WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadian environmental protection

  1. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  2. Environmental Code of Practice for base metals smelters and refineries : Code of Practice, Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document described operational activities of base metals smelters and refineries and the associated environmental concerns, particularly the release of toxic substances from the sector. The document referred to smelters and refineries of primary copper, primary and secondary lead, primary zinc, primary nickel and primary cobalt. Environmental performance standards for mitigating these concerns were proposed. These included the implementation of environmental management systems and the prevention and control of atmospheric emissions, wastewater effluents and wastes. In smelters and refineries, ores and concentrates are supplied from mines and mills. Recycled material is supplied for further recovery and purification of metals. Operations in this sector include pretreatment of the ores, roasting, smelting, converting, fire refining, electrorefining, carbonyl refining, leaching, electrowinning, casting, and process off-gas conditioning. The pollutant releases of concern associated with these operations include process air emissions from stacks; process air emissions from open process equipment and buildings; fugitive air emissions from outdoor storage piles; accidentally released pollutants; water effluents from processes; water effluents from site runoff; and, slags, sludges and other residues and wastes. Sulphur dioxide, particulates, heavy metal compounds and certain organics are the pollutant that pose the greatest concern in facility air emissions. Oil, grease, solids and metals are the substances in water effluents that pose the greatest concern, along with acidic or alkaline effluents. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs., 2 appendices.

  3. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  4. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  5. Administration and environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Milkov, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental protection is a very important task of the state. The state in this area deals in a preventative manner, and at the same time controls the application of laws and regulations. The aim of this paper is to carry out the identification of administrative bodies dealing with environmental protection at the national, provincial and local levels. There are administrative bodies dealing directly with matters of environmental protection. On the other hand, within the scope of some admini...

  6. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  7. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2008 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent emissions standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and aligned Canada's emission standards for various vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report summarized the fleet average nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2008 model year for light duty vehicles (LDV), light duty trucks (LLDT), heavy light duty trucks (HLDT) and medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The report evaluated the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program in achieving its stated environmental performance objectives. The report demonstrated that approximately 99 percent of the LDV and LLDT fleet, and 71 percent of the HLDT and MDPV fleet were certified to a bin at, or below, the applicable fleet average NO{sub x} standard. Average NO{sub x} values continued to decrease, in accordance with the performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Antitrust Policy and Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Matsumoto; Hajime Sugeta

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of antitrust policy (the prohibition of a input price discrimination) when an emission tax is used for environmental protection. We show that antitrust policy reduces pollution emission and improves social welfare. Therefore, antitrust policy contributes to environmental protection.

  9. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  10. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  11. Discussion of Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁和毓

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about environment issues was introduced. The influence of pollution on human beings as well as ecosystem was analyzed. And the management of environment protection and the roles that both the local government and central government should play were discussed. Finally, the legislation and supervision for environment protection were put forward.

  12. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  13. Conceptual framework for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.

    1984-11-01

    The environmental and economic components of a region or a nation are inextricably linked. Moreover, environmental protection technology must deal specifically with the linkages between the economy and the environment, that is, with by-products of the economy as they move from the economy to the environment or with natural resources as they move from the environment to the economy. Yet, environmental policy analyses are rarely able to focus on these linkages. The author develops conceptual framework aimed at mitigating that inadequacy. The framework is tied to its theoretical basis in thermodynamics and is utilized to identify generic categories of environmental protection strategies, to identify some disadvantages of current strategies, and to suggest alternatives. 14 references, 4 figures.

  14. Inequality, Environmental Protection and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsiliani, L.; Renstrom, T.I.

    2000-01-01

    Why do Scandinavian countries perform better in terms of environmental protection than other European Union countries? In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that societies characterised by low income inequality (such as the nordic European countries) generate political-economic equilibria where e

  15. Environmental charges as an instrument of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković, Cvjetana

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to one category of economic instruments in environmental protection - environmental charges. The paper considers the notion of environmental charges, the similarities and differences between environmental taxes and environmental charges, as well as the basic forms of environmental charges. At the end, the author presents the most important environmental charges in the Republic of Serbia.

  16. Environmental protection using social costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-10-01

    Emissions and other residual wastes come from industrial production, commercial and household activities, and transportation. These wastes damage the environment, including human health. As economies grow, so does concern about balancing that growth with the desire for environmental protection. At issue is how much environmental protection we should have. We address this issue using the concept of social costing. The issue is discussed in the context of electric power generation. There is particular concern about the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum, the major fuel used in the Republic of China, and coal which is the most common fuel used in the U. S. Electric power generation is a major source of airborne pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, CO, and CO{sub 2}. It also results in liquid and solid wastes, and other effects such as changes in land use. To generate electric power, fuel (such as petroleum, coal or enriched uranium) or some other resource (e.g., wind or geothermal) is needed. A fuel cycle consists of a sequence of activities and processes involved in generating electric power. These activities include fuel extraction, treatment and processing; fuel conversion into electricity; transmission; waste disposal; and transportation of fuel and wastes between the different stages of the fuel cycle. Each stage results in emissions or other residuals. Several recent-studies have been about the environmental costs of electricity.

  17. Environmental protection and management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    In British Columbia, oil and gas activities on private or Crown land are subject to regulations in terms of environmental practices. This environmental protection and management guidebook seeks to provide information on the Oil and Gas Activities Act. All sections from the regulation: water, riparian values, wildlife and wildlife habitat, conserving soil, forest health, invasive plants, natural range barriers, seismic lines, areas to be restored and old growth management areas, resource features and cultural heritage resources, are covered in this document. The minimum acceptable operational standards and practices for oil and gas activities in British Columbia are described. This guide is intended to provide clients and stakeholders with recommendations concerning the planning phase, before any permits are applied for, and concerning permissions or authorizations generally for oil and gas activities in British Columbia.

  18. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency : performance report for the period ending March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results and achievements of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) during the most recent fiscal year. It explains the importance of environmental assessment and how the federal environmental assessment process works. Environmental assessments are conducted to identify and ensure that the potential environmental effects of projects are carefully considered before they are undertaken to avoid any irreversible damage. The CEAA's strategy for sustainable development focuses on increasing the knowledge and understanding of environmental assessments within and outside government in an effort to design better projects and policies that integrate environmental, economic and social goals. In the last fiscal year, the Agency supported the completion of 10 comprehensive environmental assessments and completed bilateral agreements between the federal government and Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Agency also completed the Canada Port Authority Environmental Assessment Regulations which are designed to improve the overall application of environmental assessments under federal jurisdiction. Other accomplishments included the Five Year Review of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the completion of comprehensive consultations with more than 1,200 Canadians. This document also outlines specific spending according to departments, agencies and programs. Detailed information is also included on specific departments and their programs in terms of strategic planning. Accomplishments achieved in the last fiscal year were also compared with performance expectations. 11 tabs.

  19. Traditional Tibetan Beliefs and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DERONGCERINGDENZHCB

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: Traditional Tibetan culture contains a conscious awareness of environmental protection. It advocates balance between human beings and the natural environment, protection of the ecosystem,treasuring resources, and consideration of the benefits that should be left for future generations. In Tibetan history, the goal of environmental protection was achieved by means of traditional customs, moral obligations, religious beliefs and taboos, associated with unwritten routines of environmental protection to regulate people's behavior through self-conscious effort.

  20. Assessing impacts of wind turbines on birds through the Canadian environmental impact assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    While Environment Canada recognizes the benefits of wind power as a source of renewable energy, the adverse impacts of wind turbines on wildlife must be addressed. This presentation discussed the role of the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) in developing environmental guidelines for wind energy systems. The CWS is actively involved in the protection of migratory birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, as well as species at risk as listed under SARA. In order to aid in federal environmental assessment processes, the CWS is now preparing a guidance document that summarizes the potential impacts of wind turbines on migratory birds and highlights risk factors that should be considered by proponents. The document may be used to determine whether site sensitivity for planned wind farms is high for birds, which include species at risk; large breeding colonies; major concentrations of birds; and important bird areas. High levels of concern will generally anticipate a need for stronger evidence that environmental effects will be minimal. Most wind power projects will require pre-construction monitoring for a one-year period in order to estimate potential adverse impacts and identify possible mitigation measures. Breeding bird surveys may be conducted to determine the presence of species and their relative abundance, as well as to determine the behaviour of birds in relation to the proposed turbine locations. Post-construction monitoring may also be conducted from 1 to 3 years, depending on the risk factors. It was concluded that the recommended protocols for monitoring impacts of wind turbines on birds will also facilitate comparison of data among wind power projects. Targeted research projects are also being conducted by the CWS to improve efficiency of carcass searching, and understanding migration patterns and concentration sites. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Environmental Protection Put High on CNPC Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xingru; Qiu Bing; Wang Kefu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Environmental Performance in the Eighth FiveYear Plan Period (1991-1995) All the enterprises under China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) consistently implemented the policies, laws and regulations set by the State on environmental protection and made great efforts in this field during the Eighth FiveYear Plan period. The efforts were focused on stepping up the leadership over environmental protection and establishing a responsibility system of environmental protection targets for leaders at various levels; making the work system of environmental protection legally and scientifically perfect; beefing up education and propaganda of environmental protection to raise the public awareness:promoting technical progress in environmental protection to boost the capacity for prevention of pollution; and bringing up the management level in this field.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenpu; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Environmental Protection in Offshore Field Development Since its establishment in 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)has paid attention to marine environment protection, the main task in environmental protection management is to take advanced and effective measures to minimize the influence of oil development practice on marine ecologic environment.

  3. Environmental Protection and the EU Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with a mutual relation between the competitiveness and environmental protection in the European Union. At the beginning, there is mentioned, why environmental protection has become an important priority. The main task of this bachelor thesis is to characterize a mutual interaction between environmental and economic objectives in the EU. There is described the EU environmental policy and its impact on the EU competitiveness. The EU strategy to strengthen its competit...

  4. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  5. Fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO{sub x} value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO{sub x} values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO{sub x} values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs.

  6. Issues regarding environmental protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Draghicescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental protection” activity in our country should be approached by taking into consideration its entire complexity, and the most reliable solutions may be provided only by direct and permanent reference to the vast issue of social development in its entirety. The present work aims to draw attention towards pollution, the main cause of environmental deterioration in Romania, as well as towards the management of waste materials, while taking into account the national strategy. In Romania, environmental protection is a distinct domain of the national policy, establishing the priority objectives by “The National Strategy for Environmental Protection”, according to the communitarian strategy, as well as to the tendencies and initiatives existing at global level. Our country’s efforts over the past years with respect to environmental protection are very important in the framework of contemporary economy and are reflected in the expenses incurred for environmental protection.

  7. SEPAAnnounces Projects in Serious Violation of Environmental Protection Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On January 10th, 2007 the Deputy Director of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) circulated a list of 82 projects in serious violation of environmental protection evaluation and related environmental protection regulations.

  8. Environmental protection and international law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, W.; Neuhold, H.; Zemanek, K. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    The main threats to the environment requiring international action are described: climate change, ozone depletion, acidification, deforestation and toxification. The special characteristics of international legal norms in selected issue areas are illustrated, such as air and water pollution, hazardous waste and climatic change. The last two chapters are devoted to a critical appraisal of responsibility and liability, as well as dispute settlement procedures and international institutions in the environmental field. Two chapters are abstracted separately.

  9. 40 CFR 1033.650 - Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. 1033.650 Section 1033.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Provisions § 1033.650 Incidental use exemption for Canadian and Mexican locomotives. You may ask us to...

  10. Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... for the environment, Administrator Jackson has outlined seven themes to focus the work of EPA. These... Radiation, C439-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Phone: 919 541-5426 Email: eddinger.jim@epamail.epa.gov..., Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation, C439-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Phone: 919...

  11. Directory of Federal Contacts on Environmental Protection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Measurement and Evaulation Services 58 U. S. AIR FORCE ACT VI TY TELEPHONE Bioenvlronm’ental Engineering Services AREA CODE: 916 USAF Clinic , McClellan (SGB...Juan r iel 𔃻 Off ; ce 1221 Ponce de I eon Avenue Caso Building - ’Suite 804 Santurce, PR Oo907 112 U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ASSOCIATED

  12. Scope of the environmental assessment for the proposed PanCanadian Petroleum Limited (PanCanadian) Deep Panuke Gas Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-18

    PanCanadian's Deep Panuke Gas Development Project offshore from Nova Scotia is scheduled for environmental assessment. The scope of the assessment will include the operation, decommissioning and abandonment of the existing Panuke jacket as well as the construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment of three new bottom-founder platforms that hold the gas processing system. The assessment will then include the offshore gas processing system along with its separation, measurement, dehydration and hydrocarbon dew point control equipment as well as its full acid gas processing system that removes hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide from raw gas. The underwater pipelines and onshore facilities are included in the assessment which will consider the following issues as described in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act: (1) the environmental effects of the project, including effects of accidents that may occur, (2) the significance of the environmental effects, (3) comments from the public, and (4) measures that are technically and economically viable and that would mitigate any major adverse environmental effects of the project. The assessment should also consider the need for the project and any alternatives to the project. 1 tab.

  13. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  14. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  15. Postglacial environmental succession of Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic) inferred from biogeochemical and microfossil proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Biljana; Pienitz, Reinhard; Chapligin, Bernhard; Meyer, Hanno; Francus, Pierre; Guilbault, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut) is currently the largest lake in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Despite its enormous size, this freshwater system remains little studied until the present-day. Existing records from southern Baffin Island indicate that in the early postglacial period, the region was submerged by the postglacial Tyrell Sea due to isostatic depression previously exerted by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. However, these records are temporally and spatially discontinuous, relying on qualitative extrapolation. This paper presents the first quantitative reconstruction of the postglacial environmental succession of the Nettilling Lake basin based on a 8300 yr-long high resolution sedimentary record. Our multi-proxy investigation of the glacio-isostatic uplift and subsequent changes in paleosalinity and sediment sources is based on analyses of sediment fabric, elemental geochemistry (μ-XRF), diatom assemblage composition, as well as on the first diatom-based oxygen isotope record from the eastern Canadian Arctic. Results indicate that the Nettilling Lake basin experienced a relatively rapid and uniform marine invasion in the early Holocene, followed by progressive freshening until about 6000 yr BP when limnological conditions similar to those of today were established. Our findings present evidence for deglacial processes in the Foxe Basin that were initiated at least 400yrs earlier than previously thought.

  16. Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brasoveanu Florica

    2013-01-01

    Since 1970 after scientific discoveries about the ozone hole humanity began to reconsider the environment. Environmental messages had different intensities depending on their sources Scientific messages proved the harshest, the political ones had a powerful declarative impact, but the administrative apparatus, both worldwide and local didn't turn very perceptive. Towards the implementation of actions to protect the environment and sustainable development economic and social factors intervened...

  17. Formulating an ecosystem approach to environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Otto J.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embraced a new strategy of environmental protection that is place-driven rather than program-driven. This new approach focuses on the protection of entire ecosystems. To develop an effective strategy of ecosystem protection, however, EPA will need to: (1) determine how to define and delineate ecosystems and (2) categorize threats to individual ecosystems and priority rank ecosystems at risk. Current definitions of ecosystem in use at EPA are inadequate for meaningful use in a management or regulatory context. A landscape-based definition that describes an ecosystem as a volumetric unit delineated by climatic and landscape features is suggested. Following this definition, ecosystems are organized hierarchically, from megaecosystems, which exist on a continental scale (e.g., Great Lakes), to small local ecosystems. Threats to ecosystems can generally be categorized as: (1) ecosystem degradation (occurs mainly through pollution) (2) ecosystem alteration (physical changes such as water diversion), and (3) ecosystem removal (e.g., conversion of wetlands or forest to urban or agricultural lands). Level of threat (i.e., how imminent), and distance from desired future condition are also important in evaluating threats to ecosystems. Category of threat, level of threat, and “distance” from desired future condition can be combined into a three-dimensional ranking system for ecosystems at risk. The purpose of the proposed ranking system is to suggest a preliminary framework for agencies such as EPA to prioritize responses to ecosystems at risk.

  18. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Dobbins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  19. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  20. Ultrasound in environmental protection - Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.J. [Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom). School of Science and the Environment

    2002-07-01

    There can be little doubt that there is an increasing interest in the development of new methods for environmental protection and remediation. Driven by the interests of scientists and engineers but increasingly by legislation a very wide range of new technologies is being examined. Amongst these power ultrasound is proving to be a front-runner and offers a wide range of applications. Not all of these are likely to become industrial realities nevertheless there are a few which have a real chance of adoption. Some of the stronger contenders are reviewed below. (orig.)

  1. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles).

  2. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  3. Environmental Protection Tools in Agricultural Management Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bozek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Land consolidation is a fundamental instrument for agricultural management. It facilitates comprehensive changes in the agricultural, social, and ecological domains. Consolidation and post-consolidation development-related investments are an opportunity to improve living conditions in rural areas, and simultaneously ensure its positive impact on the environment. One of the primary goals of consolidation, directly specified in the Act on land consolidation, is to improve farming conditions. In Poland, consolidation is possible due to EU funds: RDP 2007-2013 and RDP 2014-2020. In order for individual villages to be granted EU funds for consolidation and post-consolidation development under the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, their consolidation has to implement actions with positive impact on the environment and the landscape. The goal of this paper is to analyse documentation in the form of assumptions for a land consolidation project enclosed to an RDP 2014-2020 grant application and project information sheets as the basis for environmental impact assessment in the context of detailed presentation of environmental protection solutions that ensure a positive impact of the project on the environment and landscape. The detailed study involved 9 villages in the Malopolskie Voivodeship, which applied for EU grants for land consolidation in the current financial perspective. The paper specifies the existing state of the analysed villages as regards the natural environment, lists agricultural management instruments that have a positive impact on the environment, and demonstrates that planning of actions aimed at environmental protection is a necessary element of assumptions for land consolidation projects.

  4. Environmental radionuclide monitoring of Canadian harbours: a decade of analyses in support of due diligence activities by the Royal Canadian Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David G; Mattson, Kristine M; McDonald, Curtis; Nielsen, Kathy S; Weir, Ron D

    2014-12-01

    The Royal Canadian Navy has conducted a comprehensive programme of safety, security and environmental monitoring since the first visits of nuclear powered and nuclear capable vessels (NPV/NCVs) to Canadian harbours in the late 1960s. The outcomes of baseline monitoring and vessel visit sampling for the period 2003-2012 are described for vessel visits to Halifax (NS), Esquimalt (BC) and Nanoose (BC). Data were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy using high purity germanium detectors. No evidence was found for the release of radioactive fission or activation products by NCV/NPVs during the study period, although anthropogenically produced radionuclides were observed as part of the study's baseline monitoring. Background activities of Cs-137 can be observed in sediments from all three locations which are derived from well-documented radioactivity releases. The detection of I-131 in aquatic plants is consistently observed in Halifax at activities as high as 15,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. These data are tentatively assigned to the release of medical I-131, followed by bioaccumulation from seawater. I-131 was also observed in aquatic plants samples from Esquimalt (33 Bq kg(-1)) and Nanoose (20 Bq kg(-1)) for a single sampling following the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

  5. Discussion on the Marketization of Rural Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to discuss the marketization of rural environmental protection in China.[Method] We firstly analyzed the inevitability of rural environmental protection take the marketization road in China,then put forward some effective ways to make rural environmental protection take the marketization road.[Result]In order to protect the rural environment of China better,it is inevitable to take the marketization road.In addition,strengthening legal construction,formulating and implementing pol...

  6. Accounting for uncertainty in the quantification of the environmental impacts of Canadian pig farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a life cycle assessment (LCA) for pig farming systems that would account for uncertainty and variability in input data and allow systematic environmental impact comparisons between production systems. The environmental impacts of commercial pig production for 2 regions in Canada (Eastern and Western) were compared using a cradle-to-farm gate LCA. These systems had important contrasting characteristics such as typical feed ingredients used, herd performance, and expected emission factors from manure management. The study used detailed production data supplied by the industry and incorporated uncertainty/variation in all major aspects of the system including life cycle inventory data for feed ingredients, animal performance, energy inputs, and emission factors. The impacts were defined using 5 metrics-global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential (EP), abiotic resource use, and nonrenewable energy use-and were expressed per kilogram carcass weight at farm gate. Eutrophication potential was further separated into marine EP (MEP) and freshwater EP (FEP). Uncertainties in the model inputs were separated into 2 types: uncertainty in the data used to describe the system (α uncertainties) and uncertainty in impact calculations or background data that affects all systems equally (β uncertainties). The impacts of pig production in the 2 regions were systematically compared based on the differences in the systems (α uncertainties). The method of ascribing uncertainty influenced the outcomes. In eastern systems, EP, MEP, and FEP were lower (P systems (P systems, despite their aforementioned differences. In conclusion, a probabilistic approach was used to develop an LCA that systematically dealt with uncertainty in the data when comparing multiple environmental impacts measures in pig farming systems for the first time. The method was used to identify differences between Canadian pig production systems

  7. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  8. Utilization of Zeolites in environmentally protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallo, D. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Chemical Research Center, Institute of Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2000-07-01

    It has been attempted to present the most important fields of natural zeolite applications in environmental protection. Realized and approved utilizations were demonstrated inciting the reader to take these materials into consideration for solution of similar problems. The outlined properties can be used for other purposes not discussed in this review. They can be applied, e.g., in fish farming, transportation of living fishes when simultaneous ammonium and carbon dioxide removals is required: ammonium is exchanged for calcium present in the zeolite and CO{sub 2} is then precipitated in the form of CaCO{sub 3}; in treatment of diluted manure when undesired organics can be fixed and bactericide effects can be attained. Natural zeolites are used, therefore, as deodorant of litter of dogs or cats. Small amounts of metal cations, e.g., Cu{sup 2+}, Ag{sup +} or Zn{sup 2+}, introduced by ion exchange may disinfect contacting water. Due to water adsorption and desorption capability natural zeolite as construction materials exert some conditioning effect without any mechanical accessory. It seems likely the human ingenuity will continue to discover new applications in the future.

  9. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  10. Natural Awareness:Environmental Protection Supervisors and Their Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ZHOU Youhong works to inform students about environmental protection. Enthusiastic about her work, she spreads knowledge to element college and secondary school students. She said only when she began studying in university did she realize the harm of industrial pollution. She said she hopes through her efforts she can help the younger generation realize the value of environmental protection.

  11. Environmental protection at Emden; Umweltschutz in Emden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-01

    Energy conservation and non-polluting power generation are taken seriously at Emden. Several wind parks were constructed. Further, a working group ``Solar`` was founded, and a number of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems are now in operation at Emden. The Canadian ``EEC Eco School Programme`` is applied in local school buildings. This programme helps to save energy and water without requiring financial investments, just by changing consumption patterns. (BWI) [Deutsch] Energiesparen und umweltfreundliche Energieerzeugung werden in Emden konsequent umgesetzt. Dies geschieht durch mehrere Windparks. Ferner wurde ein Arbeitskreis `Solar` gegruendet und mehrere thermische und photovoltaische Solaranlagen sind in Emden inzwischen in Betrieb. An den Schulen der Stadt wurde das `EEC Oeko-Schulprogramm` aus Kanada angewendet. Dieses Programm beinhaltet Einsparungen von Energie und Wasser ohne Investitionen, allein durch energiebewusstes Verhalten. (BWI)

  12. Foreign trade, environmental protection and sustainable economic growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiyong; LIU Wei; HU Yi

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1990s,China has exhibited growth in both foreign trade and the economy.Promoting environmental protection and sustainable economic growth are main concerns in the academic profession in the country.This paper makes an empirical analysis of trade and environmental pollution,and discusses the inherent relationship between foreign trade,environmental protection and sustainable economic growth.In addition,this paper makes several policy suggestions with a view to adjusting trade structure,enforcing environmental protection and promoting sustainable economic growth in China.

  13. Exploring the middle ground between environmental protection and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Michael D; Lupi, Frank; Yeboah, Felix K; Thorp, Laurie G

    2013-05-01

    Public preference concerning the environment and the economy typically has been characterized as either pro-environmental protection or pro-economic development. Researchers and policymakers increasingly suggest that environmental protection and economic growth are not mutually exclusive. However, use of dichotomous-choice policy preference questions persists. This note empirically examines an alternative response format for the typical dichotomous-choice environmental/economic policy preference question and explores respondents' stated policy preferences in light of their support for recycling. We find that most respondents do not view environmental protection and economic development policy goals to be mutually exclusive. Most respondents view economic growth and environmental protection as compatible suggesting a more heterogeneous view of the environment-economic relationship than oft reported. Hence excluding a middle response choice to the standard environment/economic policy preference question may add measurement error, increase item nonresponse, and fail to account for the views of respondents who view these goals as complementary.

  14. Environmental protection and employment: the link for a worthwhile future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Driven by increasing environmental awareness as well as numerous environmental policy measures, the market for environmental goods has expanded over the last few years, bringing a growing number of jobs. A study of leading German economics research institutes shows that the employment effects of environmental protection have attained considerable dimensions, with nearly a million jobs in 1994 alone, with the service sector being the main beneficiary. And of particular importance: In terms of both population and economic performance, the new Laender are in a better position than the old Laender (the former FRG states) in respect of environmental jobs. In the new Laender important impulses towards creating and safeguarding jobs have emerged from environmental clean-up and development. The concern of this publication is not to promise a job-creation miracle by means of environmental protection alone. Nor is it a matter of legitimising environmental protection in terms of employment policy, for environmental protection does not require employment policy for legitimisation. Rather, the paper wants to provide up-to-date background information to point out the synergies between environmental and employment objectives. It also presents fields of activity which can be helpful to address both environmental and employment policy problems. I do hope that this study can provide some incentives for further action. (orig.)

  15. The protection of environmental interests of the world community through international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, A. [European Council on Environmental Law, Strasbourg (France)

    1996-12-31

    The author discusses the process of definition of the environmental interests of the world community and the role of international environmental law as a tool both for definition of interests and their acceptance and protection. (CB)

  16. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Complete Enterprise Dataset Inventory (EDI) listing all agency data assets for compliance with federal Project Open Data mandate (https://project-open-data.cio.gov/).

  18. Chinese Women’s Role in Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN have played a key role in sustainable development worldwide. In China, women are regarded as "half the sky." Like women from all walks of life, Chinese women have been the new force in environmental protection.

  19. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  20. Environmental Protection of Oil and Gas Fields 1997 Subscriptions Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ ENTIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS is a scientific and technical periodical in Chinese with abstracts in English. jointly operated by China Petroleum Planning and Engineering Institute and Technical Supervision, Safety and Environmental Protection Bureau, CNPC and publicly distributed at home and abroad.

  1. Partnering with the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Enviro ,Environmental Management Directorate,3400 Defense Pentagon, Room 3B856A,Washington,DC...improve cleanup and share lessons learned but no clear path was identified – Chief concerns were with long-term management and community outreach 14

  2. SUSTAINABILITY: THE NEXT GENERATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 21st century will provide us with a new era of environmental problems that will require new approaches to solve. These problems will be more subtle than past problems, such as the pesticide poisoning at Love Canal or burning of the Cuyahoga River, but will be just as urgent,...

  3. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  4. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  5. 78 FR 70935 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's 2011 Emissions Modeling Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's 2011 Emissions Modeling Platform... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is providing notice that the 2011 Emissions Modeling Platform data...

  6. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  7. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  8. Sustainability, well being, and environmental protection: perspectives and recommendations from an Environmental Protection Agency forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinah A. Koehler

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available According to panelists at a recent EPA-sponsored forum, at its essence sustainability requires the simultaneous promotion of equitable economic growth, environmental protection, and social well being. Panel members, including economists, policy makers, sociologists, and business strategists, agreed that a sustainable economy should preserve its capacity to generate income, which is made possible by maintaining natural capital. However, they also noted that the limited data available leads to the conclusion that the current scale and quality of economic activity is reducing the capacity of the biosphere to sustain the economy, and is fundamentally unfair to future generations. For EPA to respond effectively, it will have to strengthen the integration of traditional physical and biological research with behavioral and economic research. It will also require institutions that support equitable access to resources and a political system that can respond to today’s poor as well as providing for future generations. Several panelists noted that habit formation and consumption patterns, which often lack a clear rational economic base, can significantly shape the relationship between income and well being. This research implies that public policy directed at sustainability can and should incorporate social values not necessarily reflected in the traditional economic theory of decision making. Several recommendations which emerged from the forum focused on the need to foster high quality data on sustainability indicators, policy mechanisms that use economic incentives, and public education regarding what constitutes sustainable decision making.

  9. Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Dieter; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum technologies represent a rapidly evolving field in which the specific properties of quantum mechanical systems are exploited to enhance the performance of various applications such as sensing, transmission, and processing of information. Such devices can be useful only if the quantum systems also interact with their environment. However, the interactions with the environment can degrade the specific quantum properties of these systems, such as coherence and entanglement. It is therefore essential that the interaction between a quantum system and the environment is controlled in such a way that the unwanted effects of the environment are suppressed while the necessary interactions are retained. This Colloquium gives an overview, aimed at newcomers to this field, of some of the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve this goal. A number of techniques have been developed for this purpose in different areas of physics including magnetic resonance, optics, and quantum information. They include the application of static or time-dependent fields to the quantum system, which are designed to average the effect of the environmental interactions to zero. Quantum error correction schemes were developed to detect and eliminate certain errors that occur during the storage and processing of quantum information. In many physical systems, it is useful to use specific quantum states that are intrinsically less susceptible to environmental noise for encoding the quantum information. The dominant contribution to the loss of information is pure dephasing, i.e., through the loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states. Accordingly, most schemes for reducing loss of information focus on dephasing processes. This is also the focus of this Colloquium.

  10. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delauney, L.; Compère, C.; Lehaitre, M.

    2010-05-01

    These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week. Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months. This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  11. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Delauney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week.

    Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months.

    This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  12. The polish proposal for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Kozłowski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Th article presents the type of environment-related problem, and discusses the development of the concept of the sustainable development from the perspective of the international law. Over the past two hundred years, the mankind has exploited more than 50 percent of all natural resources, including energy minerals. The twenty-first century will be, out of necessity the period of intensive development of energy based on renewable resources. The protection of the environment is a global issue which requires to be specially safeguarded by the international law.Design/methodology/approach: The average geothermic gradient for the Earth`s crust (30°C/1km can give us 10-20 MWe as a result (electrical energy from one deep borehole heat exchanger. The value of electrical energy may be increased by introduction of a binary system with low-boiling medium into the energy system.Findings: Geothermic power plant of high capacity characterized by the fact that the steam superheater section, which is traditional in a conventional power plants, is replaced by the system of heat exchanger in the form of u-tubes with a single length ranging from 1000 meters to up to several thousand meters, initially placed in a metal casing with a transition to the rock layers of high temperature.Research limitations/implications: From the hot rock mass we can collect renewable resources of ,,dry” ascending energy from the paleo heat flow coming from the great nuclear furnace - the magma.Practical implications: The subject invention is the use of geothermic energy using a closed water cycle in heat exchangers, made of high-temperature creep resisting steam superheater steel tubes or titanium pipes. Thermal energy of water vapour, which is obtained in this way, is transformed into mechanical energy in the turbine, powering the generator.Originality/value: The role of a condenser can be fulfilled by a cascade system of thermal energy utilization (heat engineering

  13. International cooperation for environmental protection in Mexican municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the current processes of international technical cooperation for environmental protection in Mexican municipalities. To meet this objective, the paper is divided into five sections. The first introduces the subject and describes the role that has been playing international technical cooperation in the definition of environmental policy in Latin America. The second provides a review of the literature on globalization and its effects on these cooperative efforts. The ...

  14. Evaluation Of The Risk Of Financing Projects Of Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Cornelia PICIU; Gheorghe MANOLESCU; Florin Răzvan BĂLĂȘESCU; Georgiana CHIȚIGA; Cătălin DRĂGOI

    2012-01-01

    The research project approaches multidimensionally the financing of environmental protection from the perspective of directing, correlating and consolidating the financial flows circumscribed to the regeneration of an economy affected by environmental deterioration due to the very activities defining the economic mechanisms and circuits. The purpose of the project is to identify, by scientific, methodological and empirical analysis of the concepts, principles and arguments imposed by the econ...

  15. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials - approaches and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The ‘open access’ approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The ‘restricted access’ approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who ‘needs to know’ about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes

  16. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials--approaches and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sue; Magee, Laura; Walker, Mark; Wood, Stephen

    2012-12-27

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The 'open access' approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The 'restricted access' approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who 'needs to know' about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from

  17. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  18. Economic factor environmental protection. Extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Blazejczak, Juergen [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Walz, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Innovations- und Systemforschung (FhG ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Within the bounds of a research project, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation. The stocktaking and evaluation of more important documents prove that despite the differences in the estimation of individual ranges an international consent insists according to central ecological challenges on global level. The consent covers the following target areas: Climate protection, preservation of the biological variety, water supply including waste water disposal and water protection, health protection. It is to be expected that in the next decades its validity will keep these ecological challenges although defusing or new environmental problems may result in single areas. It is to be expected that due to the world-wide economic development some emphasis of important ecological challenges will shift gradually to developing countries, in particular China and India.

  19. Evaluation Of The Risk Of Financing Projects Of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia PICIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project approaches multidimensionally the financing of environmental protection from the perspective of directing, correlating and consolidating the financial flows circumscribed to the regeneration of an economy affected by environmental deterioration due to the very activities defining the economic mechanisms and circuits. The purpose of the project is to identify, by scientific, methodological and empirical analysis of the concepts, principles and arguments imposed by the economic theory, the risks of financing the projects of environmental projects and to evaluate their effects because their neglecting, individual approach or erroneous dimensioning might have unfavourable and unforeseen consequences in terms of the efficiency of the environmental strategies and policies. The objective of the study is the reveal the interdependency and interaction between the flows and circuits financing the environmental projects, showing the necessity for punctual, distributive, correlative and multiplicative financing of the environmental protection. This must be done from an expanded and prospective spatial and temporal vision by a compositional approach of the risk for environmental investments within the complex network of the social, economic and financial risks generated by the global system of the human praxis focused on the binomial of the human-environment interdependence.

  20. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... a manner that supports long-term ecosystem protection, supports natural ecosystem recovery...

  1. Trend of Environmental Education in Canadian Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs from 1979 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Points out that little attention is given to environmental education research in preservice education programs in Canada. Introduces a national survey using a modified version of Towler's questionnaire to investigate the current status of environmental education that preservice teachers receive in their preparation programs. (Contains 28…

  2. Multicenter study of environmental contamination with antineoplastic drugs in 36 Canadian hospitals: a 2013 follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruyer, M; Tanguay, C; Caron, N J; Lefebvre, M; Bussières, J F

    2015-01-01

    No occupational exposure limit exists for antineoplastic drugs. The main objective of this study was to describe environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in pharmacy and patient care areas of Canadian hospitals in 2013. The secondary objective was to compare the 2013 environmental monitoring results with previous studies. Six standardized sites in the pharmacy and six sites on patient care areas were sampled in each participating center. Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by UPLC-MSMS. The limit of detection (LOD) in pg/cm(2) was 1.8 for cyclophosphamide, 2.2 for ifosfamide, and 7.5 for methotrexate. The 75th percentile of cyclophosphamide concentration was compared between the 2013, 2008-2010, and 2012 studies. Thirty-six hospitals participated in the study and 422 samples were collected. Overall, 47% (198/422) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 18% (75/422) were positive for ifosfamide, and 3% (11/422) were positive for methotrexate. In 2013, the 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was reduced to 8.4pg/cm(2) (n = 36), compared with 9.4pg/cm(2) in 2012 (n = 33) and 40pg/cm(2) (n = 25) in 2008-2010. The 75th percentile for ifosfamide and methotrexate concentration remained lower than the LOD. The 2013 study shows an improvement in the surface contamination level, and a plateau effect in the proportion of positive samples.

  3. Environmental Protection in the City of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbud, Merril

    1970-01-01

    Reviews New York City's Environmental Protection Administration two-year effort in air, water, noise, and solid waste pollution control. Successes and difficulties are seen as applicable to other urban areas. Long-term planning considers population control, poverty programs, traffic management, and land use. (JM)

  4. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  5. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  6. Mexico environmental protection and pollution prevention under emergency economic reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, V. [Southwestern Coll., Chula Vista, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During President Carlos Salinas de Gortari`s administration, the environmental protection and pollution prevention programs throughout the country received an unprecedented financial and political support. The administration included from the beginning very aggressive action plans to protect and enhance the environment. To ensure that all these programs were going to be followed, the president instructed the National Commission of Ecology to include these programs within the National Development Plan, under the National Program for Protection of the Environment. The National Development Plan is a constitutional mandate that requires every Federal Government Action Plan to be designed in accordance with it. New national policies were implemented to enforce environmental legislation. Ten new programs to protect endangered species were approved by Congress, 44 national parks were declared under special federal protection, 14 biosphere reserves were established and 9 more were included to protect wildlife. The three largest cities in the country, Mexico City, Monterrey and Guadalajara received special attention in order to design and implement a program to promptly respond to air pollution emergencies. To control and reduce water pollution from mismanagement of untreated sewage in urban areas, financial support was allocated to build and operate water treatment plants.

  7. The State Environmental Protection Standards Planning During 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ This planning is stipulated to reinforce Decision by State Council on Reinforcing Environmental Protection with Views of Scientific Development, to give impetus to the environmental enforcement and supervision along legal, standardized and scientific lines, to strengthen well-structured laws and regulations for environmental protection, to improve the system of technical laws, regulations and standards for environmental protection, scientifically establish environmental standards and to dovetail environmental protection standards and targets.

  8. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  9. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erfani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. Allocating more flow to the environment though can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters. Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares" with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows can vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydro-economic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse river basin in Eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10 to 15% loss in economic benefits.

  10. Using geo-topographic materials for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the requirements for the protection and development of environment, the usage of spatial data represents a specific need for different kinds of geographical and cartographical information. Theoretical and practical understanding of these requirements, with existing experiences and the use of appropriate standards, help in the process of solving particular ecological problems. In this paper, the analysis (theoretical understanding of the problem and the comparison of models will try to point out the importance, requirements and possibilities of using existing data from different geo-topographical materials such as charts at different scales in analog as well as digital forms. Sources of information about an area: Cartographic-analytic collecting of spatial information for environmental purposes is carried out mainly from the following sources: satellite images, geographic information systems / Environmental Information Systems (GIS / EIS, Geo-topographic materials in analogue and digital (especially maps forms and physical measurements of ambient environment. Types of maps which can be used for environmental protection: Base maps are widely used mostly for military purposes. Being highly detailed, these maps can be largely used for the purposes of environmental protection, especially topographic maps of a scale of 1:25 000 to 1:200 000 and 1:250 000. Thematic maps primarily give information on specific locations and specific content. For the purposes of environmental protection and improvement, thematic maps with specific topics are constructed most frequently. Combined maps are specific and they are a combination of base and thematic maps. These are, for example, political, travel, touristic, hydrological, and synoptic maps. Synthetic maps show the results and analysis of data collected. They cannot display all the characteristics or information related to the environment, especially data about complex ecosystems. Conclusion

  11. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  12. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  13. Agent for environmental protection. Liability and points of Criminal Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keune, H.

    1981-06-01

    The author discusses the concept and status of the agent for environment protection on the basis of the relevant laws because a legal definition does not yet exist. The administrative body accepts the so-called Janus-faced industrial agent who has, as a rule, also the function of the agent for environmental protection, namely, because of the principle of concentration that has greatly been accepted because of rationalizing and efficiency reasons. As a consequence of this principle the so-exposed agent bears an 'outward' responsibility. The criminal liability of the agent for environmental protection is discussed under the aspects of acts performed on behalf of somebody else, the acceptance of responsability for one's own act or omission, the comittment by omitting, the indirect perpetration and the complicity. Furthermore the author looks into the following subjects: protection against work that is liable to be dangerous, claim for compensation under civil law and the new regulations of the German Penal Code that determine what is environmentally criminal.

  14. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tepić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the protection of the planet from global warming, as well as the preservation of life and survival.

  15. INVESTMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investment decision can be regarded as one of the most important decisions taken by the management company. By the correct foundation of investment decisions depend the market position of the company, increasing its market share and gain a competitive advantage over competitors. Investments for environmental protection brings together all available money-makers, private and mixed distribute to finance activities and actions aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of environmental degradation resulting from production processes or consumption of goods and services.

  16. Private power development and environmental protection in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

    1997-12-01

    This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

  17. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    G. Tepić; T. Pejakov; Lalić, B.; V. Vukadinović; Milisavljević, S.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the prote...

  18. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem.

  19. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  20. Influence of seabird colonies and other environmental variables on benthic community structure, Lancaster Sound Region, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard Marmen, Mariève; Kenchington, Ellen; Ardyna, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic shelters millions of seabirds each year during the breeding season. By the excretion of important quantities of guano, seabirds locally concentrate nutrient-rich organic matter in the marine areas surrounding colonies. Seabirds, acting as biological vectors of nutrients, can markedly affect terrestrial ecosystems, but their influence on the structure of marine benthic communities is still under-studied. Sessile and long-lived megabenthic species can integrate environmental variation into marine food webs over long time frames. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the epifaunal and infaunal communities of the Lancaster Sound Region (LSR) and (2) to test the influence of the presence of seabird colonies and other environmental parameters on the structure of those benthic communities. Our prediction was that benthic diversity, number of taxa, total biomass of infauna and total density of epifauna and infauna, would be higher in areas with colonies present. Photos of the seafloor (data on epifauna) and grab samples (data on infauna) were taken at three control areas and at five areas near seabird colonies, within a depth range of 122 to 442 m. A database of 26 environmental parameters was built to study the environment-benthos relationships. Infauna, which was relatively uniform across the LSR, was numerically dominated by Annelida. Epifauna was much patchier, with each study area having unique epibenthic assemblages. Brittle stars were highly abundant in epifaunal communities, reaching 600 individuals per square meter. The presence of seabird colonies was not a major driver of benthic community structure in the LSR at the depths studied. Negative effects of colonies were detected on the density and number of taxa of infauna, perhaps due to top-down effects transmitted by the seabirds which feed in the water column and can directly reduce the quantity of food reaching the seabed. Sediment concentration of pigment, percent cover of

  1. Protection of historic buildings against environmental pollution of vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historic buildings in Poland are largely neglected objects that small percentage is preserved in its original form. Unrelenting in the case of historic buildings is a time that brings with it the natural processes of aging of buildings, but also the history of the object which is often marked by military conflicts, fires or even incompetently carried out reconstruction. Nowadays historic buildings are also destroyed by the rapid development of infrastructure and residential construction. This development could lead to changes of water in the soil, make changes in the geologic al structure or cause exposure of the historic building to the new influences (eg. traffic vibrations, to which building has not been subjected so far. Vibrations are often omitted in environmental issues, although the protection against noise and vibration has its place in the Law on Environmental Protection. This article presents the methodology for the measurement and interpretation of vibration influence on historic buildings and the assessment methods of technical condition of historic building on the example of dynamic measurements made on St. Nicholas Church in Krakow. The importance of well-done crack-by-crack documentation and characterization of damages based on damage index is shown. Difficulties that can be encountered when determining the causes of technical condition of historic buildings are also shown. Based on the example of the Church in the article are also given the possible protection solutions of historic structures from vibrations.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  3. Environmental properties of metallic minerals and their applications in environmental protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jizhong; LI Shengrong; JIANG Yonghong; WEI Ruihua; NIU Huapeng

    2005-01-01

    In terms of environmental mineralogy, the environmental properties of metallic minerals, including chemical activation, adsorption, pore effect and nanometer effect, have been analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of environmental properties of metallic minerals, the applications of iron-bearing sulfides, iron and manganese oxides in the purification of wastewaters containing heavy metal ions (Cr 6+, Hg 2+, Pb 2+, etc.) have been summarized. Moreover, research on the application of metallic minerals in environmental protection has been anticipated. It should be a piece of dominating work for environmental mineralogic researchers in the future to lucubrate systematically the physical and chemical characteristics of the metallic mineral surfaces, further reveal the reciprocity process between metallic minerals and water surface, perfect the theory and model of the metallic minerals to remove contaminants, intensify study on the facilities and techniques of metallic minerals to remove contaminants, and entail well the extension and propagation of achievements.

  4. 40 CFR 600.514-12 - Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports to the Environmental....514-12 Reports to the Environmental Protection Agency. This section establishes requirements for automobile manufacturers to submit reports to the Environmental Protection Agency regarding their efforts...

  5. 78 FR 52909 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental... Organization Headquarters Building, Washington, DC AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection....

  6. Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

  7. PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN COAL MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立杰; 傅贵辰

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems about the environmental pollution of the coal mines in China and analyses the main reasons which caused the pollution of coal mining areas and puts forward the view that we should get rid of our traditional concepts about social development and take the paths of sustained development. This paper also gives the suggestion that strict rules and laws for the protection of environment of the coal mining ares should be set up and favourabh policies be worked out to promote the improvement of coal mining area's environment.

  8. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  9. How we can make ecotoxicology more valuable to environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M L; Wolff, B A; Green, J W; Kivi, M; Panter, G H; Warne, M St J; Ågerstrand, M; Sumpter, J P

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing awareness that the value of peer-reviewed scientific literature is not consistent, resulting in a growing desire to improve the practice and reporting of studies. This is especially important in the field of ecotoxicology, where regulatory decisions can be partly based on data from the peer-reviewed literature, with wide-reaching implications for environmental protection. Our objective is to improve the reporting of ecotoxicology studies so that they can be appropriately utilized in a fair and transparent fashion, based on their reliability and relevance. We propose a series of nine reporting requirements, followed by a set of recommendations for adoption by the ecotoxicology community. These reporting requirements will provide clarity on the the test chemical, experimental design and conditions, chemical identification, test organisms, exposure confirmation, measurable endpoints, how data are presented, data availability and statistical analysis. Providing these specific details will allow for a fuller assessment of the reliability and relevance of the studies, including limitations. Recommendations for the implementation of these reporting requirements are provided herein for practitioners, journals, reviewers, regulators, stakeholders, funders, and professional societies. If applied, our recommendations will improve the quality of ecotoxicology studies and their value to environmental protection.

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  11. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  12. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  13. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  14. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  15. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  16. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qun; LIU Ying-tao; MAO Han-ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  17. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Amadu, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sectorreform taking place in many countries...... dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient tomeet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants....... The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implicationsof changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor...

  18. Ecological risk assessment in the function of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an appropriate methodology for ecological risk assessment. The methodology has been applied in the region of Boka Kotorska Bay (Bay, Montenegro. The emphasis of the research is on the analysis of the impact of various stressors on the ecological components of Bay. The consequences of that impact can be seen in an increased level of eutrophication of water environment, mostly through the influence of nitrogen and its compounds. The actual research at/about the region of Boka Kotorska Bay was performed in the period of 2008. The study emphasized the importance of the acquisition, processing and analysis of various ecologically related data for more efficient monitoring and management of the environment. The suggested methodology of the ecological risk assessment is, therefore, a remarkable scientific and expert contribution in the area of environmental protection in our country and in general.

  19. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  20. The Environmental Right as a Human Right: Scientific Development and the Protection of Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN ZHONGLE

    2011-01-01

    @@ As environmental issues are attracting domestic and international attention,protection of environmental rights is becoming increasingly important in human rights affairs.Environmental protection involves economic development and social harmony, influences the maintenance and complete realization of people's rights to health, property and life, and is even related to the future existence of the whole human society.

  1. Scientific Research and Technological Development in Onshore Oil Industry Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangyun; Wang Jialin; Lu Ronghu; Zhang Wei; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ A series of significant measures for environmental protection have been adopted by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) to cope with the problem of environmental pollution caused by waste gas, waste water, waste solid and noise in oil and gas field production, and some organizations responsible for environmental protection research have been set up.

  2. Environmetal report 2008. Environmental protection in the scope of climatic change; Umweltgutachten 2008. Umweltschutz im Zeichen des Klimawandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    In the environmental report with the title 'Environmental protection in the scope of the Klimawandels' referring to the panel of environmental experts, aspects to the correlation between nature protection, forest protection, soil protection and climate protection are discussed. Substantial aspects in this contribution are: (a) Sustainability strategies and environmental strategies in the European Union and in the Federal Republic of Germany; (b) Innovative oriented environmental policy - a new megatrend?; (c) Climate protection; (d) Air pollution control; (e) Nature protection; (f) Soil protection; (g) Water protection; (h) Materials and products; (i) Noise protection; (j) Waste and cycle economy; (k) Agriculture; (l) Genetic engineering.

  3. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  4. Preparation of Eco-environmental Protection Bricks from Lake Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Fangwen; XU Xiaohong; SU Xianli

    2008-01-01

    Eco-environmental protection hollow bricks manufactured from lake sludge collected from North Lake in Wuhan of China were investigated.At first,the recipes of round sampies(diameter in 5 cm and thickness in 1 cm) prepared by pressing molding under a pressure of 8 MPa and firing system were optimized,and properties such as bending strength,compressive strength,total shrinkage rate,water adsorption rate,apparent porosity and bulk density of the fired samples were tested.The experimental results showed that water adsorption rate and apparent porosity decreased,while bulk density increased with firing temperature increasing.Addition of additive can result in the improvement of strength of fired samples.At the same time,fly ash and additive may also broaden the firing temperature range and reduce firing temperature.Toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TLCP)tests of samples also show that the metal leaching level is low.The conditions for manufacturing good quality sample include 80% sludge with 10% additive and 10% flyash fired at 1000 ℃ for 60 min.Bending strength and compressive strength of samples prepared under the conditions are 24.64 MPa,131.95 MPa,respectively,which are far beyond the requirements of clay solid bricks of CNS.Finally,according to the optimized recipe,the eco-environmental protection hollow bricks with the sizes of 40 mm×38 mm×25 mm were made and tested by extrusion molding.Compared with the Chinese National Standards (CNS:GB 13545-2003),compressive strength,water adsorption and bulk denstiy of the hollow bricks are 11.55 MPa ,14.5% and 986 kg/m3 when they were fired at 1040 ℃,which are far beyond the require of of CNS.Especially,its water adsorption arrives to standard of high-class products(16.0%) and compressive strength is above the hightest class(MU 10.0).

  5. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkson, J.K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Amadu, M.B. [Kumasi Inst. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sector reform taking place in many countries are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power system in most countries in the region. Ghana, which is the focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient to meet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants. The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implications of changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor and enforce regulations in the emerging electricity industry. The study uses a spreadsheet-based simulation model to determine the potential levels of certain air pollutants - CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} - that would result from changes in fuel mix for electricity generation. Using different capacity expansion options proposed for The Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation. (au)

  6. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States, or resources of global importance that have been designated for protection. C. Environmental... this enclosure. a. An environmental review is a survey of the important environmental issues involved... survey of the important environmental issues associated with the proposed action that is to be...

  7. Measurement of Air Force Environmental Protection Program Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Environmental Improvement. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974. 36. Seneca, Joseph J. and Michael K. Taussig . Environmental Economics. Englewood Cliffs NJ...Responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980. 18. Deland, Michael R. "Environmental Auditing," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 509...November 1982). 19. Deland, Michael R. "EPA’s New Management Approach," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 605 (November 1982). 20. DeMarco, Anthony

  8. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  9. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  10. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  11. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  12. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  13. Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅析环境保护公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长军

    2015-01-01

    Public participation in environmental protection is a fundamental right of citizens and is an effective measure to promote environmental protection. Starting from the meaning of public participation in environmental protection system, the paper analyzes the current situation of public participation in environmental protection in China, and puts forward some suggestions of perfecting China's public participation in environmental protection.%环境保护公众参与是法律给予公民的基本权利,是促进环境保护工作的有效措施。本文从环境保护公众参与制度的涵义出发,分析了我国环境保护公众参与的现状,提出了完善我国环境保护公众参与的建议。

  14. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Habegger, L.; Surles, T.

    1983-08-01

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice.

  15. 从“数字环保”到“智慧环保”%From "Digital Environmental Protection" to "Smart Environmental Protection"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 孙海林

    2011-01-01

    简述了“数字环保”到“智慧环保”的概念与发展背景.指出环境信息化要实现从“数字环保”到“智慧环保”的跨越,物联网技术是实现跨越的基础.提出,构建立体化、智能化的覆盖全国的环保领域物联网平台,实现由“数字环保”向“智慧环保”的转化,将是一个系统、长期的工程.“十二五”期间,从总量减排四项约束性指标和固废、危废监管等重点领域人手,适时启动国家级环保物联网重点应用示范工程,不仅为全行业物联网的建设提供典型示范,也是现阶段迈向“智慧环保”之路的必要之举.%The concepts of "Digital Environmental Protection" and "Smart Environmental Protection" as well as their background information were described. It mainly pointed out that the internet of things was basis for environmental informatization shifted from "Digital Environmental Protection" to "Smart Environmental Protection". It was systemic and long-term project for building three-dimensional, intelligent networking platform to cover internet of things in nationwide environmental protection field, and to realize from " Digital Environmental Protection" to "Smart Environmental Protection". Based on pollutants reduction in the key fields of four compulsory targets, key application demonstration projects of internet of things started on time in Chinese environmental protection during the period of 12th of five-year national economic and social development plans. It was necessary step not only to set an example for internet of things, but also demonstrate a way to " Smart Environmental Protection".

  16. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  17. Study on the Old Ship-Wood Furniture Based on the Green Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the green environmental protection, it analyzed the characteristics of the old ship-wood furniture including the green environmental protection, changing waste into treasure, unique styling and strong human flavor, to emphasize its properties of excellent environmental protection, unique original ecology and elegant artistry. Then it summarized the basic design principles of the environmental protection, the emotional design and the localization design. And then it discussed the low-carbon craftsmanship of the old ship-wood furniture from the three aspects of materials selection, processing tools and production process. Furthermore, it summed up out of the practical and commercial value, the aesthetic and artistic value and the environmental value of the old ship wood furniture. Finally, it presented that the development and promotion of the old ship-wood furniture which is the typical of the green design and manufacture of furniture can bring immense economic, social and ecological efficiency.

  18. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  19. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  20. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  1. Under-ice ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic, and its relation to environmental forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinda, G Bazile; Simard, Yvan; Gervaise, Cédric; Mars, Jérome I; Fortier, Louis

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyzes an 8-month time series (November 2005 to June 2006) of underwater noise recorded at the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf in the marginal ice zone of the western Canadian Arctic when the area was >90% ice covered. The time-series of the ambient noise component was computed using an algorithm that filtered out transient acoustic events from 7-min hourly recordings of total ocean noise over a [0-4.1] kHz frequency band. Under-ice ambient noise did not respond to thermal changes, but showed consistent correlations with large-scale regional ice drift, wind speed, and measured currents in upper water column. The correlation of ambient noise with ice drift peaked for locations at ranges of ~300 km off the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf. These locations are within the multi-year ice plume that extends westerly along the coast in the Eastern Beaufort Sea due to the large Beaufort Gyre circulation. These results reveal that ambient noise in Eastern Beaufort Sea in winter is mainly controlled by the same meteorological and oceanographic forcing processes that drive the ice drift and the large-scale circulation in this part of the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  3. 加拿大贷款人环境责任立法探析%The Analysis of Canadian Legislation of lender Environmental Liability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾晖; 翁孙哲

    2014-01-01

    加拿大由于其联邦体制,环境权力由联邦和省分享。联邦和省都有贷款人环境责任的立法。立法中对控制的概念没有提供具体的指引,需要基于公共政策进行考虑。贷款人担保债权与依据省环境法的行政命令产生的清理费用存在优先权冲突,应根据利益平衡确定孰先孰后。%Because of Canadian federal system, environment power is shared by the federal and provincial.The federal and provincial both has the legislation of lenders environmental liability. Legislation did not provide specific guidelines to the control concept, it need to consider based on public policy.There exist priority conflict between claim of secured credit and the clean up cost arising from administrative command according to the province environmental law, It should accord to the balance of interests to determine which is the priority.

  4. Historical Precedents on the Protection or Defense of Natural Resources and salubritas in Rome. Towards an Administrative Environmental Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz-Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses certain situations involving the protection of natural resources by the Roman Law itself, some of which contain ancient environmental protections that today fall under a branch of Administrative Law, now known as Environmental Law.

  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 National Priorities List (NPL) Boundaries - 05/12/2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of sites in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 which are documented as being part of the National Priorities List as of May 12, 2014. The...

  6. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  7. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  8. Dynamic trend analysis on relational effect of environmental protection industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yanju; Yin Xiguo; Tan Zhixiong; Ren Yanyan

    2006-01-01

    EPI (environmental protection industry)and three industries constitute our national economic structure. By Grey SystemTheory and correlation effect analytical method for the first time, this paperanalyzes the relationship degree between environmental protection industry and the three causes including industries involved in China in both qualitative between environmental protection industry and the three causes including industries involved in China in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Both the innate rule and the realistic reasons of the relational degree are further analyzed by utilizing sustainable development theory,circulating economy theory, ecological equilibrium theory, externality theory,industrial structure theory, and ecology priority rules. From all the analysis, this paper reveals the relationship between EPI and three industries. In addition, it offers suggestions to the feasibility of adjusting the industrial structure and developing the environmental protection industry in our country.

  9. Notification: Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, December 20, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  10. Waste disposal and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection - challenges for radioecology and environmental radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2009-12-01

    The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) represent a change from a process-based to an exposure-based approach, where exposure situations are categorised as planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations. Although the new Recommendations contain further changes based on, inter alia, scientific developments since the publication of the 1990 Recommendations, they overall represent more continuity than change - a notable exception being the direct consideration of environmental protection. The implications of the new Recommendations for radioactive waste management are fairly marginal, as earlier recommendations in this area are still considered valid. This communication provides a brief overview of the current ICRP system for radiological protection as applied to radioactive waste management, as well as an outlook including the possibility of using the developing ICRP system for management of environmental effects as an 'alternative way of reasoning' when building the safety case for a specific waste disposal concept.

  11. 44 CFR 351.22 - The Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents.” (The preparation of PAGs related to human food and animal feed will be done in coordination with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)/Food and..., implementation and presentation to the extent that resources permit of technical training for State and...

  12. Energy Efficiency & Scientific Development——2007 Beijing Energy-saving & Environmental Protection Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The whole world has been attaching great importance to energy saving and environmental protection. China is also at the risk of energy shortage with the rapid economic growth.Therefore, it has become increasingly important how to save energy and protect the environment.

  13. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  14. An Environmental Sentinel Biomonitor System for Drinking Water Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    W.H. van der Schalie U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research Fort Detrick, MD 21702 N. Salazar Agave Biosystems Austin, TX 78708...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 substrate inhibition sensing (ECIS) device and a test for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The ECIS test ( Agave

  15. Machine learning methods for environmental monitoring and flood protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    More and more natural disasters are happening every year: floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. In order to reduce the risk of possible damages, governments all around the world are investing into development of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for environmental applications. The most important t

  16. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  17. THE APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagery Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape-level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 25+ year history...

  18. Situation in France: The Position of a Federation of Environmental Protection NGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambou, José; Proy, Dominique

    France Nature Environnement (www.fne.asso.fr) is the French federation of associations for the protection of nature and the environment, and a member of the European Environmental Bureau. Founded in 1968, it has explicitly been in charge of environmental health issues since 1997.

  19. Explaining tourists´ support for environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Any movement towards sustainable tourism is dependent not only upon the industry and other key stakeholders but also the demand side, namely the tourists. Yet, there is a limited literature from the demand point of view. In this area, contributions to an understanding of tourists’ support to sustainable development are necessary. This paper analyzes the main determinants in tourist behavior regarding the environmental considerations when they are making decisions about their holiday plans. G...

  20. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  1. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  2. Laying Stress on Energy-Saving and Environmental Protection of Thermal Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most attraetive spot of the 11th Five-Year Plan is to change China's present mode of cconomic growth and take a road of circulative cconomy based on effective utilization of resources and environmental protection. Electric power as a basic industry,energy conservation and environmental protection will become one of its working cmphases in a period of time to come. In this connection, the journalist (Zhao Ran) from China Electric Power has exclusively interviewed Tang Yunlin, the former president of the China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. He thought that the most important thing for power industry to save energy and protect environment is to bring about the energy conservation and environmental protection in thermal power plants rather than first devclop hydropower, nuclear power and renewable energy. His viewpoints and suggestions have been recognized by many insiders.

  3. Legal study on water environmental protection of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG He

    2007-01-01

    Water environment security of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area has become a more extensive concern since the impoundment of the reservoir. This paper describes the existing water environmental hazards and defects in current legal system for water environmental protection in this area, and also discusses their possible causes and potential problems in the future based on first hand materials and other literature. According to the theories of integrated river basin management and environmental equity principle, legal proposals are put forward, which include building an unitary legal system dedicated to the Reservoir Area, setting up a basin authority of the Yangtze River to preside over the resources protection and development, using interests' compensation system to solve interest conflicts among different reaches, and making concrete regulations to direct public participation in water environmental security protection of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  4. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Suspenders, pack, combat 1 Protective mask 1 Lipstick , antichap, cold climate 1 C-I TOP 8-4-006 1 November 1986 Item Quantity Sunglasses w/case 1 Box...match, waterproof w/matches I Personal items (i.e., cigarettes, matches, As desired notebook, pencil, etc.) *Either coat or parka or both depending upon...Rucksack 1 Socks, cushion sole 2 Liner, trousers 1 Inserts, mitten, trigger finger 1 Bag, sleeping, type 11 1 Case, water repellent 1 Bag, waterproof 1

  5. Impact of Open Source software on the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viduka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing development of computer hardware contributes to the constant throwing old computers ie. direct increase of electric and electronic equipment waste. This type of waste is a major threat to human health and the environment. By applying Open Source software solutions all users of computer hardware can significantly effect on the reduction of this type of waste. The aim of this paper is to present the advantages of using Open Source software package in terms of preserving and protecting the environment. This paper presents the results of testing MS Windows and Linux operating systems on an older computer, the results are obtained by applying the benchmark software GeekBench.

  6. Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Anne

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization.

  7. Comparative analysis of the EU criminal law for environmental protection and the Albanian one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Petrela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two main parts where the first one presents the path how the environmental issue was included in the primary legislation of the European Union (EU, starting this theoretical panorama from the first founding treaty – Treaty of Rome, in 1957. It shows that with the passing of years the environmental protection has become one of the most important fields of action of the European Community supported by the primary and secondary legislation of the EU and its several bodies with competencies in this field. The second part of the paper starts with the commitments on the environmental protection that the Albanian state has made upon signature and entrance into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU. In addition, this article presents a summary of the legislative activity in Albania regarding environmental protection in the last two decades with special focus on the time period after the approval of the current Constitution of 1998, which is the basis and origin of every legislative initiative. Furthermore, there are presented the key features of the Albanian environmental legislation, as well as the protection mechanism from the criminal legislation point of view. The presentation of the European and national reality with special focus on environmental protection serves to a comparative purpose between the two models. It also serves to draw conclusions and propose suggestions on how the Albanian legislation should be developed and improved in order to be in line with that of the European Union and effective in practice to serve the ultimate goal of environmental protection and prevention from further environmental degradation.

  8. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  9. Environmental Protection Legislation on China’s Energy Development and In-situ Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Jing-yu

    2012-01-01

    China’s poor energy development and in-situ conversion legislation, environment laws and energy laws lead to a severe environmental issue in energy source. This paper uses comparison and logical methods to discuss Chapter 4 of Energy Law (Draft for Soliciting Opinions). Energy development is taken as a separate chapter; in-situ energy conversion is added to energy processing and conversion, common features are summarized to form general provisions and other provisions. According to respective characteristics of system for total amount control of energy development, performance guarantee system, environmental trust fund system, energy retaining system and environmental lien system, incorporate them into energy development, in-situ energy conversion and energy processing and conversion, in the hope of solving China’s shortage of supply for environmental protection laws on energy development and in-situ conversion, responding to times of environmental protection, and optimizing China’s Energy Law.

  10. Environmental protection of titanium alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. G.; Wood, R. A.; Seltzer, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Various concepts were evaluated for protecting titanium alloys from oxygen contamination at 922 K (1200 F) and from hot-salt stress-corrosion at 755 K (900 F). It is indicated that oxygen-contamination resistance can be provided by a number of systems, but for hot-salt stress-corrosion resistance, factors such as coating integrity become very important. Titanium aluminides resist oxygen ingress at 922 K through the formation of alumina (on TiAl3) or modified TiO2 (on Ti3Al, TiAl) scales. TiAl has some resistance to attack by hot salt, but has limited ductility. Ductile Ti-Ni and Ti-Nb-Cr-Al alloys provide limited resistance to oxygen ingress, but are not greatly susceptible to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking.

  11. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Protected Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    Cactaceae and the genus Yucca and all evergreen trees are protected under NRS 527.050 and NRS 527.070. Utah has no state laws which afford protection to...endangered under NRS 527.270 occur in or near geotechnically suitable areas. In addition, all members of the family Cactaceae , all members of the

  12. Research to Integrate Productivity Enhancement, Environmental Protection, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the challenges of poverty and environmental sustainability, a different kind of research will be needed. This research will need to embrace the complexity of these systems by redirecting the objectives of research toward enhancing adaptive capacity, by incorporating more participatory approaches, by embracing key principles such as multi-scale analysis and intervention, and by the use of a variety of tools (e.g., systems analysis, information management tools, and impact assessment tools. Integration will be the key concept in the new approach; integration across scales, components, stakeholders, and disciplines. Integrated approaches, as described in this Special Feature, will require changes in the culture and organization of research.

  13. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  14. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  15. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  16. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  17. A geochemical and mineralogical approach to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmi, I. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra; Hunziker, J.C. [UNIL BFSH-2 CH, Institut de Mineralogie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Panichi, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, International Institute for Geothermal Research, Ghezzano, PI (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Chemical pollution of the biospheric environment by human activity has become a problem of regional and global scale. There is no doubt that the contribution of geochemistry and mineralogy in defining the extent of this problem and estimating its long-term effects on life-forms is fundamental. Most of the environmental pollution problems arise from human activity associated with the exploitation and utilisation of the Earth's resources, involving minerals and fluids in some way. These problems include waste generated by mining activity, industrial, domestic, and nuclear waste. Particular problems can arise form the use of minerals and rocks in buildings and monuments. The relationship between minerals and human health represents a special case. Minerals can, on the one hand, create a problem; but, on the other hand, due to their peculiar structural properties of potentially hazardous and also useful minerals, capable of adsorbing or neutralizing any toxic, acid and undesirable components. Geochemistry can make important contributions in defining background concentrations, in mapping and accounting for dispersion patterns, in understanding the chemical interaction of pollutants with natural dissolved constituents and mineral matter, in estimating residence times and the extent to which geochemical processes will remove pollutants from the environment.

  18. CCS - environmental protection framework for an emerging technology. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Ralf; Boehringer, Alexander; Charisse, Thomas (and others)

    2009-10-15

    With this paper, the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) updates1 its position paper of 20062 on the technical capture and geological storage3 of carbon dioxide (CCS: carbon capture and storage). After a brief description of the development status of the process steps of capture, transport and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Chapter 1, we look into the possible risks for human health and the environment (Chapter 2), which up to now have been little discussed or researched. These risks will largely depend on the integrity of storage sites. On the assumption of functioning capture technology at cost-effective conditions, the capacity of available and secure storage sites will decisively determine the scale of possible greenhouse gas emission reductions through CCS (Chapter 3). In examining storage capacity, it has always to be considered that the geological storage of CO2 can compete with other uses of underground geological formations, such as geothermics or compressed-air and natural-gas storage (Chapter 4). The Federal Environment Agency takes the view that these factors determine the role that CCS can play as an additional climate protection measure (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 we show how CCS, in its application, should be integrated into emissions trading. CO2 emission reduction should in our view only be acknowledged when it is effectively and demonstrably ensured through permanent storage. Chapter 7 deals with necessary reforms of liability law, which legislators should undertake in order to assign the dangers and risks of CCS to those responsible for them. In Chapter 8, we summarize the fundamental demands on legislators, while Chapter 9 is devoted to issues concerning the source and application of funds for research and development. (orig.)

  19. The Idea of Sustainable Development to Reconcile the Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreselassie, Abeba T.

    2010-01-01

    the requirements of the environmental protection of plant genetic resources (for example by the Convention on Biological Diversity [CBD]) into the intellectual property protection of plant genetic resources (patent laws and plant variety protection laws). The Article argues that, first, as the discussion...... in the following sections shows, the successful implementation of the CBD partly depends on the cooperation of other states and that there is thus a need for an international integration of environmental protection into development laws, policies and programs. Second, the intersection between the CBD...... /International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources on Food and Agriculture [IT-PGRFA] and plant intellectual property laws, and Agreements have to be considered as one way for developed countries to fulfill the many promises given to developing countries under different laws, agreements and declarations...

  20. Multimodal aspects of CSR communication related to gender empowerment and environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    Purpose – This paper explores how the multimodal persuasive strategies of CSR communication related to Coca-Cola’s “5 by 20” succeed to highlight the company’s continuous commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection. Launched in 2010, “5 by 20” is a program designed to empower 5...... and communities due to the implementation of this program. The environmental concerns are embedded in their activities. Approach – Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis, gender theory and environmental communication, the paper proposes...... of actors, actions, space and time. Findings – The paper explains how the commitment for gender empowerment and environmental protection is communicated through a complex interplay of several semiotic modes. It claims that by exploring how these semiotic modes reinforce, complement or subvert each other...

  1. Environment protection and supranationality: supranationality as an imperative in the fight against environmental degradation: environmental international courts

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Se analizan las normas jurídicas ambientales y la institución de la supranacionalidad, su evolución y la necesidad de construir sistemas supranacionales para la protección del ambiente. Se destaca asimismo que sin supranacionalidad no habrá desarrollo sostenible. The author analyses environmental juridical norms within the supranational system, their evolution and the need to constitute supranational juridical systems for environment protection. It is also claimed that no sustained develop...

  2. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...... on the surrounding built and cultural heritage and examines how the environmental impact assessment was used during the development process....

  3. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  4. Paleo-environmental gateways in the eastern Canadian arctic - Recent isotope hydrology and diatom oxygen isotopes from Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapligin, B.; Narancic, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake is located on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada between the areas of past warming (Canadian High Arctic to the North) and climatic stability (Northern Quebec and Labrador region to the South). Despite being the largest lake in the Nunavut region with a postglacial marine to lacustrine transition history only a few paleo-environmental investigations were completed in this area. The oxygen isotope composition of diatoms (δ18Odiatom) can provide valuable insights into paleo-environmental conditions. Here, the recent (isotope) hydrology and hydrochemical data from the lake are presented to facilitate the interpretation of a δ18Odiatom record from an 82 cm sediment core (Ni-2B). The well-mixed lake (δ18Owater = -17.4‰) is influenced by a heavier (less negative) isotope composition (-18.80‰) from Amadjuak River draining Amadjuak Lake to the South and water of lighter (more negative) isotopic composition (-16.4‰) from the Isurtuq River originating from Penny Ice Cap in the North-East. From the δ18Owater and δ18Odiatom of the topmost sample of core Ni-2B a Δ18Osilica-water of 1000 ln α(silica-water) = 40.2‰ for sub-recent diatoms of Nettilling Lake was calculated matching the known water-silica fractionation for fossil sediments well and thereby showing the general applicability of this proxy for paleo-reconstructions in this region. Extremely large δ18Odiatom variations in the core of more than 13‰ are mainly induced by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water due to a shift from glaciomarine (δ18Odiatom = +34.6‰) through brackish (+23.4 to +27.2‰) towards lacustrine (+21.5‰) conditions (transition zones glaciomarine to brackish at 69 cm/7300 yr cal. BP and brackish to lacustrine at 35 cm/6000 yr cal. BP) associated with a shift in the degree of salinity. Our study provides the first evidence that paleo-salinity can be reconstructed by δ18Odiatom. Additionally, for the lacustrine section it could be demonstrated that

  5. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance New Mapping Tool for Enforcement Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The new mapping tool shows facilities in the United States where the EPA concluded formal environmental enforcement actions between October 1, 2008 and September...

  7. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  8. Provincial soil-quality monitoring networks in the Netherlands as an instrument for environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink, E.R.V.; Postma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, several provinces in the Netherlands have put much effort in establishing soil-quality monitoring networks. The purpose of these networks is to provide insight in the trends in (geochemical) soil quality, on which new policies for environmental protection can be based, such as restrictio

  9. 2005 China- Britain Standardization Conference -Environmental Protection ·Energy Saving & Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 China-Britain Standardization Conference was held at Beijing International Convention Center on June 29th 2005, jointly hosted by Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC) and British Standards Institute (BSI), with "Environmental Protection . Energy Saving & Standardization" as its theme.

  10. Relations between economic wealth, ecological footprint, and environmental protection depend on climatic demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Vlek, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Richer societies have larger ecological footprints and are more inclined toward environmental protection. But this is an incomplete story as long as climatic temperature is left out of consideration. Our 116-nation study shows that all countries, but especially richer countries, have larger ecologic

  11. 76 FR 72436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...; 2310-0057-422] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by... Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing Non-Native Ungulates. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS... Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing Non-Native Ungulates, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii....

  12. 77 FR 5010 - Notice of Availability of Memorandum of Understanding Between U.S. Environmental Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Memorandum of Understanding Between U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU.... The complete text of the MOU can also be viewed in the electronic docket at regulations.gov ....

  13. Juvenile criminal recidivism : relations with personality and post release environmental risk and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the present dissertation is to get more insight in the contribution of personality traits and post release environmental risk and protective factors on juvenile criminal recidivism. One year after their release from a juvenile detention centre, a sample of 60 adolescent male offen

  14. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  15. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  16. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  17. Environmental Protection of the Arctic Region: Effective Mechanisms of Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gladun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal regulations on environmental issues that arise in the Arctic due to intensive exploitation of its oil and gas resources need to be explored. There are gaps in environmental regulations over the Arctic region both at international and domestic levels. For Russia, at least two basic problems can be seen in the legal norms: the absence of a coherent approach to the Arctic environmental legislation and policy, and the need to develop effective mechanisms of environmental protection in the process of the Arctic development. In recent years, the Arctic states have expanded legislation on the Arctic issues. Currently, the most effective legal instruments targeting the protection of the fragile Arctic environment have been created by the Arctic countries. The introduction of a system of integrated environmental management is the first step that should be taken. Deep scientific research should be the obligatory foundation of any Arctic project. Moreover, much attention should be paid to the analysis of biological diversity preservation schemes. Lastly, special laws are needed in Russia to ensure: the regulation, prevention, and response to pollution by oil and other containments; the protection and rational use of Arctic resources; and the conservation of the Arctic marine areas and natural landmarks. These ideas are based on a comparative analysis of the legal rules contained within the laws of Norway, Canada, and the United States.

  18. Requirements and limitations of standardization of environmental protection in the primary EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Jukić

    2015-09-01

    Criteria for the protection of the environment contained in art.27 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, for the main part, conflict with the content of art.11 UFEU and in this phase of development does not place the demands which supersede the demands of UFEU before the legislator of the Union .However, it is necessary to wait and see whether and to what extent the provision on environmental protection , contained in art.37 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights ,give individuals subjective rights. According to the author’s opinion, for the European legislator, no significant limitations of legislative activity in the area of environmental protection emerge from the primary law of the European Union. The set demands are very weak which ultimately, in relation to the division of authority between the European Union and its member states, result in continual conflict.

  19. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  20. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  1. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Jin, J H; Kim, J B

    2002-01-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting...

  2. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  3. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  4. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  5. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  6. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A.

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  7. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  8. The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    tool in environmental protection. Design: The 3 features by which this diet shift affects the environment—composition, transport (import), and type of production (organic/conventional)—were separately investigated by using life cycle assessment. Results: When both diet composition and transport were...... lowered to €42/person per year, or 5% of the overall environmental cost of the ADD. Conclusion: Reducing the content of meat and excluding most long-distance imports were of substantial environmental and socioeconomic advantage to the NND when compared with the ADD, whereas including high amounts......Background: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional, and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy, and sustainable diet containing 35% less meat than the Average Danish Diet (ADD); more whole-grain products, nuts, fruit, and vegetables; locally grown food...

  9. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  10. Legislation Characteristics and Implementation Recommendations for Ecological and Environmental Protection Regulations on Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long RAN

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed status and significance of Ecological and Environmental Protection Regulations on Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province in structure of Shaanxi local environmental laws.Theses Regulations have two outstanding characteristics:firstly,integrated protection and development,accurately regulating and guiding relation coordination;secondly,attaching great importance to using economic means to protect ecological environment and provide basis for administration according to law.It came up with specific methods for speeding up formulation of Regulations,making effort to explore implementation cases for development of Guanzhong economic zone and Qinling Mountains ecological protection,establishing methods and systems for ecological and environmental protection follow-up monitoring and evaluation of Qinling Mountains,and raising these Regulations to national laws of Ecological and Environmental Protection for Qinling Mountains.

  11. THE CURRENT ACTIVITIES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN AND ITS FUTURE PROSPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the environmental regulations have been enacted to prevent pollution, the Japanese oil industry has responded by adopting a number of new technologies from over seas countries and by developing its own technologies.   Oil industry has been making great efforts to protect the environment for over three decades mentioned above. Even so we will have to make a strict commitment toward further improvements in air quality, such as the carbon dioxide, automobile emission and so on.   Since the environment protection will be more and more important in the future, oil industry must continue to try hard to preserve environment.

  12. Dynamics of Sewage Charge Policies, Environmental Protection Industry and Polluting Enterprises—A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The game model of sewage charges, based on incremental mode, was developed. Four modes of high/low sewage charge standards were utilized to analyze the relationship between control strategy on sewage discharge and the development of environmental protection industry. Results showed that the selection of control strategy was heavily dependent on the level of sewage charges. An empirical study was carried out to investigate the environmental protection industry in 31 regions in China in 2010. It was revealed that the sewage charge standards, formulated by the local governments and the development of environmental protection industry, varied significantly in different regions. The optimal level of environmental quality and social welfare, as a whole, was not achieved in China. It is proposed that different regions should adopt different sewage charges standards based on their economic development level and the current environmental quality. Similarly, the scientific and technological innovation of environmental protection industry should be further strengthened.

  13. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  14. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory (through the second quarter of 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program; to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  15. The integration of the protection of nature conservation areas in Dutch spatial planning law and environmental management law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomberg, A.B.; De Gier, A.A.J.; Robbe, J.

    2009-01-01

    An important question concerning the protection of designated areas in Dutch environmental law is the extent to which area protection plays a part in other fields of Dutch law. The question of integrating the protection of nature reserves as regulated in the Dutch Nature Conservation Act 1998, which

  16. Water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to realize sustainable development of the arid area of Northwest China, rational water resources exploitation and optimization are primary prerequisites. Based on the essential principle of sustainable development, this paper puts forward a general idea on water resources optimization and eco-environmental protection in Qaidam Basin, and identifies the competitive multiple targets of water resources optimization. By some qualitative methods such as Input-output Model & AHP Model and some quantitative methods such as System Dynamics Model & Produce Function Model, some standard plans of water resources optimization come into being. According to the Multiple Targets Decision by the Closest Value Model, the best plan of water resources optimization, eco-environmental protection and sustainable development in Qaidam Basin is finally decided.

  17. The fate and behaviour of enhanced natural radioactivity with respect to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, B., E-mail: b.michalik@gig.eu [Laboratory of Radiometry, Central Mining Institute (GIG), Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Brown, J., E-mail: Justin.Brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Grini naeringspark 13, 1361 Osteras Norway (Norway); Krajewski, P., E-mail: krajewski@clor.waw.pl [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR), ul. Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa Poland (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    In contrast to the monitoring and prevention of occupational radiation risk caused by enhanced natural radioactivity, relatively little attention has been paid to the environmental impact associated with residues containing enhanced activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. Such materials are often deposited directly into the environment, a practice which is strictly forbidden in the management of other types of radioactive waste. In view of the new trends in radiation protection, the need to consider the occurrence of anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity as a particular unique case of environmental hazard is quite apparent. Residues containing high activity concentrations of some natural radionuclides differ from radioactive materials arising from the nuclear industry. In addition, the radiation risk is usually combined with the risk caused by other pollutants. As such and to date, there are no precise regulations regarding this matter and moreover, the non-nuclear industry is often not aware of potential environmental problems caused by natural radioactivity. This article discusses aspects of environmental radiation risks caused by anthropogenically enhanced natural radioactivity stored at unauthorised sites. Difficulties and inconclusiveness in the application of recommendations and models for radiation risk assessment are explored. General terms such as 'environmental effects' and the basic parameters necessary to carry out consistent and comparable Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) have been developed and defined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of environmental impact caused by residues containing high activity concentration of natural radionuclides Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of an effect of radiation on an ecosystem and novel method for its assessment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation protection regulation inconclusiveness in the aspects of enhanced natural radioactivity.

  18. China Committed to Environmental Protection with Increase of Clean Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Construction of the West-East gas transmission pipeline is a significant decision that the Chinese government made at the turn of the century, aiming at bringing the long-term benefits to the Chinese people. The project, starting from Tarim basin in West China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region and ending in Shanghai on China's eastern coastline, will stimulate the western economic development,accelerate adjustment of the eastern energy consumption structure and improve the environmental protection in the areas along the giant pipeline.

  19. Technical advance in China's petroleum exploitation and production and its environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingchun, Li; Wei, Fan; Jialin, Wang; Yong, Li

    2010-09-15

    China has gained great development in the fields of petroleum exploitation and production, and these achievements provide reservation for China's energy safety. Some of them may strengthen the environment protection from the source, while some of them may bring certain environmental pressure. This study analyses the opportunities and the challenges brought by the technology development and gives countermeasures for decrease the negative impact of technology development.

  20. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  1. IMPACT OF INVESTMENT IN QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ON REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Savovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering that quality is one of foundation of harmonized regional development, in this paper, overall view of identified need for level of product quality, improvement of environmental protection, improvement of competitiveness and improvement of quality of tourism services has been analysed. In the next phase requests of stakeholders are presented. Author has also analysed feasibility of investing in quality improvement and environmental protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje and identified the most significant types of economic benefits and economic costs that may result from the introduction of ISO 9001, ISO 14001, HACCP and obtaining the CE mark for products and diagrammatic unveiled in the assumed maximum, realistic and minimum value applying cost/benefit analysis. On these bases, mathematical functions and calculations are applied to determine if there are different variants of total economic benefits and total economic costs. Goal was to determine if the investment in quality improvement and environmental protection in SMEs in Sumadija and Pomoravlje is largely justified and profitable.

  2. Contents on the environmental protection in the geography textbooks for primary and secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysis the contents of Geography textbooks which refer to the problems of the protection of the environment. The last publications of Geography textbooks for primary and secondary schools of the Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva (Belgrade were used as a sample. With this study we wanted to check at what extent the contents of the environmental protection are present in the contemporary Geography textbooks and how much they contribute to the formation of the system of ecologic knowledge and ecologic conscience of students with their structure. The analysis has showed that the problems of the environmental protection in the analyzed textbooks are not present enough, that they are mostly covered in integrative way, sporadically and declaratively. Undefined ecologic concepts are twice as much presented as defined. The explanations of notions are more often supported by examples than by factographic data, although the number of examples is insufficient. Especially, the examples from close surroundings are missing. With their structure, the present contents do not provide knowledge on numerous problems on the protection of the environment and they do not influence the development of ecologic attitudes, emotions and habits in students. Practical implications of the study are shown in the way that the results and conclusions can stimulate the authors of textbooks to change the approach in planning the contents of the future Geography textbooks... .

  3. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyukhin, Sergei A.; Mikheev, Nikolai B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkovskii, Leo N.; Reshetov, Leo A.; Zvetkova, Marianna Ya. [All-Russian Research Institute of Atomic Machine-Building, Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Yagodkin, Ivan V.; Osipov, Viktor P.; Skvortsov, Sergei S. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Berkovich, Viktor M.; Taranov, Gennadii S.; Grigor' ev, Mikhail M. [Institute ' Atomenergoproekt' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Meshkov, Vladimir M.; Noskov, Andrei A.; Mitrofanov, Mikhail I. [ROSENERGOATOM Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  4. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Jin, Joon Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Byung Jong

    2002-04-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting more interested in terms of on-line data acquisition and analysis for the validation of the numerical simulation models. The experiment using radiotracer becomes an important part of the method to solve the problems happening in coastal environment, as it supplies data with high confidence in the field. On the basis of the experience obtained from the researches for industrial application of radiotracer technology, KAERI is going to make its first step to the development of the radiotracer technology for costal environmental studies.

  5. A DSS for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Basil D; Papathanasiou, Jason; Bournaris, Thomas; Voudouris, Kostas

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions developed in the framework of the Interreg-Archimed project entitled WaterMap (development and utilization of vulnerability maps for the monitoring and management of groundwater resources in the ARCHIMED areas). Its aim is to optimize the production plan of an agricultural region taking in account the available resources, the environmental parameters, and the vulnerability map of the region. The DSS is based on an optimization multicriteria model. The spatial integration of vulnerability maps in the DSS enables regional authorities to design policies for optimal agricultural development and groundwater protection from the agricultural land uses. The DSS can further be used to simulate different scenarios and policies by the local stakeholders due to changes on different social, economic, and environmental parameters. In this way, they can achieve alternative production plans and agricultural land uses as well as to estimate economic, social, and environmental impacts of different policies. The DSS is computerized and supported by a set of relational databases. The corresponding software has been developed in a Microsoft Windows XP platform, using Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Access, and the LINDO library. For demonstration reasons, the paper includes an application of the DSS in a region of Northern Greece.

  6. Environmental protection management by monitoring the surface water quality in Semenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana SÂMBOTIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment seems to have been the war against all. In fact recently most people polluted the environment and those few are cared for his cleaning. Today, the relationship evolvedas societies have changed in favour of ensuring environmental protection. With modern technology, performance, monitoring the environment becomes part of human activity ever more necessary, more possible and more efficient. The quality of the environment, its components: air, water, soil, plants, vegetable and animal products, is a condition "sine qua non" for the life of the modern man. The consequences of environmental pollution areso dangerous that modern man cannot afford considering them. Through this paper I will study the environmental quality by monitoring the surfaces waters from the Semenic- Gărâna area.

  7. Risk-based decision-making for environmental protection : good, bad or indifferent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Public Health

    1998-12-31

    The concept of risk as a factor to be considered in environmental decision-making was discussed. Risk ranking was described as being inherently subjective in nature so that public involvement in risk decision-making is important in maintaining some credibility for the ultimate decisions. This paper addressed the following issues: (1) what is risk-based decision-making in environmental issues? (2) what evidence and information is needed for risk-based decision-making? (3) when is risk-based decision-making the most sensible solution? (4) how can risk-based decision-making improve environmental protection? (5) what dangers and liabilities are involved in a risk-based approach, and (6) what level of risk is acceptable and who should decide? 15 refs.

  8. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  9. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leonard, Elliott J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  10. Radioecology in hte Arctic: Activities of the new environmental protection unit of the NRPA in Tromsoe[Norwegian RadiationProtection Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerland, S.; Lind, B. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Polar Environmental Centre, Environmental Proctection Unit, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    In August 1999, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Statens straelevern) established an Environmental Protection Unit in the Polar Environmental Centre in Tromsoe, northern Norway. Major tasks of the three persons at the unit include monitoring and research in both marine and terrestrial environments in northern Eurasian areas and the Arctic. This includes field and laboratory work, collaboration with the other institutions within the Polar Environmental Centre (e.g. the Norwegian Polar Institute), and integrating studies within the AMAP programme. The Environmental Protection Unit was recently involved in fieldwork in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), an international cruise to the Fram Strait, a technetium monitoring program in the Western Barents Sea, and radiation measurements on the site in the Barents Sea where the Russian submarine 'Kursk' sunk. (LN)

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  12. The environmental protection in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interconnections between environmental issues and the protection of human rights, in a process that began in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and has been developed by the greening of the regional human rights systems. In the Inter-American system the article 11 of the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1988 — the Protocol of San Salvador — guarantees the right to a healthy environment. However the American Convention (on its arts. 3-25, 44-51 and 61-69 and its Additional Protocol (on its arts. 8, 13 and 19.6 only allow the submission of individual petitions to the Inter-American Commission and the possible acting of the Inter-American Court, in complaints containing alleged violations of civil and political rights, trade union rights and the right to education. Despite the lack of devices that are capable to ensure an effective protection to the right to a healthy environment, by itself, the Inter-American Court has demonstrated the greening of the human rights, which means, in other words, that it is quite possible to protect environmental issues by the demonstration of its interconnections with civil and political rights that are directly protected by the inter-American system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the contributions of the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court in the strengthening of the civil and political rights in cases related to environmental issues.

  13. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  14. Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency [ER.QUADS6K_EPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Grid cells are based on densification...

  15. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment.

  16. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  17. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Poljšak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants.

  18. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  19. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  20. Engineered nano materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research at the Western Ecology Division in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanoparticles represent a unique hazard to human health and the environment because their inherent characteristics differ significantly from commonly used chemicals and bulk forms of materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecti...

  1. Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge (Proposed) Quitman, Tallahatchie, and Grenada Counties, Mississippi, Draft Environmental Assessment and Land Protection Plan.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Draft Land Protection Plan and Environmental Assessment for Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge contains the necessary supporting documentation to establish...

  2. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKend, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  3. Cleaning and Decontamination Using Strippable and Protective Coatings at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; K. Archibald; L. Lauerhass; M. Argyle; R. Demmer

    1999-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Liquid Waste Reduction (RLWR) group is conducting a testing and evaluation program on strippable and protective coatings. The purpose of the program is to determine how and where these coatings can be used to aid in the minimization of liquid waste generation. These coatings have become more important in daily operations because of the increased concern of secondary liquid waste generation at the INEEL. Several different strippable and protective coatings were investigated by the RLWR group, including Pentek 604, Bartlett (TLC), and ALARA 1146. During the tests quantitative data was determined, such as effectiveness at reducing contamination levels, or costs, as well as some qualitative data on issues like ease of application or removal. PENTEK 604 and Bartlett TLC are seen as superior products with slightly different uses.

  4. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still prot...

  5. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action.

  6. Toward the definition of specific protection goals for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals: A perspective on environmental regulation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A Ross; Whale, Graham; Jackson, Mathew; Marshall, Stuart; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Woods, Richard; Nadzialek, Stephanie; Maltby, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This critical review examines the definition and implementation of environmental protection goals for chemicals in current European Union (EU) legislation, guidelines, and international agreements to which EU countries are party. The European chemical industry is highly regulated, and prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) are tailored for different classes of chemical, according to their specific hazards, uses, and environmental exposure profiles. However, environmental protection goals are often highly generic, requiring the prevention of "unacceptable" or "adverse" impacts on "biodiversity" and "ecosystems" or the "environment as a whole." This review aims to highlight working examples, challenges, solutions, and best practices for defining specific protection goals (SPGs), which are seen to be essential for refining and improving ERA. Specific protection goals hinge on discerning acceptable versus unacceptable adverse effects on the key attributes of relevant, sensitive ecological entities (ranging from organisms to ecosystems). Some isolated examples of SPGs for terrestrial and aquatic biota can be found in prospective ERA guidance for plant protection products (PPPs). However, SPGs are generally limited to environmental or nature legislation that requires environmental monitoring and retrospective ERA. This limitation is due mainly to the availability of baselines, which define acceptable versus unacceptable environmental effects on the key attributes of sentinel species, populations and/or communities, such as reproductive status, abundance, or diversity. Nevertheless, very few regulatory case examples exist in which SPGs incorporate effect magnitude, spatial extent, and temporal duration. We conclude that more holistic approaches are needed for defining SPGs, particularly with respect to protecting population sustainability, ecosystem function, and integrity, which are implicit in generic protection goals and explicit in the International

  7. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, T. C. M.;

    2012-01-01

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process...

  8. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  9. Critical comments on the US Environmental Protection Agency Standards 40 CFR 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflum, C.G. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Krishna, P. [TRW, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-01-14

    This paper is about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ``Environmental Standards for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Wastes,`` 40 CFR 191. These standards regulate the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. Currently, two repository sites are under investigation: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, may become the repository for defense-generated transuranic waste (TRU); and the Yucca Mountain site, located near Las Vegas, Nevada, may become the repository for spent reactor fuel and a small amount of reprocessing waste (hereinafter called high-level radioactive waste or HLW). The paper was written for readers who have an interest in 40 CFR 191 but do not have the time or inclination to ponder the technical details.

  10. The Effects of the Anti-Dam Movement on the Environmental Protection in American West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the far - reaching influence of anti - dam movement on the protection of environment in the second half of the 20th century in American West. It first introduces the historical background of dams built along the Colorado Biver - the most important river in the West, especially the construction of Hoover Dam and Glen Canyon Dam. Then, the criticism of dams on the Colorado is examined with the emphasis on the anti - dam movement resulting from the awareness of the negative ecological impacts on the Colorado. In the conclusion, the author demonstrates the unparallel historical significance of the anti -dam movement in the en-vironmentalism in developing the American West.

  11. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  12. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  13. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  14. Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services: Links between Canadian mining companies and selected sectors of the Canadian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Economic links between Canada's minerals and metals industry and Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services are examined to provide an insight into the interdependencies of these two key resource-related components of Canada's economy. The impact of globalization of the mining industry, estimates of its economic potential and the potential for exporting goods and services in conjunction with Canadian mining projects abroad are also assessed. The study concludes that the links between Canadian mining companies and the rest of the economy are difficult to quantify, due to the absence of statistical data that would differentiate supplier transactions with mining companies from those with other areas of the economy. At best, the approaches used in this study give but an imperfect understanding of the complex relationships between mining companies and their suppliers. It is clear, however, that as much of the demand for mining products is global, so is the supply, therefore, globalization of the mining industry, while creating unprecedented opportunities for Canadian suppliers to provide expertise, goods and services to Canadian and other customers offshore, the fact remains that mining multinationals buy a lot of their supplies locally. As a result, only some of the opportunities created by mining companies based in Canada and elsewhere will translate into sales for Canadian suppliers. Nevertheless, Canadian suppliers appear to have considerable depth in products related to underground mining, environment protection, exploration, feasibility studies, mineral processing, and mine automation. There appear to be considerable opportunities to derive further benefits from these areas of expertise. Appendices contain information about methodological aspects of the survey. 8 tabs., 32 figs., 6 appendices.

  15. 环保标准对环保产业的影响分析%Effects of Environmental Protection Standards on Environmental Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊跃辉; 谷雪景

    2015-01-01

    Environmental protection standards are the technical basis for the implementation of national environmental protection laws and regulations, also the powerful gripper to carry out environmental management and environmental law enforcement. Environmental industry is the effective measures to promote cleaner production and pollution reduction, then to realize the emission standards. Regarded as a driver force, environmental protection standards have significant impacts on the development of environmental industry, guiding its potential excavation and space extension, and they are interdependent to each other. To strengthen the promoting effects of environmental protection standards on environmental industry, we should have a comprehensive thinking on the current major issues by using the spirit of reform and innovation, and then orderly approach the formulation and implementation of environmental standards.%环保标准是实施国家环境保护法律、法规的技术依据,是开展环境管理、环境执法工作的有力抓手。环保产业是促进清洁生产和污染减排,实现达标排放的有效措施。环保标准对环保产业的发展具有重要影响,是环保产业发展的动力,为环保产业挖掘潜能、拓宽空间、提供指导,同时又与环保产业相互依存。强化环保标准对环保产业的促进作用,应以改革创新的精神综合考虑当前面临的主要问题,有序推进环保标准的制定和实施工作。

  16. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office I Appendix I to Chapter 15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... open competition under the authority in 41 U.S.C. 253(c)(5) as sources required by statute, i.e., 18...

  17. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  18. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  19. A Study on China’s System of Public Participation in Environmental Protection ----Taking Haikou’s “Two Constructions” for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, China’s environmental condition becomes more and more serious and all kinds of pollution incidents happen frequently. Although government departments have implemented various policies and measures to curb the deterioration of the environment, public participation in environmental protection is the key solution of which the breadth and depth determines the level of environmental protection. This paper first analyzes the problems of public participation in environmental protection, such as defects of current legislation, low level of environmental awareness and participation, weak environmental NGOs etc. and then puts forward three ways to optimize the system of public participation in environmental protection by the example of Haikou City’s “Two Constructions” Project, that is, perfect the relevant legal mechanism, increase publicity and support environmental NGOs. Finally the paper makes a summary and outlook of China’s system of public participation in environmental protection.

  20. Empirical Research on Factors Influencing Level of Environmental Protection Information Disclosure in Annual Reports by Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jinfeng; Xue Huifeng

    2009-01-01

    Taking 248 A-share manufacturing listed companies in 2006 Shanghai Stock Exchange as example,using "index method" to measure level of environmental protection information disclosure,this paper examines the factors influencing level of environmental protection information disclosure.The findings show that the disclosure level has improved,but the overall level is still low and unable to satisfy information users;there is positive correlation between corporate size,industry type,accounting firm's type and corporate environmental disclosure index.The companies of large scale and heavy pollution and those audited by international "Big 4" and domestic "Big 10" accounting firms have a high level of environmental disclosure,while the profitability and financial leverage has no impact on the disclosure level.Finally some suggestions are put forward to establish environmental information disclosure system in China.

  1. The Development Model of Village Natural resource and Environmental Protected Volunteer network in Mahasarakham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachya Siripongouthomporn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of natural resources and environmental protection volunteer network villages in Mahasarakham province. The purposes of this research were 1 to study current conditions and problems of Network volunteers escort the natural resources and environment village (NEV-Net of Mahasarakham province, 2 to develop model of village natural resource and environmental protected volunteer network (NEV-Net to be efficient, and 3 to compare the knowledge, attitudes and participation in the management of natural resources and environment. The sample were 30 volunteers. The result showed that: 1. Current conditions and problem, result revealed that NEV-Net has not yet been developed into concrete and cognitive problem found that Most do not have knowledge about and don’t understand about the roles of network volunteers escort the natural resources and environment village. Found that NEV-Net. Management problem administration has not yet streamlined, lack of network coordination, lack of knowledge and lack of personnel, budgets continuous support. 2. To develop a volunteer network of environmental and natural resource dissolved village (NEV-Net. Researchers used guidelines in development is Network model. By training and discussion groups, study results showed that, the performance of the NEV-Net. during training and after training is equal to 86.50/88.00. From the discussion group, study results showed that, volunteer network of environmental and natural resource dissolved village is network 4CRAF. Are as follows: Committee, Rule, Activities and Fund. 3. Found that after training, NEV-Net. Overall, there is a different level of education and age, knowledge, attitudes and participation in the management of natural resources and environment do not differ and there is no interaction between age and education level. When considering a list of found of attitudes in the Water resources management and Forest resources management do not differ. For Knowledge

  2. Environmental cues orchestrate regional immune surveillance and protection by pulmonary CTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Linda S

    2016-11-01

    Tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM) provide preemptive immunity against infections that begin in peripheral tissues by guarding the site of initial pathogen exposure. Their role in immunity to respiratory virus infection is particularly important because severe damage to the alveoli can be avoided when local populations of TRM cells reduce viral burdens and dampen the responses of effector CD8 T cells in the lungs. Although a connection between rapid immune activation and early viral control is well established, the signals that keep TRM cells poised for action in the local tissues remain poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that environmental cues influence the fate decisions of activated CTLs during memory formation. Manipulation of these signaling pathways could provide new ways to capitalize on protection from TRM cells in mucosal tissues, while reducing collateral damage and pathology during vaccination.

  3. The family Bignoniaceae in the Environmental Protection Area Serra Branca, Raso da Catarina, Jeremoabo, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Regina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bignoniaceae comprises 82 genera and 827 species distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical regions, with a few species in temperate climates, and is most diverse in South America. The Brazil is the center of diversity for the group, with about 406 species in 33 genera, of which 22 genera and 90 species occur in the Caatinga. The floristic survey of Bignoniaceae in the Environmental Protection Area Serra Branca included analysis of 31 specimens collected from August 2009 to February 2012. The analyses were supplemented with dried collections from the following herbaria: ALCB, HRB and HUEFS. Nine genera and 11 species were recorded: [Anemopaegma Mart ex DC; Bignonia L.; Cuspidaria DC.; Fridericia Mart.; Handroanthus Mattos; Jacaranda Juss; Lundia DC.; Mansoa DC. and Tabebuia Gomes ex DC.]. Fridericia was the most representative genus with three species. The taxonomic treatment includes a key for the identification, descriptions, illustrations, photos, data of the geographical distribution, reproductive phenology and comments about the species.

  4. Survey of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an environmentally protected area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  5. CEEPRA - Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solatie, D.; Leppaenen, A.P. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Kasatkina, N. [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russian Federation); Nalbandyan, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland); Reinikainen, K.; Nissi, M. [Poeyry Finland Oy (Finland); Vaaramaa, K. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    CEEPRA (Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research) is an EU-funded project acting under the Kolarctic ENPI CBC programme. The CEEPRA project's main aim is to develop a collaboration network between key radiation research institutions in the EuroArctic region, which will lead to improved emergency preparedness capabilities in the event of any nuclear accidents. The project is studying the current state of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the EuroArctic region by examining environmental samples collected from Lapland in Finland, Finnmark and Troms in Norway, the Kola Peninsula in Russia and in the Barents Sea. The results provide updated information on the present levels, occurrence and the fate of radioactive substances in the Arctic environments and food chains. Special attention is given to collection and analyses of natural products widely used by general public in Finland, Russia and Norway, such as berries, mushrooms, fish and reindeer meat. The region-specific risk assessments are carried out through modelling and studying of long-term effects of potential nuclear accidents in the EuroArctic region and possible impacts on the region's indigenous population, terrestrial and marine environments, reindeer husbandry, the natural product sector, tourism and industries. The project partners are Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) from Finland, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) from Russia, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Finnish Meteorological Institute and Poeyry Finland Oy. The Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SSC RAS) and Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) are taking part in the project as well. The main results of the project are presented in this study. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Survey of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Environmentally Protected Area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  7. Survey of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in an environmentally protected area in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Saraiva

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003, and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%, these data indicate the circulation of the parasite

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ROMANIA THROUGH EUROPEAN STRUCTURAL FUNDS – A SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Codruta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available European Structural Funds have been created with the clear goal to redistribute money among European Union members in such a way as to help poorer regions diminish the gaps between them and the richer ones. The present study assesses this problem for the Structural Operational Programme Environment in Romania. Using spatial econometrics methods, we evaluate two issues on the sample of 42 Romanian counties. The first one is if any clusterization process takes place in what regards contracting funds through ESF for environmental protection projects. The second one is intended to test whether the main principle of the ESF is satisfied – helping the poor in a sustainable development process. Using the quartile maps and the spatial Moran's I autocorrelation coefficient we show different results for the clusterization topic. When considering the budget value of the projects implemented through SOP ENV, both as total and as eligible share, Romanian counties group based on a positive global spatial autocorrelation. This means that counties with approximately the same budget levels are neighbours. Transylvanian counties have gained the most out of the projects on environment. When the number of contracts is assessed, the distribution of the counties proves to be random and no global spatial autocorrelation was found. Moreover, the map analysis shows that, in general, there is a negative relationship between the value of the budget and the number of contracts. The spatial regression analysis shows the violation of the ESF principle. The coefficients of the GDP are positive. This implies a direct relationship between the richness of the county and the projects implemented through the SOP ENV. Thus, instead of being used by the poorer regions, money goes to the richer ones. The higher the GDP, the higher the value of the budget for the environmental protection programmes financed through European funds. The GDP also positively influences the number of

  9. Radial-interval linear programming for environmental management under varied protection levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qian; Huang, Guo H; Cai, Yanpeng

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a radial-interval linear programming (RILP) approach was developed for supporting waste management under uncertainty. RILP improved interval-parameter linear programming and its extensions in terms of input reasonableness and output robustness. From the perspective of modeling inputs, RILP could tackle highly uncertain information at the bounds of interval parameters through introducing the concept of fluctuation radius. Regarding modeling outputs, RILP allows controlling the degree of conservatism associated with interval solutions and is capable of quantifying corresponding system risks and benefits. This could facilitate the reflection of interactive relationship between the feasibility of system and the uncertainty of parameters. A computationally tractable algorithm was provided to solve RILP. Then, a long-term waste management case was studied to demonstrate the applicability of the developed methodology. A series of interval solutions obtained under varied protection levels were compared, helping gain insights into the interactions among protection level, violation risk, and system cost. Potential waste allocation alternatives could be generated from these interval solutions, which would be screened in real-world practices according to various projected system conditions as well as decision-makers' willingness to pay and risk tolerance levels. Sensitivity analysis further revealed the significant impact of fluctuation radii of interval parameters on the system. The results indicated that RILP is applicable to a wide spectrum of environmental management problems that are subject to compound uncertainties.

  10. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  11. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy; La protection de l'environnement et le droit international: cas de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagicour, F

    2002-03-15

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  13. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  14. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods.Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed.The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  15. The Brief Introduction to the Sino-US Joint Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LI Rui; ZHENG Fen-li

    2004-01-01

    Erosion and transport of soil has worldwide implications for agriculture, landscape stability, climate, natural hazards, and clean, renewable resources of water and air. Assured access to clean water and a healthy and safe environment requires an ethic of conservation and protection. The minimum scale in which these principles apply successfully is basin wide. These are the fundamental concerns of the Sino-US Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection.

  16. The Study of Canadian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eli

    1971-01-01

    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  17. Idea and goals of environmental protection and ecological construction in the 11th five-year plan period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuanqing; Su Yang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the executive situation of the 10th Five- Year Plan in the field of environmental protection and ecological construction is reviewed, and the characteristics of economic growth and its environmental impact on the 11 th Five- Year Plan period is forecasted and analyzed. A principal idea of environmental protection and ecological construction is put forward for the 11 th Five-Year Plan period: strengthen the point treatment in key areas and set the main targets based on the idea. The relating countermeasures in national level are proposed as follows: set up appropriate ideas for official achievements by launching resources and environmental cost accounting; adjust the industrial structure actively by industrial policies and strenuous work; develop circular economy, change the mode of environmental protection from end treatment to headstream and process control; strengthen the market mechanism in the process of pollution treatment, set up the system of" who treats who benefits"; perfect interrelated laws and standards, strengthen the ability of environmental management; lay extra emphasis on two key targets: water pollution treatment in key river basins and management of the reserves; and combine the ecological construction and poverty alleviation in higher level.

  18. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s medaka Extended One-Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research...

  19. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  20. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  1. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    1984-01-01

    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  2. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: Water Quality, Sediment Grain and Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  3. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: water quality, sediment grain, and chemistry data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  4. Documentation to the workshop 'Cluster in the environmental protection economy'; Dokumentation zum Workshop ''Cluster in der Umweltschutzwirtschaft''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-11

    Within the workshop 'Cluster in the environmental protection economy' at the Umweltbundesamt (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) at 27th November, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Which contribution can cluster and cluster politics contribute to the promotion of the environmental protection economy? (Harald Legler); (b) Cluster in the environmental protection economy: Targets and expectations (Dieter Rehfeld); (c) Demands at the management of clusters (Karin Hoerhan); (d) Demands at the cluster politics in the environmental protection economy (Bernhard Hausberg); (e) Photovoltaics in Eastern Germany (Johann Wackenbauer); (f) Automotive industry in Bergisches Land (Thomas Lemken); (g) Competence centre environment Augsburg-Schwaben (Egon Beckord).

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.

  6. PROSPECTS OF CCS PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION IN RUSSIA: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tcvetkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of environmental protection is determined by its intensive change because of human impact, which, among other things, accompanied by an increasing of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. One of the ways to reduce the emission is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS technologies. To date, developed countries have successfully implemented a number of CCS demonstration projects. Their main purpose is to study the effectiveness of CO2 storage. Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of CO2 emissions. However, CO2 capture and storage issues are not studied by Russian enterprises due to the absence of environmental taxes. The experience of developed countries shows that CO2 storage projects, in addition to the reduction of anthropogenic impact, can be commercially effective not only by reducing the tax burden. This review presents the analysis of international experience in the field of CO2 capture and storage. Given the immaturity of technology and lack of the necessary volume of statistical data, it was an attempt to determine the minimum conditions, which permit the implementation of CCS projects in Russian oil fields. On the basis of the Russian development forecast and the fuel balance structure the volumes of CO2 emissions in the 2016–2030 years were calculated. According to significant difference in opinions about the feasibility of CCS implementation in Russia, this review presents the main arguments for and against such projects. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of CCS projects to enhance oil recovery factor showed that in spite of the absence of CO2 emissions taxes, such projects could be commercially effective in Russia due to the increase in oil recovery.

  7. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the three…

  8. COMPARISON OF MENTEROCOCCUS AGAR AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-RECOMENDED ENTEROCOCCI METHODS, ME AND MEI AGAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    To maintain waters that are "fishable and swimmable", mandated by the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a list of approved methods for use in enumerating enterococci and E. coli in ambient waters. As part of this effort, we compared mEn...

  9. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  10. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  11. Prevention and protection of the effects of biocorrosion and biofouling minimizing the environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez de Saravia, S. G.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion and biofouling processes are mediated by microorganisms adhered to the metal surfaces or embedded in a gelatinous matrix called biofilm. Biofilms affect the interaction between metals and the environment not only in deleterious processes like corrosion but also in several biological processes applied to materials recovery and handling. The growth of the microorganisms capable to induce biocorrosion is conditioned by favorable environmental conditions. However, the chemical agents generally used to prevent or protect metallic structures from biocorrosion are highly toxic and after use can have a negative impact on the environment. Four different approaches developed in our laboratory to prevent and control biocorrosion but minimizing the environmental impact, are successively presented in this paper: a the use of ozone as an environmentally friend biocide for cooling water systems; b the assay of the effectiveness of natural biocides on planktonic and sessile bacteria; c the potential use of film forming corrosion inhibitors; d the use of innovative preventing substances.

    Los procesos de biocorrosión y biofouling están mediados por microorganismos que adhieren a las superficies metálicas embebidos en una matriz gelatinosa llamada biofilm. Los biofilms afectan a la interacción entre metales y el medio ambiente, no solo a través de procesos deletéreos tales como la corrosión sino, también, en el manipuleo de diversos materiales. El crecimiento de los microorganismos capaces de inducir biocorrosión esta condicionado por un medio ambiente favorable. Sin embargo, generalmente, los agentes químicos usados para prevenir o proteger las estructuras metálicas de la biocorrosión son altamente tóxicos y su uso puede tener un impacto negativo para el ambiente. En este trabajo se presentan cuatro vías diferentes, desarrolladas en nuestro laboratorio, para prevenir y controlar la biocorrosión minimizando el impacto

  12. Conference Report: Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies KFG International Conference held on 25-27 October 2012 The long rays of the yellow autumn sun shining on the red leaves of the Free University Berlin's Dahlem Campus...... provided a local touch of nature for an international conference devoted to the protection of the environment on a global scale. Sixteen researchers from eleven different countries from Europe and overseas gathered from 25 to 27 October 2012 at the Free University's Silberlaube conference centre to discuss...... "Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies". The conference was hosted and sponsored by the Research College "The Transformative Power of Europe" (jointly directed by TANJA BÖRZEL and THOMAS RISSE) at Free University's Otto...

  13. Assessment of Canadian Regulations and Remediation Methods for Diesel Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Rushton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel released into the environment can contaminate ground water, degrade potable water supplies and cause the collapse of fisheries. They are toxic to both animals and humans and can affect the liver, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system leading to cancer as well as immunological and reproductive effects. The objectives of this study were to review current Canadian regulations pertaining to diesel fuel and to evaluate the current remediation methods using five criteria: efficiency, applicability, cost, time and cleanliness. PAHs are deemed toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act but no standards have been set for PAHs in diesel. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME has developed Canada-Wide Standards for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil (CWS PHCS while the Atlantic PIRI has implemented a Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA for the Atlantic region. The remediation methods included soil washing, landfilling, incineration, thermal desorption, radio frequency heating, chemical addition, landfarming, biopiling, composting, bioventing, liquid delivery and bioreactors. The bioreactors studied included: static bed, continuous mix, horizontal drum, fungal compost, slurry-phase, DITS, biofilters and packed bed bioreactors. The results showed that the biological methods were more effective than nonbiological ones and the bioreactors scored the highest among the biological methods. Eight criteria were then used for the evaluation of bioreactors: efficiency, time, cost, maintenance, simplicity, release of VOCs to the atmosphere, containment of contaminants and control of operating parameters The results showed that the continuous mix bioreactor was the most effective system.

  14. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices.

  15. Generation of Hospital Waste: An Awareness Impact on Health and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World is generating more and more waste as the population of people in the world & Hospitals are increasing day by day. Health care activities are a means of protecting health, curing patients and saving lives. Waste generating from hospitals, health centers and medicals are no exceptions. Medical waste contains toxic chemicals, can be infectious and pose contamination risks both to public health and environment. But they also generate waste, out of which 25 percent entail risks, either of infection, of trauma or radiation exposure. In addition the inappropriate treatment or disposal of the waste can lead to environmental contamination or pollution. Seventy five percent of the hospital waste is similar to household waste and do not entail any particular hazard. In general, PVC plastic waste represents the large amount in hospital waste. In this paper we are addressing the issue of incineration of medical waste and to control the surface water mercurial pollution, their impacts on health, environment and their remediation.

  16. Environmental Protection Department, Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division, LLNL NESHAPs 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R

    2007-06-20

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2006 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0045 mrem (0.045 {micro}Sv) (36% from point source emissions, 64% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.016 mrem (0.16 {micro}Sv) (87.5% from point source emissions, 12.5% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose coefficients. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  17. Water Environmental Issue in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Its Protective Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By single-factor-index evaluation on water of earth's surface, the result shows that the water-quality keep Ⅲ grade on the whole in Yang-tze River, Jia-ling River and Wu River of the Three Gorges reservoir, it occurs no obviously deteriorated tendency in 2005. But some sub-grade rivers are polluted badly, cross-section amount of water-quality Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ only has 64 percent, their water-quality is bad. It is clear that the gap between the water environmental state and the object of keeping water- quality Ⅱ in the Three Gorges reservoir is very big. This paper thoroughly analyses the problems and causes of the water environment, points out that the main factors resulting in the water pollution in recent years include the industrial sewage, solid wastes, soil and water loss, domestic rubbish and agricultural non-point source pollution, and finally puts forward the countermeasures for protecting of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  18. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency strategic plan for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Michael; Kavlock, Robert; Zenick, Hal; Kramer, Melissa

    2010-02-01

    In the 2007 report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences envisioned a major transition in toxicity testing from cumbersome, expensive, and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints, to in vitro robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Recognizing the need for agencies to partner and collaborate to ensure global harmonization, standardization, quality control and information sharing, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is leading by example and has established an intra-agency Future of Toxicity Testing Workgroup (FTTW). This workgroup has produced an ambitious blueprint for incorporating this new scientific paradigm to change the way chemicals are screened and evaluated for toxicity. Four main components of this strategy are discussed, as follows: (1) the impact and benefits of various types of regulatory activities, (2) chemical screening and prioritization, (3) toxicity pathway-based risk assessment, and (4) institutional transition. The new paradigm is predicated on the discovery of molecular perturbation pathways at the in vitro level that predict adverse health effects from xenobiotics exposure, and then extrapolating those events to the tissue, organ, or whole organisms by computational models. Research on these pathways will be integrated and compiled using the latest technology with the cooperation of global agencies, industry, and other stakeholders. The net result will be that chemical toxicity screening will become more efficient and cost-effective, include real-world exposure assessments, and eliminate currently used uncertainty factors.

  19. The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azadeh, J Nouri, I Mohammad Fam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total human engineering or macroergonomics. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant. To achieve the above objective, the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The results of this study show that the macroergonomic factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange, influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected macroergonomic factors are correlated to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system developmental cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. The main goal in such program is customer's satisfaction (Internal customers. However, more elaboration on the scientific tools for implementation of TDS factors in context of human performance is also under investigation.

  20. Development of processes for environmental protection based on self-propagating reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Roberto; Cincotti, Alberto; Concas, Alessandro; Cao, Giacomo

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of exploiting self-propagating reactions for environmental protection is discussed in this paper. In particular, results obtained at the laboratory scale and related to the fixation and consolidation of high level radioactive wastes, the recycling of silicon sludge and aluminum dross produced by semiconductor industries and aluminum foundries, the treating and recycling of a highly toxic solid waste from electrolytic zinc plants, and the degradation of chlorinated aromatics, are examined with particular emphasis on the latter case. Specifically, the self-propagating destruction of hexachlorobenzene and 2-(2-4-dichlorophenoxy)-propanoic acid with calcium hydride as reductive substrate is demonstrated. In fact, the heat liberated by the reactions involved is large enough to guarantee the self-sustaining character of the process within a wide range of reactants compositions. Moreover, no residual chlorinated organic compounds were found in the final solid product. Some reactor engineering aspects, as well as other significant future scientific and technological issues, are also addressed in view of large-scale applicability of processes based on self-propagating reactions. To date, the batch reactor technology seems to be more easily applicable, although the use of continuous reactors is not excluded in the next future.

  1. A system for environmental protection. Reference dose models for fauna and flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentreath, R.J. [Environment Agency, Bristol (United Kingdom); Woodhead, D.S.

    2000-05-01

    Ideas have already been published on how the current problems relating to environmental protection could be explicitly addressed. One of the basic cornerstones of the proposed system is that of the use of reference dose models for fauna and flora, in a manner analogous to those used for the human species. The concept is that, for a number of both aquatic and terrestrial fauna and flora types, 'reference' dose models, and dose per unit (internal and external) exposure tables, could be compiled. These would then be used to draw broad conclusions on the likely effects for such organisms in relation to three broad environment end points of concern: life shortening; impairment of reproductive capacity; and scorable, cytogenetic damage. The level of complexity of the dose models needs to be commensurate with the morphological complexity of the modelled organism, its size, and the data bases which are either available or could be reasonably obtained. The most basic models considered are either solid ellipsoids or spheres, with fixed dimensions. Secondary models contain internal, but relatively simple geometric features representative of those key organs or tissues for which more precise estimates of dose are required. Their level of complexity is also a function of different internal and external sources of radiation, and expected differences in radiosensitivities. Tertiary models -of greater complexity- are only considered to be of value for higher vertebrates. The potential derivation and use of all three sets of models is briefly discussed. (author)

  2. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments.

  3. FINDING THE BALANCE BETWEEN THE ENERGY SECCURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Z Bukurov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few issues that are as important to our collective future as energy. Like everyone else, Serbia has its stake in reducing energy price, enhancing the security of energy supply, and reducing emissions, including greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with fossil fuels. In the years to come Serbian economy is expected to grow and industry to search and explore the potential of using cleaner alternative fuels. There is a lot that could be done to conserve energy and to reduce environmental footprint. But the most important thing that could be done to enable Serbian industry to reduce emissions is the implementation of a modernized Power Generation system. At the same time the reality can't be neither sugarcoated nor ignored and alternatives to fossil fuel will succeed only if they are economically feasible for suppliers and users alike. New technologies currently under development should be considered to allow Serbia the use of energy resources in a more efficient ways and with better protection of the environment. If successfully deployed, the development of alternative, renewable fuels will allow Serbian energy sector to effectively decouple its growth from GHG emissions. This paper explore opportunities and the potential of alternative fuels for increasing competition in energy supply, for reducing emissions and in Serbia while decreasing dependence on imported energy.

  4. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  5. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  6. Antidepressant and proneurogenic influence of environmental enrichment in mice: protective effects vs recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Martín, María; Tejeda, Gonzalo S; Trejo, José L

    2011-11-01

    Physical-cognitive activity has long-lasting beneficial effects on the brain and on behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) induces brain activity known to influence the behavior of mice, as measured in learned helplessness paradigms (forced swim test), and neurogenic cell populations in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, it is not completely clear whether the antidepressant and proneurogenic effects of EE are different in animals that are naive or pre-exposed to the stress inducing helplessness, and if this depends on the type of stressor. It also remains unclear whether differential effects are exerted on distinct neurogenic subpopulations. We found that EE has a protective effect in adult female mice (C57BL/6J) when exposed twice to the same stressor (forced swim test) but it has no influence on recovery. The repeated exposure to this stressor was analyzed together with the effects of EE on different neurogenic populations distinguished by age and differentiation state. Younger cells are more sensitive and responsive to the conditions, both the positive and negative effects. These results are relevant to identify the cell populations that are the targets of stress, depression, and enrichment, and that form part of the mechanism responsible for mood dysfunctions.

  7. Discussion on Public Participation in Environmental Protection%浅论环境保护中的公众参与

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晶

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factor is a kind of typical public product. The maintenance of the quality of environment , need the participation of the whole society except the active and effective management of the government. The breadth and depth of public participation determine the level of environmental protection. This paper discusses the main parts of public participation in environmental protection work.%环境要素作为一种典型的公共产品,其质量的维护除了政府进行积极、主动有效的管理,更需要全社会的共同参与,公众参与的广度和深度上决定着环境保护的水平.针对环保工作,论述了公众参与的主要环节.

  8. Study on Key Problems of a New Environmental Dredging Based on Ecological Protection and Subsequent Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study key problems of a new environmental dredging based on ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration. [Method] People paid more attention to sediment pollutant removal in environmental dredging, without considering coming aquatic eco-restoration work after dredging. Factor affecting aquatic ecosystem existence and growth was screened, and ecological dredging manner was put forward. [Result] On the basis of analyzing dredging objective, effect and influence, started from ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration, water depth and substrate were screened as priority control factors of the environmental sediment dredging. New manner of combining sediment dredging to reshape underwater terrain was put forward. [Conclusion] The research provided solution for water depth and substrate demands of the subsequent ecological restoration.

  9. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  10. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1983-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1982 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Programs, Office of Operational Safety, and the Office of Nuclear Safety. The report is in three sections, introduced by blue divider pages, corresponding to the program elements: Technology Impacts, Environmental and Safety Engineering, Operational and Environmental Safety. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1982 on individual projects, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  12. MARKAL-MACRO -- An integrated energy-environmental-economic decision tool: Evaluation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Green Lights/Energy Star Buildings Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.; Goldstein, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Linkey, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, New York, NY (United States); Huang, J.I. [InfoLink, Inc., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-12-31

    The MARKAL-MACRO model is used to evaluate the cost effectiveness and market potential in Taiwan for technologies which are promoted by the US Environmental Protection Agency Green Lights and Energy Star Buildings Programs. Comparative analysis of the model results show that these technologies are economically more competitive than conventional technologies and are projected to be dominant in the market place in meeting retrofit and future energy demands in commercial buildings under least-cost energy planning strategies.

  13. 环境统计在环境保护中的应用%Application of Environmental Statistics in Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志远

    2012-01-01

    Environmental statistics is the digital work,which can reflect and calculate the environmental changes caused by human activity and the impact on the contrary. From the point of practical statistics,based on the statistical data of energy and environment,environmental quality and pollution sources emission,applied in daily environment management,this paper summarized the value of environmental statistics and its application in environmental protection,in order to cause the attention of environmental statistics.%环境统计是用数字反映并计量人类活动引起的环境变化和环境变化对人类影响的工作.从统计工作实践出发,通过能源环境统计数据、环境质量统计数据和污染源排放统计数据在日常环境管理中的应用实例,总结出环境统计在环境保护中的应用价值,以期引起对环境统计工作的重视.

  14. Remote sensing for environmental protection of the eastern Mediterranean rugged mountainous areas, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawlie, M.; Awad, M.; Shaban, A.; Bou Kheir, R.; Abdallah, C.

    Lying along the eastern Mediterranean coast with elevated mountain chains higher than 2500 m straddling its terrain, Lebanon is a country of natural beauty and is thus attracting tourism. However, with a population density exceeding 800/km 2 and a rugged steep sloping land, problems abound in the country calling for holistic-approach studies. Only remote sensing, whose use is new in Lebanon can secure such needed studies within a scientific and pragmatic framework. The paper demonstrates for the concerned themes, the innovative use of remote sensing in such a difficult terrain, giving three examples of major environmental problems in the coastal mountains. Only few studies have so far focused on those mountains, notably application of remote sensing. The rugged mountainous terrain receives considerable rain, but the water is quickly lost running on the steep slopes, or infiltrating through fractures and the karstic conduits into the subsurface. Field investigations are difficult to achieve, therefore, remote sensing helps reveal various surface land features important in reflecting water feeding into the subsurface. Optical, radar and thermal infrared remotely sensed data cover a wide spectrum serving that purpose. A map of preferential groundwater accumulation potential is produced. It can serve for better water exploitation as well as protection. Because the terrain is karstic and rugged, the subsurface water flow is difficult to discern. Any pollution at a certain spot would certainly spread around. This constitutes the second example of environmental problems facing the mountainous areas in Lebanon. An integrated approach using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) gives good results in finding out the likelihood of how pollution, or contaminants, can selectively move in the subsurface. A diagnostic analysis with a GIS-type software acts as a guide producing indicative maps for the above purpose. The third example given deals with the problem

  15. Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area: a choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özge; Alp, Emre

    2012-11-15

    Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lack of efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18TL/month and 16.6TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay.

  16. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries--Study on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Christoph; And Others

    A study focused on new occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the Federal Republic of Germany. A total of 22 interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 firms. The public debate on occupational requirements in the field of environmental protection and on…

  17. It's time to set some standards: Environmental classification of freshwater wetlands in New Zealand and their protection from eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Clarkson, Beverly

    Most natural resource plans provide protection for lakes and rivers from catchment activities leading to eutrophication. However, they are often silent about wetlands, due to the lack of information available for setting standards, defining reference conditions, and predicting responses to nutrient...... states in New Zealand wetlands, present an environmental classification based on physico-chemical and nutrient data, compare wetlands in New Zealand with those in other temperate regions, and argue for some catchment land use standards to protect wetlands from nutrient enrichment. Our database reveals...

  18. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) allows...

  19. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... Form I-68. Abstract: The Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) allows...

  20. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  1. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  2. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  3. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  4. Preventive legal obligations and principles in modern international environmental law. The current status of international environmental exploitation and protection. Praeventive Rechtspflichten und -prinzipien des modernen Umweltvoelkerrechts. Zum Stand des Umweltvoelkerrechts zwischen Umweltnutzung und Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    The doctoral dissertation first examines the contribution of international organisations and bodies to the development of international environmental law outside of international agreements. It then analyses the international agreements on the protection of the environment. The three characteristics of modern international environmental law, namely direct protection of environmental media, relationship of several states, who are emitters or have protective obligations, to a multitude of spatially distant victim states, and thinking in terms of common responsibilities, regional cooperation or global common-concern criteria are shown to be also present in the environmental agreements. The author comes to the conclusion that a switch of paradigms has taken place in international environmental law. Traditional international law, with its fixation on the efficient allocation of resources, has developed since roughly 1982/1987 into the modern form of international environmental law, which is primarily concerned with environment protection, and is largely characterized by precautionary/preventive legal obligations and principles. (orig./HSCH).

  5. Comparing Climate Change Coverage in Canadian English and French-Language Print Media: Environmental Values, Media Cultures, and the Narration of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dugas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares how climate change is presented in English- andFrench-language print media in Canada. In recent years, climate change has become an increasingly divisive issue, with the media playing a central role in the promotion of competing claims and narratives in the public sphere. Using concepts from environmental sociology and the sociology of journalism, we examine content from six English- and two French-language newspapers from 2007–2008 (N=2,249, and find significant evidence of both convergence and divergence across the language divide. Among the most significant findings are differences in how complexity is handled: English outlets present diverse coveragethat is highly compartmentalized, while the French newspapers present a narrower range of coverage but with thematically richer articles that better link climate change issues to the realms of culture, politics, and economy.

  6. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  7. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  8. 创新环保产业发展思路%Development Considerations of Innovation Environmental Protection Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥树凡

    2015-01-01

    根据2011年环保产业调查统计,我国目前环保产业在技术基础、供给能力及环境服务市场方面均取得了长足进步,在环保新常态、新政策、新举措的推动下,市场容量和需求仍然无比广阔。然而环保产业的发展仍存在着诸多问题,如新政策内容亟待完善、环保潜在市场释放有限、市场平等竞争的规范、党委政府责任制落实问题等,针对存在的问题,提出了相应的解决方案和具体措施,并对国家相关政策的完善进行了深刻的思考、提出了积极的建议。%In accordance with the investigation and statistic of environmental protection industry in 2011, the environmen-tal protection industry in China reached quiet great progress in technical foundation, supply ability and environmental service market. Under the promotion of new normal, new policies and new measures of environmental protection, however, the market capacity and demand are amplitude. But the development of the environmental protection industry are existing many problems, such as new policy contents are to be perfected, the release of the environmental protection potential market is limited and the criterion of market equal competition and the fulifl ment of responsible system of the party committees and governments etc. Based on the existing problems, the paper puts forward the relative resolving programs and the practical measures. In ac-cordance with the perfection of the state relative policies, the paper carries through the deep considerations and puts forward the positive suggestions.

  9. Radiological Environmental Protection for PEP-II Ring High Luminosity Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Nakao, Noriaki; /SLAC

    2006-08-16

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is located in northern California, USA. Radiological environmental protection is one of the main elements of the radiation protection program. One of SLAC's accelerator facilities is B-Factory, whose PEP-II accelerator ring has been operating since 1997 and is being upgraded to higher luminosity operation. Four radiological issues associated with high luminosity operation up to CY2008 are re-evaluated: (1) annual doses in IR halls, (2) annual skyshine doses at site boundaries, (3) potential radioactive air releases, and (4) potential groundwater activation. This paper presents the skyshine doses and air emission doses to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at SLAC site boundaries. The normal beam loss scenarios around PEP-II ring are presented first. In CY2008, the luminosity is 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and the stored current is 4.0-A for low-energy ring (LER ) and 2.2-A for high-energy ring (HER). The beam losses around PEP-II ring include those near injection region in IR10 and IR8 and those at collimators (e.g., HER collimators in IR12, LER collimators in IR4 and IR6). The beam losses in IR8 and IR10 (where injection into ring occurs) are further divided into septum, BAD (beam abort dump) and TD (tune-up dump), as well as apertures. The skyshine prompt dose rate distributions as a function of distance from an IR hall at four directions were calculated using the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. For skyshine dose to the MEI, the annual dose (7200 h/y occupancy) is calculated to be 2.9 mrem/y at Sand Hill Road (from e{sup -} losses in IR12 HER collimators) and 1.2 mrem/y at Horse Track Offices near IR6 (from e{sup +} losses in IR8, IR6 and IR4). These are lower than the SLAC skyshine limit of 5 mrem/y for any single facility within SLAC. Radionuclide productions in the air at the PEP-II IR10 were calculated using MARS15. Beam losses of 9-GeV electrons were assumed in three target cases: the copper TD, septum and

  10. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  11. Coalbed methane : Canadian potential : is it analogous to the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatens, M. [MGV Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A historical review of coalbed methane (CBM) evolution in North America was presented with reference to development in Canada and recent advances in technology. The Canadian CBM resource is estimated at several hundred Tcf. It was noted that the characteristics of CBM development in Canada are unique. The issues faced in Canadian CBM basins are different from those in the United States. Non-technical issues, such as CBM ownership and environmental concerns in the United States are having a growing impact on the pace of Canadian CBM development. For example, the problem of handling produced water in the Powder River Basin is inhibiting Canadian CBM development. However, the author pointed out that there is no produced water in Canadian CBM development. The author emphasized that stakeholders should be educated in Canadian CBM facts to ensure that CBM development in Canada proceeds responsibly, without confusion of U.S. issues that are non-issues in Canada.

  12. Environmental Effects of Sediment Transport Alteration and Impacts on Protected Species: Edgartown Tidal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Stephen B; Schlezinger, David, Ph.D; Cowles, Geoff, Ph.D; Hughes, Patricia; Samimy,; Roland, I; and Terray, E, Ph.D.

    2012-12-29

    potential for biofouling and foundation scouring. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, cooperating with SMAST, developed an oceanographic model to predict changes in sediment transport as a result of the proposed tidal energy project. Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies prepared background material on protected species - including whales, seals, and sea turtles - in the project area and implemented an initial tagging program to record location specific information on seals and sea turtles. HMMH communicated research plans and findings with local stakeholder groups, state and federal resource agency staff, and the ocean power industry. The information is being used to prepare environmental permit applications and obtain approvals for project construction.

  13. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  14. Environmental protection for geothermic exploratory drilling in Mexico: Review of a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Rubio, A.; Diaz, S.; Arguelles, C.; Arriaga, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noveste, La Paz (Mexico)

    1995-06-01

    Mexican legislation specifically establishes very particular measures in order to prevent and/or to mitigate the potential environmental impacts produced by geothermic exploratory drilling. During 1991, we developed an environmental impact assessment study to evaluate the possible environmental impacts produced by the exploratory drilling at the Las Tres Virgenes Geothermic field. We determined that the geothermic electrical project activities analysed have observed most of the official recommendations. As a result, all the potential environmental impacts are local, restricted in extent and time, and mitigated or reversed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Alternatives to the conflict between environmental authorities and communities of protected areas in Colombian Páramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country biologically and culturally megadiverse. Presented inside the largest expanse of páramos of the world, which are considered the planet's water plants and habitats of high biological diversity. However, human occupation of the Colombian Páramos has generated conflict between environmental regulations and productive land uses. This article analyzes the alternative proposed solutions to the conflict between environmental authorities of protected areas and inhabitants of the Páramos in Colombia. Previously there were two types of alternatives: The first suggested granting ecotourism services in parks and land purchases by mixed companies. The second proposed the abandonment of the production activities of farmers, mediated by educational processes and in compliance with environmental standards on pain of facing punitive action by the state. We propose a third alternative, that involves community management plans with time and institutional funding, and implementation of agroecological models, biocultural rescue memory and changes in agrarian structure

  16. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  17. On C-E Translation Strategies of Public Signs for Environmental Protection%环保公示语的汉英翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦孟芬

    2015-01-01

    环保公示语是新功能性特类公示语,它在引导人们保护环境,提高环保意识方面起着很大的作用。就我国环保类公示语汉英翻译错误进行深入剖析,并提出相应的翻译策略,以期提高生态环保公示语的翻译质量。%Public signs for environmental protection ,as a new functional and special public sign ,play an important role in guiding people to protect environment and promoting the people's awareness of environmental protection .This paper analyzes the types of errors existing in the translation of environmental protection signs .Several corresponding translation strategies are put forward to improve the translation quality of public signs for eco‐environmental protection .

  18. 我国环境保护投资的现状及改革建议%Current Situation and Reform Proposals of China's Environmental Protection Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小玉; 王晓萍

    2011-01-01

    在经济飞速发展的时代,环境保护成为不可忽视的问题,而环境保护需要投入大量的资金,这就涉及到环境保护投资的问题.本文从投资总量、企业对环保投入的力度和环保投资运行效率三方面对环保投资进行分析,进而提出几点改革建议,希望政府能加大对环保的监督力度,提高对企业的环保投资,同时,企业也要自觉地购买高技术的环保设施,把环保作为企业的一部分来对待.这样,不仅可以保护环境,同时人和自然的关系能更加和谐.%In the era of rapid development of economy, the environmental protection becomes unavoidable issue.However, it requires lots of money,which relates to the matters of environmental protection investment.This paper analyzes environmental protection investment from three aspects of total investment, the strength of business investment in environmental protection and the efficiency of environmental protection investment, and then puts forward several proposals for reform, hopes the government can increase the environmental supervision to improve the enterprise's investment in environmental protection.Meanwhile, enterprises should also consciously buy high-tech environmental protection facilities, treat the environmental protection as part of enterprises.Like this, it can not only protect the environment, also make the relationship between man and nature more harmonious.

  19. Protecting and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge: Environmental Adult Education and Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Given today's pressing environmental issues, environmental adult educators can help us learn to live more sustainably. One of the models for more sustainable ways of life is organic agriculture, based in a knowledge system that works with nature, not against it. In order to understand this knowledge, we need to frame it in a way that captures all…

  20. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  1. On the constitutional protection of citizens' environmental right%论公民环境权的宪法保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚勇

    2016-01-01

    The environmental right is a citizen's basic human rights, the constitution makes the explicit stipulation, when the citizen's this kind of right has been violated, can in the constitution stipulation, to find the basis and the way of safeguard legal rights. The constitutional protection of environmental right has important theoretical and practical significance in real life. In our country, the research on environmental right starts relatively late, and the experts and scholars on the study of environmental right stil remain in the environmental law and civil law. Through investigate a series of question we can not only enrich the existing constitution of citizens' basic rights provisions, promote research on constitution of environmental rights protection, and can realize the constitutional protection of citizen’s environmental right, put forward some suggestions.%环境权是公民的基本人权,宪法对其进行明确规定后,当公民的这一权利受到侵犯时,就可以在宪法规定中找到对其进行救济的依据和途径。对环境权的宪法保护在现实生活中也具有重要的理论意义和实践意义。我国关于环境权的研究起步比较晚,专家学者们对环境权的研究还多停留在环境法学、民法上,甚少涉及到宪法层面。通过对这一系列问题的探讨,既可以丰富现有宪法对公民基本权利的规定,促进宪法对环境权保障研究方面的相关理论的深入研究,又可以在实现公民环境权宪法保障的实践问题上提出多一点参考意见。

  2. Computer science handbook. Vol. 13.3. Environmental computer science. Computer science methods for environmental protection and environmental research; Handbuch der Informatik. Bd. 13.3. Umweltinformatik. Informatikmethoden fuer Umweltschutz und Umweltforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, B. [ed.] [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 18 - Informatik; Hilty, L.M. [ed.] [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 18 - Informatik

    1994-12-31

    Environmental computer science is a new partial discipline of applied computer science, which makes use of methods and techniques of information processing in environmental protection. Thanks to the inter-disciplinary nature of environmental problems, computer science acts as a mediator between numerous disciplines and institutions in this sector. The handbook reflects the broad spectrum of state-of-the art environmental computer science. The following important subjects are dealt with: Environmental databases and information systems, environmental monitoring, modelling and simulation, visualization of environmental data and knowledge-based systems in the environmental sector. (orig.) [Deutsch] Umweltinformatik ist eine neue Teildisziplin der Angewandten Informatik, die Methoden und Techniken der Informationsverarbeitung fuer den Umweltschutz entwickelt und einsetzt. Durch den fachuebergreifenden Charakter der Umweltprobleme faellt der Informatik hier eine Vermittlerrolle zwischen zahlreichen Disziplinen und Institutionen zu. Dieses Handbuch stellt das breite Spektrum der Umweltinformatik auf dem aktuellen Stand der Forschung dar. Wichtige Themen sind Umweltdatenbanken und -informationssysteme, Umweltmonitoring, Modellbildung und Simulation, Visualisierung von Umweltdaten und wissensbasierte Systeme im Umweltbereich. (orig.)

  3. Environmental Assessment Proposal to Protect Wildlife Habitat at Lake Umbagog 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this United States Fish & Wildlife Service proposal is to ensure the long-term protection of unique wetland habitats adjacent to Lake Umbagog, on...

  4. Grasslands Wildlife Management Area proposed expansion: Environmental Assessment, Land Protection Plan, and Conceptual Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the proposed expansion of the Service's easement program for protection of the wildlife habitat of Merced County's Grasslands Ecological...

  5. The Power of the Yi’ s Traditional Custom-Belief and Environmental Protection in the Yi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Qu

    2014-01-01

    The folk customs of an ethnic group are their living and spiritual culture which were created , inherited , and enjoyed by genera-tions of that group .It has a function in the educa-tion, norms , unity, regulations, aesthetics, etc. of the group .The function of regulations is reflec-ted in three aspects:1 ) regulating the relations of human beings; 2 ) regulating individual psychol-ogy; and 3 ) regulating the relations between man and nature .Seen from the perspective of current environmental protection , the most important con-tent found in the regulations of the relations be-tween the man and nature is protecting the environ-ment through specific behavior , and promoting the importance of environmental protection through specific behavior or public form . Many ethnic groups in the world have flood myths.There are many reasons for the creation of flood myths .However , one aspect is clear - the cause of the flood reflects a kind of concept linked with the culture of man .For example , the cause of the flood in the Bible was that God saw that mankind lost its morality and people did not re-ceive him kindly .The causes of the flood myth a-mong the various Yi branches are different .Among them one cause was that humans reclaimed land excessively, therefore, the leader of the heavenly deities created a flood to punish them .For exam-ple, the flood myth popular in the Yi area of Guizhou connects the cause and effect of the peo-ple’ s intensive farming with the flood .If we in-terpret this myth within the context of environmen-tal protection , we will reach a different conclusion which goes beyond its former meaning . In the Yi’ s traditional society , in addition to the education of environmental protection in the form of literature , there are also rituals which play a function in environmental protection .Seen from xinan yizhi ( Southwest Yi History ) and a large number of ancient Yi classics , as well as the folk-lore among the Yi society , there are a lot of

  6. Polyurethane Functional Coatings for Protection of Different Surfaces from Aggressive Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelyev, U.V., Markovska, L.A., Robota, L.P., Parkhomenko, N.I., and Savelyeva, O.O.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New polyurethane compositions (PC as multifunctional protective materials that can serve as coatings or binders or impregnating materials have been created. PC have high adhesion values and the PC-based materials are waterproof and resistant to aggressive biotic (abiotic and technogenic factors (biocorrosion, UV radiation, chemical agents. Putting active compounds into the polymer macrochain prolongs the protection functions of the materials. This is their advantage to existing materials.

  7. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    applications). To advance the technical readiness for the proposed lunar missions, including a lunar plant growth lander, lunar "salad machine" (i.e. small scale plant production unit) and a full scale lunar plant production system, a suite of terrestrial developments and analogue systems are proposed. As has been successfully demonstrated by past Canadian advanced life support activities, terrestrial technology transfer and the development of highly qualified personnel will serve as key outputs for Canadian advanced life support system research programs. This approach is designed to serve the Canadian greenhouse industry by developing compliance measures for mitigating environmental impact, reducing labour and energy costs as well as improving Canadian food security, safety and benefit northern/remote communities.

  8. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  9. Reconciling Trade and Environmental Protection in ASEAN-China Relations: More than Political Window Dressing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Dosch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the growing pro-environment rhetoric in ASEAN-China relations resulted in the effective mainstreaming of environmental issue into trade agreements and multilateral cooperation frameworks? The article discusses the cases of the ASEAN China Free Trade Area (ACFTA and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and argues that there is no shortage of national and regional policy agendas that visibly link trade growth and environmental considerations. However, this nexus is still a weak one in terms of implementation and effectiveness. The most promising initiatives towards an effective reconciliation of trade growth and environmental sustainability are promoted and often driven by foreign donors, most prominently the European Union (EU.

  10. Capacity and principles of participation of the provincial fund of environmental protection and water management in Cracow in Cracow program of elimination of low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolek, K.; Sarzynski, H. [Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management in Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In general, the principles of environmental protection was determined by Law issued January 31, 1980. Certain detailed solutions have been included in several amendments in subsequent years and the uniformed text of the Law on Environmental Protection and Creation was published in 1994. The Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management was established in 1989 but until 1993 the Fund has no legal status. The main purpose of the creation of such fund was to assign certain financial means to the defined tasks related to environmental protection. This way the fund accumulates financial means from the fees paid for the usage of the natural environmental for business purposes and from penalties becoming due in the case of non-observance of the environmental protection standards. On the other hand, the Fund spends money for tasks in the field of environmental protection requiring urgent implementation. It should be added that - after few amendments brought into force - the Provincial Funds are able to assign a greater amount of money to the implementation of these tasks. The basic purposes of Provincial Fund activity, defined by Law, determine the policy and criteria of the selection of undertaking. This is also a base for making programs of activity and for creation of the list of priorities. The environmental protection problems in the individual provinces are different. Therefore, the scope of works partly financed by the Fund is very differentiated both in essence and in the method of financing. The former system of subsidies is now being replaced with a wide range of partial financing of undertakings in the field of environmental protection. The system of selection of these undertakings has been changed essentially. The selection of tasks and methods of their financing is based on economic criteria.

  11. 77 FR 5012 - Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Agriculture; Memorandum of Understanding Regarding Genetically Engineered Plants AGENCY: Environmental... submitted to EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and.... Department of Agriculture (USDA). HHS's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and...

  12. China and Austria to Further Promote Cooperation in Environmental Protection Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ I am looking forward to new cooperation, economic contacts and entrepreneur activities between China and Austria as aresuhof Austrian showcase. Therefore, I invite you to convince yourself personally of Austria's environmental technology innovations for citiesand regions of the future."

  13. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  14. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: deborabpsousa@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  15. Transfrontier environmental protection and German penal law. Grenzueberschreitende Umweltbelastungen und deutsches Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, H.W.

    1988-01-22

    The author investigates the problem of how far German penal law is valid in case of transfrontier environmental pollution. He distinguishes between cases in which the interests of Germany and the neighbour state are congruent, and cases in which they are not congruent. According to the author, German law should be applied in cases where the other country has no environmental penal legislation, and where the emissions exceed the limits set by German and foreign law. (orig./HSCH).

  16. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  17. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  18. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.

    2001-07-01

    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  19. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/KLEMEN, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CANADIAN SPACE LAUNCH: EXPLOITING NORTHERN LATITUDES FOR EFFICIENT...large provincial wildlife park, the environmental impact posed by any development would be certain to draw extensive criticism. This site is also

  20. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND ITS REFLECTION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE INHABITANTS IN A MIDDLE-SIZED TOWN (VÁC, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA MEGYERI-RUNYÓ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the role of urban environmental protection in sustainable development while analysing the factors influencing the environmental consciousness of the inhabitants of a middle-sizedtown based on a general model, together with the role of environmental consciousness in solving environmental protection problems at settlement level. My particular research focused oncharacterising the environmental state of Vác, with a population of 35000 people, and on the knowledge and environmental consciousness of the inhabitants. In the course of the representative questionnaire survey, 439 people gave assessable answers. Questions were related to the most significant environmental problems (air pollution, water contamination, sewage treatment, waste management. Answers were compared to the real situation based on measurements. Results revealedthat the knowledge of the inhabitants on local environmental problems is better than the national average. In certain relations (water contamination, sewage treatment, however, it is deficient, thusinformation transfer was studied separately as well. It can be stated that local governments should make greater efforts in order to inform inhabitants. Environmental attitude of the inhabitants can be regarded as good. Based on the general model, I analysed the tasks of the settlement to improve environmental consciousness in order to increase efficiency of urban environmental protection.

  1. Public Goods, Environmental Protection,and the Development Paradigm in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhou

    2004-01-01

    Ecological environment protection will and should not stop as regional public goods;instead, it has been gradually regarded as global public goods. That is why the responsibility of environment protection belongs to public institutions: government organizations (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO). The ecological environment protection problems in China's rural areas stem from the absence of government responsibilities with regard to consensuses on issues of rural public goods that are basically sourced from two superstitions on the government's development paradigm: one is attaching too much importance on economic growth; the other is relying entirely on market resource-allocation capacity. These two superstitions of China "s government obviously lead to the shortage of public goods in rural areas. It is necessary that GO's and NGO's clearly define their specific responsibilities, reflect on the development paradigm; establish a more scientific development model and take concrete actions based on it.

  2. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  3. 铁路建设项目环保投资界定%Definition of Environmental Protection Investment in Railway Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑜; 韩鹏

    2016-01-01

    以铁路建设项目环保投资为研究对象,主要针对如何界定铁路建设项目环保投资展开研究。在系统梳理环保投资国内外相关文献的基础上,结合我国铁路行业特点,对铁路建设环保投资进行定义。同时,总结了目前我国铁路建设项目环保投资的统计现状,结合铁路建设环保投资的定义,建立了铁路建设项目环保投资的界定原则,初步设计了铁路建设项目环保投资统计表,并提出相关建议。%Taking environmental protection investment in railway construction projects as the object of study , the paper focuses on how to define environmental protection investment in railway construction projects .Based on the systematic analysis of documents related to environmental protection investment at home and abroad , combined with the features of railway industry in China , this paper defines the environmental protection investment in railway construction projects .In addition, this paper summarizes the current status of environmental protection investment in railway construction projects in China .Combined with the definition of environmental protection investment in railway construction , this paper establishes the definition principles of environmental protection investment in railway construction projects , designs the environmental protection investment statistical table , and proposes some related suggestions .

  4. Bavarian Land Office for Environmental Protection. 1996 annual report and abstracts of publications; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz. Taetigkeitsbericht 1996 und Kurzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The annual report informs about the activities of the Bavarian Land Office for Environmental Protection in the following fields: clean air policy, waste management, management of soil pollution and remedial action, nuclear energy and radiation protection, nature conservation and landscape conservation, LfU laboratory, environmental hygiene, and data processing (SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht beschreibt die Taetigkeiten des Bayerischen Landesamtes fuer Umweltschutz auf folgenden Gebieten: Immissionsschutz, Abfallwirtschaft, Altlasten und Bodenschutz, Kernenergie und Strahlenschutz, Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, Zentrallabors und Umwelthygiene, sowie Datenverarbeitung. (SR)

  5. Total cylindrospermopsins, microcystins/nodularins, and saxitoxins data for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency National Lake Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Maksimowicz, Megan M.; Toyne, Kathryn D.

    2016-05-26

    Phytoplankton communities in freshwater lakes, ponds, and reservoirs may be dominated by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) under certain environmental conditions. Cyanobacteria may cause a range of water-quality impairments, including the potential for toxin production. Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) may adversely impact human and ecological health. Microcystins are considered to be one of the most commonly found classes of cyanotoxins in freshwater ecosystems, and as such were selected as a recreational indicator of water quality for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Lakes Assessment. However, much less is known about the occurrence of other classes of cyanotoxins in fresh surface water such as anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularins, and saxitoxins.

  6. Study on Effective Measures of Environmental Protection for Sustainable Development of Tourism Industry in the World Natural Heritage Wulingyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangMeixia; ZhouGuohai

    2005-01-01

    In the course of exploiting its tourist resources and developing tourism industry in the early days in Wulingyuan, the government did not pay enough attention and no forceful measures were taken to control the environment. As a result, a series of problems are produced. By analyzing the relationship between the tourism development in Wulingyuan scenic area and its environmental evolution, the paper exposes the basic reason why these environmental problems are produced, and according to the requirement of developing tourism, the paper puts forward some effective measures to reasonably control the distribution of the tourists flow and to protect tourist resources as well as the environment, so as to achieve the sustainable development of the area.

  7. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  8. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth.

  9. PRINCIPIOS DE COMPETENCIA JUDICIAL INTERNACIONAL Y DE PROTECCIÓN DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE Principles of international jurisdiction and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Moscoso Restovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Como se resuelve el problema de la objetivación del vínculo de conexión cuando intervienen daños civiles y daños ambientales? Es decir, ¿podemos sostener que el fuero "lugar del hecho dañoso" puede determinarse con independencia de los sujetos que intervienen? ¿Es relevante el principio favor laesi en los casos de daño ambiental? Proponemos abordar estos problemas desde la relación que existe entre los principios de Competencia Judicial Civil Internacional y los principios de protección del medioambiente. Así, advertiremos que la mayor o menor extensión del fuero "lugar del hecho dañoso", adquiere connotaciones especiales si interpretamos armónicamente los principios de competencia judicial internacional y los principios de protección internacional del medio ambiente. En efecto, la política de protección ambiental, constituye un "valor superior del ordenamiento", y por tanto incide directamente en el juicio razonabilidad que el juez debe realizar sobre el vínculo de conexión. Si bien abordamos el problema desde la experiencia europea, las conclusiones tendrán validez universal.How to solve the problem of objectivity in the link between the court and the action, when engaging civil damages and environmental damages? In other words ¿ can we argue that the place of the harmful event can be determined independently of the persons involved? ¿Is favor Iaesi principle relevant in cases of environmental damage? We propose analyze those problems through the connections between International Civil Jurisdiction principles and environmental protection principles. In fact, environmental protection policy constitutes a "superior value". Therefore it affects directly the judge opinion about the connection link. Our approach is European, but the findings have universal validity.

  10. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Barry

    1980-01-01

    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  11. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  12. Superfund reform: US Environmental Protection Agency`s 30-day study and its implication for the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.R.; Friedman, J.R.; Neff, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to reform and restructure the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAS) Superfund program, the EPA Administrator on October 21, 1991, announced several key programmatic reforms. These reforms are a result of the Superfund 30-Day Task Force Report (30-Day Study, EPA 1991a), an effort carried out by EPAs office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The EPA OSWER oversees environmental cleanup activities under a number of statutory authorities, including the Comprehensive Environmental response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). CERCLA and its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), establish a regulatory framework to govern the cleanup of existing, and often abandoned, hazardous waste sites. The purposes of this report are to (1) review the background and recommendations of EPNs 30-Day Study, (2) identify and discuss the initiatives from the 30-Day Study that may impact DOE`s environmental restoration mission, (3) report on EPAs progress in implementing the selected priority initiatives, and (4) describe potentially related DOE activities.

  13. 75 FR 75847 - 40th Anniversary of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... realized that we must work together to preserve the beauty and utility of our planet, and we have come to... quality in the face of new challenges. As we strive to protect the integrity of our planet in the 21st century, EPA continues to lead on critical global issues like reducing mercury pollution, fighting...

  14. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants.

  15. Proceedings of the 1997 CSCE/ASCE environmental engineering conference: protecting people and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, S.J.; Ward, C.J.W.; Smith, D.W. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    A total of 148 papers were presented that covered many different areas of environmental engineering. The sessions were on risk assessment, environmental site characterization manual, residual management, sewage systems, solid waste planning, waste and storm water management, contaminant treatment, brown fields redevelopment, water disinfection, nutrient removal from waste water, water distribution systems, geographic information systems (GIS), ground water issues, soils rededication, sludge issues in waste water treatment, landfill stabilization, process hydraulics, rededication in cold climates, water treatment, industrial waste, ground water contamination, rededication of ground water and marshlands, chemical contaminant rededication, and air quality. One paper has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  17. Project Canada West. Canadian Environmental Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The overall objective of the curriculum development project is to develop a general high school level interdisciplinary course on environment studies. This potential five to ten month course is outlined as follows: ecology, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, population, socioeconomic implications, and resource management. The general…

  18. Environmental Assessment for Beach Shoreline Protection at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    and Nick Bray. 2004. Review of Existing and Emerging Environmentally Friendly Offshore Dredging Technologies. U.S. Department of the Interior...J.A. Reidenauer J.A., E.A. Reyier, E.A., T. Barkaszi Shinskey, M.J. Shenker, J.M. Verdugo, and N. Hodges . 2009. Final Biological Characterization and

  19. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  20. Environmental and economic assessment of protected crops in four European scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrellas, M.; Antón, A.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Stanghellini, C.; Montero, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analysed the environmental and economic profile of current agricultural practices for greenhouse crops, in cold and warm climates in Europe, using four scenarios as reference systems: tomato crop in a plastic greenhouse in Spain, and in glasshouses in Hungary and the Netherlands, an

  1. Power politics in the revision of China’s Environmental Protection Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhu, X.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental law making, like other legislative processes in China, used to take place behind closed doors. A major innovation in recent years is that it is now normal to consult the public on draft laws, although it is not yet prescribed in the Law on Legislation. It is tempting to interpret the d

  2. China and Austria to Further Promote Cooperation in Environmental Protection Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ "I am looking forward to new cooperation,economic contacts and entrepreneur activities between China and Austria as a result of Austrian showcase.Therefore,I invite you to convince yourself personally of Austria's environmental technology innovations for cities and regions of the future."

  3. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  4. The EU Environmental Protection Directive Effect of-D Electronic Company Green Environmental Protection Regulation%欧盟电子环保指令影响-D公司绿色环保管制规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小丽

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and haze has intensified the global environment worsening, the electronic production renewal faster.so. Electronics production, use, scrap process hazards has become increasingly apparent. This paper describes the content and significance of WEEE and RoHS of EU environmental law. Based on the requirements of WEEE and ROHS,D company develop the green environmental protection control standard to ensure that the products can meet the requirements of the WEEE and ROHS directives formulated law, And the green environmental protection control standard can mainly control for internal process of sales department, planning team, purchasing team, production team ,logistics warehouse.%全球温室效益不断加剧,雾霾笼罩无不都在加重环境恶化,电子信息更新换代日新月异,电子产品生产、使用、报废过程带来的危害日渐突出。文章阐述欧盟环保WEEE法令及RoHS的内容及意义。基于环保要求,D公司为确保所生产之产品能符合欧盟WEEE法令及ROHS指令要求,特制定适合D公司内部运作的绿色环保化管制规范,主要针对公司内部业务接单过程、生产计划过程、采购过程、生产过程、仓储过程进行环保化控制。

  5. The absorption of european funds for environmental protection during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Political realities of the European Union regarding the environment protection segment formed the basis of a specific reorientation of cohesion policy, the including this area as one of the main priorities for obtaining grants. In other words, due to long-term challenges such as climate change, energy security, scarcity of resources (raw materials, water, biodiversity loss, environment protection has become one of the strategic priorities of the European Union. These challenges are coupled with short-term threats like increasing public debt of States Members, in particular as a result of loans contracted by these to eliminate or counteract the financial crisis effects and the the dimensioning of fiscal discipline, both internally and at Community level.

  6. The influence of cooperative relations of small businesses on environmental protection intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Hernandez, Sonia; Platero Jaime, Manuel; Esteban Sánchez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between one of the most important policies of social responsibility in manufacturing: the protection of the environment and cooperative business relations in small businesses (fewer than 50 employees). For this, we performed a literature review and an empirical study of 930 small manufacturing firms in Spain. Results indicate that small businesses that maintain and improve their cooperative relations through business networking with universities, competito...

  7. e-MARITIME SERVICES FOR COMMUNICATION WITH CLASS AND FOR ENHANCED SAFETY, SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN SHIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vanem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available e-Maritime can be considered as an extension of the e-Navigation concept currently being discussed at the International Maritime Organization (IMO. It can be construed to include e-Navigation and promotes the use of all maritime data and information, distributed by way of information and communication technologies, to facilitate maritime transportation and provide value added services. This paper investigates possible e-Maritime services related to safety, security and environmental protection of shipping and for interaction with class. The paper reviews a number of existing services and current initiatives and relevant research projects and discusses if and how the value of such services could be increased if they could be offered as e-Maritime services to the industry. Furthermore, two services have been selected and successfully implemented as pilot e-Maritime services. Based on this survey and the pilot implementations, it can be suggested that there are great potential for offering a number of existing and future services related to safety, security and environmental protection as e-Maritime services. However, standardisation of the framework and of specific maritime data types, messages and codes might be necessary to facilitate a development towards widespread adaptation of e-Maritime solutions.

  8. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; LI Duo; DI Zhiqiang; MIAO Ying; ZHAO Suqi; GUO Qiwen

    2005-01-01

    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  9. Actions in the electrical sector to propitiate the environmental protection; Acciones en el sector electrico para propiciar la proteccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Gaspari, Mateo [Fideicomiso de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The saving of electrical energy is one of the most efficient means to propitiate the environmental protection in the surroundings of the facilities used in the production of electrical energy. The emission of polluting agents associated with the electric power generation is analyzed, among them, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, along with the particulate emission of ash or soot. In addition, an analysis is made of the contribution of the electrical energy saving to the environmental protection and the actions that the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico will undertake on the electric energy saving for the 1995 to the 2000 period. [Spanish] El ahorro de energia electrica es uno de los medios mas eficientes para propiciar la proteccion ambiental en el entorno de las instalaciones usadas en la produccion de energia electrica. Se analiza la emision de contaminantes asociados con la generacion electrica, entre ellos, el CO{sub 2}, el SO{sub 2} y NO{sub 2}, junto con la emision de particulas de ceniza o de hollin. Ademas se analiza la contribucion del ahorro de energia electrica a la proteccion ambiental y las acciones que emprendera la Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico sobre ahorro de energia electrica para el periodo 1995 al 2000.

  10. Supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the Swedish nuclear facilities 1999; Avfall och miljoe vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna. - Tillsynsrapport 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in 1999. A summary of the inspections during 1999 and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 1999 have focused on the management of liquid discharges and components containing induced activity at some of the nuclear facilities. Also, routines for filing environmental samples, discharge water samples and documents were inspected at all the different nuclear facilities. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations.

  11. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stevens, A.K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  12. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  13. Does globalisation threaten a sustainable environmental protection?; Gefaehrdet die Globalisierung den nachhaltigen Umweltschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, K. [DELIWA Berufsvereinigung fuer das Energie- und Wasserfach e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Social and environmental-orientated achievements and the knowledge of the last decades are repealed by globalisation. If inefficient national regulations are not replaced by international rules, our `Blue Planet` will be overstressed in the near future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Globalisierung setzt die sozialen und umweltbezogenen Errungenschaften und Erkenntnisse, die in den zurueckliegenden Dekaden erarbeitet wurden, ausser Kraft. Wenn es nicht gelingt, anstelle der wirkungslos gewordenen nationalen Regularien internationale Regeln zu setzen, wird unser `Blauer Planet` bald ueberfordert sein. (orig.)

  14. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  15. Prevention and protection of the effects of biocorrosion and biofouling minimizing the environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez de Saravia, S. G.; Guiamet, P. S.; Videla, H. A.

    2003-01-01

    Biocorrosion and biofouling processes are mediated by microorganisms adhered to the metal surfaces or embedded in a gelatinous matrix called biofilm. Biofilms affect the interaction between metals and the environment not only in deleterious processes like corrosion but also in several biological processes applied to materials recovery and handling. The growth of the microorganisms capable to induce biocorrosion is conditioned by favorable environmental conditions. However, the chemical agents...

  16. Antidepressant and Proneurogenic Influence of Environmental Enrichment in Mice: Protective Effects vs Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens-Martín, María; Tejeda, Gonzalo S.; Trejo, José L

    2011-01-01

    Physical–cognitive activity has long-lasting beneficial effects on the brain and on behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) induces brain activity known to influence the behavior of mice, as measured in learned helplessness paradigms (forced swim test), and neurogenic cell populations in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, it is not completely clear whether the antidepressant and proneurogenic effects of EE are different in animals that are naive or pre-exposed to the stress inducing help...

  17. Efficiency of raw materials. Relief of the economy, environmental protection; Rohstoffeffizienz. Wirtschaft entlasten, Umwelt schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Statistical Office (Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) present actual data and analyses from environmentally economic total computations. In Germany, the use of raw materials became more efficient. Thus, 580 tons of raw materials per million Euro of gross domestic product were needed in the year 2008, while still 680 tons of raw materials were needed in the year 2000. The economical handling of natural resources relieves the environment and enables economic chances for individual companies and national economy. The lowering of environmental effects is to be in the focus of withdrawal and use of raw materials. This requires a stronger reduction of the consumption of raw materials. Savings potentials and an increased efficiency must be aspired in the short and medium term. The politics must create suitable incentives and framework conditions. The contribution under consideration presents new activities and strategies in order to achieve these targets.

  18. Environmental radiological protection of Bariloche Atomic Center; Proteccion radiologica ambiental del Centro Atomico Bariloche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, Pablo A.; Levanon, Izhar S., E-mail: andresp@cab.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: levanon@cab.cnca.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Division Proteccion Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    This plan of monitoring radiological environmental routine fits on environmental policy of CNEA, satisfying national and international recommendations for licensed facilities. Sampling matrices are related to direct routes of exposure: air and water (river, lake, sediments, drinking water). Soil samples are also analyzed for having integrated matrices. They are considered as minimum three points of measurement: a white point (water or winds up), a point of maximum (water or winds down) and a point corresponding to the location of the individual representative or a point of public interest. Measurements in air estimate KERMA rate with thermoluminescent dosimeters, bi-monthly, and concentrations of particulate material and aerosols. For water samples (monthly), soil and sediments (quarterly), radionuclides that have download limits are analyzed, according to its importance in the dosages produced in the representative individual. In these cases artificial radionuclides using gamma spectrometry, beta total and Sr-90 by radiochemical techniques if the value of total screening (1 Bq/L) is exceeded. Foods are not included because no possible matrices were detected, either by their distance. by located not predominant wind direction. They are however still looking for milk producers that fulfills the minimum requirements.The data collected are compared with environmental baselines to set trends that might point to future significant changes in the environment during the life of the facilities. So far it was not observed significant differences with respect to baseline values.

  19. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of "building material not allowed". The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  20. The CAMU Rule: A tool for implementing a protective, cost-effective remedy at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis-Nouille, E.M. [Fernald Environmental Management Project, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J. [Jacobs Engineering Group of Ohio, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a former uranium processing facility currently under remediation pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as amended (CERCLA). Contamination at the FEMP consists of low-level radioactivity, hazardous substances, hazardous wastes and/or mixed wastes. Regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended (RCRA) are evaluated as applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation of the FEMP. Historically, joint CERCLA-RCRA guidance dictated that hazardous waste could not be treated, or moved out of the designated area of contiguous contamination (AOC), without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs) or minimum technology requirements (MTRs). To avoid invoking these stringent requirements, in situ capping was chosen as the lower cost remedy at many sites, although on-site disposal and/or treatment of hazardous wastes would have been more protective. The Corrective Action Management Units (CAMUs) and Temporary Units (TUs) Final Rule [58 FR 8658, Vol. 58, No. 29, hereinafter the {open_quotes}CAMU Rule{close_quotes}], promulgated on February 16, 1993, provides facilities regulated under RCRA corrective action authority with greater flexibility to move, treat, and dispose of wastes on site without triggering LDRs or MTRs, thereby encouraging application of innovative technologies and more protective remedies. The waste acceptance criteria for the on-site disposal facility is based on site-specific considerations including the mobility of the contaminants through the underlying site geology and the protectiveness of the engineered liners. Application of the {open_quotes}CAMU Rule{close_quotes} allows for disposition in the on-site facility based on these technical considerations rather than on regulatory classifications.

  1. Forecasting the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology in coastal Louisiana under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Wang, Hongqing; Beck, Holly J.; Rybczyk, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Few landscape scale models have assessed the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology while taking into account important uncertainties in environmental factors such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence. In support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan, we developed a spatially explicit wetland morphology model and coupled it with other predictive models. The model is capable of predicting effects of protection and restoration projects on wetland area, landscape configuration, surface elevation, and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios. These uncertainty scenarios included variability in parameters such as eustatic SLR (ESLR), subsidence rate, and Mississippi River discharge. Models were run for a 2010–2060 simulation period. Model results suggest that under a “future-without-action” condition (FWOA), coastal Louisiana is at risk of losing between 2118 and 4677 km2 of land over the next 50 years, but with protection and restoration projects proposed in the Master Plan, between 40% and 75% of that loss could be mitigated. Moreover, model results indicate that under a FWOA condition, SOC storage (to a depth of 1 m) could decrease by between 108 and 250 million metric tons, a loss of 12% to 30% of the total coastwide SOC, but with the Master Plan implemented, between 35% and 74% of the SOC loss could be offset. Long-term maintenance of project effects was best attained in areas of low SLR and subsidence, with a sediment source to support marsh accretion. Our findings suggest that despite the efficacy of restoration projects in mitigating losses in certain areas, net loss of wetlands in coastal Louisiana is likely to continue. Model results suggest certain areas may eventually be lost regardless of proposed restoration investment, and, as such, other techniques and strategies of adaptation may have to be utilized in these areas.

  2. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  3. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  4. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  5. 县域环保数字平台设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the County Environmental Protection Digital Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁明莉

    2012-01-01

    目前,环保在国家发展战略中占据重要地位,环保信息化建设迫在眉睫。基于物联网、地理信息系统(GIS)、遥感(RS)、全球卫星定位系统(GPS)、知识系统(ES)、决策支持(DSS)等技术,整合市环保局、区政府及区环保局信息资源,建立集环境质量监测、应急指挥、污染源空间信息管理、环保局日常业务综合办公系统等功能于一体的数字环保平台,全面提升环境保护局的环境管理水平。%At present,the environmental protection in the national development strategy occupies an important position,environmental information construction imminent.Based on Internet,geographic information system(GIS),remote sensing(RS),global positioning satellite(GPS),knowledge(ES),decision support system(DSS) technology,the integration of the City Environmental Protection Bureau,the district government and District Environmental Protection Bureau information resources,set up environmental quality monitoring,emergency command,pollution source spatial information management of Environmental Protection Bureau,daily business integrated office system and other functions in one of the digital protection platform,improve the level of environmental management environmental protection bureau.

  6. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2016-11-24

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection.

  7. Colloidal Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Materials as Photocatalysts for Environmental Protection of Architectural Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Petronella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rod-shaped TiO2 nanocrystals (TiO2 NRs, capped by oleic acid molecules (OLEA, were synthesized with controlled size, shape and surface chemistry by using colloidal routes. They were investigated for application as coating materials for preserving architectural stone of monumental and archaeological interest, in consideration of their self-cleaning and protection properties. For this purpose, two different deposition techniques, namely casting and dipping, were tested for the application of a nanocrystal dispersion on a defined stone type, as a relevant example of porous calcarenites, namely the Pietra Leccese, a building stone widely used in monuments and buildings of cultural and historic interest of the Apulia region (Italy. The physical properties of the stone surface were investigated before and after the treatment with the prepared nanostructured materials. In particular, colour, wettability, water transfer properties and stability of the coating were monitored as a function of time and of the application method. The self-cleaning properties of the TiO2 NRs coated surfaces were tested under simulated and real solar irradiation. The obtained results were discussed in the light of the specific surface chemistry and morphology of TiO2 NRs, demonstrating the effectiveness of TiO2 NRs as an active component in formulations for stone protection.

  8. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  9. The role of duckweed in bio-liquid fuel production and environmental protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hai

    2014-01-01

    With the world economic development,population growth and improvement of people’s living stan dard,the energy shortage has become the core issue of restricting the development of the world economy. China faces serious energy crisis and environmental problems,so the development of biofuels in China is vital. This paper introduces the advantages of duckweed for energy production,summarizes the research results of Cheng du Institute of Biology on duckweed,and provides the direction of its further study.

  10. Evaluation of chemical conversion material (protective coating) exposed to space environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of an operational Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) system and shows the application of such a system on a space environmental test. Thin films of aluminum and tantalum were deposited on diamond substrates. These films were anodized and preexposure characterization spectra obtained using RBS and total hemispherical reflectance. The samples were exposed to energetic protons then postexposure characterization spectra was obtained using the same techniques. Conclusions based on the comparison of preexposure and postexposure spectra are presented. RBS comparison spectra show no change in the metal/metal oxide interface, while the comparison reflectance data indicate change. Explanations for this reflectance change are presented in this report.

  11. Maintenance of radiation protection at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transformation into environmentally safe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, S Yu

    2015-12-01

    Special aspects of radiation protection maintenance at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transforma tion into environmentally safe system are shaped in the article. Information is provided on the basis of analysis of design plans and specifications both with project paperwork from activities at the ShO in 2002 2015 on accordance to requirements of the Ukrainian health legislation in the field of radiation hygiene regulations. Specific features of radiation factors at the ShO were identified accounting their emergency origination. Relevancy of assessment of a range of activity types and technologies impact on radiation situation in the operation environment was reviewed and substantiated. General characteristics of radiation exposure and resulting doses in personnel under the activi ty execution are provided followed by the requirements to estimates of anticipated radiation doses. Features and peculiarities of application of the Ukrainian health legislation in a field of radiation hygienic regulations are reviewed in a view of meeting the requirements of NRBU 97, NRBU 97/D 2000, OSPU 2005, SPORO 85, SP AES 88 and other health legislative regulatory documents under conditions of work at the ShO. By the virtue of analysis of radi ation hygienic factors at the ShO the special aspects of choice of individual and collective radiological protection arrangements for personnel were identified, namely the individual protective gear and respiratory protection equip ment, shielding, decontamination, dust suppression, ventilation, sanitary pass control, sanitary barriers, scope and types of radiological control, setting the design levels of radiological environment parameters, criteria for the most safe options (technologies) of work execution.

  12. Environmental Pollution and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠明

    2004-01-01

    在经济与文明日益发展的今天,环境污染被全世界人们所关注,生存环境的健康与洁净与我们每一个人的生命都息息相关,如何治理环境污染,保护良好的生存空间,已经迫在眉捷,看看下文的中学生朋友们又是如何看待这一现象的吧!

  13. Army Programmatic Environmental Assessment of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Hazardous Material(s)  Use  Braycote 610  Calcium  Sulphonate ,  Phosporodihioc  acid ,  Naphthenic  acids , Zinc salts  Grease, Misc. initial lubricant  15W40... property   to  achieve  the  highest and best use of the land.  In addition, land use planning should occur to ensure  usage compatibility with the... properties   and  the  Native  American  Graves  Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990  lists cultural  items as cultural  resources.   The  Archeological

  14. Three Gorges Project: a project for ecological improvement and environmental protection in Yangtze River Basin%Three Gorges Project: a project for ecological improvement and environmental protection in Yangtze River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Youmei

    2011-01-01

    Seeking water and earning their livelihoods is the natural selection of human beings. Like other rivers on the earth, the Yangtze River is the birthplace of human civilization and survival. As an ecosystem, the Yangtze River Basin is evolving under the influences of natural factors and human activities. Because of soil erosion, pollution and human activities, the imbalance of secondary environment is exacerbated and the ecological environment has become more vul- nerable, so it is urgent to mitigate and prevent the ecological crisis. The practice has proved that implementation of en- gineering measures is an effective way to improve the ecological environment. The Three Gorges Project (TGP) has a flood control storage capacity of 22.15 billion m3, effectively storing the flood water upstream of Yichang, and protects 15 million people and 1.5 million hm2 farmland. Furthermore, the project can prevent or slow down the sedimentation and shrinkage of the lakes in the middle Yangtze River such as Dongting Lake; with an average annual power generation of about 90 billion kW ~ h, it can significantly reduce the emissions of harmful gas like CO2. In general, the construction of TGP is conducive to the ecological and environmental protection in the Yangtze River Basin and China, even the world.

  15. A review on carbon nanotubes in an environmental protection and green engineering perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit Thai Ong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in nanotechnologies have helped to benchmark carbon nanotubes (CNTs as one of the most studied nanomaterials. By taking advantages of CNTs extraordinary physical, chemical and electronic properties, a wide variety of applications has been proposed in various engineering fields. In this short review, the contribution of CNTs is addressed in terms of sustainable environment and green technologies perspective, such as waste water treatment, air pollution monitoring, biotechnologies, renewable energy technologies, supercapacitors and green nanocomposites. Consideration of CNTs for large scale application from the aspect of cost and potential hazards are also discussed. Based on the literature studied, CNTs pose a great potential as a promising material for application in various environmental fields.

  16. Biosensing and environmental sensing for emergency and protection e-Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenes, G; Curone, D; Secco, E L; Bonfiglio, A

    2011-01-01

    The ProeTEX project introduced for the first time a complete set of smart garments integrating sensors for the physiological and environmental monitoring of emergency operators. These "smart" garments have been deeply tested in emergency-like contexts by professional rescuers, in order to assess real-time acquisition, processing and transmission of data from moving subjects while operating in harsh conditions. Here we report an overview of the main results obtained during field trials performed in 2010 by Italian and French professional firefighters, in specialized training centers, while dressing the ProeTEX prototypes. Results clearly demonstrate the benefit and step forward of such a system in order to monitor and coordinate rescuers even during intervention far away from the emergency headquarter.

  17. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particularly sensitive large marine ecosystem.  This manuscript focuses on the issue from the viewpoint of the UNCLOS legal framework and its related treaties. It thus illustrates some of the more polemical topics arising in modern law of the sea and environmental law, eg limitations on the freedom to lay submarine pipelines, the scope and boundaries of marine scientific research, the obligation to consider alter- natives in the course of an EIA. In broader terms, this manuscript presents an explanatory study of matters mostly related to sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the ecosystem approach.

  18. Classification of phosphogypsum as a waste material from the aspect of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum is primarily classified as a heavy waste. The classification of phosphogypsum as dangerous waste may be only maintained under the condition that phosphates with the highest content of radio nuclides are used in the production of H3PO4 by the so called "wet procedure" (Morocco, Florida, which, due to the great quantity of present radio nuclides, causes considerable environmental pollution by radon. The classification of phosphogypsum as a separate category of radioactive waste may be conditionally accepted, because phosphogypsum is not a radioactive waste. All the instructions about the collection, documentation and storage of phosphogypsum so far on disposal sites, and possible transport, also due to non-existing legal recommendations must comply with the classification of phosphogypsum as dangerous waste.

  19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's activities to prepare for regulatory and risk assessment applications of genomics information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, William H; Gallagher, Kathryn; McClintock, J Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Genomics is expected to have significant implications for risk assessment and regulatory decision making. Since 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has undertaken a number of cross-agency activities to further prepare itself to receive, interpret, and apply genomics information for risk assessment and regulatory purposes. These activities include: (1) the issuance of an Interim Genomics Policy on the use of genomics information in risk assessments and decision making, (2) the release of the 2004 Genomics White Paper, which outlines potential applications and implications of genomics for EPA, and (3) the recent release of the external review draft of the Interim Guidance on Microarray-Based Assays, which outlines data submission, quality, analysis, management, and training considerations for such data. This manuscript discusses these activities and more recent follow-up activities with the aim of further communicating these efforts to the broader scientific and stakeholder community.

  20. Performance, compliance and reliability of Waste stabilization pond: Effluent discharge quality and environmental protection agency standards in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.;

    2015-01-01

    tables using the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved discharge values for physico-chemical and some biological parameters to account for these shortfalls on over reliance of EPA discharge standards. Probability distribution density function was applied on the lognormal distribution...... were used to establish the coefficient of reliability relationship depending on the coefficient of variation influenced by the standard of deviation. Discharge values of Physico-chemical Parameters measured from the WSP were found be performing acceptably based on the EPA standards, whereas only four...... of the TP were acceptable. Discharge Values of physico-chemical and biological parameters which are found to be accepted under comparison with EPA standards were found to have compliance levels below what is generally accepted for Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) designed compliance. Based...

  1. Environmental Effects of Sediment Transport Alteration and Impacts on Protected Species: Edgartown Tidal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Stephen B; Schlezinger, David, Ph.D; Cowles, Geoff, Ph.D; Hughes, Patricia; Samimy,; Roland, I; and Terray, E, Ph.D.

    2012-12-29

    anchors. This is the same technology proposed by Ocean Renewable Power Company in the Western Passage and Cobscook Bay near Eastport Maine. The blades rotate in two directions capturing the tides energy both during flood and ebb tides. The turbines will be anchored to the bottom and suspended in the water column. Initial depth of the turbines is expected to be about 25 feet below the surface to avoid impacting navigation while also capturing the strongest currents. The Town of Edgartown was initially granted a Preliminary Permit by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) on March 1, 2008, and has recently received a second permit valid through August 2014. The Preliminary Permit gives Edgartown the exclusive right to apply for a power generation license for power generated from the hydrokinetic energy in the water flowing in this area. Edgartown filed a Draft Pilot License Application with FERC on February 1, 2010 and an Expanded Environmental Notification Form with the Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) Office at the same time. It expects to file a Final License Application in late 2013. Harris Miller Miller & Hanson (HMMH) of Burlington Massachusetts is acting as the Project Manager for the Town of Edgartown and collaborating with other partners of the project including the University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth's Marine Renewable Energy Center and the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center. HMMH was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's Advanced Water Program to conduct marine science and hydrokinetic site-specific environmental studies for projects actively seeking a FERC License. HMMH, on behalf of the Town, is managing this comprehensive study of the marine environment in Muskeget Channel and potential impacts of the tidal project on indicator species and habitats. The University of Massachusetts School of Marine Science and Technology (SMAST) conducted oceanographic studies of tidal currents, tide level, benthic habitat, and

  2. Air monitoring activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Response Team during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.; Mickunas, D.; Campagna, P.; Burchette, S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducted air monitoring activities during the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. This paper describes ERT's response actions and analytical support. It covers ERT activities from the morning of September 11 to October 17, 2001 when ERT was alerted of anthrax activities in Washington, DC and Boca Raton, Florida. ERT members provided technical support regarding respirator/personnel protective equipment selection, decontamination and health and safety protocols. In the first few weeks, ERT was also providing analytical laboratory support to the EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the New York City Department of Health. ERT also provided on-site gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis via the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) bus, providing real-time direct readings to the EPA and the New York Fire Department. Site boundary air monitoring stations were maintained until early November at which point the EPA Region 2 took over all monitoring responsibilities. Air sampling efforts were initially directed at worker health and safety and the surrounding environments. Air sampling was conducted for asbestos, acid gases, heavy metals, phosgene, mercury, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The sampling activities were later expanded to include chlorine, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Site assessment is still ongoing. What began as a typical emergency response air sampling effort soon became a huge air monitoring effort with the original six stations expanded to more than 20. ERT made every effort to collect, analyze, quality assure and transfer data for posting on publicly accessible website within less than 24 hours. It was noted that one of the lessons learned from the disaster is

  3. The application of environmental protection Internet Of Things during the environmental monitoring%环保物联网技术在环境监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫雪莲

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the concept and application of environmental protection Internet Of Things (IOT),discussed the dev elopment and practice of the environmental protection IOT in China's environmental protection field, analyzed current situation of the development during the environmental monitoring in Guilin. It also pointed out the problems existed in the application of the environmental protection IOT and proposed suggestions on promoting the development and construction of environmental monitoring in Guilin.%文章介绍环保物联网的概念及应用的总体架构,论述了环保物联网在中国环保领域的发展与实践。对环保物联网在桂林市环境监测中的发展现状进行分析,并指出环保物联网在环境监测中应用存在的问题,提出推动环保物联网在桂林市环境监测建设和发展的建议。

  4. The environmental history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected area in Myanmar (Burma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myint; Khaing Swe, Khaing; Oo, Thida; Kyaw Moe, Kyaw; Leimgruber, Peter; Allendorf, Teri; Duncan, Chris; Wemmer, Chris

    2004-09-01

    We reconstructed the history of Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) to understand how social and economic events, and policy changes affected the sanctuary's condition. We surveyed 25 villages surrounding CWS to evaluate past and present ecological conditions, compare the results with historical accounts and identify causal relationships. During the first half of the 20th century, the primary threat was the government's reduction of old growth forest to supply fuel wood for the British-built railway. The railroad opened the area to colonization, but the villagers' impact on timber and wildlife was low. From 1945 to 1988, villagers became the primary force of landscape degradation. The post-war windfall of firearms increased hunting pressure, and populations of large mammal started to decline. With the economic decline of the 1970s and 1980s, the community's demand for game and forest products intensified, and the large mammal fauna was reduced from eleven to four species. From 1988-2003, the forests surrounding the sanctuary were fragmented and degraded. The absence of large predators rendered the park safe for livestock, and the combined effects of grazing and removal of forest products seriously degraded habitat within CWS. Major threats to CWS during the past two decades have resulted from land use decisions in which government-planned economic enterprises caused encroachment by villagers. Stabilization and recovery of this sanctuary will require management compatible with human needs, including expanded buffer zones, better core area protection, community forestry projects, and probably relocation of villages within the park.

  5. Regional, environmentally sound integrated protection of sorghum from the diseases in Samara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Matvienko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the forest of the Samara region to major diseases of sorghum are striped bacterial blotch, Fusarium root rot and blight. Biological efficiency of chemical system products and Grands Prestige was 22-62 against root rots, bacteriosis 17-40% of bioproduct fitosporin-M and the growth regulator Albite respectively 6-32 and 4-21%. Against Alternaria effectiveness Prestige was 9-22%, fitosporin - 13-34%. By the phase of full ripeness when the intensity of bacteriosis 45-75% of plant height is reduced by 13, their weight - 11, the mass of grains per plant - 28, the number of grains per panicle - 20, the mass of 1000 seeds - 11%. Under the influence of pre-sowing seed treatment chemicals and Prestige Grands increased yield of grain sorghum grain at 4-12, sugar - by 5-9%. In experiments with irrigation at sowing in the average weather conditions for the years 2012-2013. biological grain yield increased in grain sorghum 13-20, sugar - by 28-32%. Important factors of stability of sorghum grain to the fungal infection of the genera Fusarium and Alternaria in the field include the presence on the seeds of the protective film. It may be noted that a significantly higher prevalence of grain grain sorghum, compared with diabetes, due to the fact that the seeds of grain sorghum naked and sweet sorghum filmy. This feature is important to consider in the selection of resistant varieties to this disease.

  6. Association between malignant tumors of the thyroid gland and exposure to environmental protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzel-Beyme, R; Helmert, U

    2000-01-01

    Risk factors for thyroid carcinomas and adenomas were investigated using a standard questionnaire in a case-control study in Southwestern Germany, a known iodine deficiency area. A clinical registry, set up after the Chernobyl accident at the University hospital Mannheim, served as the basis for 174 incident cases of each diagnostic group. Interview data were compared within and with prevalences from a population-based matched control group of equal size from the entire area. The protective role of coffee drinking and the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, were confirmed for both genders. A high consumption of tomatoes (> 200/year) was associated with an elevated risk of > 2.5 for malignant tumors but not for benign tumors in both genders. In both genders, both treatment for goiter (hyperthyroidism) and decaffeinated coffee consumption were associated with an increased risk for malignant tumors, but less so for adenomas. In women, early menarche (iodine substitution, but did analyze the consumption of freshwater fish and seafood. Multivariate analyses of the most prominent risk factors confirmed the persistence of tomato consumption as a risk factor. In view of experimental evidence on the carcinogenicity of organophosphates and the neurotoxicant effect of certain agrochemicals on neuroendocrinologically regulated organs, we postulate that in Germany, importing off-season tomatoes from areas with a known history of possible inexperienced use of agrochemicals may be associated with a promoting effect for malignant neoplasias of the thyroid gland in terms of promoting already existent proliferating tissue growth.

  7. Highway runoff quality models for the protection of environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel highway runoff quality models using artificial neural networks (ANN) which take into account site-specific highway traffic and seasonal storm event meteorological factors to predict the event mean concentration (EMC) statistics and mean daily unit area load (MDUAL) statistics of common highway pollutants for the design of roadside ditch treatment systems (RDTS) to protect sensitive receiving environs. A dataset of 940 monitored highway runoff events from fourteen sites located in five countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and China) was compiled and used to develop ANN models for the prediction of highway runoff suspended solids (TSS) seasonal EMC statistical distribution parameters, as well as the MDUAL statistics for four different heavy metal species (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb). TSS EMCs are needed to estimate the minimum required removal efficiency of the RDTS needed in order to improve highway runoff quality to meet applicable standards and MDUALs are needed to calculate the minimum required capacity of the RDTS to ensure performance longevity.

  8. Flood protection as a key-component of the environmental restoration of Canal del Dique, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolewicz Marius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canal del Dique is a man-made distributary of Rio Magdalena. After its widening in 1980’s environmental degradation caused by abundant sediment load and changes to hydrology took a catastrophic form. In 2010, the Canal’s dike breached and 35,000 ha of land were flooded. In 2013 a huge effort to restore the environment in the Canal del Dique system and to flood-proof the villages was started. An integrated approach was adopted to provide an optimal solution for flood control, environment, fresh water supply and navigation. In order to prepare restoration plans, an extensive hydrologic and hydraulic assessment was carried out. 1D, 2D and 3D numerical models were developed to answer different questions, to evaluate different alternatives and to enable selection of optimal solutions. To assess the flood risk, a hindcast of 2010 flood was carried out. A solution was designed in which the inlet of water from the Magdalena River is regulated by a control structure, managed by an automated system based on SCADA and Delft-FEWS flood forecasting software and advanced statistics.

  9. Delimitation and analysis of environmental protection areas in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Rosim, Sergio; Jimenez Ortiz, Manoel; de Freitas Oliveira, João. R.; Morais, Rodolfo; Siqueira, Fernando R.

    2014-10-01

    This work establishes a semi-automatic methodology to define and evaluate the Environmental Protection Areas (EPA), in the Paraíba River Basin, Brazil, taking account the land use and the water quality. The development of this work started from the water capitation point of Guaratingueta city located on the stream that runs through the city. From ASTER GDEM data the drainage network and the basin catchment was automatically extracted. Landsat images for the dates of 1989, 2001 and 2014 were digitally classified and the land uses were mapped, considering the area of permanent protection (APP) for drainage, respecting the limits indicated by Brazilian forest code. Scenes from the RapidEye satellite were used to answer questions of classification, due to good image definition. The study showed that in 1989, the total area classified as APP, 37.59% were anthropized, reaching 37.98% in 2001 and 36.98% in 2014. In a few years it was possible to associate data from water quality, measured directly at the capitation. In 2001 the water quality data showed that the intensive use of fertilizers drained into the Guaratingueta stream by rice paddies was seriously affecting the water supply of the municipality. In 2008 measures for water quality at the capitation point showed that the water resources were still impacted by agricultural activities from the rice fields. So, this work indicates the need for revitalization of the APP inside the EPA Guaratingueta in order to meet the law, protect watersheds and also avoid large investments in water treatment arriving for public consumption.

  10. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP88 PC Versions 3.0 and 4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannik, Tim; Farfan, Eduardo B; Dixon, Ken; Newton, Joseph; Sailors, Christopher; Johnson, Levi; Moore, Kelsey; Stahman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the assistance of Georgia Regents University, completed a comparison of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) environmental dosimetry code CAP88 PC V3.0 with the recently developed V4.0. CAP88 is a set of computer programs and databases used for estimation of dose and risk from radionuclide emissions to air. At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, CAP88 is used by SRNL for determining compliance with U.S. EPA's National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) regulations. Using standardized input parameters, individual runs were conducted for each radionuclide within its corresponding database. Some radioactive decay constants, human usage parameters, and dose coefficients changed between the two versions, directly causing a proportional change in the total effective dose. A detailed summary for select radionuclides of concern at the Savannah River Site (60Co, 137Cs, 3H, 129I, 239Pu, and 90Sr) is provided. In general, the total effective doses will decrease for alpha/beta emitters because of reduced inhalation and ingestion rates in V4.0. However, for gamma emitters, such as 60Co and 137Cs, the total effective doses will increase because of changes U.S. EPA made in the external ground shine calculations.

  11. Lead from hunting activities and its potential environmental threat to wildlife in a protected wetland in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Oceguera-Vargas, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    This study provides insights into the status of lead in the protected wetland of El Palmar, located on the northwestern littoral of the Yucatan Peninsula. This reserve is ecologically and economically important because it provides feeding and breeding habitats for many species, as well as being an ecotourism destination (especially for bird watching). Although it is a protected area, duck species are heavily hunted within the reserve during the winter. As a result, animals feeding or living in sediments could be exposed to anthropogenic lead. Total lead and its geochemical fractionated forms were measured in sediment cores from six selected sites in "El Palmar" wetland, during pre- and post-hunting seasons, to approximate the potential environmental threat (especially for benthonic living/feeding organisms). Anthropogenic lead concentrations detected in soil cores ranged from below the minimum infaunal community effect level (30.24 μg g(-1)) during the pre-hunting season, to bordering the probable infaunal community effect level (112.18 μg g(-1)) during the post-hunting season, according to SquiiRTs NOAA guidelines. Yet, these results were lower than expected based on the intensity of hunting. Consequently, this article explores the possibility that the lower than expected lead concentration in sediments results from (1) degradation of shot and transformation to soluble or particulate forms; or (2) ingestion of lead shot by benthic and other lacustrine species living in the protected area. Geochemical fractionation of lead demonstrated that in the top 6 cm of the soil column at heavily active hunting sites (EP5 and EP6), lead was associated with the lithogenic fraction (average 45 percent) and with the organic fraction (average 20 percent). Bioavailable lead (sum of lead adsorbed to the carbonates, Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and organic fractions) in sediments was lower than 50 percent for the heavily active hunting areas and higher for the rest of the sites

  12. Advances in environmental radiation protection: re-thinking animal-environment interaction modelling for wildlife dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hinton, Thomas G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-01

    Current wildlife dose assessment models adopt simplistic approaches to the representation of animal-environment interaction. The simplest approaches are to assume either that environmental media (e.g. soil, sediment or water) are uniformly contaminated or relating organism exposure to activity concentrations in media collected at the point of sampling of the animal. The external exposure of a reference organism is then estimated by defining the geometric relationship between the organism and the medium. For example, a reference organism within the soil would have a 4p exposure geometry and a reference organism on the soil would have a 2p exposure geometry. At best, the current modelling approaches recognise differences in media activity concentrations by calculating exposure for different areas of contamination and then estimating the fraction of time that an organism spends in each area. In other fields of pollution ecology, for example wildlife risk assessment for chemical pollution, more advanced approaches are being implemented to model animal-environment interaction and estimate exposure. These approaches include individual-based movement modelling and random walk modelling and a variety of software tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation of these models. Although there are more advanced animal-environment interaction modelling approaches that are available, it is questionable whether these should be adopted for use in environmental radiation protection. Would their adoption significantly reduce uncertainty within the assessment process and, if so, by how much? These questions are being addressed within the new TREE (TRansfer - Exposure - Effects) research programme funded by the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and within Working Group (WG) 8 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's MODARIA programme. MODARIA WG8 is reviewing some of the alternative approaches that have been developed for animal

  13. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feindel, William

    2003-01-01

    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  14. How Should Canadian Literature Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborne, Garnet

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and several approaches to teaching Canadian literature, including a cultural and regional approach to Canadian literature, a comparative approach, and a language study approach. (HTH)

  15. 德国生态环境保护的观察与思考%Observation and Reflection on the Ecological and Environmental Protection in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为

    2015-01-01

    Environmental protection is the common concern in the world. Considering the course and main methods of German's environmental protection, we can find that it has constructed an all-round, multi-level, three-dimensional system of ecological environment protection, with the development of green industry as its focus, strict law legislation as its guarantee, economic regulation as its means and citizen's improved environmental awareness as its pillar. Germany constantly adjusted its industrial structure and gradually developed in the direction of low carbon green. It also constantly supplemented and perfected its environmental legislation and formed a complete environmental law system, took effective economic regulation policies by restriction and incentive, and gave priority to environmental protection publicity and education to build the atmosphere in which the whole nation actively participated in environmental protection.%环境保护是当今世界各国共同关注的问题.综观德国在环境保护方面走过的历程和主要做法,可以概括为:以发展绿色产业为核心、以严格立法为保障、以经济调节为手段、以提高公民环保意识为支撑,全方位、多层次、立体化的生态环境保护体系.不断调整产业结构,逐步向低碳化绿色化方向发展;不断增补完善环保立法,形成了完备的环保法律体系;限制与激励并举,采取有效的经济调节措施;重视环保宣传教育,营造了全民参与环保的氛围.

  16. Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

    2003-03-27

    A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

  17. 光纤光缆主要的环境保护标准%Brief analysis of the main optical fiber and cable environmental protection standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 詹朗朗; 吴金华; 顾利国

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces several domestic and international environmental standards of protection of optical fiber and cable, and makes a brief analysis for standard. On this basis the paper mainly compares EU RoHS standard with ours, thus to adjust the direction of environmental protection and plan for the future development and progress of optical fiber and cable enterprises.%本文介绍了几种国内外的光纤光缆环境保护标准,并对于标准做了简要分析。在此基础上重点比较欧盟和国内的RoHS标准。

  18. WHERE IS THE VALUE IN GREENING YOUR BRAND? AN ANALYSIS OF THE CANADIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Bedlington, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential for a green hotel brand in the Canadian market, given the current industry trend towards environmentally friendly operations. To begin, an industry analysis of the competitive landscape is performed with a focus on the luxury hotel segment. A discussion of the key players in the Canadian market provides further context. The paper continues by analyzing the consumer decision process within the hotel industry, in conjunction with green consumer behaviour. Final...

  19. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Ivan T.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  20. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  1. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  2. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  3. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  4. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  5. Environmental protection and antitrust laws. Principles of the law on competition in the area of environment-protection-related corporate communication in the Single European Market. Umweltschutz und Wettbewerbsrecht. Wettbewerbsrechtliche Prinzipien umweltbezogener Unternehmenskommunikation im europaeischen Binnenmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federhoff-Rink, G.

    1994-01-01

    The idea of environment protection has become a dominating motif in advertising. As yet there are no guiding principles in antitrust law which might provide some orientation in assessing environment-protection-related advertising. The purpose of the present book is to systematise this environmental advertising by creating case groups distinguished by legally relevant characteristics and set up principles of antitrust law for these case groups. The author presents a holistic communicational approach new to antitrust law which for the first time permits incorporating environmental sponsoring in this sphere of law. The informational duties on which this work centers are in harmony with the specific information principle of European environmental policies and promote the convergence of different prevailing trends in international commercial law. (orig.)

  6. Abstracts of the 48. Canadian chemical engineering conference : technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The conference was organized into six concurrent sessions devoted to fluidized bed technology, multi-phase reactors, catalysis, environmental technology, new developments, and biotechnology. A total of 491 papers were presented. Papers of particular interest to energy technology emphasized new technologies and chemical engineering techniques involved in processing petroleum products. Fluidized beds for hydro-treatment and biochemical processing, conversion of biomass to bio-oils and strategies for reducing emissions from Canadian energy facilities were some of the topics addressed.

  7. 云存储在环保领域的应用研究%The Applications of Cloud Storage in the Field of Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪渊

    2015-01-01

    介绍了太原市环保信息化建设的现状及问题, 提出环保信息系统云存储的建设目标和必要性, 并对云存储在环保领域的应用进行了探索研究.%This paper describes the current situation and problems of Taiyuan environmental information construction,pro-posed building objectives and the need for cloud storage of environmental information system and give the exploration and research in cloud storage applications in the field of environmental protection.

  8. Comparing quality of the wastewater treatment plant effluent in Lia industrial zone (Qazvin with Iranian environmental protection standards (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Emamjomeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to prevent water pollution, protect public health, and reuse of the treated wastewater; controlling on quality of the wastewater treatment plant effluent has been considered a necessary. Objective: To compare the quality of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Lia industrial zone with Iranian environmental protection standards. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in one of the industrial zones in Qazvin (Lia. Samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant from May to September 2015 and analyzed in the laboratory. Chemical oxygen demand (COD parameters were determined twice per week when the pH values were daily measured by pH meter. Sampling was carried out weekly to determine other important operational parameters including biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, total coliform (TC and fecal coliform (FC. Sampling and experiments were done according to the latest standard methods. The data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software (T-Test a single group. Findings: The average of BOD, COD, TSS, FC, TC in effluent were achieved to 73.3±13.2, 156.2±42, and 76.43±50.8 mg/L 1.1×103,1.1×103 MPN/100 ml respectively. The total average of removal efficiencies for BOD, COD and TSS were calculated 92.41%, 92.75%, and 87.46%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained that the wastewater treatment plant systems can be used as an efficient system for reduction of common pollutants by providing the Iranian standards for irrigating when the most important such as BOD, COD, TSS and PH are considered. The quality of the treated wastewater was found to be within the permissible Iranian standards for irrigating. However, it is important to keep in mind that reduce microbial contamination within standards is needed to be considered.

  9. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  10. Application And Implication Of Nanomaterials In The Environment: An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to teach a course on analytical techniques, quality assurance, environmental research protocols, and basic soil environmental chemistry at the Environmental Health Center and Babes Bolyai University in Cluj, Romania. FOR FURTHER INFORMATI...

  11. Em resposta a "Isto não é bom o suficiente": reflexões sobre a pesquisa em Educação Ambiental no Canadá em contextos de expansão In response to "It's just not good enough! ": thougths on canadian work within expanding contexts of environmental education resarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o propósito de oferecer um panorama da pesquisa em Educação Ambiental, da perspectiva canadense, no contexto da América do Norte. Desse ponto de vista, procuro, embora de forma perigosa, representar alguns pesquisadores e educadores canadenses que trabalham com Educação Ambiental2 e que escrevem sobre suas atividades, especialmente aqueles que responderam ao meu pedido de ajuda para a articulação de ideias a respeito do que está acontecendo e do que podemos falar sobre direções e possibilidades para o futuro em relação às nossas investigações atuais. Reconheço minha posição relativamente privilegiada nesse processo e também as limitações desse tipo de representação. Aceitei então a responsabilidade de explorar territórios de investigação que, a meu ver, parecem capturar, embora com várias lacunas, algumas reflexões e ideias que têm sido produzidas recentemente entre pesquisadores canadenses. Reconhecendo o caráter oscilante dos discursos no legado histórico de questões conceitualmente controversas e direções variadas, tento simplesmente localizar trajetórias que sugerem lampejos e aberturas para pensar e debater o global e o local na pesquisa em Educação Ambiental, com base em minha perspectiva como pesquisador que vive e trabalha no contexto da educação e da Educação Ambiental canadenses.The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview that traces a range of work on environmental education research from a Canadian perspective within a North American context. This viewpoint attempts dangerously to represent a number of explorations of Canadian environmental education researchers and practitioners , who write about their activities and, in particular, those who responded to my request for help in coming to articulate ideas about what is going on and what we may say about directions and possibilities for the future in respect of our current inquiries. I recognize my relatively

  12. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Fumiko; Koonce, Noelle L; Guo, Linda; Fatima, Shahroz; Qiu, Catherine; Moon, Mackenzie T; Zheng, Yunzhen; Ordway, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS)-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP), HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and the microtubule

  13. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  14. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  15. 一种工业环保核算思路的探讨%Finding a Thinking Way of Industrial Environmental Protection Accounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马千脉; 曹克瑜; 杨芮华

    2004-01-01

    Input-output table is the easiest accounting method in amalgamating with the traditional system of national accounting, but it needs very large amount data that cannot be acquired under the present statistic status quo. In this paper, the authors explore a different environmental-protection accounting method which uses the existing data sufficiently.

  16. 环保产业概念的演变与拓展%The Evolution of the Environmental Protection Industry and Its Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劲峰

    2011-01-01

    环保产业作为战略性新兴产业之一,因应了我国转变经济发展方式、建设资源节约型社会和环境保护型社会的要求。环保产业概念的诞生经历了一个长期的发展过程,其由狭义向广义的扩展也体现了认识和观念上的变化。正确认识环保产业,对于厘清发展思路和方向具有重要的现实意义。%Environmental protection industry, as one of the strategic emerging industries, meets the need of the transformation of economic development mode, the construction of resource-saving society and environmental protection society. The concept of environmental protection industry has experienced a long-term development process, its narrow extension to broad extension also reflects changes of the knowledge and concept. A correct understanding of the environmental protection industry is significant to clarify the development thought and direction.

  17. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination; Taktyczno-operacyjne problemy ochrony wojsk, ludnosci i srodowiska przed skazeniami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, M. [Akademia Obrony Narodowej, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics.

  18. Science Supporting Numeric Nutrient Criteria for Lakes and Their Watersheds: A Synopsis of Research Completed for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution remains one of the most prevalent causes of water quality impairment in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) approach to addressing the challenge of managing nutrient pollution has included supporting development of numeric nutri...

  19. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  20. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  1. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  2. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  3. The Progress and Prospect of Chinese Environmental Protection Industry%我国环保产业的发展和前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志永; 邢妍; 刘晓吉; 王凯军

    2016-01-01

    分析了环保产业发展的一般规律,总结了我国环保产业的特点;探讨了美国、日本、中国环保产业发展的历程和人均GDP水平,并结合发达国家环保企业进驻以及我国环保企业走出去的新形势,分析确定我国环保产业在未来的一段时间内将保持较快的发展速度,同时提出了我国环保产业发展的主战场和重点方向。%This paper analyzes the development history of environmental protection industry in China and summarizes its characteristics .By com-paring the Chinese environmental protection industry development course and GDP per capita with those of USA and Japan , it can be concluded that the the Chinese environmental protection industry will keep on developing in a rapid rate in recent future .Under the circumstances of the in-creasingly extensive communication and cooperation between environmental enterprises from China and abroad , main fields and directions of fu-ture developement were proposed to maximize the benefits of Chinese environmental industry .

  4. Study on radioactive material management plan and environmental analysis of water (I) study of radioactive substance in water management and analyse to eat of the US environmental protection agency (environmental protection agency)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae; Min, Hye Lim; Han, Seong Gyu; Lim, Hyun Jong; Jo, Han Byeol; Noh, Young Hoon; Lee, Ho Sun [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Suk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The interest of the people in the radioactive contamination of the water has increased significantly and the study about analysis and management of radioactive materials are being actively conducted. And monitoring spots have been expanded to the range of public water as well as drinking water by publishing the rule of drinking water quality standards and examination in the Environmental Enforcement Ordinance No. 553 of Korea. In this study, US EPA was investigated as the foreign advanced cases and the way that is appropriate for the Korea was sought by analyzing investigate radionuclide, interval and management. As a result, in the selection part of investigate radionuclide, geological survey, status of nuclear power plants and the presence of the use of artificial radionuclides of the Korea should be investigated and additionally after the selection of a few radionuclides, the systems should be extended to cover all possible radionuclides by considering radioactive pollution levels in humans may be exposed due to the annual drinking water. In the part of the investigate interval, the concept(MCL, DL) should be set up for preventing concentration detection of above MCL and it needs to the maintenance and management. For example, when the concentration is more than MCL, it should be investigated on a quarterly and when the concentration is lower than MCL, it should be investigated to each different interval and management. And the US EPA divided the management area and make the road map for managing drinking water. The each classified area has been organized to match the state budget and labor force and the individual data have been managed effectively by HPGe, the NaI, TLD and so on.

  5. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  6. Adsorption and chemical precipitation of lead and zinc from contaminated solutions in porous rocks: Possible application in environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Gabriella; Mlinárik, Lilla; Török, Ákos

    2016-10-01

    Natural porous rocks, like limestone and rhyolite tuff are able to reduce heavy metal pollution by adsorbing or precipitating them from heavy metal containing solutions due to the favourable physical and chemical properties of these rocks. In our experiment, two porous rocks, a porous limestone and rhyolite tuff were used. Petrophysical parameters namely apparent density, real density, capillary water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, total porosity and open porosity of the two porous rocks were determined in water-saturated and dried conditions. Powdered rock samples and cylindrical specimens were placed in lead-nitrate and zinc-sulphate solutions (initial concentration: 1000 ppm) and the amount of lead (II) and zinc (II) ions were identified by titration (chelatometry) of the residual solution. According to the experiments, powdered rocks and rock specimens of limestone and rhyolite tuff reduced the lead (II) and zinc (II) ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The results were cross-checked by ICP-MS. Heavy metal removal capacity was relatively high, 92-99% in each case. The treated powdered rocks and rock specimens were also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) and new heavy metal precipitates were identified. According to the tests result, it could be confirmed that these types of lithologies are capable of removing heavy metals and can be used in environmental protection technologies in a form of permeable reactive barrier.

  7. On the environmental protection and sustainable development%论环境保护与可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲聪

    2012-01-01

    在市场经济影响下,很多人过分追求经济的快速增长,而忽略对环境和后代产生的影响,使得环境问题日益突出,也使得资源短缺的情形越来越为严重,为了缓解或是遏制这样的不良现象,对环境保护和可持续发展的需求愈来愈迫切,所以环境保护和可持续发展的概念被提出了。%Under the market economy influence,many people pursuit the economy growth overly and overlook the impact of environment and future generations.As a result,environment issues have become increasingly prominent and the shortages of resources situation become more serious.In order to curb this undesirable phenomenon,the concept of environmental protection and sustainable development was presented.

  8. Process-related measures for ensuring environmental protection in textile finishing; Prozessnahe Massnahmen zum betrieblichen Umweltschutz in der Textilveredlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzinkowski, J.M.; Medrow, M. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal, Fachbereich 14 - Sicherheitstechnik, Fachgebiet Umweltchemie (Germany); Hildenbrand, J.; Ackermann, R.; Fleischer, G. [TU Berlin, Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Process-related measures of ensuring environmental protection in the textile finishing industry are presented. After a detailed process analysis, steps towards process optimisation, waste water treatment and recirculation are presented, and an analysis is made for aspects of quality, efficiency, and handling. (orig.) [German] Ansaetze fuer eine oekologisch angepasste Produktionsweise bestehen u.a. in der Schaffung von Stoffkreislaeufen, z.B. durch das Recycling von Wasser und von Einsatzstoffen, sowie in der Einsparung von Energie. Die damit verbundene Verringerung von Stoffeintraegen in die Umwelt sowie eine Erhoehung der Prozesseffizienz koennen wirtschaftliche Vorteile bieten, die den produktionsintegrierten Umweltschutz aus Unternehmersicht interessant machen. An Beispielen aus der Textilveredlung werden die Moeglichkeiten zu prozessnahen Massnahmen des betrieblichen Umweltschutzes dargestellt. Nach einer umfangreichen Prozessanalyse werden Schritte zur Prozessoptimierung und daran anschliessend zu einer prozessnahen Abwasseraufbereitung und Rueckfuehrung vorgestellt, die unter dem Diktat der Wirtschaftlichkeit und bezogen auf einen breiten Einsatz in der Textilveredlung sowie zu den Vor- und Nachteilen hinsichtlich Qualitaet, Effizienz und Handhabbarkeit untersucht werden. Der Vortrag berichtet ueber Zwischenergebnisse aus Untersuchungen, die im Rahmen des BMBF-Programmes ''Produktionsintegrierter Umweltschutz in der Textilindustrie'' als Verbundprojekt in Bearbeitung sind. (orig.)

  9. Water management, environmental protection and spatial planning reconciliation: "Accommodating" the Danube and the Tisa river in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihler Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Serbia has been mostly operating in a framework of public companies and institutions focused on strictly sectorial and technical expertise on hydraulic engineering, environmental protection and navigable traffic engineering within the highly autonomous legislative framework. On the cross-point of spatial planning and water management there is a growing debate on the important discourses of the policy domains. Seeing rivers as an “accommodated” generator of opportunities is a statement which is opposing the traditional consideration of strict separation of water from the land. Spatial planning as a framework for regulating the land use has an important function in integrating the water management and landscape more closely. In Serbian spatial planning practice there is growing practice of area-specific development planning (reflected through the Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are considered to accommodate new ideas on spatiality better than the traditional, sectorial planning documents. The question is placed as to how these practices could direct new spatial arrangements of integrative collaborative spatial planning and not just merely reflect the framework of the existing planning order. This paper seeks the potential and actual role of spatial planning in addressing challenges related to particular river environments on the Tisa and the Danube rivers. The research is based on the analysis of two Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are still in conceptual phase - The Cultural landscape of Bač and Multifunctional ecological corridor of the Tisa river.

  10. Planning of Environmental Protection and Environmental Legislation on Medium and Small Towns%中小城市生态环境保护规划与环境立法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万钧

    2012-01-01

    As the limitations of planning in the environmental protect of medium and small towns, a series of environmental problems occurred during the period of development. Based on environmental development objectives of water, solid waste and sound, environmental protection measures of medium and small towns has been taken. After the characteristics of the environment protection legislation is analyzed, the basic idea of how to improve the environmental legislation is proposed.%在中小城市发展过程中需要关注环境问题.根据中小城市大气、水体、固体废物和声环境发展的目标,提出中小城市环境保护规划的对策.在中小城市环境现状分析和规划原则的基础上,指出环境立法保护的特点,以及完善中小城市环境立法的基本思路.

  11. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  12. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ Pinterest Contact Us EPA Action on President Trump’s Executive Order on Energy Independence EPA to review ... Act on Waters of the U.S. Rule President Trump issued an Executive Order directing EPA and the ...

  13. 我国农村环境保护现状及对策研究%On Status and Countermeasures of Rural Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小梅; 彭欣然; 杜静

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of China's rural economy, and the gradual transformation of rural life style and production patterns, the environmental problems in rural areas continue to change in forms�Although relevant departments have introduced a raft of rural environmental protection policies, and developed a large number of rural environmental protection infrastructure, the response measures still lag behind the actual needs for solving the rural environmental problems�Hence, we propose the following five countermeasures to protect the rural environment, in light of the status quo of the environmental problems in the countryside: first, national-level documents need to be introduced on the protection of rural environment, in order to demonstrate the State will; second, financial inputs need to be dramatically increased, so that the integrated village environment management will be carried out on a national scale; third, the governments need to take the responsibility for environmental protection, and local governments need to be urged to observe the bottom lines set for rural environmental quality; fourth, it is necessary to establish and perfect the schemes and mechanisms of rural environmental protection; fifth, efforts need to be made to strengthen the farmers’ environmental protection training and education, enhance farmers'consciousness of environmental protection and awareness of self-protection.%近年来,我国农村经济发展迅速,农村生活方式和生产方式的逐渐转变,农村环境问题的形态不断变化。虽然,相关部门出台了一系列农村环境保护政策,建设了一大批农村环保基础设施等,但应对措施仍滞后于解决农村环境问题的实际需求。针对目前农村环境保护的现状和问题,提出五点对策建议:一是国家层面以农村环境保护为主题,适时出台文件,凸显国家意志;二是进一步加大资金投入,尽早实现全国

  14. From the LCA of food products to the environmental assessment of protected crops districts: a case-study in the south of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Maurizio; Ardente, Fulvio; Longo, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the energy consumption and environmental burdens associated with the production of protected crops in an agricultural district in the Mediterranean region. In this study, LCA was used as a 'support tool', to address local policies for sustainable production and consumption patterns, and to create a 'knowledge base' for environmental assessment of an extended agricultural production area. The proposed approach combines organisation-specific tools, such as Environmental Management Systems and Environmental Product Declarations, with the environmental management of the district. Questionnaires were distributed to producers to determine the life cycle of different protected crops (tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, peppers, melons and zucchinis), and obtain information on greenhouse usage (e.g. tunnel vs. pavilion). Ecoprofiles of products in the district were also estimated, to identify supply chain elements with the highest impact in terms of global energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, water consumption and waste production. These results of this study enable selection of the 'best practices' and ecodesign solutions, to reduce the environmental impact of these products. Finally, sensitivity analysis of key LCA issues was performed, to assess the variability associated with different parameters: vegetable production; water usage; fertiliser and pesticide usage; shared greenhouse use; substitution of plastics coverings; and waste recycling.

  15. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  16. European aid control policy and environmental protection - an evaluation of the new Community guidelines; Die europaeische Beihilfenaufsicht im Umweltschutz - Darstellung und Kritik des neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewringmann, D.; Thoene, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Fischer, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    On 3 February 2001 the European Commission adopted the new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. These guidelines outline the methods and criteria used by the Commission when controlling environmental state aid according to Art. 87 and 88 of the EC-Treaty. The study analyses the development of the new guidelines and their potential effects on environmental protection and environmental policy in the Member States of the European Union. In essence, the guidelines display three harmful tendencies: - they hamper progressive and innovative environmental policy that improves on 'least common denominator'-Community standards; - they do not respect the limits of the Commissions's authority, and interfere with the Member States' exclusive authority to decide on strategies and instruments of their respective environmental policies, and they especially affect Member States' choices between different energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply; - finally, they do not improve the protection of air competition on the common market. Based on these findings, the report delineates perspectives for an aid control policy that protects fair competition, and that gives incentives for voluntary national and regional environmental protection, allows for the equal treatment of clean techniques, and provides a consistent framework for exemptions from ecological taxes and environmental levies at the same time. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Kommission hat mit Wirkung vom 3. Februar 2001 einen neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmen fuer staatliche Umweltschutzbeihilfen erlassen. Dieser skizziert die Verfahren und Kriterien, welche die Kommission in ihrer Ueberpruefung staatlicher Umweltschutzbeihilfen auf Vereinbarkeit mit dem gemeinsamen Markt nach Art. 87 u. 88 EGV nutzen will. Die vorliegende Untersuchung schildert die Entstehung des Beihilferahmens und analysiert dessen potenzielle Wirkungen auf den Umweltschutz und die

  17. 75 FR 17134 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Broward County Shore Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Broward County Shore Protection Project, North County Line to Hillsboro Inlet (Segment I) General... County Shore Protection Project(Segment I) General Re-Evaluation Report. The project is being...

  18. 健康安全环保教育培训的探索%On the Educational Training of Healthy Safety Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兆寒

    2015-01-01

    化工企业的工作环境关系着企业的发展。化工企业应通过对员工的安全环保培训,提高员工的安全环保意识,规避风险。本文针对现阶段健康安全环保教育培训中出现的问题,探索更为有效的培训方式,提高员工安全环保职业健康意识和安全环保职业健康技能,以求最大限度的杜绝事故的发生,促进企业持续健康发展。%The work environment of chemical enterprises is related to the development of enterprises. Chemical enterprises should train safety environmental protection of the staffs to improve the consciousness of safety environment protection of the staffs and avoid risks. Aimed at the problems in the educational training of healthy safety environmental protection at present, this paper explores more effective training ways of improving the occupational health consciousness and the occupational health skills of safety environmental protection of the staffs to furthest prevent accidents and promote the sustained and healthy development of enterprises.

  19. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  20. Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation system for the Black Sea: The ECO-Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.

    2013-04-01

    The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black Sea Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water system of the Black Sea, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring system targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level system is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS system is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black Sea and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The system is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black Sea environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information system, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the

  1. 少数民族环境保护习惯法的国家表达%National Expression of Minority Customary Laws on Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少美

    2011-01-01

    随着我国社会主义经济的发展,人民的生活水平有了很大的提高,但是也造成我国的生态环境的保护面临更大的压力。尤其是我国少数民族地区由于生态环境的脆弱,其面临环境保护的压力则更大,然而随着时代的发展,少数民族本身的环境保护习惯法的约束作用则越来越小,本文主要想通过探讨少数民族环境保护习惯法的国家表达来增强少数民族习惯的凝聚力,以及推动我国环境保护事业的发展。%With China's socialist economic development,people's living standard has been greatly improved.However,the protection of the ecological environment in China is meeting with great pressure.The minority areas of China,with the fragile ecological environments,is meeting with even greater pressure in environmental protection,for their customary laws on environmental protection are less and less effective in functions with the passing of time.The research,through the study of the national expression of the minority customary laws on environmental protection,is to enhance cohesion of minority customs and to promote the environmental protection in China.

  2. The Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program: The Environmental Protection Agency’s Research Approach to Assisting Community Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Summers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs on environmental, economic, and social fronts. The United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program aims to assist communities (large and small to make decisions for their long term sustainability with respect to the three pillars of human well-being—environmental, economic and social—and are tempered in a way that ensures social equity, environmental justice and intergenerational equity. The primary tool being developed by the Sustainable and Healthy Communities (SHC research program to enhance sustainable decision making is called TRIO (Total Resources Impacts and Outcomes. The conceptual development of this tool and the SHC program attributes are discussed.

  3. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  4. 关于我国环境保护投资的界定与思考%Definition and Reflection on Environmental Protection Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    Based on comparison of definition principles of environmental protection investment home and abroad, connotation of environmental protection investment was analyzed. The definition principles of environmental protection investment were proposed from the points of nature, purpose and connotation. The research shows that presently the statistic criteria is still in disorder and the investment seemingly high and unreasonably with low efficiency resulting in a lag of pollution control and ecology recovery behind their production. It proposes suggestions including orientating the environmental protection investment, optimizing the composition proportion of investment, making the investment scope clear, unifying the statistic criteria, broadening investment and financing channels, ensuring the investment amount, strengthening the supervise of investment and improving the utilization efficiency of investment, so as to solve the existing environmental problems.%对比分析了国内外环保投资范围的界定原则,解析了环保投资的内涵,从环保投资的性质、目的和内涵等方面提出了环保投资的界定原则.研究表明,目前我国环保投资统计口径比较混乱,环保投资虚高,且投资结构不尽合理,资金使用效率不高,造成污染治理和生态恢复速度一直滞后于环境污染和生态破坏速度.建议明晰环保投资定位,优化投资结构,明确投资范围,统一统计口径,拓宽投资融资渠道,保障投资金额,加强投资监管,提高投资使用效率,解决现有环境问题.

  5. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-06

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  6. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  7. Influence of Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection and Environmental Self-efficacy on Environmental Behavior:Empi rical Study Based on CGSS2010 Data%环保支付意愿、环保效能感对环保行为的影响研究--基于CGSS2010数据的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟晓

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems have been paid more and more attention in China .Willing‐ness to pay for environmental protection and environmental self‐efficiency have important influ‐ence on environmental behavior .Structural equation model was used to analyze the relationship between environmental willingness to pay ,environmental self‐efficiency and environmental pro‐tection behavior based on CGSS2010 data .The results show that environmental willingness to pay and environmental self‐efficiency both have positive impact on the environmental behavior ,and environmental willingness to pay plays a more important role than environmental self‐efficiency . We should strengthen the environmental protection of social persuasion and positive feedback in order to enhance the public environmental self‐efficacy and take multiple governance in order to improve willingness to pay for public environmental protection .%环境问题在中国日益受到重视,环保支付意愿和环保效能感对环保行为有着重要影响。基于CGSS2010数据,采用结构方程模型,分析了环保支付意愿、环保效能感和环保行为之间的关系。结果显示,环保支付意愿和环保效能感均对环保行为有正向影响;在对环保行为的影响中,环保支付意愿比环保效能感起到的作用更大。为此,应加强环保的社会说服和积极反馈,以增强公众环保效能感;采取多元治理,以提高公众环保支付意愿。

  8. The Influence of Active Participation and Organisation in Environmental Protection Activities on the Environmental Behaviour of Pupils: Study of a Teaching Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Armin; Haase, Hans-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Until now, many efforts in the area of environmental education, intended to instill consciously responsible behaviour into the general public in Germany, have failed. Several of the available intervention studies aimed at improving environmental behaviour of pupils with classroom tuition were able to show positive results, but there were often…

  9. Recent Advances in High-Resolution Regional Climate Modeling at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Bullock, O. Russell; Herwehe, Jerold; Spero, Tanya; Nolte, Christopher; Mallard, Megan

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Climate Modeling Team at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been improving the quality of regional climate fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Active areas of research include improving core physics within the WRF model and adapting the physics for regional climate applications, improving the representation of inland lakes that are unresolved by the driving fields, evaluating nudging strategies, and devising techniques to demonstrate value added by dynamical downscaling. These research efforts have been conducted using reanalysis data as driving fields, and then their results have been applied to downscale data from global climate models. The goals of this work are to equip environmental managers and policy/decision makers in the U.S. with science, tools, and data to inform decisions related to adapting to and mitigating the potential impacts of climate change on air quality, ecosystems, and human health. Our presentation will focus mainly on one area of the Team's research: Development and testing of a seamless convection parameterization scheme. For the continental U.S., one of the impediments to high-resolution (~3 to 15 km) climate modeling is related to the lack of a seamless convection parameterization that works across many scales. Since many convection schemes are not developed to work at those "gray scales", they often lead to excessive precipitation during warm periods (e.g., summer). The Kain-Fritsch (KF) convection parameterization in the WRF model has been updated such that it can be used seamlessly across spatial scales down to ~1 km grid spacing. First, we introduced subgrid-scale cloud and radiation interactions that had not been previously considered in the KF scheme. Then, a scaling parameter was developed to introduce scale-dependency in the KF scheme for use with various processes. In addition, we developed new formulations for: (1) convective adjustment timescale; (2) entrainment of

  10. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  11. Applications of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection Ship Coating%船舶节能环保涂料的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁霞琴; 孔德陆

    2014-01-01

    对比分析几种防污涂料在实际船舶案例中的应用,结合目前节能型涂料的市场需求及应用前景,说明新型有机硅弹性体低表面能防污漆对船舶运营成本,以及人类环境保护的重大意义。%The characteristic and applications of different energy saving and environmental protection ship coatings were ana -lyzed.According to the market requirement and application prospects , the significance of the new organic-silicon sealion repulse ship anti-fouling coating was explained for ship operating cost and environmental protection .

  12. The Modal and Experience in Environmental Protection of Hong Kong%香港环境保护模式和经验借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅

    2005-01-01

    Hong Kong is very rich in its environmental resources, the area of land is 1098 km2, 40% of it is listed in the range of outskirts parks, the occupation rate of land is much higher than any other countries or areas. The outskirts parks are not only protected well, but also offer a fine natural environment for Hong Kong people. The wetland behind Mi Pu bay is the largest in Asia, and listed in the international important wetlands, over 20,000 migratory birds stay here in winter season every year. However, in this fast-growing society, it needs a set of effective environmental policies, laws and measures in order to guarantee clean air and sound environment. Hong Kong has set up a good set of systems in the past ten years, which made a great progress on nature and environment protection, and made a fundamentally important base for Hong Kong's sustainable development of the society.

  13. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Study on standard system framework of marine environmental protection%海洋环境保护标准体系框架构建探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小勇; 徐春红; 袁玲玲; 张志峰

    2013-01-01

    As the top-level design of standardization, the standard system construction is the great important to the scientific and reasonable marine environment standards formulation in the marine environmental protection field. According to Marine Environment Protection Law and the duties of SOA, base on Environmental Standard System/Standard System Table of Irrigation Technology/ and National Meteorological Standard System Framework ,the article integrates the existing marine environmental monitoring,marine natural reserve and marine special reserve management, marine environmental protection and so on four standard system frameworks to the marine environmental protection standard system framework, in the three forms of statement, it will make a foundation for establishing a scientific , reasonable, perfect marine environmental protection standard system.%海洋环境保护标准体系建设作为该领域标准化工作的顶层设计,对科学、合理开展海洋环境保护标准制修订工作至关重要.本文在借鉴“环境标准体系”、“水利技术标准体系表”和“全国气象标准体系框架”基础上,根据《海洋环境保护法》和国务院赋予国家海洋局的“三定方案”职责,将现有的海洋环境监测、海洋自然保护区管理、海洋特别保护区管理、海洋环境保护等四个标准体系框架整合为海洋环境保护标准体系框架,并以三种形式来体现,为构建科学、合理、系统、完善的海洋环境保护标准体系奠定基础.

  15. Brief Introduction on Development Program of Environmental Protection in Shenyang%沈阳市环保产业发展规划简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建智

    2001-01-01

    The"10.5"program of environmental protection industry and the development program of 2010 was introduced in the article. The editing process,the construction frame and the main content was introduced.%主要介绍《沈阳市环保产业“十五”计划及2010年发展规划》的编制过程、结构框架,以及内容要点。

  16. China's Environmental Protection Industry:A Promising Future Ahead——Exclusive Interview with Mr.Luo Jianhua,Secretary-general of CESIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 15,2009,sourced from the news released on the website of National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),in order to cope with the international financial crisis,foster the development of the emerging industries and finally seize the ;vantage points for the future econom ic competition,NDRC is pressing ahead with the formulating Development Planning for Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection Industry and Suggestions on the Development of Energy-saving Semiconductor Lighting Industry.

  17. A Comparative Analysis between Environmental Protection (Waste Management Regulation 2000 and Bidhan Nagar Municipal Solid Waste Management to Propose a Realistic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Maity

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM of environmental protection (waste management regulation 2000 and Bidhan Nagar municipal corporation was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two model is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced to the involvement of the government sector, are also presented.

  18. An important breakthrough on environmental protection%一项在环境保护方面的重要创意

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汉友

    2003-01-01

    目的为研究和探讨防止环境污染的有效方法,作者同时创意并开发了相关的新发明的产品.方法总结了国人家庭在烹食和其他取暖用途中煤炭使用的缺点,以研究和改造这些缺点.结果为环保这一新的创意,旨在消除煤的无用和无效燃烧.由此创意,产生了环保型燃煤器新的设计概念.结论为环保的这一创新法,适于进一步研究和推广应用.在近期未来适当时间,相关发明产品将得以开发.%Objective In order to study and find an effective method for environmental pollution protection,at the same time,breakthrough and develop the related new invented production. Methods Summarize the shortcomings of coal usage by the families of people when cooking and other applications,so as to research and mend these shortcomings.Results The new breakthrough for environmental protection is to eliminate the useless and ineffectively burning of the coal.From this breakthrough,the new idea of equipment of igniting coal for environmental protection developed.Conclusion This breakthrough method for environmental protection is proper for further researching and popularizing usage.The related invention production will be developed in the near future proper time.

  19. Smoking restrictions on campus: changes and challenges at three Canadian universities, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the restriction of smoking on university campuses in the Canadian context. Indoor smoking on campus is now completely prohibited by law, and universities are increasingly moving to restrict, or prohibit, outdoor smoking on their grounds. The research focuses on three case studies to identify changes in spatial restrictions on campus smoking over the last four decades (1970-2010), and to determine the challenges involved in establishing bans in outdoor areas of campus. The three universities were selected for their different approaches to the issue of outdoor smoking. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews with 36 key informants, conducted from September 2010 to January 2011, supplemented by documentary information. Interview data were analysed thematically. Protection against environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on campus proceeded incrementally, via policy-making at the provincial, municipal and institutional levels. Historically, institutional bans on indoor smoking were particularly significant, but their health benefits could be limited by the presence of private property on campus. Universities continue to initiate smoking restrictions today, with respect to outdoor bans. However, respondents reported myriad challenges in developing, implementing and maintaining such bans. Five principal concerns were articulated: the need for ongoing policy communication; management of community relations as smokers are displaced from campus; enforcement to ensure that the policy has practical effect; safety concerns; and difficulties relating to campus layout. Because challenges are diverse and contextual, effective protection against outdoor ETS on campus is likely to require an ongoing commitment on the part of administrators.

  20. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. As of July 1, 1989. [Full text edition with detailed index and an introduction by Prof. Dr. P. C. Storm]. Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt. Stand 1. Juli 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment.The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.).