Free Trade Agreement Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, George

    1992-01-01

    Compares the U.S. objective of protecting the knowledge required to develop certain products to environmental protection in the United States-Mexico Free Trade Act negotiations. Argues that environmental regulation should be included in the negotiations with force equal to that for intellectual rights protection. (55 references) (MDH)

  20. [Environmental protection: ethical and scientific sources of tension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devictor, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Environmental ethic is complex, dynamic, and related to cultural contexts that are neither given once and for all, nor valid for all people. Yet, the current biodiversity crisis tends to be followed by the spread of universal values related to nature and its protection. Far from standardizing the pluralism of these values, this universal trend leads to two major tensions in the field of nature conservation. The first concerns the scientific or epistemic values: nature or "biodiversity" is altogether being reduced in sub-categories or by contrast considered as a complex object by modern ecological science. Biodiversity is indeed both increasingly considered in terms of its complexity and unpredictability, or on the contrary, as a collection of natural objects that can and must be managed with easily quantifiable indicators. The second tension concerns ethical values. These values tend to be reduced and simplified in equating nature with "services" that can benefit human societies. But this utilitarian reduction also hides a diversification of ethical values. This article aims to analyze what characterizes this contemporary ethical and scientific floating with respect to the values involved in the protection of nature. PMID:25073325

  1. The Environmental Right as a Human Right: Scientific Development and the Protection of Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN ZHONGLE

    2011-01-01

    @@ As environmental issues are attracting domestic and international attention,protection of environmental rights is becoming increasingly important in human rights affairs.Environmental protection involves economic development and social harmony, influences the maintenance and complete realization of people's rights to health, property and life, and is even related to the future existence of the whole human society.

  2. Scientific Research and Technological Development in Onshore Oil Industry Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangyun; Wang Jialin; Lu Ronghu; Zhang Wei; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ A series of significant measures for environmental protection have been adopted by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) to cope with the problem of environmental pollution caused by waste gas, waste water, waste solid and noise in oil and gas field production, and some organizations responsible for environmental protection research have been set up.

  3. Between Alberta Wilderness Association, Canadian Nature Federation, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Jasper Environmental Association, and Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development (applicants) and Cardinal River Coals Ltd. (respondent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.R.

    1999-04-08

    Cardinal River Coals Ltd. applied, in 1996, for Alberta regulatory approvals and, to the federal Department of Fisheries, for authorization to construct a series of open pit coal mines near the Jasper National Park boundary. The development is known as the Cheviot Coal Project. The applicants launched this appeal to express their concerns about the project and to challenge the Department of Fisheries authorization allowing work to commence, in an attempt to re-open the public environmental assessment process. The legal aspects of the challenges are discussed for Docket T- 1790-98. The court`s decision is to quash the Docket and, in view of these findings, not to grant relief in the case of Docket T- 2354-97. 2 apps.

  4. Ecological Situation and Environmental Protection Policy in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Olegovna Tagaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present ecological situation and negative influence of ecological factors on public health in the Russian Federation are analysed in this article. Russia is one of the most polluted countries in the world, and the environmental problem is very important here. In spite of some decrease in pollution during the crisis period, nature does not have time to neutralize pollution accumulated before, and as a result, there is an increase in the pollution concentration. In 66 cities (40 million people with excess 10 times and more than permitted maximum concentration level, the morbidity is above the average Russian level of 1.6 — 2 times. The forecast of emission according to the various scenarios of Russian development has been done: a pessimistic scenario with a slowdown in economic growth and an optimistic scenario with the acceleration of economic growth. The optimistic scenario is realized under the hypothesis about the oil prices increase and the real rouble exchange rate strengthening at the end of 2015, the revival of investment processes, the successful policy of import substitution, and the competent using of the instruments of monetary and fiscal policy. The pessimistic scenario is implemented under the assumption of negative economic tendency prolongation of 2014. For the forecast analysis, the dynamic inter-industry model with the ecological block was used. At the optimistic scenario implementation, the additional burden on the natural environment should be expected. The most important result of the research is the estimation of the rates of ecological payments which are necessary for performing the functions stimulating the environmental protection activity. The article presents the findings about the need to improve the institutional ecological structures, the scientific basis of pollution taxes, the introductions of the stimulating tools of the economic nature protection mechanism. The results presented in the article may be used

  5. Development of the Updated Environmental Protection Agency Manual of Protective Action Guides (PAGS) and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a student intern with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters, the author was trained in the National Response Plan (NRP) and assisted in the editing of the new (unpublished) EPA Protective Action Guides (PAGs) [1] which has been revised in light of the perceived post 9/11 potential for 'Dirty Bomb' and 'Improvised Nuclear Device' attacks on civilian areas. Technical aspects and the public policy aspects of developing the new guides are discussed. Early Phase initial responses discussed include: Notification of state and/or local authorities, immediate evacuation/sheltering prior to release information or measurements, monitoring of releases and exposure rate measurements, estimation of dose consequences, implementation of protective actions in other areas. The new PAG clarifies the use of 1992 PAGs [2] for incidents other than nuclear power plant accidents, lowers projected thyroid dose for potassium iodine (KI), provides drinking water guidance, includes guidance for long-term site restoration, and updates dosimetry from ICRP 26 to ICRP 60. (authors)

  6. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues

  7. Objectives, Scope and Organization of Radiological and Environmental Protection in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the activity of the Radiation Protection Department concerning radiation protection of persons involved in the application of radiation sources and the monitoring of environmental radioactivity. (author)

  8. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  9. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkson, J.K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Amadu, M.B. [Kumasi Inst. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sector reform taking place in many countries are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power system in most countries in the region. Ghana, which is the focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient to meet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants. The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implications of changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor and enforce regulations in the emerging electricity industry. The study uses a spreadsheet-based simulation model to determine the potential levels of certain air pollutants - CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} - that would result from changes in fuel mix for electricity generation. Using different capacity expansion options proposed for The Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation. (au)

  10. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new management of Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture looks forward to strengthening our collaboration with, among others, related units in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the World Trade Organization. These efforts will include subjects addressing overall food security, including food quality, food safety, plant health and the promotion of food trade in the areas of food irradiation and methods of analysis and sampling for contaminants, with a specific emphasis on developing countries. Increased efforts will also be applied in the application of safe technologies through the provision of training and support in the utilization of sound analytical methods, research, and web-based information systems for both sanitary and phytosanitary measures. It also plan to enhance the preparedness of our Member States in the application of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan and in strengthening links with other Units of the Division and the Seibersdorf Laboratories, specifically in the areas of agrochemicals, biotechnology and radionuclides. There are numerous activities planned in the form of Research Coordination Meetings, Workshops and Seminars on subjects ranging from pesticide residue analysis and formulation control, the use of irradiation to ensure the quality and safety of foods and the transfer of radionuclides from soils to plants

  11. Annual report 2004. Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, L.; Zevenhoven, R. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This fifth annual report in this series, covering year 2004, gives an overview of the research, education and other activities of the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. From the research point of view, the laboratory continues in the Nordic Energy Research Program (2003-2006) in the field of CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and in the EU project 'ToMeRed' on toxic trace elements emissions control. The laboratory is also the operating agent for the IEA project 'Energy systems integration between society and industry'. The bulk of the research can be classified into three groups, in short: energy systems; spraying and combustion and combustion and waste treatment. This research takes mainly place in national and international consortia, but sometimes also in a direct cooperation with one industry partner. Some of the work involves the use and development of models and sub- models for the simulation and optimisation of energy systems and processes. Commercial softwares like Aspen Plus and Prosim are important tools for our work as well. Besides this, single particle modelling can be applied to fuel droplets, fuel particles or particles found in metallurgical industry. We make CFD calculations with commercial codes are made as well, while working on the improvement of (sub-) models for multiphase fluid dynamics.

  12. Geographic Information Systems in function of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geographical information systems as a methodology is a relatively new technology in scientific research and finding practical solutions for geographical problems. One of those problems is the complex over categorical set [1] known as environment. It is a very actual and complex problematic, hard for organizing and optimization when it has to set about the needs of humanity.Therefore, this article deals with the application of geographic information systems as one of the latest scientific techniques and technologies through which one can analyze and define the most optimal solutions in terms of environmental protection and sustainable development. The aim is to highlight the quantitative and qualitative aspects of GIS technology in function of the environment on the one hand, and through concrete examples to point out to the power of these technologies in the process of finding optimal solutions. It is briefly pointed out to some general criteria that are inevitable in the process of creating databases in GIS necessary for adequate and suitable GIS analyses.(Author)

  13. United States Environmental Protection Agency national radon proficiency programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's voluntary National Radon Proficiency Programmes: Radon Measurement, and Reduction Proficiency are described, including their history and development, current status and future directions. The Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) and Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) programmes are fundamental to the Agency's programme to reduce the health risk associated with exposure to elevated radon levels in indoor air. Originally developed to provide technical assistance to States, the proficiency programmes now offer US consumers assurance of the quality of their radon measurements and reduction jobs. In other words, the proficiency programmes provide a means to consumers for deciding from which organisations or individuals to purchase radon services. This is especially important in the United States where most radon services are acquired through private enterprises rather than through the public sector. The Agency encourages the public to purchase radon measurements and reduction services only from organisations or individuals that have met the requirements of EPA's proficiency programmes. The US Congress is now considering legislation that would require participation in the Agency's radon proficiency programmes. In addition, this legislation contains provisions that would encourage consumer testing. Increased testing, coupled with a mandatory national proficiency programme, is likely to result in an increase in the quality of radon services available to the US public. (author)

  14. Food and environmental protection newsletter. V.1, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Food and Environmental Protection Section are gaining momentum through the combined strength of the staff members of the former Food Preservation and Agrochemical and Residues Section. In addition to the encouraging outcomes of existing CRPs in the field of food irradiation and pesticides, this issue reports two new CRPs which have either been initiated or are in the processes of being initiated. Any research institutes which wish to participate in any of these two new CRPs should contact us as soon as possible. The status of various on going CRPs and new CRPs is also described in this issue. The activities of the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre of Food and Pesticide Control for this year are described in this issue. Reports of some activities which have just been implemented during the first half of 1998, including the Workshop on Introduction of QA/QC Principles in Pesticide Residue Analysis held in Hungary in March, are summarized in this issue

  15. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  16. 77 FR 17052 - Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... AGENCY Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of... between the Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of... this correction do? In the SUMMARY of the notice published on February 1, 2012, (77 FR 5012)...

  17. An overview of forest management and change with respect to environmental protection in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Farmer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews changes in forest management in the UK with respect to environmental protection. The evolution of policy is explained from historical and sustainability perspectives and covers developments in forest planning, accreditation, devolution and future challenges and opportunities. Keywords: forest management, best practice, sustainable forestry, environmental protection, land use change

  18. Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅析环境保护公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长军

    2015-01-01

    Public participation in environmental protection is a fundamental right of citizens and is an effective measure to promote environmental protection. Starting from the meaning of public participation in environmental protection system, the paper analyzes the current situation of public participation in environmental protection in China, and puts forward some suggestions of perfecting China's public participation in environmental protection.%环境保护公众参与是法律给予公民的基本权利,是促进环境保护工作的有效措施。本文从环境保护公众参与制度的涵义出发,分析了我国环境保护公众参与的现状,提出了完善我国环境保护公众参与的建议。

  19. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice

  20. Assessment of elemental content of milled coal, combustion residues, and stack emitted materials: Possible environmental effects for a Canadian pulverized coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two monitoring studies were carried out at four-year intervals on a power plant that uses western Canadian subbituminous coal and generates approximately 800 Mw/h of electricity. The distributions of elements of environment concern (As, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Cd) and elements of environmental interest (B, Ba, Be, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Th, Se, V, U, and Zn) in milled coals, power plant ashes, and emitted materials from the stack were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA), Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for most elements, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA) for Pb, and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption (CVAA) for Hg. The concentrations of most of elements in milled coal are low as compared to world coals and other Canadian milled coals. For example, in both studies mercury is within the lower range of world coal. Bottom ashes from both studies have low concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn, as well as low relative enrichment factors (RE) for the same elements, indicating that they were not enriched in the bottom ash. The ESP's remove most of the elements of environmental interest as indicated by their high RE ratios of greater than >0.7. The rates of input of elements of environmental concern (As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ni) for this station were 23.65, 1.24, 0.54, 98.2 and 95.2 kg/day, respectively, of which only 0.20, 0.02, 0.31, 0.48 and 0.36 kg/day were emitted from the stack. Thus only a small amount of these elements found in the milled coal was emitted while most were captured in the bottom and the ESP ashes. Nickel has the highest rate of emission (0.48 kg/day) within the elements of environmental concern group. However, the Ni emitted from this station does not belong to the toxic species. The element with the lowest rate of emission is Cd (0.02 kg/day). The total emission of elements of environmental concern is 1.37 kg/day, which is low as compared their ambient

  1. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  2. Neoliberalism, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Chesapeake Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Steffy, Kathryn Marie

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism, as the influence of economic considerations within the political process, has impacted environmentalism on a variety of levels. Without regulation, the neoliberal capitalist drive to maximize production, consumption, and profits is antagonistic to environmental sustainability. The influences that corporations and economic elites have within modern democracies holds substantial implications for the rigor and enforcement of environmental policies. Particular to the United Stat...

  3. Proposal of environmental quality standards for plant protection products

    OpenAIRE

    Kontiokari, Venla; Mattsoff, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture and forestry to protect crops from weeds, pests and plant diseases. These products are developed to be toxic to target species, but they are often toxic to non-target species also. Since they are spread purposely into the environment, they may also leach to surface waters. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Parliament and Council was adopted in 2000. The purpose of this Directive is the protection of inland surface and grou...

  4. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 6, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    commercial applications in order to further elaborate Annex 1 of the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 18, Guidelines for the Use of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Measure. Other activities arising from the working group recommendations include the proposed convening of a Seminar on the Application of Irradiation for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Purposes in conjunction with the FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators Building Effective Food Safety Systems, which will be held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 12-14 October 2004. These are but a few examples of continuing activities within the Food and Environmental Protection Section focused on the application of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary purposes

  5. Mechanisms for monitoring and implementation of international environmental protection agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Richard, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    Whether from public or private sources, whether regional or global, on a regular basis numerous and lengthy reports bear witness to the continued deterioration of the state of the environment. At the beginning of the 21st century, environmental changes are of great concern and in several respects carry the risk of being irreversible. The latest environmental assessment issued by UNEP, referred to as “GEO3” for Global Environmental Outlook, warns of continued deforestation and loss of biodiver...

  6. Study on the Old Ship-Wood Furniture Based on the Green Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the green environmental protection, it analyzed the characteristics of the old ship-wood furniture including the green environmental protection, changing waste into treasure, unique styling and strong human flavor, to emphasize its properties of excellent environmental protection, unique original ecology and elegant artistry. Then it summarized the basic design principles of the environmental protection, the emotional design and the localization design. And then it discussed the low-carbon craftsmanship of the old ship-wood furniture from the three aspects of materials selection, processing tools and production process. Furthermore, it summed up out of the practical and commercial value, the aesthetic and artistic value and the environmental value of the old ship wood furniture. Finally, it presented that the development and promotion of the old ship-wood furniture which is the typical of the green design and manufacture of furniture can bring immense economic, social and ecological efficiency.

  7. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  8. On the meaning of the constitutional law protective obligations for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has the opinion that the state still insufficiently fulfills the task 'protection against harmful effects on the environment'. This concerns legislative duties and insufficient regulations in decrees. The claims of citizens derive from fundamental rights and from special regulations such as section 26 of the Federal Immission Protection Act or section 28 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (CW)

  9. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  10. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  11. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  12. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Restoration of Natural Environment by Creation of Environmental Protection Forests in Urban Areas : Growth and development of environmental protection forests on the Yokohama National University campus

    OpenAIRE

    Miyawaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Kazue

    1988-01-01

    The creation of environmental protection forests is a basic ecological method for restorlng the natural environment in urban areas which are utilized intensively and are dominated by non-biological materials and several forms of energy (Miyawaki 1982, Miyawaki, et al. 1987). The result of "Ecological greenery planting : Tree planting" shows that seedlings of 0.5m height grew to 9m and developed into true environmental protection forests over a period of 11years. Maintenance was not required a...

  14. Environmental expectations: protecting the environment, transfer of a heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In my contribution to the Second Villigen Workshop, I want to discuss some important aspects that should be considered when a future radiation protection system is developed. As I see it, any future system of radiation protection should take public opinion much more seriously than is true today. To make this happen, specific aspects should be taken into account. Furthermore, a future radiation protection standard should guarantee not only protection of people (individuals and the collective) but also of the environment. In the first part of this paper, I want to give a few examples for shortcomings in the existing system and in current public debate. The second part recommends some important aspects that should be kept in mind in order to overcome the difficulties prevailing today. (author)

  15. Protection Of Chemolithoautotrophic Bacteria Exposed To Simulated Mars Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we stud...

  16. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  17. Nonattainment Areas for Criteria Pollutants as of 7/30/2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer contains boundaries of nonattainment areas in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 listed in the "Green Book of Nonattainment Areas for...

  18. 6k Quadrangle Boundaries for the US; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 Emergency Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Grid cells are based on densification...

  19. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  20. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva; Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri; Thiago Duarte Pimentel

    2009-01-01

    This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996), revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses...

  1. Application of radiation technology for industry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world population today is 5.7 billion and increasing by 94 million per year. In order to meet the increasing consumption of food and energy due to the tremendous population growth, unproved technologies which are environmentally friendly, are indispensable. In this context. a number of advanced technologies have been brought about by the LISC of radiation and isotopes. This paper highlights radiation technology, applications in industry, environmental conservation, and agriculture

  2. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A mod...

  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Diversity Layer (Rank)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  4. Louisiana Department of Natural Resources Conservation Districts, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Areas of oil/gas exploration/production in the state of Louisiana over which the Department of Natural Resources, Office of Conservation three district offices have...

  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Sustainability Layer (Rank)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Sustainability Layer (Raw Scores)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  7. Dynamic trend analysis on relational effect of environmental protection industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yanju; Yin Xiguo; Tan Zhixiong; Ren Yanyan

    2006-01-01

    EPI (environmental protection industry)and three industries constitute our national economic structure. By Grey SystemTheory and correlation effect analytical method for the first time, this paperanalyzes the relationship degree between environmental protection industry and the three causes including industries involved in China in both qualitative between environmental protection industry and the three causes including industries involved in China in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Both the innate rule and the realistic reasons of the relational degree are further analyzed by utilizing sustainable development theory,circulating economy theory, ecological equilibrium theory, externality theory,industrial structure theory, and ecology priority rules. From all the analysis, this paper reveals the relationship between EPI and three industries. In addition, it offers suggestions to the feasibility of adjusting the industrial structure and developing the environmental protection industry in our country.

  8. CERCLIS Non-NPL Sites in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer file displays locations of CERCLIS sites in Region 6 that are not on the National Priorities List (NPL). The layer was created by querying the regional...

  9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Composite Layer (Rank)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Diversity Layer (Raw Scores)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Composite Layer (Raw Scores)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Rarity Layer (Raw Scores)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 REAP Rarity Layer (Rank)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Ecological Assessment Protocol (REAP) is a screening level assessment tool created as a way to identify priority ecological resources within the five...

  14. Organization of accounting for expenditures connected with the environmental protection activity based on responsibility centers

    OpenAIRE

    Корнєєва, Тетяна Іванівна

    2015-01-01

    Organization of accounting for expenditures connected with environmental protection activity based on responsibility centers at the enterprises of coal industry depending on the level of influence and managerial decision-making has been improved. The detailed description of expenditures connected with environmental protection activity depending on the places of their origin and cost centers in the context of sources of contaminants’ appearance, technological processes and levels of danger for...

  15. Handbook of environmental protection and environmental protection technology. Vol. 1. Emission and its effects; Handbuch des Umweltschutzes und der Umweltschutztechnik. Bd. 1. Emissionen und ihre Wirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, H. [ed.] [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik

    1996-12-31

    This book is the first volume of the Handbook of Environmental Protection and Environment Protection Technology. After a short introduction, emission and its effect on the environmental media of air, water and soil are dealt with separately. Further, acoustic emission and the possibilities of noise reduction and radio-active emission and corresponding radiation protection measures are shown. The controversial discussed subject of electromagnetic fields and non-ionising radiation are also not excluded. The last chapter contains the effect of environmental contamination on psychic functions. This series of books will become an essential tool for every engineer and scientist who has to deal with environmental problems and environment protection. (orig.). 167 figs., 152 tabs. [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch ist der erste Band des Handbuchs des Umweltschutzes und der Umweltschutztechnik. Nach einem kurzen einfuehrenden Teil werden Emissionen und ihre Wirkung auf die Umweltmedien Luft, Wasser und Boden separat abgehandelt. Darueber hinaus werden aber auch akustische Emissionen und die Moeglichkeiten zur Laermminderung sowie radioaktive Emissionen und entsprechende Strahlenschutzmassnahmen aufgezeigt. Das kontrovers diskutierte Thema der elektromagnetischen Felder und nicht-ionisierender Strahlen wird ebenfalls nicht ausgespart. Das letzte Kapitel enthaelt die Wirkung von Umweltbelastungen auf psychische Funktionen. Diese Buchreihe wird jedem Ingenieur und Naturwissenschaftler, der sich mit Umweltproblemen und Umweltschutz auseinandersetzen muss, ein unentbehrliches Werkzeug. (orig.)

  16. Engineering technology and behavior analysis for interdisciplinary environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard P.; Geller, E. Scott

    1980-01-01

    Engineering strategies for saving environmental resources have been widespread. However, many of those engineering advances have not been widely accepted nor generally applied by large segments of the general population. This paper considers the need to examine behavioral/environmental variables in the application of engineering technology, with particular reference to specific behavioral strategies for encouraging the use of engineering technology from an interdisciplinary perspective. A model for the study of factors contributing to the solution of ecological/environmental problems is presented and examples of interdisciplinary research are described. The model implies a need for the examination of the effects of antecedent and consequent manipulation of a variety of variables including: behavioral, physiological, environmental, technical and legal conditions. It is concluded that while interdisciplinary research efforts between engineering technologists and behavioral analysts are necessary, they have not received sufficient attention in the literature nor have they focused on the comprehensive study of antecedents and consequences as they relate to ecological/environmental problems. Thus, an extended “family” of research efforts is important for the success of these efforts. PMID:22478473

  17. A theological view of environmental protection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mwambazambi

    2011-01-01

    African theologians, and indeed all humanity, should individually and collectively make a permanent commitment to environmen- tal protection. Using conceptual tools as well as sociological and theological critical analysis, it can be demonstrated how closely such concepts as politics, economics, war, culture, tech- nology, urbanisation, the Internet, globalisation, missiology, and theology are related to ecology and our natural environment. Consequently, African theologians and concerne...

  18. Environmental protection and penal law in Greece - a comparison with the German penal code on environmental matters. Der strafrechtliche Umweltschutz in Griechenland unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Deutschen Umweltstrafrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanidis, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chapter outlines the ecological situation of Greece, while the second chapter presents the legal foundations of environmental protection in Greece. Secondary laws are mentioned, as these are generally the laws in which penal liabilities are stated. The present environmental protection regulations are found to be unsatisfactory and unfit for preventing environmental damage. A new legislative structure is proposed on the basis of German environmental protection standards. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  20. Energy Efficiency & Scientific Development——2007 Beijing Energy-saving & Environmental Protection Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The whole world has been attaching great importance to energy saving and environmental protection. China is also at the risk of energy shortage with the rapid economic growth.Therefore, it has become increasingly important how to save energy and protect the environment.

  1. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  2. The future of environmental protection: A U.S. regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. has the largest number of nuclear installations of any country in the world. This puts us at an extreme end of the spectrum. As a result, I have touched on many issues relative to environmental protection. Therefore in summary, let me list these issues: Before moving ahead, look at what has been done thus far. Executive policy and a national regulatory infrastructure. - Environmental Impact Statements. - Environmental Justice. Standards determined by law or courts. Consultation with other national agencies and countries. Improving the timetable for issuing regulations and supporting guidance. Improved communications and training of staff. Transparency and flexibility throughout the regulatory process. Differences in regulatory approaches are OK, as long as the end result is to achieve sound national environmental and public health and safety policy. I believe that this series of conferences represents an excellent opportunity to come to resolution about the future of environmental regulations and policies. Having this information will assist us in harmonizing any proposed recommendation(s) for radiological protection of the environment involving commodities containing radioactive materials or unrestricted release of slightly radioactive materials by using the existing environmental radiation protection framework as a starting point. Doing so in an open, encompassing manner will, in my opinion, go a long way towards resolving some of the current controversies about radiation protection standards in the U.S., as well as around the world, with the desirable end result of increasing public confidence in our environmental radiation protection programs. (author)

  3. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate. PMID:26590146

  4. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  5. Activities of the Environmental Protection Agency concerning phthalate esters

    OpenAIRE

    Newburg-Rinn, Steven D.

    1982-01-01

    EPA's activities concerning phthalate esters have been in four general areas, namely: (1) their status as toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act; (2) their status as “new chemicals” under Section 5 of TSCA; (3) the potential risk to human beings posed by DEHP; and (4) finally, the need for testing phthalates with respect to their health and environmental effects.

  6. Environmental protection - a national and international problem to solve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents solutions for two major environmental problems - decreasing of thermal power plants pollution and air quality monitoring in ares with heavy industrial pollution. The solutions are applied in the most important Romanian fossil power plants in parallel with the retrofitting of the electrostatic precipitators. The air monitoring system, set in one of the 'hotspot' areas in Romania Baia-Mare, is described

  7. Papers of All-Polish Conference on Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings comprise papers presented at All-Polish Conference on nuclear techniques in industry, medicine, agriculture and environmental protection. Most of the papers are in the field of uses of radiation sources and particle beams in industry, radiation chemistry, nuclear medicine and dosimetry, environmental sciences

  8. Environmental protection between social responsibility, green investments and cultural values

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei, Jean; Panait, Mirela; Ene, Corina

    2014-01-01

    In a well functional and competitive economy all the entrepreneurs are aware of the importance of protecting the environment, development of local communities and the good relations with stakeholders. The necessity imposed by a sustainable development has many influences on the company’s activities because in order to equilibrate their profit`s motivation with their social and environment implications. This article is focused on the way of different investors integrated in their strategies th...

  9. The researches of medical and environmental radiation protection dose

    OpenAIRE

    盧, 暁光

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, with the development of modern radiation science, application of radiation exposure has been paid more and more attention in various fields. Although there are many benefits for human by the use of radiation in such as medical diagnose and treatment, utilization of nuclear power, more efforts should be made to radiation hazards and their control that are often neglected. The researches in this study were intended to meet the requirements with the center of radiation protection dose ...

  10. Evaluating national environmental sustainability: performance measures and influential factors for OECD-member countries featuring Canadian performance and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Calbick, Kenneth Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another poli...

  11. A methodological approach of 'environmental engineering' for the rescue and protection of a territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the methodological process, that should be followed when an environmental protection and restoration problem is dealt with, is described. Moreover the actions that 'the environmental engineer' has to carry out to study every multidisciplinary problem on territory protection and restoration are synthesized, keeping in mind that the territory knowledge and the geological hazard specification are the essential bases for research work. Finally, some typical territory protection actions against the hydrogeological failures, the quarry excavation activity and the hazardous waste disposal impact, are briefly described. (author)

  12. Supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the Swedish nuclear facilities 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in 1999. A summary of the inspections during 1999 and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 1999 have focused on the management of liquid discharges and components containing induced activity at some of the nuclear facilities. Also, routines for filing environmental samples, discharge water samples and documents were inspected at all the different nuclear facilities. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  13. EXAMINING THE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITMENTS AND ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY CONSUMPTION BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Veysel Yilmaz; Talha Arslan

    2011-01-01

    This study probes into the environmental sensitivities, environmental protection commitments and environment-friendly consumption behaviors of university students taking into consideration students’ genders, their family’s’ place of domicile and particularly the parent’s education levels. . It was found that gender, place of domicile, and particularly parent’s education level were important factors in affecting students’ environmental sensitivity and behavior. It can be concluded that the stu...

  14. Observations on the current status of environmental education in Canada: Part I. A survey of Canadian pre-service training in environmental education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towler, J.O.

    A study of practices in preservice environmental education in Canada was undertaken in 1978-79. The methodology, results, and interpretation of the study are described. Questionnaires were sent to 48 teacher training institutions to ascertain the emphasis placed on environmental training. Ecological precepts were highly emphasized, followed by outdoor education, biology, geography, and conservation. The major problems associated with environmental education were found to be lack of funding and lack of communication among educators. (2 references, 4 tables)

  15. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  16. Machine learning methods for environmental monitoring and flood protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I. I.; Lang, B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    More and more natural disasters are happening every year: floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. In order to reduce the risk of possible damages, governments all around the world are investing into development of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for environmental applications. The most important task of the EWS is identification of the onset of critical situations affecting environment and population, early enough to inform the authorities and general public. This paper describes an approac...

  17. Laws to Protect against Pollution——An interview with Pan Yue(潘岳),vice minister,the State Environmental Protection Administration(SEPA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One month after he was appointed first deputy minister of the State Environmental Protection Administration(SEPA)on January 11 2007,Pan Yue initiated the third"environmental performance evaluation storm".

  18. Radiological protection and environmental management; La proteccion radiologica y la gestion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Fonseca, A.

    2010-07-01

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  19. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  20. Environmental protection through energy conservation: A free lunch at last?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cautious analysis of demand-side management programs is presented. Utility demand-side management (DSM) programs deserve to be given full and careful consideration as a potential way to give consumers better end-use energy services for their money, utilities an edge in an increasingly competitive market, and society a way to reduce the environmental costs of energy production. But in each of these areas, DSM programs offer no free lunches and have no inherent advantages over supply-side programs. If energy conservation makes sense on economic and business grounds, it can meet the standard economic and business tests applied to most of the rest of the economy; it neither requires nor deserves to be exempt from market concepts and disciplines. If utility DSM programs make sense on environmental grounds, they should be able to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness relative to other, primarily supply-side measures society is willing to undertake in order to control environmental effects. Subsidizing DSM measures in the hope that something good will happen far upstream can waste much money and cause disappointment and frustration

  1. Radiation Protection Instrumentation for Personnel Dosimetry, Area and Environmental Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel dosimetry presents several problems for the instrument designer. For example, it is not possible to determine accurately the dose absorbed from external γ-radiation using personal dosimeters. However, their design and calibration should minimize the uncertainty of dose estimation. Several kinds-of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. Area monitoring is the measurement of radiation and radioactivity in an area to determine the hazards to which workers there are exposed. Portable and fixed area monitors suffer from different limitations and their use is complementary, The nature of the uncertainties in assessing the hazard is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Environmental monitoring provides a classic example of the need to discriminate against background. When the principle of keeping the environmental doses as low as reasonably achievable is adopted the γ doses to be measured may be smaller than the fluctuations in natural background. In this case it is necessary to discriminate between man-made and natural radiation on the bases of temporal fluctuation and photon energy differences. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system. (author)

  2. Environmental protection and stewardship of subglacial aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Peter T.; Vincent, Warwick F.

    Environmental stewardship is a guiding principle of the Antarctic Treaty System. Efforts began in the 1990s to generate specific guidelines for stewardship of many terrestrial environments, including surface lakes and rivers. The relatively recent documentation of widespread subglacial aquatic environments, and planning for acquiring samples from them, has generated a need for stewardship guidelines for these environments. In response to a request from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) created the Committee on the Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments. The committee made 13 recommendations and a decision tree as a framework and flow chart for environmental management decisions. The committee report was also largely the basis of a Code of Conduct (CoC) for the exploration of subglacial environments formulated by a Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Action Group. Both the NAS report and CoC have been used as guidance, to varying degrees, by subglacial research currently in progress.

  3. Laying Stress on Energy-Saving and Environmental Protection of Thermal Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most attraetive spot of the 11th Five-Year Plan is to change China's present mode of cconomic growth and take a road of circulative cconomy based on effective utilization of resources and environmental protection. Electric power as a basic industry,energy conservation and environmental protection will become one of its working cmphases in a period of time to come. In this connection, the journalist (Zhao Ran) from China Electric Power has exclusively interviewed Tang Yunlin, the former president of the China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. He thought that the most important thing for power industry to save energy and protect environment is to bring about the energy conservation and environmental protection in thermal power plants rather than first devclop hydropower, nuclear power and renewable energy. His viewpoints and suggestions have been recognized by many insiders.

  4. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  5. Radiation Protection and Regulation for Environmental Radiotracer Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive tracers in the environment is subject to national regulation as well as International Standards and Guidelines. These address aspects of radiation protection during transport, deployment and in the environment following deployment and are relevant not only to radiation workers and members of the public, but also to non-human biota in the receiving environment. This paper outlines the regulatory framework and safety aspects relating to radiotracing and provides examples of radiation doses modeling for humans and non-human biota. (author)

  6. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in soils and plants near four nuclear facilities in Canada. • OBT/HTO ratios in plants are higher than default value in environmental models. • OBT/HTO ratios in background soils reflect historically higher atmospheric tritium. • Implications for environmental transfer models are discussed

  7. Environmental liability and nature protection areas Will the EU Environmental Liability Directive actually lead to the restoration of damaged natural resources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.M. van den

    2009-01-01

    The EU Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) requires remedial measures when environmental damage to protected species and natural habitats occurs. Thus, the ELD offers a minimum level of protection to natural resources in its Article 2. In order to finance the restoration of environmental damage

  8. Comparative analysis of the EU criminal law for environmental protection and the Albanian one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Petrela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two main parts where the first one presents the path how the environmental issue was included in the primary legislation of the European Union (EU, starting this theoretical panorama from the first founding treaty – Treaty of Rome, in 1957. It shows that with the passing of years the environmental protection has become one of the most important fields of action of the European Community supported by the primary and secondary legislation of the EU and its several bodies with competencies in this field. The second part of the paper starts with the commitments on the environmental protection that the Albanian state has made upon signature and entrance into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU. In addition, this article presents a summary of the legislative activity in Albania regarding environmental protection in the last two decades with special focus on the time period after the approval of the current Constitution of 1998, which is the basis and origin of every legislative initiative. Furthermore, there are presented the key features of the Albanian environmental legislation, as well as the protection mechanism from the criminal legislation point of view. The presentation of the European and national reality with special focus on environmental protection serves to a comparative purpose between the two models. It also serves to draw conclusions and propose suggestions on how the Albanian legislation should be developed and improved in order to be in line with that of the European Union and effective in practice to serve the ultimate goal of environmental protection and prevention from further environmental degradation.

  9. Environmental protection of titanium alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. G.; Wood, R. A.; Seltzer, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Various concepts were evaluated for protecting titanium alloys from oxygen contamination at 922 K (1200 F) and from hot-salt stress-corrosion at 755 K (900 F). It is indicated that oxygen-contamination resistance can be provided by a number of systems, but for hot-salt stress-corrosion resistance, factors such as coating integrity become very important. Titanium aluminides resist oxygen ingress at 922 K through the formation of alumina (on TiAl3) or modified TiO2 (on Ti3Al, TiAl) scales. TiAl has some resistance to attack by hot salt, but has limited ductility. Ductile Ti-Ni and Ti-Nb-Cr-Al alloys provide limited resistance to oxygen ingress, but are not greatly susceptible to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking.

  10. Environmental Protection Legislation on China’s Energy Development and In-situ Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Jing-yu

    2012-01-01

    China’s poor energy development and in-situ conversion legislation, environment laws and energy laws lead to a severe environmental issue in energy source. This paper uses comparison and logical methods to discuss Chapter 4 of Energy Law (Draft for Soliciting Opinions). Energy development is taken as a separate chapter; in-situ energy conversion is added to energy processing and conversion, common features are summarized to form general provisions and other provisions. According to respective characteristics of system for total amount control of energy development, performance guarantee system, environmental trust fund system, energy retaining system and environmental lien system, incorporate them into energy development, in-situ energy conversion and energy processing and conversion, in the hope of solving China’s shortage of supply for environmental protection laws on energy development and in-situ conversion, responding to times of environmental protection, and optimizing China’s Energy Law.

  11. Proceedings of the twelfth national symposium on environment. Focal theme: environmental protection strategies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic development is of utmost importance for a country like India, but such a development necessarily calls for addressing the related environmental issues. Scientific approach to environmentally sound technologies and effective management of the available resources is the key to sustainable development. Accelerating such development practices has become the main agenda for the scientific and technological community the world over. In this context the Department of Atomic Energy and its constituent units including the Nuclear Power sector, have taken a lead role in the field of environmental protection through stringent regulatory measures and practices. Environmental surveillance concepts have been implemented right from the inception of every project by all DAE units. Focal theme of this proceedings is on Environmental Protection Strategies for Sustainable Development. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Radiation and Environmental Protection Programme for the First Upcoming Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia plans to operate the first nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2016. A radiation and environmental protection arrangement for NPPs is part of the whole safety system which is embedded in every practice involved radiation exposure to workers and members of public. A radiation and environmental protection programme for the NPP should adhere to international standards and mainstream in order to be acceptable to the public and international communities. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended a radiation protection standard for NPPs as studied in this paper. Focus is given to the operational aspects of radiation protection program and discharge control to the environment. Some documents related to Safety Analysis Reports were used as working examples on its implementation. The study includes the classification of working areas and access control; local rules and supervision of work; work planning and work permits; protective clothing and protective equipment; facilities, shielding and equipment; application of the principle of optimization of protection; and removal or reduction in intensity of sources of radiation. The radiological protection aspects blend together in the whole NPP practices, each individual has his/her own responsibility in association with the radiation protection program implementation. It also present in the whole steps of NPP preparation up to its decommissioning. Promise on safety improvement and significant dose reduction in the recent development in NPP technology should scrutinized so that the option of proven technology as required in commercial power reactor licensing considers this tendency. (author)

  13. Environmental Flows: Striking the Balance between Development and Resource Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Brown

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of scarce water resources through the use of environmental flows, particularly in developing countries in data-poor arid areas, raises many scientific challenges. These include transforming hydrological data into an ecologically relevant format, providing quantified predictions of river responses to flow change, describing the impacts of river change on common-property users of the rivers, providing the information in a format that decision makers can use, and guiding monitoring and adaptive management. Each of these challenges emerged in South Africa during the last two decades, when rivers and other aquatic ecosystems were enhanced in stature from having no rights to their own water to being one of only two sectors with a right to water; the other sector is for basic human needs. This paper outlines the challenges, how they are being addressed in South Africa, and perceptions of what remains to be done.

  14. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  15. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  16. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  17. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  18. Eco-Label, New Generation Instrument of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca Elena Alexandra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of Community policy on the environment and business is to contribute to sustainable development. The EU eco-label scheme (as laid down in the new Regulation (EC No1980/2000 is now part of a wider approach on Integrated Product Policy (IPP within the new Action Programme. The Commission has published a Green Paper on IPP that will be a key innovative element of future environmental policy and sustainable consumption and production. Strategically, the European ecolabel Scheme is, and will be, in line with the principles, goals and priorities of the 6th action Programme "Our Future, Our Choice". Following the Rio Summit in 1992, preparations by the EU on the overall objectives of sustainable development are underway as the year 2002 will be the year of RIO+10. 2002 will also see the 10th anniversary of the Flower label. The European eco-label is based on the vision of greeningnon-food products all over Europe in a joint and common approach of all European stakeholders brought together in the European Union Eco-labelling Board (EUEB.

  19. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  20. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands

  1. CCS - environmental protection framework for an emerging technology. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Ralf; Boehringer, Alexander; Charisse, Thomas (and others)

    2009-10-15

    With this paper, the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) updates1 its position paper of 20062 on the technical capture and geological storage3 of carbon dioxide (CCS: carbon capture and storage). After a brief description of the development status of the process steps of capture, transport and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Chapter 1, we look into the possible risks for human health and the environment (Chapter 2), which up to now have been little discussed or researched. These risks will largely depend on the integrity of storage sites. On the assumption of functioning capture technology at cost-effective conditions, the capacity of available and secure storage sites will decisively determine the scale of possible greenhouse gas emission reductions through CCS (Chapter 3). In examining storage capacity, it has always to be considered that the geological storage of CO2 can compete with other uses of underground geological formations, such as geothermics or compressed-air and natural-gas storage (Chapter 4). The Federal Environment Agency takes the view that these factors determine the role that CCS can play as an additional climate protection measure (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 we show how CCS, in its application, should be integrated into emissions trading. CO2 emission reduction should in our view only be acknowledged when it is effectively and demonstrably ensured through permanent storage. Chapter 7 deals with necessary reforms of liability law, which legislators should undertake in order to assign the dangers and risks of CCS to those responsible for them. In Chapter 8, we summarize the fundamental demands on legislators, while Chapter 9 is devoted to issues concerning the source and application of funds for research and development. (orig.)

  2. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress on international standard setting has been made in recent months. Firstly, the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods was accepted for amendment at Step 5 by the 33rd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-16 March 2001, by removing the maximum dose limit of 10 kGy. Secondly, the 3rd Session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the standard setting body of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Rome, Italy, 2-6 April 2001 agreed to develop a new international standard on irradiation as a phytosanitary measure. Finally, the Codex Committees on Pesticide Residues and on Veterinary Drug Residues agreed to accept the Guidelines on Single Laboratory Method Validation for further development as their standards. It is expected that all these developments will lead to international standards in respective fields by 2003. Following a positive development on certification of irradiation as a .sanitary and phytosanitary treatment in Asia and the Pacific through a regional workshop held in Sydney, Australia in December 2000 (see details in this issue), another regional workshop on the same subject will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the benefit of Latin American countries. A new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation to Ensure Hygienic Quality of Fresh, Pre-Cut Fruits and Vegetables and Other Minimally Processed Food of Plant Origin is now being implemented jointly with the Pan American Health Organization. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of this CRP will be held later this year. Progress made through RCMs on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities, on Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants and on Quality Control of Pesticide Products, held during the past six months, is reported in this issue

  3. FASSET - An European project for environmental protection; FASSET - Ein europaeisches Projekt fuer den Schutz der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, F. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The European research project ''FASSET'' (Framework ASSessment of Enviromental ImpacT) will provide a framework of the environmental impact of the effects of ionising radiation and will identify protection aims for the environmental protection. This project represent a collaboration of different organisations from the European community: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain, Spain, France and Germany. The German participants are the GSF-research centre for environment and health and the German radiation protection office. The project is founded by the 5{sup th} EC research programme. The existing national and international radiation protection regulations are focused to the humans. Other species, like plants and animals, are protected indirectly, if their habitat are close to urban areas or they represent a part of the food chain. The ICRP position ''if the man is protected, nature is protected as well'' is now under reconsideration by a ICRP-Taskgroup. The identification of perilled real reference organism by the FASSET-project is an working tool for the definition of the protection aims. For that purpose the project is divided into three working packages: dosimetry, exposure pathways and effects. Another working package is responsible for the developing of the concept using the results provided by the other working packages. (orig.)

  4. Jatropha curcas: sources of bioenergy for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Bio-fuels are renewable sources of energy derived from biological raw material. Two sources of biofuels, ethanol and bio-diesel, are gaining worldwide acceptance as one of the solutions for the problems of environmental degradation, energy security, restricting imports, rural employment, agricultural economy, owing to reduce dependence on oil import; savings in foreign exchange and reduced vehicular pollution. Two major biofuels for the transport sector, bio-ethanol and bio-diesel, are becoming popular in many countries across the world. Jatropha curcas L. commonly known as physic nut, Ratanjot, purgative nut or nut. Jatropha curcas L. has unique pride among the various plants because of its multiple uses like ethnomedical value, nutritional value, ornamental value, carbon sequestration potential, comparatively better fuel properties, etc., are worthy to mention. Jatropha curcas, an oil bearing, drought hardy shrub with ecological advantages has already being successfully grown and harvested as a bio fuel in countries. By the use of tissue culture technique Jatropha can be grow at higher level. By the development of tissue culture, technology for rapid multiplication of disease-free planting material has greatly facilitated mass production of quality seed with high content of bio-diesel in Jatropha. In recent years this plant has received extensive attention of many scientists in view of its great economic importance, medicinal significant and for its seed oil as commercial source of fuel. The superior quality oil can be extracted from the seeds. The oil can be used as a mixed fuel for diesel/gasoline engines. National networks namely 'national network on jatropha and karanja' constituted by involving state agricultural universities and institutions, such as CSIR, ICFRE, ICAR, CFTRI, TERI, and IIT Delhi

  5. WINRE '94: 5. Workshop on information management in nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guests from Austria, Belorussia, Britain and Bulgaria, from the Czech Republic, Estonia and Germany, from Hungary, Kazakstan and Latvia, from Poland, Romania and Russia, from the Slovak Republic, the Ukraine and from the United States of America present activities, separated into six conference sessions, dealing with: Hosts/Producers, Product/Services, Quality managament for information services, Information management in the nuclear field, Environmental data bases and related fields and Media information. (orig./HP)

  6. The environmental protection in the Republic of Lithuania. Information bulletin No 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of Lithuanian laws regulating environmental protection in Lithuania is presented. The main of them is the Law on environmental protection of the Republic of Lithuania. This law establish the main rights and duties of legal and natural persons guaranteeing the right of the population of the Republic of Lithuania to healthy and safe environment, harmonic development of the interaction between the society and nature. Among general principles of environment protection, regulation of economic activities and introduction of basis of taxation for environment pollution, the law defines the main requirements for the production and usage of radioactive materials, management of radioactive waste. According to the article 21 usage of radioactive materials for the production of nuclear weapons is prohibited. By the article 23 importation of radioactive waste into the Republic of Lithuania for storage, treatment and disposal is prohibited. Two governmental institutions - Environmental Protection Department and Ministry of Health are responsible for the preparation of regulations for the record-keeping, transportation, storage, disposal of radioactive materials as well as norms of radiation protection. The full text of the Law on taxes on the state natural resources, Law on taxes on environmental pollution are also included in this publication

  7. Regional Supervision Centres for Environmental Protection in China: Functions and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhi Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP, has set up six regional Supervision Centres for Environmental Protection (SCEPs in recent years. The creation of the SCEPs reflects the “green will” of Chinese government, to reverse the ever-worsening environmental situation throughout China by strengthening vertical supervision of the environmental laws and policies enforcement. A primary analysis focusing on the South China Supervision Centre (SCSC has clearly shown, however, that the SCEPs today can only perform well in the concrete or “small” tasks – most of them designated or handed over by the MEP – rather than in the complicated or “big” issues. To make the SCEPs do more and better, the most desirable but radical policy choice is to reshape them into fully authorised regional “sub-bureaus” of the MEP.

  8. Development and implementation of a construction environmental protection program at a solid radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refurbishment of ageing nuclear stations has great economic and environmental benefits, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The Government of New Brunswick (NB) decided in 2005 to refurbish the Point Lepreau Generating Station with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the general contractor. The project includes construction of additional radioactive waste management facilities. AECL developed, for the construction project, an environmental protection program to comply with commitments made during the environmental assessment process, and regulatory requirements. The program covers detailed environmental plans, training courses, and engagement of consultants to provide training and conduct monitoring of the construction activities. Construction related environmental effects have been successfully mitigated and the monitoring results indicate compliance with all environmental requirements. (author)

  9. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  10. Public and private spending for environmental protection: a cross-country policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    David Pearce; Charles Palmer

    2001-01-01

    OECD data are used to investigate public and private environmental expenditures and, although they are more complete and consistent than other datasets, they are still poor. This is important in the context of measuring the benefits of environmental protection, when little is really known about its actual costs. Despite these limitations, this study demonstrates that there has been no shift towards an increasing private sector burden relative to the public sector over time. The paper also fin...

  11. A Comparative Study of the World Environment Day Theme Slogans and Chinese Environmental Protection Slogans

    OpenAIRE

    Kui Zhu; Meilin Xie

    2011-01-01

    Slogans have a long history. They not only affect people’s daily language, but also influence people's consciousness and behavior. Slogans are said to be the strongest voices of the time and represent an important communication phenomenon. Therefore, a study on slogans is of great significance. Since the 1970s, the environmental problem has become the focus of the world, and the environmental protection slogans have played an important role not only in stimulating people's awareness of the en...

  12. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thermoshrinkable tubes and types possessing '' memory effect ''. Through radiation, grafting metal adsorbents and ion exchange membranes can be developed. Radiation is early applied tool in the area of nanomaterials engineering; arrangement of atoms and ions has been performed using ion or electron beams for many years. New trends concern surface curing and development of ion track membranes and controlled release drug-delivery systems. Finally, radiation processing concerns gem stones colorization, development of high temperature resistant fibers (SiC) and semiconductor modification. Over the past few years, radiation processing technologies aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment have been developed. It has been demonstrated that radiation processing based technologies for flue gas treatment (SOX and NOX removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Electron beam technology is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. This is a dry-scrubbing process of simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal, where no waste except the fertilizer by-product are generated.The other possibility is application of the process for VOC removal. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO2 and NOx removal. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%. The chlorocarbons including dioxins may be removed with high efficiency as well [57, 58]. During the radiolysis of water reactive radicals of strong oxidizing or reducing properties are formed that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. A large number of substances such as hard surfactants, lignin, pesticides cannot be degraded by conventional biochemical methods and thus escape from decomposition in biological treatment. Research and industrial

  13. Formation of the environmental protection activities mechanism in the field of agricultural environmental management

    OpenAIRE

    I. Vlasenko

    2014-01-01

    Methodological approaches to the formation of conservation mechanism in the agricultural environmental management in terms of compensation for ecological and economic costs, based on the economic optimum of negative impact of economic activity on the environment, and are based on the sectoral and territorial principles, have been improved. The introduction of this mechanism would ensure the inclusion of environmental impacts in the structure of financial interests among economic entities of a...

  14. The Idea of Sustainable Development to Reconcile the Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreselassie, Abeba T.

    2010-01-01

    requirements of the environmental protection of plant genetic resources (for example by the Convention on Biological Diversity [CBD]) into the intellectual property protection of plant genetic resources (patent laws and plant variety protection laws). The Article argues that, first, as the discussion in the...... /International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources on Food and Agriculture [IT-PGRFA] and plant intellectual property laws, and Agreements have to be considered as one way for developed countries to fulfill the many promises given to developing countries under different laws, agreements and declarations such as...

  15. Toward integrated environmental management for challenges in water environmental protection of Lake Taihu basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin'Geng; Gu, Gang; Higano, Yoshiro

    2006-05-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China. It serves many social, economic, and ecological purposes in the drainage basin. Unfortunately, the water has been heavily polluted due to rapid industrialization and urbanization during the last two decades. Notwithstanding great efforts made so far to improve the water quality, the environmental situation is still far from being optimistic. The basin and the lake are facing a range of severe environmental challenges: rapid socio-economic development continues to place great pressures on the environment, current pollution control projects have many problems from the viewpoint of effectiveness and efficiency of their implementations, and the non-point sources of pollution such as agricultural fields, for which control is more difficult than for industrial point sources, have become the main contributors to serious eutrophication of the lake. Considering the characteristics of the environmental challenges and problems confronting the basin and the lake, we focus on integrated environmental management (IEM) as a promising and effective approach to overcome these predicaments. Current practices and problems of environmental management in the basin are examined, and potential future developments are discussed. Three aspects of the IEM are emphasized: institutional cooperation, public participation, and internalization of environmental externalities. We think these are the most critical for not only the basin but also for the whole of China to achieve a sustainable society. PMID:16508802

  16. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  17. Assessing the performance of Taiwan’s environmental protection system with a non-radial network DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies involving environmental performance purely focus on analyzing environmental or waste treatment efficiencies. This study combines various aspects of environmental protection and establishes a non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the performance of an environmental protection system. The empirical methodology assumes that the system consists of three stages: administrative, executive processes, and protection effectiveness. The executive process includes waste treatment and pollution auditing divisions. In addition to assessing efficiencies, the empirical evaluation further explores the internal and external influences on performances and contributes implications and suggestions for environmental policy makers. The proposed model is utilized to gauge the performance of an environmental protection system for 20 municipalities in Taiwan. The results indicate the following: (1) for improving environmental quality, the government needs to put forth greater efforts in environmental audits; (2) improving productivity per unit so as to increase achievements in the executive process is more important for raising performance on environmental work, in addition to increasing workers and equipment for environmental protection; (3) a high degree of industrialization negatively influences administrative efficiency and educated residents have a greater comprehension for administrative operations, which can help in efficient budget utilization. - Highlights: • A non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the Performance of Environmental Protection System. • The performance of waste treatment performs better than the efficiency of auditing. • Governmental expenditure is more efficiently utilized in the administrative process. • The effectiveness of achieved protection is a critical indicator for revealing environmental quality in a region

  18. Law on Preventive Radiation Protection. A link between environmental protection and civil defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection defines the legal framework of and the measures to be taken for achieving the purpose of the law, with competences being assigned to a variety of authorities of the Bund or Laender. The bill very quickly passed Parliament and this indeed is a very positive result, as the subject is a delicate one, politically speaking, but the disadvantages of the short law-making period are realized when going through the various provisions. There is a lack of exactness regarding terms and definitions, legal systematics, or assignment of competences. Also, lack of clear demarcation of applicability of the law against other laws in this field is likely to pose problems in practice. The article also presents a survey of tasks and competences assigned to the Bund or the Laender, and the relevant authorities concerned. (orig./HSCH).

  19. The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection. A link between environmental protection and civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Law on Preventive Radiation Protection defines the legal framework of and the measures to be taken for achieving the purpose of the law, with competences being assigned to a variety of authorities of the Bund or Laender. The bill very quickly passed Parliament and this indeed is a very positive result, as the subject is a delicate one, politically speaking, but the disadvantages of the short law-making period are realized when going through the various provisions. There is a lack of exactness regarding terms and definitions, legal systematics, or assignment of competences. Also, lack of clear demarcation of applicability of the law against other laws in this field is likely to pose problems in practice. The article also presents a survey of tasks and competences assigned to the Bund or the Laender, and the relevant authorities concerned. (orig./HSCH)

  20. United States Department of Energy Richland Field Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1992--November 9, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable Federal, State and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each DOE Field Office prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update the plan annually. This update to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1989a), initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued to comply with the order

  1. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance New Mapping Tool for Enforcement Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The new mapping tool shows facilities in the United States where the EPA concluded formal environmental enforcement actions between October 1, 2008 and September...

  3. Environmental technology. Toshiba's approach to environmental protection. Kankyo gijutsu. Toshiba group no kankyo hozen eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoi, Y. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    The present report introduces the vicissitude of Toshiba Group's grappling with the preservation of global environment since its start in 1988. Positioned at the top of Toshiba's entire organization, the Global Environmental Committee deals with all matters concerning the administration, engineering, production and sales, and take actions for the preservation to concretize the 'Freonless, Recycling, Energy-saving and Earth-protection'. Its sub-organization comprises the Environmental Technology Promotion Committee, Environmental Protection Management Committee and Product Recycling Legal Committee. Cycling through 'Plan-Do-See' is being executed. Given to the motto for the environment preserving action, the particular symbol mark of 'Free+2A' is having 2A executed. The 2A stands for the 'Action Plan' and 'Auditing'. The execution result is duly reported to the administration conference which is Toshiba's highest decision-making organ. Together with the environment managing action, connection must be built up between the system of social economy and vicissitude of technological development. Toward the political and industrial fields in Japan and abroad, the 'Voluntary Plan' has been stepping ahead since 1993 for the environmental preservation. 5 figs.

  4. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F., III; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  5. Dose assessment and environmental monitoring to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's environmental radiation standards for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations in 1977 setting forth environmental radiation protection standards for uranium fuel cycle facilities. The regulations require that radioactivity in planned effluent releases from uranium fuel cycle facilities (radon and its daughters excepted) be limited so that no member of the public receives an annual dose equivalent of more than 25 mrem to the whole body, 75 mrem to the thyroid, or 25 mrem to any other organ. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for assuring that licensees' uranium fuel cycle facilities meet these requirements. Since issuing environmental radiation protection standards, NRC developed a method for radiological assessment to demonstrate compliance with standards covering uranium mills, UF6 conversion, and fuel fabrication facilities. Generally, this includes models for atmospheric transport, pathway analysis, and dose assessment. For certain unique facilities, the models may not be adequate to demonstrate compliance without using a supplemental environmental monitoring program, i.e., actual measurement of radionuclide concentration, particle size distribution, and solubility of particulates in air. We will discuss the dose assessment models; their inadequacies to demonstrate compliance for certain unique facilities; and the ways environmental monitoring can be used to provide reasonable assurance that standards are met. Design criteria for a cost-effective monitoring program will be discussed

  6. Canadian cogeneration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aggressive cogeneration industry has developed in Canada, and is becoming a tool for provincial utilities to manage the procurement of independently generated power, while restricting plant size, maximizing socioeconomic benefit, minimizing environmental impacts and managing their own risks. An overview is presented of the economics of cogeneration in Canada. The Canadian cogeneration industry is driven by 3 key economic factors: utility power sale contracts, fuel pricing, and tax benefits. Utility cogeneration purchases, tax benefits, fuel prices, cogeneration efficiency, fuels, fuel strategies, displacement projects, solid fuel vs natural gas, operating flexibility, gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators, industrial and aeroderivative units, combined cycle steam turbines, steam injection, supplementary or duct firing, financial aspects and project management are discussed. 15 figs., 7 tabs

  7. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... by Managing Non-Native Ungulates, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, HI AGENCY: National Park Service... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... by managing non-native ungulates. The NPS preferred alternative is ``Alternative D:...

  8. Juvenile criminal recidivism : relations with personality and post release environmental risk and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the present dissertation is to get more insight in the contribution of personality traits and post release environmental risk and protective factors on juvenile criminal recidivism. One year after their release from a juvenile detention centre, a sample of 60 adolescent male offen

  9. Provincial soil-quality monitoring networks in the Netherlands as an instrument for environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink, E.R.V.; Postma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, several provinces in the Netherlands have put much effort in establishing soil-quality monitoring networks. The purpose of these networks is to provide insight in the trends in (geochemical) soil quality, on which new policies for environmental protection can be based, such as restrictio

  10. 2005 China- Britain Standardization Conference -Environmental Protection ·Energy Saving & Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 China-Britain Standardization Conference was held at Beijing International Convention Center on June 29th 2005, jointly hosted by Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC) and British Standards Institute (BSI), with "Environmental Protection . Energy Saving & Standardization" as its theme.

  11. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had on the...

  12. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  13. 75 FR 75847 - 40th Anniversary of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-30809 Filed 12-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8611 of December 2, 2010 40th Anniversary of the Environmental Protection...-being of future generations, and the vitality of our economy. Just four decades ago, smog...

  14. 77 FR 15121 - Final Land Protection Plan and Final Environmental Assessment for Everglades Headwaters National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... September 8, 2011, we published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 55699) announcing the proposed... published a Federal Register notice (76 FR 66321) announcing the extension of the comment deadline to... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Land Protection Plan and Final Environmental Assessment for...

  15. Submission to Energy and Mines Ministers Conference by the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all of the oil and natural gas in Canada is transported from supply basins to customers across the country through the critical network operated by the members of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA). More than 50 per cent of the liquid hydrocarbons transported last year were exported to the United States. The issues discussed in this paper are pipeline safety and integrity, landowner relations, climate change, Aboriginal consultation, and economic regulation and taxation. Each of these topics is discussed in detail. CEPA members are working closely with industry partners and their associations in both the United States and Canada, especially so since the events of September 11, as well as with federal and provincial governments in the field of critical infrastructure protection. Landowners agree to the tune of 87 per cent with the statement to the effect that Canadians can trust pipelines to safely transport oil and natural gas products across the country. CEPA members continue to strive to meet the communication and information needs of stakeholders. Climate change poses significant challenges to the industry, which is committed to doing its part to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consultation with Aboriginals is taking place in the eight provinces and two territories where CEPA members operate. The issues discussed are environmental protection, preservation of cultural and heritage resources, education and training, employment, contracting, and business opportunities. A vital component of the Canadian economy, the pipeline industry improves the quality of life for all Canadians, but the regulators are awarding low rates of return, creating a disadvantage for Canadians in the marketplace. Adjustments in this field are required, in the opinion of CEPA members. The current Capital Cost Allowance (CCA) rate for pipeline compressor assets is an issue that is being defended by CEPA members along with the Canadian Gas Association and

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  17. Numerical Modeling of EMF Distribution Around Transmitters in View of the Latest Environmental Protection Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented software, based on the superposition method, is used to calculate the distribution of electromagnetic field (EMF) within the frequency range of 30 MHz-4 GHz for a fixed set of observation points located in the neighborhood of antenna systems and to visualize the results of calculations according to regulations on the environmental protection and occupational health and safety currently binding in Poland. A brief characteristic of the electromagnetic field around transmitters, objectives and methods used in EMF distribution modeling, especially with use of the superposition method are presented. Requirements to meet current Polish regulations on the environmental protection in terms of the human protection against nonionizing electromagnetic radiation as well as examples of calculations of EMF distribution around the transmitter with defined parameters are also discussed. (author)

  18. SMALL WATER RETENTION IN LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS OF WARTA RIVER MUNICIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Bernaciak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities according to existing environmental law ought to have regularly updated local environmental protection programs. Part of the municipalities in Poland, unfortunately, does not comply this requirement. In a changing and contrasting climate with increasing frequency of rainfall absence periods, the problems related to small water retention are becoming increasingly relevant and important. The aim of the study was to identify the actions assumed by municipalities in the area of the water protection and management in the local environmental protection programs. Municipalities lying in the immediate vicinity of the Warta River should treat these issues as particularly important. On the basis of the analysis, it was found that the area of water management is dominated by the tasks related to construction of wastewater treatment plants and sewerage systems. None of the analysed programs has a small water retention as priority, and only one program has a small water retention as a goal, but with regard to flood protection. A small water retention is included in environmental programs in relatively large numbers as the tasks, but it is only 5–6% of all tasks. This may suggest a slight degree of actual attention given by local authorities to the area of ​​small water retention, or not recognizing this type of action, as carried out by other entities. One of the main potential causes of small water retention marginal treatment in local environmental protection programs may be the treatment of the construction or expansion of the sanitary network and construction of sewage treatment plants as the priority due to the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program realisation.

  19. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  20. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  1. Environmental protection expenditure in 2010 - Report from the environment public accounts and economics commission - 2012 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expenditure related to the activities of environmental protection reached nearly 46 billion euros in 2010, up 3.1%, despite a fall in investment (1.5%). The expenditure, which had slowed down in 2009, resumed its rate of progression in 2010 this latter was still lower than between the years 2000 and 2008, when annual increase exceeded 5.3%. The dynamics of environmental protection expenditure is connected with the one of the gross domestic product at current prices, whose growth was interrupted in 2009 and resumed in 2010 (2.7%). The trend reversal observed previously for investments in the environmental protection domains continued and the downturn begun in 2009 went on (down 1.5% in 2010). Except for wastewater management and noise abatement, expenditures in the various fields of environmental protection increase, in particular those for waste management. The share of the financial effort between agents did not change much, the private enterprises still were bearing the largest relative share of total expenditure (36.4%). There was a significant increase (10.9%) for those of followed expenditures in natural resource use and management area (recovery/recycling, intake and distribution of water), very sensitive to price changes in the recovery sector. In 2010, the production of eco-activities reached almost 70 billion euros, up 8.5%. The environmental employment rose significantly (4.5%), and amounted to 452 600 full-time equivalent jobs in 2010. The environmental job market was less dynamic in 2011 than it had been in the past years, the number of applications increased slightly (0.7%) and the one of situations vacant rose a little more (2.1 %), while the increases for all types jobs were more marked. (authors)

  2. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  3. PROBLEMS OF ENGINEERING PROTECTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF COSTAL URBAN AREAS OF SMALL RIVERS IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbanov S. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to actual problems of ecological monitoring of conditions of small rivers in the North Caucasus and southern Russia. We are giving here the results of researches of natural and economic conditions and the current state of the river Nalchik near the city of Nalchik, which is typical for many small rivers. The materials of engineering researches and inspections of the territory of the urbanized areas of the river are brought with the detailed analysis of the results of the destroyed and broken areas. We describe the causes of the destruction of man-made protective and regulatory structures and the factors of their impact on the water protecting coastal zone and the hydrological regime of rivers. The effective method of regulation of short sites of the small rivers with use of groins and flexible biopositive nature protection technologies is offered. According to the complex research effective measures to improve the ecological state of the rivers on the example of Nalchik are offered. The rationale for the development of environmental monitoring in all urbanized coastal zones of small rivers and their cadastral registration is made. The main findings of the analytical and experimental research on different areas specific to the small rivers of the North Caucasus and southern Russia are brought here

  4. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  5. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  6. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Environmental Protection... Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office I Appendix I to Chapter 15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter...

  7. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... program (40 CFR part 80, subpart I). (ii) The average daily domestic refinery run for a refinery is the... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations...

  8. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A.

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  9. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems' environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I ampersand C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I ampersand C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I ampersand C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software

  10. The role of international organizations with regard to environmental protection - the situation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international organisations more readily than most of the states accepted the idea that environmental protection cannot be achieved by compensation for damage or remedial actions in case of emergencies. They soon fostered an environmental policy intended to prevent pollution by creating a suitable, internationally accepted concept of requirements and procedures. Their activities in the last two decades largely contributed to an eventual reappraisal of approach by the states, which lead from a rather incoherent series of regional or national activities to an international, much more coherent concept of environmental policy. The international organisations also realised that efficient enforcement of pollution control measures will be guaranteed only by an adequate system of international laws, which still is to be agreed upon by the states. There still is a considerable lack of certainty of the law, with environmental problems increasingly pressing for a solution. (orig./HSCH)

  11. Environmental orientation of large energy companies? The large four and their contribution to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is aimed to study the motivation and willingness for environmental engagement of the four large German energy companies RWE, E.ON, Vattenfall and EnBW. The two changes of political appraisal of nuclear energy by the German government occurred during the project. The work covers the following issues: Governance and climate policy, multi-level governance, corporate governance; climate topics in the management practice, energy policy and climate policy, national and international aspects, initiatives and engagement; research design and empirical investigations.

  12. US Environmental Protection Agency's assessment of environmental impacts of TENORM radiation sources: The example of uranium mining TENORM wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 30 years the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted field, laboratory, and scientific literature studies on a variety of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials. In doing so, EPA has recognized that the physical and chemical characteristics of these wastes and products can vary significantly, and the Agency is conducting detailed evaluations of these radioactive materials on an industry-by-industry basis. An example of the Agency's current efforts to characterize and assess the risks of these materials from the uranium mining industry in a technical report is presented along with information on EPA's current field and laboratory studies. (author)

  13. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  14. Tax-privileged promotion of environmental protection. Die steuerliche Foerderung des Umweltschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    It is still not quite clear in some cases which effects statuory measures for the protection of the environment will have on tax law. This special publication is to present a survey of legislation and possibilities in tax and accounting policy for industrial enterprises. An important aspect in this context is the accumulation of reserve funds under public law provisions. The publication also gives information on how to treat restoration expenditures in the balance sheets and how to assess contaminated industrial premises, and informs of acts and ordinances which grant privileges for environmental protection measures. The annex cites appropriate texts from laws and guidelines. (orig./HSCH).

  15. Dynamics of Sewage Charge Policies, Environmental Protection Industry and Polluting Enterprises—A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The game model of sewage charges, based on incremental mode, was developed. Four modes of high/low sewage charge standards were utilized to analyze the relationship between control strategy on sewage discharge and the development of environmental protection industry. Results showed that the selection of control strategy was heavily dependent on the level of sewage charges. An empirical study was carried out to investigate the environmental protection industry in 31 regions in China in 2010. It was revealed that the sewage charge standards, formulated by the local governments and the development of environmental protection industry, varied significantly in different regions. The optimal level of environmental quality and social welfare, as a whole, was not achieved in China. It is proposed that different regions should adopt different sewage charges standards based on their economic development level and the current environmental quality. Similarly, the scientific and technological innovation of environmental protection industry should be further strengthened.

  16. Distorted competition or environmental protection? State funding of electric-powered cars; Wettbewerbsverzerrung oder Umweltschutz? Staatliche Foerderung der Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Nicole Denise [Kanzlei Dr. Rademacher, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-10-17

    With respect to Article 20a of te Constitutional Law, the environmental protection in Germany enjoys constitutional status and is supported by the majority of Germans. The support of electrically powered cars by the state or by the automotive industry and energy industry could be an important step forward towards environmental protection and climate protection, and it can design the production or marketing more attractive. There are legal issues to be clarified when the state intervenes by means of subsidies.

  17. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory (through the fourth quarter of 1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  18. Environmental Protection Department's well inventory (through the fourth quarter of 1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  19. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture with special reference to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two distinct types of nuclear applications in food and agriculture has been described and discussed their reference to environmental protection. The first is the use of radiation to alter genes of crop plants, to sterilize insects or to kill insects or microbes (e.g. in food preservation process). Second type is the use of isotopic tracers to study plant and their animal nutrition and to trace pesticides and residues in plants, animals, food and the environment. It has been proved that all types on nuclear applications in food and agriculture results in less environmental impact and in less use of chemicals. 15 figs

  20. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  1. Environmental Protection Department's well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  2. Researches carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of works, accomplished by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, related to evaluation of the nuclear facilities effect on the environmental medium, are considered. The analytical results of studies on the environmental radioactivity with an account of meteorological aspects, evaluation of the nuclear facilities impact on the environmental medium are presented. Studies on the radionuclide behavior in the environmental medium cover large range of problems: distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in the surface medium and their migration; evaluation of the human radiation doses on the account of radionuclides; environmental medium protection and risk evaluation. The method for measuring the 90Sr concentrations with application of ion-exchange tars and a simple method for determining the radon activity with application of liquid scintillators were developed in the process of the study on creation of the environmental medium monitoring. The studies, related to the content and behavior of tritium, Pu, 137Cs, 247Am, as well as mercury and other heavy metals in the environmental medium were carried out. The methods for evaluating the NPPs radiation effect on the population with an account of the radioactive substances releases both by normal operation and in the emergency situations, were developed. Attention is also paid to research programs and developed codes

  3. Ten Years of Addressing Children’s Health through Regulatory Policy at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Kemp, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Background Executive Order (EO) 13045, Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks, directs each federal agency to ensure that its policies, programs, activities, and standards address disproportionate environmental health and safety risks to children. Objectives We reviewed regulatory actions published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Federal Register from April 1998 through December 2006 to evaluate applicability of EO 13045 to U.S. EPA action...

  4. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 11, No. 2, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environmental Protection Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Agrochemicals Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory implements the food and environmental safety subprogramme that provides assistance in four main areas, namely, coordinating and supporting research, providing technical and advisory services, providing laboratory support and training, and collecting, analyzing and disseminating information, primarily in areas related to the use of ionizing radiation, pesticide and veterinary drug residues, and radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. Many of our subprogramme activities are undertaken in collaboration with other international bodies, such as the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, by providing direct support in their efforts to enhance food quality and safety, protect consumers and promote trade in food and agricultural products. This assistance is primarily directed to the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods, the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues and the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods

  5. Water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize sustainable development of the arid area of Northwest China, rational water resources exploitation and optimization are primary prerequisites. Based on the essential principle of sustainable development, this paper puts forward a general idea on water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin, and identifies the competitive multiple targets of water resources optimization. By some qualitative methods such as Input-output Model & AHP Model and some quantitative methods such as System Dynamics Model & Produce Function Model, some standard plans of water resources optimization come into being. According to the Multiple Targets Decision by the Closest Value Model, the best plan of water resources optimization, eco-environmental protection and sustainable development in Qaidam Basin is finally decided.

  6. PROSPECTS OF CCS PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION IN RUSSIA: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Tcvetkov; Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of environmental protection is determined by its intensive change because of human impact, which, among other things, accompanied by an increasing of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. One of the ways to reduce the emission is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies. To date, developed countries have successfully implemented a number of CCS demonstration projects. Their main purpose is to study the effectiveness of CO2 storage. Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of ...

  7. Lean processing and labour, health and environmental protection; Lean-Processing und AGU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschinsky, Joerg [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Zentralbereich ZB 3 - Arbeits-, Gesundheits- und Umweltschutz

    2011-06-15

    The company aim of RAG is to link lean processing and labour, health and environmental protection in order to create efficient and safe working processes. In a cycle values are recognised, optimum sequences organised and these carried out without interruption and secured to enable recognition of possibilities of improvement. Lean is the total orientation towards the customer in the striving for efficiency and effectiveness. (orig.)

  8. Limitations of Certification and Supply Chain Standards for Environmental Protection in Commodity Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt B. Waldman; John M. Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent increases in water pollution in major US agricultural watersheds and by the shortcomings of government programs to control non–point source pollution, this paper examines the prospects for using product certification (ecolabeling) and business-to-business supply chain standards for environmental protection in commodity crop production. We introduce the sources of demand for certification and supply chain standards and the political and economic context in which they have e...

  9. Solid state nuclear track detectors and their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors are electrically non conductive solids, mainly used for the registration of α-particles and neutron induced recoils. The stability of the particle tracks in the solid allow longer integration periods, what is essential for the measurement of small, time variant radiation exposures. This report gives an overview on non-photographic track detectors, their processing, dosimetric properties and examples for their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection. (orig.)

  10. Technical advance in China's petroleum exploitation and production and its environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingchun, Li; Wei, Fan; Jialin, Wang; Yong, Li

    2010-09-15

    China has gained great development in the fields of petroleum exploitation and production, and these achievements provide reservation for China's energy safety. Some of them may strengthen the environment protection from the source, while some of them may bring certain environmental pressure. This study analyses the opportunities and the challenges brought by the technology development and gives countermeasures for decrease the negative impact of technology development.

  11. The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    A Azadeh, J Nouri, I Mohammad Fam

    2005-01-01

    Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD) on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total human engineering or macroergonomics. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal ...

  12. The value of superfund cleanups : evidence from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shreekant; Van Houtven, George; Cropper, Maureen L.; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Under the Superfund law, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for inspecting hazardous waste sites and for putting those with the most serious contamination problems on a national priorities list. The EPA then oversees the cleanup of these sites, suing potentially responsible parties for the costs of cleanup when possible, and funding the cleanup of"orphaned"sites out of the Superfund, money raised taxing chemical and petroleum products. The Superfund program is contr...

  13. GIS - An open window for environmental protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: GIS platforms provide a useful tool to organize, analyze and illustrate geographically linked data. The combination between layers of general interest (traffic, water bodies, land cover, territorially - administrative units, landscape, a.s.o.) and those concerning the environmental protection at nuclear plants (industrial perimeter, pollution sources, risk zones, radioactivity maps based on monitoring data, etc.) could be used to illustrate potential or actual impacts, to assist risk analysis and emergency planning, and to facilitate the decision making. (authors)

  14. Environmental monitoring and radiation protection programs of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system for monitoring and control as an important part of the safety management of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository contains two independent programs: environmental monitoring of the site (controlled area), the restricted access area and the surveillance area (supervised area) of the repository and radiation protection program including personal dosimetric control and indoor dosimetric control of workplaces in the buildings of the repository. The main activities related to the programs implementation are presented

  15. China Committed to Environmental Protection with Increase of Clean Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Construction of the West-East gas transmission pipeline is a significant decision that the Chinese government made at the turn of the century, aiming at bringing the long-term benefits to the Chinese people. The project, starting from Tarim basin in West China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region and ending in Shanghai on China's eastern coastline, will stimulate the western economic development,accelerate adjustment of the eastern energy consumption structure and improve the environmental protection in the areas along the giant pipeline.

  16. Engineering the Environment: Regulatory Engineering at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1970-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Min

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation addresses how engineers, scientists, and bureaucrats generated knowledge about pollution, crafted an institution for environmental protection, and constructed a collective identity for themselves. I show an important shift in regulators\\' priorities, from stringent health-based standards to flexible technology-based ones through the development of end-of-pipeline pollution control devices, which contributed to the emergence of economic incentives and voluntary management progr...

  17. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Pollution prevention workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 25-27, 1991, a workshop was held in Williamsburg, VA, to review Multi-media (air, water, land) data on environmental releases from Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. Following the data review and a Refinery tour, breakout sessions were held to brainstorm on various topics including (1) process changes to reduce emissions, (2) groundwater protection, (3) criteria for ranking alternatives, (4) permitting issues, (5) general obstacles and incentives, and (6) maintenance and operating practices

  18. Methodology for selection of the most convenient ore tranportation system in regard to the environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2013-01-01

    Тhis paper identifies the components necessary to develop a decision analysis framework on issues concerning the environmental protection, to facilitate the selection of a multi-criteria decision analysis process, and thereafter to provide guidance on the implementation of the selected multi-criteria decision analysis method within the larger context of the people, processes, and tools used in decision making. The main subject of research of this paper is the establishment of a...

  19. Environmentally protected areas and local development in the 2000-2006 regional policies

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaello Cervigni; Sabrina Lucatelli; Aline Pennisi

    2008-01-01

    Nature is an important resource which can enhance Italy’s territorial competitiveness. Nature reserves cover about ten per cent of the territory and are even more concentrated in Southern Italy. In order to draw upon such an asset effectively, an overall strategy should be applied to the environmentally protected areas, which call for institutional reinforcement and closer integration with the surrounding areas. This article provides a territorial analysis of the projects financed within the ...

  20. Freshwater aquaculture in the United States: Complying with environmental protection law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, M.

    1993-01-01

    The author deal with the relations between the freshwater fish culture and the many regulations of the environmental protection in USA. The author develops the federal and state administrative frameworks (federal government administration of aquaculture, the state government administration of aquaculture), the freshwater aquaculture and water rights, the freshwater aquaculture and wetlands regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and water quality regulation, the freshwater aquaculture and wild...

  1. The right to defend the environment: The protection of the environmental defenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Borrás

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing degradation of the environment and competitiveness on the exploitation of the natural limited resources demonstrates not only serious impacts on the environment, but also it generates important social impacts. The defenselessness which the victims of the environmental degradation face, as victims also of violations of human rights, has given origin to a movement of resistance led by the so called «environmental defenders», who, beyond the activism, try to protect the environment and to defend the most vulnerable groups affected by this type of environmental aggressions. This has led to the recent and worrying proliferation of abuses against the human rights of these people. The frequency of murders and threats that the defenders suffer, the infringement of the rights of its peoples and the subsequent impunity of the authors of these serious violations generate the need to point out the existing problems in the identification of this reality, in its recognition and legal protection and of analyzing which is the protection and assistance, that from the international area, these persons are awarded in situation of high risk.

  2. Some aspects of environmental protection in the Northery Bohemia area affected by the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of ground and surface waters is described at the uranium deposit of Straz pod Ralskem - Hamr where uranium ore is mined both conventionally and by underground leaching and uranium ore is processed chemically. The protection of ground water is provided by a dense network of hydrogeological wells which are monitored and assessed on a quarterly basis. A decontamination station has been designed for water treatment comprising all technologies current in decontamination. Its capacity is 1 m3/s. A water treatment plant with a capacity of 0.05 m3/s is used for treating acid salinated solutions. The planting of green belts is designed for the environmental protection of the nearby town. (E.S.). 2 figs., 4 refs

  3. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment of the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attitude of the Canadian public to the mining industry as a whole has changed in recent years to one of mistrust because of the public perception of mining as environmentally harmful and humanly degrading. In addition, uranium mining has had to cope with the public fear of radiation. The uranium mining industry is closely regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board, not only in the area of radiation protection but also in other fields affecting worker health and safety. Uranium mining has been the subject of many hearings in Canada, and all but one have concluded that it is environmentally and socially acceptable. It is up to the mining industry to convey this message to the public

  4. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  5. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyukhin, Sergei A.; Mikheev, Nikolai B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkovskii, Leo N.; Reshetov, Leo A.; Zvetkova, Marianna Ya. [All-Russian Research Institute of Atomic Machine-Building, Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Yagodkin, Ivan V.; Osipov, Viktor P.; Skvortsov, Sergei S. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Berkovich, Viktor M.; Taranov, Gennadii S.; Grigor' ev, Mikhail M. [Institute ' Atomenergoproekt' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Meshkov, Vladimir M.; Noskov, Andrei A.; Mitrofanov, Mikhail I. [ROSENERGOATOM Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  6. Monitoring environmental pollution by ko-INAA for environmental protection in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding to the 2005-2007FNCA program decided, the NAA technique based on the ko-method has been used to determine a concentration of pollutant as function of time and location. This program carries out to monitor a pollutant in the marine environmental sample. Marine samples of sediment, seawater and a clamp, as well as, a green oyster collected from a selected location at north of Banten province and the Bay of Jakarta. Sampling have been carried out twice a year. For background, same sample have been collected at the sampling point located at south-west of Banten. Sediment and biota sample were prepared for NAA determination, meanwhile seawater have been prepared for polarographic measurement. Marine Sediment and biota samples, as well as flux monitor, have been irradiated at a rabbit system facility of RSG GA Siwabessy reactor with a thermal neutron flux of about 2.6.10+17 n.m-2.s-1. Identification of (n, γ) reaction product has been done using a high resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Analysis of γ-ray emitted by activation product have been done using Hyperlab software, while the elemental quantitative analysis have been done by the ko-INAA procedure using ko-IAEA software. The analytical quality was controlled by use of certified reference material of NIST 2702 Marine Sediment, SRM NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue, crm NMIJ 7302a Sediment and CRM No. 9 Sargasso. As preliminary result, the numbers of interested elements in sediments samples were determined to be of about 20 and should be presented in this workshop. Some results of ko-INAA assessment will also be reported and discussed. (author)

  7. Multimodal aspects of CSR communication related to gender empowerment and environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    on a social semiotics perspective upon multimodal discourse analysis, the paper intends to determine what types of knowledge are communicated in the persuasive discourse and what kinds of legitimating and evaluative strategies are employed. The discursive construction of these types of knowledge is......Purpose – This paper explores how the multimodal persuasive strategies of CSR communication related to Coca-Cola’s “5 by 20” succeed to highlight the company’s continuous commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection. Launched in 2010, “5 by 20” is a program designed to empower 5...... communities due to the implementation of this program. The environmental concerns are embedded in their activities. Approach – Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis, gender theory and environmental communication, the paper proposes...

  8. The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    tool in environmental protection. Design: The 3 features by which this diet shift affects the environment—composition, transport (import), and type of production (organic/conventional)—were separately investigated by using life cycle assessment. Results: When both diet composition and transport were......Background: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional, and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy, and sustainable diet containing 35% less meat than the Average Danish Diet (ADD); more whole-grain products, nuts, fruit, and vegetables; locally grown food...... in season; and >75% organic produce. The environmental impact of the 2 diets was compared based on 16 impact categories, which were monetized to evaluate the overall socioeconomic effect of a shift from an ADD to an NND. Objective: The objective was to determine whether this diet shift can be an effective...

  9. Environmental protection management by monitoring the surface water quality in Semenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana SÂMBOTIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment seems to have been the war against all. In fact recently most people polluted the environment and those few are cared for his cleaning. Today, the relationship evolvedas societies have changed in favour of ensuring environmental protection. With modern technology, performance, monitoring the environment becomes part of human activity ever more necessary, more possible and more efficient. The quality of the environment, its components: air, water, soil, plants, vegetable and animal products, is a condition "sine qua non" for the life of the modern man. The consequences of environmental pollution areso dangerous that modern man cannot afford considering them. Through this paper I will study the environmental quality by monitoring the surfaces waters from the Semenic- Gărâna area.

  10. Environmental state on the territory of the municipality of Loznica: the basis of integral planning protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of existing environmental conditions in certain area represents the basis of its further protection, quality improvement and planning of future activities according to sustainable development, potentials and weaknesses of that area and certain needs of local population. There are few different sources of environmental pollution in the municipality of Loznica, and some of them have "important" influences on closer or wider environment. This paper represents environmental state according to conditions of separate elements (air, water, soil, problems of noise and waste, and in the end proposes certain mitigation measures. Also, this work shows categorization of the environment from the "pollution" point of view and indicates spaces that could be imperiled in coming period.

  11. United States Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, November 9, 1990--November 9, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), General Environmental Protection Program, establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities to ensure that DOE operations are in compliance with applicable federal, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations, executive orders, and internal department policies. Chapter 3 of DOE Order 5400.1 requires that each field organization prepare a plan for implementing the requirements of this order and update this plan annually. Therefore, this update to the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, initially prepared November 9, 1989, is being issued. Responsibility for coordinating preparation of the annual update of this plan is assigned to the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Safety and Environment Division's Environmental Oversight Branch

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA

  13. The environmental protection in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interconnections between environmental issues and the protection of human rights, in a process that began in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and has been developed by the greening of the regional human rights systems. In the Inter-American system the article 11 of the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1988 — the Protocol of San Salvador — guarantees the right to a healthy environment. However the American Convention (on its arts. 3-25, 44-51 and 61-69 and its Additional Protocol (on its arts. 8, 13 and 19.6 only allow the submission of individual petitions to the Inter-American Commission and the possible acting of the Inter-American Court, in complaints containing alleged violations of civil and political rights, trade union rights and the right to education. Despite the lack of devices that are capable to ensure an effective protection to the right to a healthy environment, by itself, the Inter-American Court has demonstrated the greening of the human rights, which means, in other words, that it is quite possible to protect environmental issues by the demonstration of its interconnections with civil and political rights that are directly protected by the inter-American system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the contributions of the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court in the strengthening of the civil and political rights in cases related to environmental issues.

  14. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  15. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  16. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastko, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). International Relations Program

    2010-10-15

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  17. Colloquium on the occasion of the 15th anniversary of the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eleven commemorative contributions give a short survey on the development of environmental parameters, the consequences of the reactor accident in Chernobyl, on radiation protection in nuclear medicine, lake shore analyses in Bavaria, nature protection planning, the application of data processing at the Land Office for Environment Protection (LfU), integrated disposal concepts for domestic refuse, special refuse disposal, implementation of the smog ordinance, environmental effects of shooting ranges and protection of waters against organic and inorganic pollutants as a part of water management outline planning. (DG)

  18. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  19. Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency [ER.QUADS6K_EPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Grid cells are based on densification...

  20. COSTS AND INVESTMENTS FORECAST REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ROMANIA DURING 2007 - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniela Luminita Movileanu; Cornel Lazar; Ion Onutu [Faculty of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemistry, Petroleum Engineering and Petrochemistry Dept., Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti, Ploiesti (Romania); Mihaela Petre [Faculty of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemistry, Chemical Engineering Dept., Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti, Ploiesti (Romania)

    2008-09-30

    An analysis of costs and investments for environmental protection during 2001-2006 emphasised an increase of these, thus in 2006 these were 3.07 times higher than in 2001. A more accentuated dynamics (3.86 times) has been noticed for current costs, while investment has been low (2.08 times compared to 2001). It has to be mentioned the fact that this increase of total costs for environmental protection has been determined by the high volume of costs made by the producers specialised in the environmental protection field; in their case, the costs in 2006 were of 4.9 billion lei, which means, in real terms, an increase of over 8 times. In the last part of paper, on the basis of the costs and investments for environment protection analysis during 2001-2006, is presented the model of them forecast until 2013. The statistical series used in the establishing of tendency of future evolution of them is only for 6 years, because completely available data were only since 2001. As far as the forecast of costs is concerned, it can be noticed that the total costs for environmental protection has a linear tendency of evolution during 2007 - 2013. The forecast costs for sectors of activity emphasises the fact that their evolution tendency is given by the parabolic functions of 2nd degree for administrative and water catchment, treatment and distribution sectors, and of 3rd degree for electric and thermal energy, gas and hot water production, transport and distribution; for wastes and used waters refusal; drying up, sanitation and similar activities the evolution is given by a power function. Applying these forecast models was estimated that in 2013 the total costs will be 5.5 times higher than 2001 and 1.8 times higher than in 2006. Regarding the internal current costs, in 2013 these will be 7.3 times higher than 2001 and 1.9 times higher than in 2006. Also, the investments in 2013 will be 3.2 times higher than in 2001 and 1.5 times higher than in 2006.

  1. Environmental protection appraisals: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy field organization. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual has been prepared to assist DOE field organizations in conducting environmental protection appraisals of activities at DOE operating-level facilities. Its primary use will be by DOE operations offices in their appraisal of facilities operating under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act. However, the manual can also be used by other DOE field organizations. This manual is organized in modules that parallel those in the internal environmental audit checklist. It is assumed that the contractor is using the guide previously described (Internal Environmental Protection Audits) and that operations office staff members will have the opportunity to review or be cognizant of the contractor's completed internal audit, and other material generated within the facility, in preparation for the appraisal. This manual was developed to facilitate the appraisal process by providing operations office staff with a choice of modules that can be used independently or as a unit. The manual gives guidelines for reviewing information submitted to the operations office before the site visit and for conducting an on-site operating-level appraisal

  2. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment. PMID:27012843

  3. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Poljšak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants.

  4. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  5. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  6. American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file geodatabase contains data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Topics included are Population (race, age, sex, and marital status),...

  7. American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables for Tracts in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file geodatabase contains data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Topics included are Population (race, age, sex, and marital status),...

  8. American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables for Counties in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file geodatabase contains data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Topics included are Population (race, age, sex, and marital status),...

  9. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still prot...

  10. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and state authority over DOE (Department of Energy) groundwater radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the extent of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State authority to regulate radionuclides in the groundwater beneath US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Radioactively contaminated groundwater is a potential problem for many DOE facilities, but the EPA and the States must establish legal authority before requiring remedial action or regulating discharges. While regulatory authority with respect to nonradioactive constituents has been clearly established, the same is not true for radioactive constituents. The question of facility radionuclide regulation entails issues such as sovereign immunity, Atomic Energy Act authority, the definition of federally permitted release, and the general lack of a Federal groundwater protection program. This paper addresses these issues through a review of statutes, court opinions, Congressional activities, EPA and State authority (for each state having a DOE operations office within its jurisdiction), and DOE field office experience. Experience at the DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Aiken, South Carolina, is highlighted

  11. Renewable Energy resources in the Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall the provisions of the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG) of 2014 correspond to the stipulations of the EU Commission in its new Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy, and their interpretation should therefore be strictly oriented to the latter. A point of concern in systematic respects is the participation of electricity self-producers in the EEG levy, because it violates the costs-by-cause principle. Irrespective of this issue, the exemption of old installations from this regulation is warranted for reasons of protection of legitimate expectation. For self-produced electricity from fossil-fuel-based cogeneration the EEG levy is to be reduced by 40%, following an agreement between the federal government and the EU Commission.

  12. The Role of Radiological Protection in Sweden's National Environmental quality Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the Swedish Parliament adopted fifteen environmental quality objectives, defining the quality of Sweden's environment and of its natural and cultural resources that will insure sustainable growth. In 2001, the government proposed interim targets for each objective, specifying the direction and time scale of the proposed actions. These objectives give Sweden a unique opportunity to define, quantify and achieve an ecologically sustainable environment. One of the national objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment, targets both ionising and non-ionising radiation and states, human health and biological diversity must be protected against the harmful effects of radiation in the environment. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has the responsibility for formulating and achieving the interim targets for this objective. The targets presently focus on controlling radioactive emissions, limiting exposures to ultraviolet radiation and defining the risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Part of SSI's responsibility for the environmental quality objective is to develop a system for monitoring and quantifying progress towards each interim target. Sweden's National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (NBHBP) is responsible for another of the national objectives, A Good Built- Environment. As part of this objective, a special interim target for the indoor environment was approved by Parliament in 2002, which includes a specification for human exposure to radon in indoor air. It states: radon concentrations should be lower than 200 Bq/m3 in schools and pre-schools by the year 2010, and below 200 Bq/m3 in homes by 2020. This substantially raises the level of ambition regarding reducing exposure to indoor radon. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the role of radiological protection in Sweden's environmental quality objectives. (Author) 3 refs

  13. Physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B Stewart

    Full Text Available Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing's thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25 ± 6 years (mean ± sd, height 180 ± 7 cm, body mass 79 ± 9 kg, VO2max 57 ± 6 ml(. kg(-1.min(-1] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg. The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km ⋅ h(-1 at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37 °C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants' core temperature reached 39 °C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10-60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21% participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21 °C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39 °C in one of the 72 trials.

  14. Physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive ordnance disposal protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian B; Stewart, Kelly L; Worringham, Charles J; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing's thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25 ± 6 years (mean ± sd), height 180 ± 7 cm, body mass 79 ± 9 kg, VO2max 57 ± 6 ml(.) kg(-1.)min(-1)] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km ⋅ h(-1) at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37 °C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants' core temperature reached 39 °C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10-60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21 °C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39 °C in one of the 72 trials. PMID:24586228

  15. Dynamics of Sewage Charge Policies, Environmental Protection Industry and Polluting Enterprises—A Case Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Wang; Xueliang Yuan; Jian Zuo; Ruimin Mu; Lixin Zhou; Mingxia Sun

    2014-01-01

    The game model of sewage charges, based on incremental mode, was developed. Four modes of high/low sewage charge standards were utilized to analyze the relationship between control strategy on sewage discharge and the development of environmental protection industry. Results showed that the selection of control strategy was heavily dependent on the level of sewage charges. An empirical study was carried out to investigate the environmental protection industry in 31 regions in China in 2010. I...

  16. An assessment of the fire protection requirements throughout a NPP life related to current IAEA regulations and American, Canadian and UE regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics on fires has surprisingly shown that the frequency of fires in a nuclear power plant are as high as in the conventional industrial units. The analyses on fires occurred in a NPP need to consider both their well-known severe damages and the nuclear consequences. In 1975 a severe fire occurred in BROWNS FERRY NPP due to the ignition of the polyurethane foam used in the electric cable penetration sealings. The fire propagated to the cable channels and damaged over 1600 cables. The fire event revealed important shortcomings in the fire protection design and procedures. The fire represented a crucial event that changed fundamentally the fire protection regulation in the United States nuclear industry. The fire protection programs, standards and guides currently applied, have been developed on basis of this fire analysis and gained conclusions/experience. The purpose of the article is to be a short presentation of the fire protection requirements for all NPP life stages (i.e. design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning), including the most recent issues of the standards, codes, guides and regulations in US, Canada, IAEA and some European countries. Such documentation represented the main technical support in establishing the national fire protection standard design regarding all the stages of a CANDU-6 NPP life, all the types of operational NPPs, particularly for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2 (now in an advanced stage of construction). In order to satisfy the requirements provided by this documentation, as practically as possible, a list of analyses and fire protection improvement measures for Cernavoda NPP is presented. (authors)

  17. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12564344

  18. Environmental law. Important laws and regulations for environmental protection. 19. new rev. ed.; Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, P.C. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    The book under consideration offers a current overview over the important laws and regulations to the protection of the environment in the Federal Republic of Germany. The among other things following laws are listed: law relating to environmental impact assessment, environmental information, EC-environment audit, environmental fault, federal nature protection law, water resource management act, waste water charging law, act on recycling and waste management, act on electronic household equipment, federal immission control act, aircraft noise act, greenhouse gas emissions trading act, draft allocation act, atomic energy law, energy conservation act, renewables act, act on combined heat and power generation, power tax law, chemical substances law, act on plant protection, act on genetic engineering, environmental liability law.

  19. Innovation data bases on environmental protection in atomic power and industry of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovation databases contain information on the in-progress and completed R/D, proven technologies, materials and commercially manufactured products; they are continuously updated. The databases are formed in the Russian and English languages and are proposed for exchange with organizations concerned in INIS and DBASE-3+ formats. At present, the volume of the databases is about 10,000 records, including approximately 1000 records directly related to innovations in the field of environmental protection. Atominform exchanges databases (or their fragments) with interested foreign and Soviet partners, executes retrieval upon user's request, performs intermediary functions related to the establishment of contacts with innovation developer. (orig.)

  20. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  1. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue announces that the Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental (CICA) of the University of Costa Rica was inaugurated as an IAEA Collaborating Centre for eLearning and Accelerated capacity Building for Food and Environmental Protection (EACB). CICA was designated as the lead institution, or Collaborating Centre, acting in cooperarion with the advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Food Science and Technolgy Programme (FST) of the National University of singapore. Research and education are the major areas of cooperation

  2. The Environmental And Physical Protection In The Prophetic Sunnah In The Context Of The War Rules

    OpenAIRE

    MACİT, Yunus

    2005-01-01

    The Environmental and Physical Protection in the Prophetic Sunnah in the Context of the War Rules According to Islam, the war is not a bloody game, in which the army can freely get whatever it wishes or whatever it grasp willingly. On the contrary, the war in Islam is a condition of disapproval but anyhow it can be irresistible one in emergent necessities. The war in Islam is to prevent people from doing cruelties and injustice against another people. Therefore, non-humanistic emotions such ...

  3. Transport of radioactive material in Brazil: Authority and environmental protection agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the efforts undertaken by two Brazilian Institutions involved with the transport of radioactive material (Nuclear Energy Commission and Institute for Environment and Renewable Resource) to make a single process by which both the IAEA's requirements for safe control and environmental protection can coexist. The paper includes evaluation of international practices as well as the assistance from a consultation among experts around the world. A single set of Terms of Reference with requirements from different regulations and the profile for a Memorandum of Understanding between authorities are among the results and identified future actions. (author)

  4. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa; Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra; Vitor Xavier de Lima; Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m), in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons) in five types of microhabitats: dead ...

  5. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  6. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog. Holdings from August 1973 to December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog of holdings from August 1973 to December 1974 has been published in a single volume. The full catalog lists alphabetically by title the complete entry for each book owned by the individual EPA libraries. The indexes to the Book Catalog are in two parts. Part 1, the Author Index, lists each author in alphabetical order. The Subject Index (Part 2) lists, in alphabetical order, the subject headings assigned to the books in the catalog

  7. Design method of combined protective against space environmental effects on spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zicai; Gong, Zizheng; Ding, Yigang; Liu, Yuming; Liu, Yenan

    2016-01-01

    During its projected extended stay in LEO, spacecraft will encounter many environmental factors including energetic particles, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, and space debris and meteoroids, together with some induced environments such as contamination and discharging. These space environments and their effects have threat to the reliability and lifetime of spacecraft. So, it is important to give a combined design against the threat from space environments and their effects. The space environments and effects are reviewed in this paper firstly. Secondly, the design process and method against space environments are discussed. At last, some advices about protective structure and materials are proposed.

  8. Critical comments on the US Environmental Protection Agency Standards 40 CFR 191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''Environmental Standards for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Wastes,'' 40 CFR 191. These standards regulate the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. Currently, two repository sites are under investigation: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, may become the repository for defense-generated transuranic waste (TRU); and the Yucca Mountain site, located near Las Vegas, Nevada, may become the repository for spent reactor fuel and a small amount of reprocessing waste (hereinafter called high-level radioactive waste or HLW). The paper was written for readers who have an interest in 40 CFR 191 but do not have the time or inclination to ponder the technical details

  9. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  10. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described

  11. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312

  12. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological and economic significance of the Canadian petroleum industry to the national economy and to Canada's standing in the world are reviewed. The six key ways in which the oil and gas industry affects Canada, namely employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and community support are stressed within the context of describing present and future oil and gas resources, Canada's petroleum and natural gas trade balance, and capital spending and product sales. Attention is also drawn to the role of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry as a producer and exporter of world class technology, especially in the areas of high tech exploration methods, cold-climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery techniques, heavy oil production and and processing, mining and upgrading of oil sands bitumen, oil well firefighting, and environmental protection technology. maps, figs

  13. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter, (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  14. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  15. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  16. Overexpression of DeltaFosB in nucleus accumbens mimics the protective addiction phenotype, but not the protective depression phenotype of environmental enrichment.

    OpenAIRE

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Mary Kay Lobo; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats. ΔFosB is a transcription factor that regulates reward in the brain and is induced by psychological stress as well as drugs of abuse. However, the role played by ΔFosB in the protective phenotypes of environmental enrichment has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is differentially regulated in rats reared in an isolated condition (IC) compared to those in an enriched condition (EC) in ...

  17. Overexpression of DeltaFosB in nucleus accumbens mimics the protective addiction phenotype, but not the protective depression phenotype of environmental enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yafang; Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Li, Dingge; Lobo, Mary Kay; Fan, Xiuzhen; Nestler, Eric J.; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats. ΔFosB is a transcription factor that regulates reward in the brain and is induced by psychological stress as well as drugs of abuse. However, the role played by ΔFosB in the protective phenotypes of environmental enrichment has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is differentially regulated in rats reared in an isolated condition (IC) compared to those in an enriched condition (EC) in ...

  18. Impact of new operational quantities on the calibration of personnel and environmental monitoring systems and radiological protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was no internationally agreed and unified operational dose quantity for use in radiological protection for some time. The impact of new operational quantities on the calibration of personnel and environmental monitoring systems and radiological protection instruments are discussed. 4 refs., 1 tab

  19. United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan: November 9, 1993, to November 9, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hub of today's programs at the Hanford Site are activities dedicated to managing stored and new wastes and cleanup of waste sites. To ensure focused planning and implementing efforts for these programs, management of the site is assigned to DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report describes policies and procedures in the following areas: Compliance activities; Environmental restoration; Waste management; and Technology development. Procedures for notification of environmental occurrences, long-range environmental protection planning and reporting, waste management programs; environmental monitoring programs, and quality assurance and data verification are also described and discussed

  20. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 17, No. 2, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme is part of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (the Joint Division) which this year celebrates its half century of exemplary collaboration within the United Nations system. During this time the Joint Division has promoted the mandates of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through peaceful uses of nuclear-related technology to promote global health and prosperity and of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in its efforts to eliminate world hunger and reduce poverty through sustainable agricultural and rural development, improved nutrition and food security. By reading this newsletter I hope you will appreciate how the Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme helps build and strengthen the capabilities of member countries in their use of nuclear-related techniques. For example, by developing techniques to support sustainable food security and disseminating such techniques through international activities in research, training and outreach in FAO and IAEA Member Countries. The subprogramme responds to the needs of Member Countries by coordinating and supporting research; providing technical and advisory services; providing laboratory support and training; and by the collation, analysis and dissemination of information. Our activities are implemented through technical cooperation and coordinated research projects in the main work areas of food authenticity and traceability; the analysis and control of chemical contaminants; food irradiation; and nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness, response and management relating to food and agricultural production

  1. Environmental justice. Opportunities for action for more fairness by municipal environmental protection; Umweltgerechtigkeit. Handlungsmoeglichkeiten fuer mehr soziale Gerechtigkeit durch kommunalen Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    Since the 1980ies, the question of social inequality of environmental pollution is discussed under the slogan ''Environmental Justice'' in the United States. In Germany, the term ''Environmental Justice'' considers the question of the relationship between environmental quality, health risks and social status. This brochure contains the contributions of the first nationwide congress of the German Environmental Relief (Radolfzell, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Environmental Justice - options for action for more social justice through municipal environmental protection'' in the spring of 2009 in Frankfurt am Main (Federal Republic of Germany). The topics of this congress include traffic and noise, climate change as well as urban development and green areas.

  2. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 13, No. 1, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environmental Protection Section (Vienna) and the Agrochemicals Unit of the Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf) have greatly strengthened our joint efforts to protect human health and facilitate trans-boundary agricultural trade by providing technical support and training for the development and application of international standards. These activities are primarily related to the use of ionizing radiation, the control of pesticide and veterinary drug residues and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture. In particular, this most recent edition of our newsletter highlights our intensive efforts over the last six months in implementing activities to improve food safety and enhance international trade through our Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme. In addition to the holding of two research coordination meetings, the subprogramme has also conducted three training courses and one workshop with a total of 129 meeting participants. In the area of food contamination, the subprogramme has successfully commenced a Coordinated Research Project on the Development of Radiometric Analytical Methods for the Control of Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues (D5.20.36). In addition to considering the results of our partnership with the EU FP6 project on ProSafe- Beef related to the development and validation of multi-residue isotope dilution assay for 38 anthelmentic drugs, the CRP will also study the utilization of isotopic techniques for pharmacokinetic studies, residue screening and confirmatory methods; will provide new tools to understand and assess the environmental impact of veterinary drugs, and; will assess the impact of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds on veterinary drug regulations. In the area of food irradiation, the subprogramme has successfully initiated a Coordinated Research Project on the Development of Generic Irradiation Doses for Quarantine

  4. Evidence given by the National Radiological Protection Board to the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 1976 The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution informed the Board that they had decided to enquire into the organisation for radiological safety in this country, with particular regard to the environmental hazards from radioactivity that might arise from the increasing use of nuclear energy for the generation of electrical power. The Board was invited to submit evidence on any aspects with which it was concerned and, in particular, on its powers and responsibilities and relationships with other bodies; the Board was also asked to discuss the assessment of radiation hazards and the application in practice of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This is the Board's response. The constitution, functions and responsibilities of the Board are discussed in Chapter 1 as is the involvement of its staff in national and international affairs in the field of radiological protection. Chapter consists of a short statement of the various sources of radiation to which the people of the UK are exposed. The Board does not claim any special experience or expertise in one of the matters referred to in the third area of concern, namely, the criteria used for the siting of nuclear power stations. But in the related field of assessing the environmental consequences of reactor accidents, the Board has been actively involved with the Medical Research Council in their latest review of Emergency Reference Levels - a report on which is shortly to be published. This subject is referred to in Chapter 3 which deals with the methods by which the basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are translated into values that can be applied to particular forms of practice. Chapter 4 discusses the current position of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes arising from nuclear power cycles. It also briefly discusses the way in which this position may change in future and touches on the problems of decommissioning

  5. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  6. Probing the environmental stability and bake latitudes of acetal vs. ketal protected polyvinylphenol DUV resist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uday; Pandya, Ashish; Sinta, Roger F.; Huang, Wu-Song; Bantu, Rao; Katnani, Ahmad D.

    1997-07-01

    Environmental stability has been a major concern in chemically amplified resist systems. These are the major chemistry platforms adopted in DUV resists. To resolve this issue, two extreme approaches were proposed recently. One is using the annealing concept through high temperature bake to densify the film and reduce free volume in the resist, thus minimizing the uptake of airborne contaminants. In this approach, high post exposure bake temperature is used which then bakes away major portion of airborne base from top of the resist, thus minimizing (or eliminating) T-top formation. To be able to execute this concept, a highly thermally stable copolymer of 4-hydroxystyrene and t-butyl acrylate was adopted. The nature of the thermal stability is due to the high activation energy of t-butyl ester group during the deprotection process. The other approach in achieving the environmental stability is using an extremely low activation energy protecting group which will deprotect during the exposure step. Since T-top formation usually occurs between exposure and PEB, the spontaneous room temperature deblocking eliminates any delay, thus PED effect free resist can be obtained. In this approach, the ketal resist system (KRS) using methoxy propene protected polyvinylphenol was used. The advantages of low activation energy are not only environmental stability but also large bake latitudes with PEB variation as low as 0 nm/degrees Celsius. Besides ketal, silyl ethers and acetals are the other two distinct resist families which have lower activation energy than t-butoxycarbonyl and t-butyl ester systems. According to many recent publications, the acetal resist systems have demonstrated some environmental robustness and insensitivity to bake temperature variation. In order to shed some light on the lithographic performance of these low activation energy resist systems, we present here some of our work on acetal resist family in comparison to ketal family. In the acetal resist

  7. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Tom; E J Milner-Gulland

    2014-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel ...

  8. Bilingualism: A Canadian Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bilingualism in French and English is a much-to-be hoped for common and shared characteristic of Canadian citizenship—even though to date the effect of forty years of the Official Languages Act has been most marked in government services and among various Canadian elites. Although it is important that Canada hold onto a goal of the widest possible bilingualism,more modest objectives are outlined for the years immediately ahead.

  9. Radiation protection protocol for environmental defense using nano-scopic water spray in nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New kind of radiation protection concept is introduced. • The shielding concept is accompanied with the water spray system. • Cheap and practical method is suggested. • The major impact is variable by the random emerging of fission products. - Abstract: The environmental defense system in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) using water spray is investigated. A new kind of radiation protection system modeling is introduced in the case of NPPs accidents. The spray system is added to the conventional radiation protection barriers for the nuclear defense in depth concept where the water is considered as nano-scopic molecular substance. The effectiveness of aqueous solution is verified in a NPPs accident. The quantitative simulation for solubility of radioactive material is performed by the Monte-Carlo method, which is produced in the nuclear fuels. The safety concept is newly modified in the multiple barriers for the post accident. The cheap and simple system is suggested for the ecological safety in the NPPs accident as the political protocol

  10. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 13, No. 2, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen our joint efforts with FAO to protect human health and facilitate international agricultural trade by providing technical support and training for the development and application of interna- tional standards. These activities are primarily related to the use of ionizing radiation, the control of food contaminants and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture. Specifically, in the area of food irradiation, Subprogramme research activities have led to the adoption of three additional phytosanitary irradiation treatments at the most recent Fifth Meeting of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). These treatments are in addition to the eight irradiation treatments accepted by the IPPC in 2009, making a total of eleven internationally adopted post-harvest phytosanitary irradiation treatments for inclusion in the IPPC Standard on Phytosanitary Treatments for Regulated Pests. It has been confirmed at our first research coordination meeting (October 2009) held under the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Development of Generic Irradiation Doses for Quarantine Treatments that the development of additional generic and specific doses for pests and pest groups of quarantine importance (29 insect species from 13 arthropod families) will eventually be submitted to the IPPC for the potential adoption of additional irradiation treatments

  11. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen our joint efforts to protect human health and facilitate international agricultural trade by providing technical support and training for the development and application of international standards. These activities are primarily related to the use of ionizing radiation, the implementation of traceability systems and analytical techniques to control food contaminants and improve food safety, and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture. These efforts include on-going activities initiated by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in relation to the Japanese nuclear emergency, including the dissemination of information on food monitoring and food restrictions, the consideration of agricultural countermeasures and remediation strategies to mitigate immediate and longer term effects arising from radionuclide contamination, and the interpretation of standards related to radiological protection of the public. These activities are carried out within the context of the FAO's obligations as a full party to the IAEA Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, and under the FAO cosponsored Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (EPR JPLAN 2010), which provides the management tools for coordinating international organization arrangements in preparing for, and responding to, nuclear or radiological emergencies. Additional details are provided in the Past Events section of this Newsletter.

  12. Reducing Uncontrolled Radioactive Sources through Tracking and Training: US Environmental Protection Agency Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international metal processing industries are very concerned about the importation of scrap metal contaminated with radioactive materials. When radioactive sources fall out of regulatory control, improper handling can cause serious injury and death. There is no one way to address this problem and various US governmental and industry entities have developed radiation source control programmes that function within their authorities. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission is to protect public health and the environment. To ensure this protection, EPA's approach to orphan sources in scrap metal has focused on regaining control of lost sources and preventing future losses. EPA has accomplished this through a number of avenues including training development, product stewardship, identification of non-radiation source alternatives, physical tagging of sources, field testing of innovative radiation detection instrumentation and development of international best practices. In order to achieve its goal of enhanced control on contaminated scrap metal and orphaned radioactive sources, EPA has forged alliances with the metals industry, other Federal agencies, state governments and the IAEA. (author)

  13. Environmental Protection implementation plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, November 9, 1994, to November 9, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared to meet federal, state, and local requirements by delineating how the Carlsbad Area office (CAO) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site Branch (WSB) intends to implement the provisions of DOE Order 5400.1. Its purpose is to list environmental protection goals and objectives for the WIPP; identify strategies, manpower allocations, and timetables for attaining these goals and objectives; describe the WIPP organizational structure; discuss the development of procedures; and assign responsibilities for compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. This EPIP covers the periods from November 9, 1994 through November 9, 1995

  14. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  15. Environmental enrichment protects against cognitive impairment following chemotherapy in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Wojtowicz, J Martin; Merkley, Christina M; Tannock, Ian F

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies indicate that up to 70% of cancer patients who receive chemotherapy experience cognitive impairment. The present study investigated environmental enrichment as a protective factor against the adverse effects of anticancer drugs on cognitive and biological processes in an animal model. Adult rats were housed in group cages with environmental stimulation or in standard cages for 3 months, before receiving 3 weekly injections of methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil, or equal volumes of saline. Rats were then administered tests of learning and memory that are sensitive to hippocampal or frontal lobe dysfunction. The relationship between cognitive performance and hippocampal neurogenesis was examined through sensitive time-dependent measures of neuronal maturation. Chemotherapy-treated rats in the standard environment were impaired on tests of spatial memory, nonmatching-to-sample (NMTS) rule learning, and delayed-NMTS. Chemotherapy-treated rats in the enriched environment performed at or near normal levels. The performance of the chemotherapy groups on the hippocampus-sensitive, spatial memory and delayed-NMTS tests correlated with neurogenesis levels. The results show that environmental enrichment can reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, in part by promoting neuronal differentiation and growth during cell maturation. As well, they point to the importance of lifestyle factors in treating or preventing adverse effects of anticancer drugs on cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337062

  16. CSA guide to Canadian wind turbine codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian wind energy sector has become one of the fastest-growing wind energy markets in the world. Growth of the industry has been supported by various government agencies. However, many projects have experienced cost over-runs or cancellations as a result of unclear regulatory requirements, and wind energy developers are currently subject to a variety of approval processes involving several different authorities. This Canadian Standards Association (CSA) guide provided general information on codes and standards related to the design, approval, installation, operation, and maintenance of wind turbines in Canada. CSA codes and standards were developed by considering 5 new standards adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee on Wind Turbines. The standards described in this document related to acoustic noise measurement techniques; power performance measurements of electricity-producing wind turbines; lightning protection for wind turbine generator systems; design requirements for turbines; and design requirements for small wind turbines. The guide addressed specific subject areas related to the development of wind energy projects that involve formal or regulatory approval processes. Subject areas included issues related to safety, environmental design considerations, site selection, and mechanical systems. Information on associated standards and codes was also included

  17. Can Environmental Laws Fulfill Their Promise? Stories from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Bankes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Canadian environmental law has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, responding to some of the flaws and weaknesses identified by commentators seeking to explain the continuing trend in environmental degradation. The aim of this article is to tell the story of three pieces of Canadian environmental legislation, the Alberta Land Stewardship Act, the federal Species at Risk Act, and Alberta’s Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, with a view to exploring whether the environmental ambition underlying these pieces of legislation is being realized. Our overall conclusion is that there is a significant gap between the ambition of these three pieces of environmental legislation and their actual implementation but this gap arises from design choices made by the legislature and the executive, rather than something inherent in the law itself.

  18. Dignity of environmental protection. A lesson well learnt by the Facto cement Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FECTO Cement, Islamabad was commissioned in the late 80's to cope the ever-increasing demand of building material in Pakistan. The first ever heavy industry issued license in the Capital area. At that time, environmental issues in Pakistan were merely a subject, discussed only by the professionals in their drawing rooms. The Management of Fecto Cement foresaw the now's burning whirlpool issue and fabricated the company's policy under the slogan ' no race will prosper until it learns the dignity of environmental protection'. The Management's true commitment, consistent, support and steps taken to preserve the biodiversity of eco system in surrounding including Social impacts were discussed. Every industrial process has certain adverse effects on environment. The only way to cope / fight them is approximation, which minimizes those to such an extent that they become appreciably harmless to Biodiversity. Plantation of thousands of plant's and orchids in suburb by Fecto cement, employing costly but highly efficient dust collectors besides Cone's which consume 13 % of the plant energy. To reduce SO/sub x/ in emission gases designing of the efficient and trust worthy Raw meal design, use of low SO/sub x. fuels stagnant Quality Control System and environmentally efficient GMP's enforced in production area plus the supply to municipal facilities like fresh water, schools for children specially girls and jobs to fight the ever increasing unemployment in Islamabad, Made it a prestigious, trust worthy environmental friendly state of the art industrial establishment, which stood as a hallmark and glittering example to other industrial enterprises in Pakistan. (author)

  19. Empirical Research on Factors Influencing Level of Environmental Protection Information Disclosure in Annual Reports by Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jinfeng; Xue Huifeng

    2009-01-01

    Taking 248 A-share manufacturing listed companies in 2006 Shanghai Stock Exchange as example,using "index method" to measure level of environmental protection information disclosure,this paper examines the factors influencing level of environmental protection information disclosure.The findings show that the disclosure level has improved,but the overall level is still low and unable to satisfy information users;there is positive correlation between corporate size,industry type,accounting firm's type and corporate environmental disclosure index.The companies of large scale and heavy pollution and those audited by international "Big 4" and domestic "Big 10" accounting firms have a high level of environmental disclosure,while the profitability and financial leverage has no impact on the disclosure level.Finally some suggestions are put forward to establish environmental information disclosure system in China.

  20. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 16, No. 2, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen its joint efforts with the FAO and IAEA to protect human health and improve food safety by providing research, technical support and training, including technical support leading to the development and application of international standards that facilitate agricultural trade. These activities are primarily related to the implementation of traceability systems and analytical techniques to control food contaminants, the application of ionizing radiation to control food bacteria and harmful insect pests, and the preparedness and management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture. It is very rewarding to be able to report that the Subprogramme is planning to hold an International Symposium on 'Food Safety and Quality: Applications of Nuclear and Related Techniques' in Vienna, Austria from 10-14 November 2014. The Forthcoming Events section provides more information on our plans for the Symposium, which will encompass food irradiation techniques to treat food directly as well as nuclear and related technologies for tracing food products in order to verify their provenance, or to detect and control contaminants and provide information for the continuous improvement of production systems. In food traceability and authenticity work, the Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory is using its expertise in measuring trace quantities of chemicals in foods to develop a 'metabolomics' approach for assessing authenticity. Chromatographic techniques are being used in conjunction with mass spectroscopy as a means of detecting and identifying characteristic markers for pure orange juice as part of laboratory research activities under an international project to implement nuclear techniques to improve food traceability. Research is focusing on orange juice diluted with other, less expensive, fruit juices. The Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory is also applying stable