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Sample records for canadian environmental protection

  1. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  2. Management of risk to human health posed by dioxins under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Canadian federal Toxic Substances Management Policy requires that for substances which: - are toxic - persist in the environment - bioaccumulate - result predominantly from human activity the ultimate goal is virtual elimination. Because dioxins and furans satisfy these criteria, the management objective is virtual elimination of measurable releases of these substances into the environment. Measurable releases are defined as releases above the Level of Quantification (LoQ), which is the lowest concentration that can be accurately measured using sensitive but routine sampling and analytical methods. For dioxins and furans released to air, that level is 32 picograms of toxic equivalents (TEQ) per cubic metre.

  3. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contact Us Share White House Infrastructure ... Response Respuesta a huracanes California wildfires update U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Video Highlights EPA provides over $3. ...

  4. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  5. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer...

  6. Environmental Protection Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan serves as an aid to management and staff to implement new environmental programs in a timely manner.

  7. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  8. Environmental protection implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable.

  9. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  10. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environmental health research Indicators of children's health - "America's Children and the Environment" report Scientific journal articles Standards and Regulations Regulations Regulatory development tracker ...

  11. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2008 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent emissions standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and aligned Canada's emission standards for various vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report summarized the fleet average nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2008 model year for light duty vehicles (LDV), light duty trucks (LLDT), heavy light duty trucks (HLDT) and medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The report evaluated the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program in achieving its stated environmental performance objectives. The report demonstrated that approximately 99 percent of the LDV and LLDT fleet, and 71 percent of the HLDT and MDPV fleet were certified to a bin at, or below, the applicable fleet average NO{sub x} standard. Average NO{sub x} values continued to decrease, in accordance with the performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  13. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  14. Environmental Protection in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's efforts to protect human health and the environment of federally recognized Indian tribes by supporting implementation of federal environmental laws consistent with the federal trust responsibility, and the government-to-government relationship.

  15. Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... with the States and Tribes, business and industry, nonprofit organizations, environmental groups, and... Environmental Protection Agency Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Ch. I EPA-HQ-OA-2007-1172 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0169 EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0166 EPA-HQ...

  16. [Are there environmental protective factors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambou, J P

    1998-10-01

    Protective factors against atherosclerosis are a group of different elements which include the fatty acids, alcohol, antioxidant vitamins, dietary fibres and physical exercise. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenicacid have a beneficial effect on the coronary vessels. Alpha-linolenic acid is associated with low coronary mortality both in cohort studies (the Seven Countries Study) and in secondary prevention (Lyon Diet Heart Study). There is an inverse relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and coronary artery disease with a reduction of risk of about 30% in all prospective studies. High dietary intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with a decreased coronary risk. On the other hand, dietary supplements of vitamin E in primary and secondary prevention were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Folates have a protective effect by their action on homocysteine metabolism. There is no formal proof at present in favour of the systematic introduction of the B vitamins in primary or secondary prevention. Fresh fruit and vegetables seem to be protective by their fibre and vitamin B content. Moderate endurance physical exercise is a protective factor in all studies. Its beneficial effects in function and rehabilitation are well documented. In primary prevention studies, exercise has a beneficial effect but criteria of duration and frequency remain vague. Therefore, there are environmental protective factors against atherosclerosis which allow physicians to introduce a positive note in these recommendations.

  17. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  18. Environmental protection and management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    In British Columbia, oil and gas activities on private or Crown land are subject to regulations in terms of environmental practices. This environmental protection and management guidebook seeks to provide information on the Oil and Gas Activities Act. All sections from the regulation: water, riparian values, wildlife and wildlife habitat, conserving soil, forest health, invasive plants, natural range barriers, seismic lines, areas to be restored and old growth management areas, resource features and cultural heritage resources, are covered in this document. The minimum acceptable operational standards and practices for oil and gas activities in British Columbia are described. This guide is intended to provide clients and stakeholders with recommendations concerning the planning phase, before any permits are applied for, and concerning permissions or authorizations generally for oil and gas activities in British Columbia.

  19. Regional-Scale Variability of Macrofauna Species Assemblages and Environmental Drivers in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, A.; MacPhee, S.; de Montety, L.; Reist, J.; Archambault, P.

    2016-02-01

    Appropriate marine spatial planning is needed to address pressures associated with climate change, resource exploration and increased shipping in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Information regarding the spatial variability of species assemblages and the factors that structure them are required, for example, in designing networks of marine protected areas and establishing reference conditions for assessing anthropogenic activities anticipated to have regional-scale effects. Benthic macrofauna have been widely applied as ecological indicators in many marine regions because they are relatively sessile, long-lived, and respond to environmental gradients in a predictable manner. Recently, significant progress has been made toward reporting Arctic macrofaunal biodiversity baselines across large spatial scales (i.e. pan-Arctic, Canadian Arctic) and at local-scales within the Beaufort Sea around specific geographic features (e.g., Beaufort Shelf, polynyas and areas of upwelling, lease blocks). Systematic, regional-scale surveys, however, remain a gap. Benthic ecosystem components were sampled across a broad depth range (20 - 1500m) from the transboundary region of the Yukon-Alaska border into Amundsen Gulf, and multivariate analyses of these novel survey data characterize spatial variability in macrobenthic community structure. Relationships between species assemblages and environmental drivers including depth, bottom type (e.g., granulometry), water mass characteristics (e.g., temperature, salinity) and benthic food proxies (e.g., %organic matter, benthic chlorophyll concentration) were examined. This regional-scale approach based on a systematic, transect-based survey design covers a significant portion of the Canadian Beaufort Sea and expands existing biodiversity baselines to deeper sites beyond the continental shelf break. This work has direct application to developing predictive models, habitat maps and biotic indicators for monitoring.

  20. Forbidden immisions and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in the most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. A real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being imploded through the emission of excessive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat, noise, the draining of waste water, etc. Neighboring real estate owners must endure such harmful effects if they do not exceed the limit of usual endurance, taking into account the nature and purpose of such real estate, as well as local conditions. The property owner who is affected by emissions exceeding the set limit, has the right to request a stop of emissions which exceeded the allowed volume of emissions. If the imissions originate from some industrial plants, within the activity allowed by a state authority, one cannot request a cessation of such activities, but can simply seek damages. The issue of the environmental protection in the Republic of Serbia is regulated by a number of particular substantive laws, with a Law of environmental protection of 2009. as fundamental Law.

  1. A survey of Canadian Alpine ski racing coaches regarding spinal protective devices for their athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainsby, Brynne; Law, Jeremy; Mackinnon, Amy

    2014-12-01

    Spinal protective devices are a recent addition to the protective equipment worn by competitive and recreational alpine skiers and snowboarders. Their rate of use is not documented at the time of publication. The objective of this study was to examine the current attitudes and recommendations of Canadian alpine ski racing coaches towards spinal protective devices. A convenience sample of alpine ski racing coaches across Canada were contacted in each provincial sport governing body in the ski racing community. A ten question online survey was attached to the initial email. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized. A total of 29 Canadian alpine ski racing coaches completed the study survey. All participants were familiar with spinal protective devices and 51.7% of respondents reported that they do not actively enforce spinal protective device use with their ski racing athletes. 80% of respondents reported that their Canadian ski racing club did not have guidelines or policies regarding spinal protective device use. 86.2% of respondents were unaware if their provincial sport organization had a policy regarding their use. The majority of coaches reporting training athletes aged 10-15, which may help to explain why only half of those surveyed enforce the use of spinal protective devices. This group of athletes may not participate in speed events as frequently as older athletes, where the use of spinal protective devices is more common. The majority of Canadian Alpine ski coaches report a belief that spinal protective device use is important, however, far fewer enforce their use, or work in an environment with a policy requiring it. Further research is required to determine the differences in beliefs and practice.

  2. Optimal Environmental Protection and Environmental Kuznets Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Teles,Vladimir K.; Ronaldo A. Arraes

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the link between an environmental policy and economic growth employing an extension of the Neoclassical Growth Model. We include a state equation to renewable natural resources, and consider natural resources as a component of the aggregate productivity. It is assumed that the change of the environmental regulations induces costs and that economic agents also derive some utility from stock capital accumulation via-a-vis environment. Using the Hopf bifurcation theorem, it c...

  3. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  4. Inspection control and the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is the task of many administrative bodies, but the activity of the environmental inspection is of special importance. According to the Law on Environmental Protection, inspection's tasks in this area belong to the competence of republican bodies, ie. Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. Autonomous province and local self-government have only delegated competence in this field, under condition that this is explicitly regulated in special laws. Environmental inspection's activity consists in preventive actions, certain prior - preparatory activities and the audit itself. In addition, following the intervention of the Inspector issue of the control may be corrective or repressive. According to the Law on Inspection Control and the Law on Environmental Protection, the inspectors have a number of powers and responsibilities, which enable them to ensure the lawful and proper conduct of individuals and legal entities.

  5. Introduction to China's Environmental Protection Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntao, Li; Wenzeng, Li

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with China's environmental protection laws. In order to coordinate the relationship between humankind and the environment, protect and improve the environment, protect people's health, and safeguard sustainable and steady economic and social development, the Chinese government has formulated a series of laws and regulations in…

  6. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    Pollution, resource depletion, habitat management, and climate change are all issues that necessarily transcend national boundaries. Accordingly, they and other environmental concerns have been a particular focus for international organizations from before the First World War to the present day. ...... and a Marie Curie Fellow at the University of Portsmouth. Series: Volume 11, Environment in History: International Perspectives Subject: Environmental Studies 20th Century History....... This volume is the first to comprehensively explore the environmental activities of professional communities, NGOs, regional bodies, the United Nations, and other international organizations during the twentieth century. It follows their efforts to shape debates about environmental degradation, develop...... between emerging environmental concerns and international politics during the last century. It illuminates the crucial role played by international organisations in developing environmental policies, and in particular it traces the political resolve and intellectual effort behind the concept...

  7. Promoting environmental protection in Nigeria through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper established that the environment, a common heritage of humanity needs to be sustainably managed to fight against poverty, food shortage as well as homelessness which can be some of the serious consequences of environmental degradation. Keywords: Environmental protection, environmental education, ...

  8. Issues regarding environmental protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Draghicescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental protection” activity in our country should be approached by taking into consideration its entire complexity, and the most reliable solutions may be provided only by direct and permanent reference to the vast issue of social development in its entirety. The present work aims to draw attention towards pollution, the main cause of environmental deterioration in Romania, as well as towards the management of waste materials, while taking into account the national strategy. In Romania, environmental protection is a distinct domain of the national policy, establishing the priority objectives by “The National Strategy for Environmental Protection”, according to the communitarian strategy, as well as to the tendencies and initiatives existing at global level. Our country’s efforts over the past years with respect to environmental protection are very important in the framework of contemporary economy and are reflected in the expenses incurred for environmental protection.

  9. Environmental protection and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Vladimir Kühl; Ronaldo A. Arraes

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the link between an environmental policy and economic growth employing an extension of the Neoclassical Growth Model. We include a state equation to renewable natural resources, and consider natural resources as a component of the aggregate productivity. It is assumed that the change of the environmental regulations induces costs and that economic agents also derive some utility from stock capital accumulation vis-`a-vis environment. Using the Hopf bifurcation theorem, it ...

  10. Corporate Expenditure on Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Stefanie; Murphy, Liam

    2010-01-01

    We examine the determinants of firm's current environmental expenditure and firm's capital investment in equipment for pollution control using a Heckman selection model. As regards current environmental expenditure, we find that larger, exporting firms and firms subject to the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control directive are more likely to spend resources at all. Once the decision to commit resources has been taken, larger firms, firms that are foreign-owned, and firms that report lo...

  11. Sustainable development and environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Štrbac, Nada; Vuković, Milovan; Voza, Danijela; Sokić, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development is a recently developed concept that was introduced in order to overcome the shortcomings of previous forms of development; first of all, the neglect of environmental issues. Sustainable development aims to establish an equilibrium among economic, environmental and social dimensions of development. Yet, despite an extensive use of this term, it needs better understanding in order to make easier its implementation. Taking this into account, this paper reviews various in...

  12. THE PLACE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The implementation of Ethiopia's Growth and Transformation Plan (the GTP hereinafter) is currently underway. It is directed, among other things, towards bringing about sustainable development and promoting the process of democratization. However, it does not include environmental protection in.

  13. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA Pub Central

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PubMed Central (PMC) is a full-text, online archive of journal literature operated by the National Library of Medicine. The EPA is using PMC to permanently preserve...

  14. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  15. Occupational Profiles in Environmental Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two pilot projects on environmental profiles in the chemical and metal industries and in the public sector were conducted in four countries. Two aspects were studied: job requirements in selected enterprises and departments of the civil service and the occupational competencies of the staff carrying out these tasks. Studies on the chemical and…

  16. Environmental Protection Versus Foundry Engineering Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available • Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection. Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.

  17. Student Leadership Role for Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Isabel S. Ramirez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the role of student organizations in the promotion of environmental education and protection. It assessed the student organizations’ initiatives and activities that address the environmental issues and problems. It determined whether student leadership can be an effective tool in addressing environmental concerns and promote environmental education. Descriptiveevaluative methods of research were used in the study. Documentary analysis was used to determine the programs, projects and activities conducted by the different student organizations along environmental education and protection. Interview and focused group discussions were employed to validate the secondary data and identify problems and constraints encountered by the organization. Results of the study showed that the University supports student leadership through the student organizations. Student organizations are empowered and given rights and privileges’ as stipulated in the student handbook. There were more than forty accredited student organizations in CBSUA. All of them initiated programs/projects and activities that are environment related as required by the university. Student leadership through student organizations is an effective tool in promoting environmental education and protection. Student empowerment through student organizations can promote student involvement in the most pressing concerns of environment protection.

  18. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks.

  19. Fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO{sub x} value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO{sub x} values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO{sub x} values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs.

  20. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  1. Environmental protection and traffic regulation in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaš Plevnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the proposed chapter on traffic in the National programme for environmental protection. The main theme focuses on the suggested goals and measures to reach sustainable development in Slovenia. The goals and measures are derived from the current situation and traffic development trends and their influence on the environment, from international guidelines and the current Slovene policies.

  2. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  3. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF NANOMETALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Malina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest in metallic nanoparticles has been observed, both because of their unlimited application possibilities, and also because of the unusual biological, chemical and physical features. It is expected that developments in nanotechnology will become the main promoter of scientific and technological innovations in the coming decades. Searching for a new and safe alternative to chemical pesticides, high hopes are associated with nanotechnology development. Particularly useful may be preparations containing nanoscale metal particles with strong antimicrobial properties. Importantly, safe and non-toxic for the plant components of biological origin may be used in nanoparticles synthesis. This article is a description of the potential applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection, which may become the basis for developing of new protection plant products with antimicrobial properties relative to plant pathogens and non-toxic to higher organisms.

  4. Ecological indicator organisms for environmental protection policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels Boer, J G

    1983-09-01

    Environmental protection policy strives to maintain an environment favourable to human health, agriculture, and the preservation of natural heritage. Infringements upon the environment have been either by sudden deliberate action of man (construction, land reclamation, dams, etc.) or by gradual, insipid stress of chemical and physical agents (chemical substances, heat, noise, radiation, etc.). Indeliberate unwanted stress upon the environment may be measured either by observing biological effects on indicator organisms or by chemically analyzing contaminants in these organisms. In this respect the author pleads for modest, cost-efficient monitoring programmes of limited duration and providing policy related information in a direct way. Biological effect monitoring programmes show limited prospects at this moment.

  5. Ultrasound in environmental protection - Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.J. [Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom). School of Science and the Environment

    2002-07-01

    There can be little doubt that there is an increasing interest in the development of new methods for environmental protection and remediation. Driven by the interests of scientists and engineers but increasingly by legislation a very wide range of new technologies is being examined. Amongst these power ultrasound is proving to be a front-runner and offers a wide range of applications. Not all of these are likely to become industrial realities nevertheless there are a few which have a real chance of adoption. Some of the stronger contenders are reviewed below. (orig.)

  6. 1982 UCC-ND/GAT environmental protection seminar: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This environmental protection seminar was divided into seven sessions: (1) general environmental protection, (2) air and water pollution control, (3) spill control and countermeasures, (4) toxic materials control, (5) hazardous materials control, (6) environmental protection projects, and (7) cost benefit analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 41 papers presented therein. (ACR)

  7. Environmental Guide for ASW in Eastern Canadian Shallow Waters. Part 2: Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    charts which hav~e been produced by the Canadian Hydropraphic Service (CBS) of the Department of Fisheria and Oteans: "* Map 801-A Bay of Fundy to Gulf...Key. fishing atom a) baring, b) machu , and c) capan ..... 180 5.10 Key fishing aru a) lobster , b) mow cab, c) scallops and d) shrip...qpcally filed by 30 to 60 m of sdm ts(maximu 120 in). - Downing Basin, Conception Bay Axeas This region contains thick glacial 1uSDl reaching a

  8. Environmental Protection Tools in Agricultural Management Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bozek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Land consolidation is a fundamental instrument for agricultural management. It facilitates comprehensive changes in the agricultural, social, and ecological domains. Consolidation and post-consolidation development-related investments are an opportunity to improve living conditions in rural areas, and simultaneously ensure its positive impact on the environment. One of the primary goals of consolidation, directly specified in the Act on land consolidation, is to improve farming conditions. In Poland, consolidation is possible due to EU funds: RDP 2007-2013 and RDP 2014-2020. In order for individual villages to be granted EU funds for consolidation and post-consolidation development under the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, their consolidation has to implement actions with positive impact on the environment and the landscape. The goal of this paper is to analyse documentation in the form of assumptions for a land consolidation project enclosed to an RDP 2014-2020 grant application and project information sheets as the basis for environmental impact assessment in the context of detailed presentation of environmental protection solutions that ensure a positive impact of the project on the environment and landscape. The detailed study involved 9 villages in the Malopolskie Voivodeship, which applied for EU grants for land consolidation in the current financial perspective. The paper specifies the existing state of the analysed villages as regards the natural environment, lists agricultural management instruments that have a positive impact on the environment, and demonstrates that planning of actions aimed at environmental protection is a necessary element of assumptions for land consolidation projects.

  9. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter A; Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Beck, Larry; Liu, Xia; Abbott, Allison; Eye, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Globalisation and National Incentives for Protecting Environmental Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Alkuin Kölliker

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to explain national incentives for protecting environmental goods either autonomously or collectively; it explores how globalisation has affected those incentives; and it suggests how national environmental policy might respond so as to ensure its effectiveness. The central argument is that national incentives for environmental protection may to a considerable extent be explained by a combination of the type of environmental good to be protected (in terms of public goods th...

  11. 19 A Glance on Environmental Protection in Africa: Theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Kalemba ... the environmental problems in Africa for the ... Management after his will require taking into account values, especially, ecological values such as environment protection, the protection of soil and sub-soil, of forests, of waters, brief, of.

  12. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19, 2017 Web Snapshot . US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search About EPA Contact Us ... Your UV Index Climate change National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory National ...

  13. Environmental building policy by the use of microalgae and decreasing of risks for Canadian oil sand sector development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Armen B

    2017-09-01

    Environmental building recommendations aimed towards new environmental policies and management-changing decisions which as example demonstrated in consideration of the problems of Canadian oil sands operators. For the implementation of the circular economic strategy, we use an in-depth analysis of reported environmental after-consequence on all stages of the production process. The study addressed the promotion of innovative solutions for greenhouse gas emission, waste mitigation, and risk of falling in oil prices for operators of oil sands with creating market opportunities. They include the addition of microalgae biomass in tailings ponds for improvement of the microbial balance for the water speedily cleaning, recycling, and reusing with mitigation of GHG emissions. The use of food scraps for the nutrition of microalgae will reduce greenhouse gas emission minimally, on 0.33 MtCO2eq for Alberta and 2.63 MtCO2eq/year for Canada. Microalgae-derived biofuel can reduce this emission for Alberta on 11.9-17.9 MtCO2eq and for Canada on 71-106 MtCO2eq/year, and the manufacturing of other products will adsorb up to 135.6 MtCO2 and produce 99.2 MtO2. The development of the Live Conserve Industry and principal step from non-efficient protection of the environment to its cultivation in a large scale with mitigation of GHG emission and waste as well as generating of O2 and value-added products by the use of microalgae opens an important shift towards a new design and building of a biological system.

  14. Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

  15. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  16. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  18. Protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria | Imasuen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is focused on protected areas for environmental sustainability in Nigeria. It has examined what protected areas are the meaning, especially as defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). A thorough investigation was done to identify the areas that were and are still protected in ...

  19. Canadian user perspectives on Bt use for protection against spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. J. Irving

    1985-01-01

    Reference is made to a recent interprovincial review of the performance of present day B.t. viz a viz conventional chemicals. The argument is presented that in the Canadian context its practical acceptability to resource managers remains highly jurisdictionally-specific for reasons over and above conventional technical assessments. The New Brunswick situation is...

  20. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  1. Environmental protection and employment: the link for a worthwhile future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Driven by increasing environmental awareness as well as numerous environmental policy measures, the market for environmental goods has expanded over the last few years, bringing a growing number of jobs. A study of leading German economics research institutes shows that the employment effects of environmental protection have attained considerable dimensions, with nearly a million jobs in 1994 alone, with the service sector being the main beneficiary. And of particular importance: In terms of both population and economic performance, the new Laender are in a better position than the old Laender (the former FRG states) in respect of environmental jobs. In the new Laender important impulses towards creating and safeguarding jobs have emerged from environmental clean-up and development. The concern of this publication is not to promise a job-creation miracle by means of environmental protection alone. Nor is it a matter of legitimising environmental protection in terms of employment policy, for environmental protection does not require employment policy for legitimisation. Rather, the paper wants to provide up-to-date background information to point out the synergies between environmental and employment objectives. It also presents fields of activity which can be helpful to address both environmental and employment policy problems. I do hope that this study can provide some incentives for further action. (orig.)

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND EDUCATION SYSTEM IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Falencka-Jabłońska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environmental education and the effectiveness of its methods are a necessity, decisive for preserving natural resources for successive generations. Educating proper attitudes towards the surrounding nature must be based on sound knowledge gained, supported by observation, experience and experiment. Teaching conducted at all levels environmental science should be based not on boxed knowledge, but on causal thinking skills. Establishing hypotheses and their verification, as well as the variety of methods of understanding the laws of nature, will influence the effective prevention of environmental degradation in the 21st century.

  3. Ecotourism Environmental Protection Measures and Their Effects on Protected Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-en Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and environmental protection is the core content of ecotourism development. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of ecotourism environmental protection (hereinafter referred to as EEP measures on protected areas is conducive to a deeper understanding of the key issues related to ecotourism development in China, thus providing the theoretical basis for formulating the relevant national policies of sustainable ecotourism development in China. This paper first discusses the evaluation index system and then establishes an index evaluation model of EEP measures and their effects on protected areas. Using surveys of more than 1110 protected areas in 27 provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities, we evaluated the EEP measures and their effects from a quantitative and spatial perspective. The completeness of EEP measures for Chinese protected areas was moderately effective, and the implementation status of the protection measures varied with the protection region. The effectiveness of EEP measures in different provinces and regions showed significant differences. The effectiveness decreased from east to west. The evaluation index values of the environmental protection measures displayed a high correlation with the effects of environmental protection on protected areas. The ecological protection measures should be further improved and strengthened according to their regional differences during ecotourism development.

  4. Prevalence of Hazardous Occupational Noise Exposure, Hearing Loss, and Hearing Protection Usage Among a Representative Sample of Working Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Katya; Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Davies, Hugh; Leroux, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss (HL), self-reported occupational noise exposure, and hearing protection usage among Canadians. In-person household interviews were conducted with 3666 participants, aged 16 to 79 years (1811 males) with 94% completing audiometry and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) evaluations. Occupational noise exposure was defined as hazardous when communicating with coworkers at an arm's length distance required speaking in a raised voice. An estimated 42% of respondents reported hazardous occupational noise exposure; 10 years or more was associated with HL regardless of age, sex or education. Absent DPOAEs, tinnitus, and the Wilson audiometric notch were significantly more prevalent in hazardous workplace noise-exposed workers than in nonexposed. When mandatory, 80% reported wearing hearing protection. These findings are consistent with other industrialized countries, underscoring the need for ongoing awareness of noise-induced occupational HL.

  5. Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection 2011 Company Act stipulates that prevailing purpose of enterprise is mandatory element of memorandum of association. Connection between memorandum of association and environmental protection is based on provision that registration or doing certain business may be subject to license granted by relevant body. This is the case with 2009 Waste Management Act which provides for license granted by state authorities for doing one or more activities in waste management.

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  7. Anti-Environmental Warfare: Protecting the Environment during Wartime

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-19

    This paper analyzes the operational impact resulting from the growing legal and political concerns over the environment during wartime. Current...demands to protect the environment , and to mitigate ecological destruction caused by an opposing force. These constraints will effect how offensive action...commanders must balance protecting the environment and the requisite minimum casualties to obtain the objectives and preserve public support. Environmental

  8. The polish proposal for environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    R.H. Kozłowski; Kozłowska, E.; LL.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Th article presents the type of environment-related problem, and discusses the development of the concept of the sustainable development from the perspective of the international law. Over the past two hundred years, the mankind has exploited more than 50 percent of all natural resources, including energy minerals. The twenty-first century will be, out of necessity the period of intensive development of energy based on renewable resources. The protection of the environment is a globa...

  9. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  10. Markets for Environmental Protection; Desing and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Pablo Montero

    2004-01-01

    Policy makers in different parts of the world are paying more attention to environmental markets (i.e., tradeable emission permits markets) as an alternative to the traditional command-and-command control approach of setting uniform emission and technology standards. I extend the basic (perfect information) model of a permits market to accommodate for practical considerations including regulator's asymmetric information on firms' costs, uncertainty on benefits from pollution control, incomple...

  11. The Property Right and the Requirements of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection has lately become an essential component of the concept of sustainable development, along with the economic, social and cultural components. Being an objective of public interest, the environmental protection and conservation are essential to ensure the habitat necessary for continuing the human existence. Considering this aspect, the limitation of ownership required by certain laws has both a social and moral justification, the environmental protection having a direct link with the level of public health, which is a value of national interest. The legal limits of the ownership are restrictions brought by the law, considering aspects regarding the general interest of society. In this article we intend to emphasize, on the analysis and comparison of legislation and case law, the nature of the relationship between ownership of property and environmental rights, as well as the limitations of property rights in favor of environmental protection. As a conclusion, the environmental easements meet a wide national and international recognition and guarantee, the holder of the property having to exercise it in the interest of the whole community, including the protection and conservation of the environment. At the same time, we must consider that the right to property and environment are fundamental rights guaranteed by the Romanian Constitution itself, which makes us conclude that they converge and mutually enrich across the fundamental duties as well.

  12. Environmental futures research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research on environmental futures has been carried out in the United States. An exception is the long-running futures research that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting since the 1970s. This paper reviews past and current efforts toward developing a capacity for environmental foresight within the EPA, and discusses some...

  13. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Delauney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week.

    Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months.

    This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  14. [Canadian Petroleum Products Institute]: Annual review, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  15. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  16. Environmental Guide for ASW in Eastern Canadian Shallow Waters. Part 1. An assessment of the State of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Environmental Guide for ASW in Eawrrem Canadian Shallow Waters PW I - An AssemanW of the Suam oc Knowledge By Capt Dsniel Ncramid Accet, ic;i For NTIS C?&I...presented. 3 I Chapter 2 Bottom Features Bottom characteristics such as bathymetry and surficial geology , are crit- ical parameters whcn dealing with the...chart clutter. 2.2.4 Data Set Data source The information on sediment types is contained in a series of surficial geology charts produced jointly by the

  17. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  18. Economic factor environmental protection. Extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Vertiefende Analyse zu Umweltschutz und Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Blazejczak, Juergen [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany); Walz, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Innovations- und Systemforschung (FhG ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Within the bounds of a research project, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on an extending analysis according to environmental protection and innovation. The stocktaking and evaluation of more important documents prove that despite the differences in the estimation of individual ranges an international consent insists according to central ecological challenges on global level. The consent covers the following target areas: Climate protection, preservation of the biological variety, water supply including waste water disposal and water protection, health protection. It is to be expected that in the next decades its validity will keep these ecological challenges although defusing or new environmental problems may result in single areas. It is to be expected that due to the world-wide economic development some emphasis of important ecological challenges will shift gradually to developing countries, in particular China and India.

  19. Evaluation Of The Risk Of Financing Projects Of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia PICIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project approaches multidimensionally the financing of environmental protection from the perspective of directing, correlating and consolidating the financial flows circumscribed to the regeneration of an economy affected by environmental deterioration due to the very activities defining the economic mechanisms and circuits. The purpose of the project is to identify, by scientific, methodological and empirical analysis of the concepts, principles and arguments imposed by the economic theory, the risks of financing the projects of environmental projects and to evaluate their effects because their neglecting, individual approach or erroneous dimensioning might have unfavourable and unforeseen consequences in terms of the efficiency of the environmental strategies and policies. The objective of the study is the reveal the interdependency and interaction between the flows and circuits financing the environmental projects, showing the necessity for punctual, distributive, correlative and multiplicative financing of the environmental protection. This must be done from an expanded and prospective spatial and temporal vision by a compositional approach of the risk for environmental investments within the complex network of the social, economic and financial risks generated by the global system of the human praxis focused on the binomial of the human-environment interdependence.

  20. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  1. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  2. Environmental Protection: Observations on Elevating the Environmental Protection Agency to Cabinet Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, John

    2002-01-01

    ... major industrial power without a Cabinet-level environmental organization. The additional visibility and prestige that comes with Cabinet status would send the symbolic, but important, message to other federal departments and foreign nations that the United States is fully committed to solving the most serious and complex domestic and global environmental problems.

  3. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  4. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... a manner that supports long-term ecosystem protection, supports natural ecosystem recovery and...

  5. Environmental protection, the economy, and jobs: national and regional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger H; Wendling, Robert M; Diperna, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between environmental protection (EP), the economy, and jobs has been an issue of harsh contention for decades. Does EP harm the economy and destroy jobs or facilitate economic growth and create jobs? We address this issue by summarizing the results of the Jobs and the Environment Initiative, research funded by nonprofit foundations to quantify the relationship between EP, the economy, and jobs. We estimate the size of the US environmental industry and the numbers of environment-related jobs at the national level and in the states of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This is the first time that such comprehensive, detailed estimates have been developed. Our major finding is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, EP, economic growth, and jobs creation are complementary and compatible: investments in EP create jobs and displace jobs, but the net effect on employment is positive. Second, environment protection has grown rapidly to become a major sales-generating, job-creating industry--$300 billion/year and 5 million jobs in 2003. Third, most of the 5 million jobs created are standard jobs for accountants, engineers, computer analysts, clerks, factory workers, etc., and the classic environmental job (environmental engineer, ecologist, etc.) constitutes only a small portion of the jobs created. Most of the persons employed in the jobs created may not even realize that they owe their livelihood to protecting the environment. Fourth, at the state level, the relationship between environmental policies and economic/job growth is positive, not negative. States can have strong economies and simultaneously protect the environment. Finally, environmental jobs are concentrated in manufacturing and professional, information, scientific, and technical services, and are thus disproportionately the types of jobs all states seek to attract.

  6. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  7. International procedures for environmental protection initiated by individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinski Rodoljub M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes international compliance procedures related to the 1993 North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, the 1998 Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation to Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters and the 1999 Protocol on Water and Health to the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. The common feature of these procedures is that they can be initiated by individuals and non-governmental organizations. This novelty of international compliance procedures in environmental matters made them comparable with international procedures established by universal human rights treaties. All of them can be initiates by communications of individuals. The three mentioned procedures were established due to different reasons. By the pressure of environmental non-governmental organizations and to satisfy some economic concerns, the North American Free Trade Treaty was supplemented by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation that was aimed at improvement of the application of national environmental law. Unequal levels of the application of national environmental laws in Canada, Mexico and the USA might have negative consequences to trade between them and to environmental protection in them. To prevent such development the Agreement was concluded and individuals and NGO-s are allowed to trigger international fact-finding procedure. The subject-matter and purposes of the Aarhus Convention - democratization of environmental governance - implies that the public should have the right to initiate international conciliatory procedures. In spite of the fact that subject-matter and purposes of the London protocol are different, corresponding conciliatory procedure was inspired by the Aarhus procedure. All three procedures are intended, at last resort, to improve protection of the environment. The protection of an individual interest

  8. An Environmental Scan of Academic Emergency Medicine at the 17 Canadian Medical Schools: Why Does this Matter to Emergency Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiell, Ian G; Artz, Jennifer D; Lang, Eddy S; Sherbino, Jonathan; Morrison, Laurie J; Christenson, James; Perry, Jeffrey J; Topping, Claude; Woods, Robert; Green, Robert S; Lim, Rodrick; Magee, Kirk; Foote, John; Meckler, Garth; Mensour, Mark; Field, Simon; Chung, Brian; Kuuskne, Martin; Ducharme, James; Klein, Vera; McEwen, Jill

    2017-01-01

    We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools. We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan. At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master's degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000. This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.

  9. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1999-07-01

    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  10. Agent for environmental protection. Liability and points of Criminal Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keune, H.

    1981-06-01

    The author discusses the concept and status of the agent for environment protection on the basis of the relevant laws because a legal definition does not yet exist. The administrative body accepts the so-called Janus-faced industrial agent who has, as a rule, also the function of the agent for environmental protection, namely, because of the principle of concentration that has greatly been accepted because of rationalizing and efficiency reasons. As a consequence of this principle the so-exposed agent bears an 'outward' responsibility. The criminal liability of the agent for environmental protection is discussed under the aspects of acts performed on behalf of somebody else, the acceptance of responsability for one's own act or omission, the comittment by omitting, the indirect perpetration and the complicity. Furthermore the author looks into the following subjects: protection against work that is liable to be dangerous, claim for compensation under civil law and the new regulations of the German Penal Code that determine what is environmentally criminal.

  11. Rethinking Environmental Protection: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Thomas A; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Deener, Kacee; Fontaine, Thomas D; Fulk, Florence A; Jackson, Laura E; Munns, Wayne R; Orme-Zavaleta, Jennifer; Slimak, Michael W; Zartarian, Valerie G

    2017-03-01

    From climate change to hydraulic fracturing, and from drinking water safety to wildfires, environmental challenges are changing. The United States has made substantial environmental protection progress based on media-specific and single pollutant risk-based frameworks. However, today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex and new scientific approaches and tools are needed to achieve sustainable solutions to protect the environment and public health. In this article, we present examples of today’s environmental challenges and offer an integrated systems approach to address them. We provide a strategic framework and recommendations for advancing the application of science for protecting the environment and public health. We posit that addressing 21st century challenges requires transdisciplinary and systems approaches, new data sources, and stakeholder partnerships. To address these challenges, we outline a process driven by problem formulation with the following steps: a) formulate the problem holistically, b) gather and synthesize diverse information, c) develop and assess options, and d) implement sustainable solutions. This process will require new skills and education in systems science, with an emphasis on science translation. A systems-based approach can transcend media- and receptor-specific bounds, integrate diverse information, and recognize the inextricable link between ecology and human health.

  12. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tepić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the protection of the planet from global warming, as well as the preservation of life and survival.

  13. INVESTMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investment decision can be regarded as one of the most important decisions taken by the management company. By the correct foundation of investment decisions depend the market position of the company, increasing its market share and gain a competitive advantage over competitors. Investments for environmental protection brings together all available money-makers, private and mixed distribute to finance activities and actions aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and other forms of environmental degradation resulting from production processes or consumption of goods and services.

  14. Private power development and environmental protection in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

    1997-12-01

    This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

  15. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  16. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  17. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    G. Tepić; T. Pejakov; B. Lalić; V. Vukadinović; Milisavljević, S.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the prote...

  18. Security culture as a factor of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of security culture on understanding and certainty of environmental protection. Showing the environment and in particular scheme and methods of endangering takes place in the context of security culture as a factor in conservation and needs of the people to ensure their safety, which occurs as a vital interest. In this way, security culture is shown through the role of person, society and the international community. Analyzing the concept of security culture and...

  19. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials - approaches and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The ‘open access’ approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The ‘restricted access’ approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who ‘needs to know’ about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage

  20. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials - approaches and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The ‘open access’ approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The ‘restricted access’ approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who ‘needs to know’ about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes

  1. Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials--approaches and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sue; Magee, Laura; Walker, Mark; Wood, Stephen

    2012-12-27

    Intellectual property is associated with the creative work needed to design clinical trials. Two approaches have developed to protect the intellectual property associated with multicentre trial protocols prior to site initiation. The 'open access' approach involves publishing the protocol, permitting easy access to the complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The 'restricted access' approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who 'needs to know' about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from

  2. A Question of Respect: A Qualitative Text Analysis of the Canadian Parliamentary Committee Hearings on The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Genevieve Fuji; Mary BURNS; Porth, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the Canadian parliamentary hearings on The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act to determine whether respectful and fair deliberation occurred.  Our focus is on the content, tone, and nature of each question posed by committee members in hearings in both chambers.  We find that, on the whole, the vast majority of questions met this baseline, but that committee members were biased toward witnesses in agreement with their position and against witnesses in op...

  3. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  4. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  6. Protection of historic buildings against environmental pollution of vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historic buildings in Poland are largely neglected objects that small percentage is preserved in its original form. Unrelenting in the case of historic buildings is a time that brings with it the natural processes of aging of buildings, but also the history of the object which is often marked by military conflicts, fires or even incompetently carried out reconstruction. Nowadays historic buildings are also destroyed by the rapid development of infrastructure and residential construction. This development could lead to changes of water in the soil, make changes in the geologic al structure or cause exposure of the historic building to the new influences (eg. traffic vibrations, to which building has not been subjected so far. Vibrations are often omitted in environmental issues, although the protection against noise and vibration has its place in the Law on Environmental Protection. This article presents the methodology for the measurement and interpretation of vibration influence on historic buildings and the assessment methods of technical condition of historic building on the example of dynamic measurements made on St. Nicholas Church in Krakow. The importance of well-done crack-by-crack documentation and characterization of damages based on damage index is shown. Difficulties that can be encountered when determining the causes of technical condition of historic buildings are also shown. Based on the example of the Church in the article are also given the possible protection solutions of historic structures from vibrations.

  7. Evaluation of environmental problems in protected areas: case study of Pamukkale specially protection area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Dağ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization can lead to various effects on protected areas as well as on many sources. These effects may vary depending on the use of the area around. Due to rapid urbanization, Pamukkale Specially Protection Area (SPA, which is located about 20 km from Denizli city center, is thought to be adversely affected by some environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to determine environmental problems arising from environmental use and problems arising from the pavilion in Pamukkale SPA which is important in national and international dimensions. For this purpose, on-site questionnaires (400 persons have been applied to the local tourists visiting the area through standard forms, by means of interviews, as well as observations and examinations about Pamukkale SPA and its surroundings. Based on all the data obtained, "Interaction Matrix" was established in which the environmental problems were assessed as having / not having a negative effect. Based on the provision of the conservation / utilization balance of the area, some suggestions were made to reduce the effects of the determined environmental problems or solve them at the source of the problem.

  8. Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

  9. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

  11. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-24

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA’s ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  12. Environmental leadership and consciousness development : a case study among canadian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Boiral, Olivier; Baron, Charles; Gunnlaugson, Olen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore how the various stages of consciousness development of top managers can influence, in practical terms, their abilities in and commitment to environmental leadership in different types of SMEs. A case study based on 63 interviews carried out in 15 industrial SMEs showed that the organizations that displayed the most environmental management practices were mostly run by managers at a post-conventional stage of consciousness development. Conversely, the ...

  13. How we can make ecotoxicology more valuable to environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M L; Wolff, B A; Green, J W; Kivi, M; Panter, G H; Warne, M St J; Ågerstrand, M; Sumpter, J P

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing awareness that the value of peer-reviewed scientific literature is not consistent, resulting in a growing desire to improve the practice and reporting of studies. This is especially important in the field of ecotoxicology, where regulatory decisions can be partly based on data from the peer-reviewed literature, with wide-reaching implications for environmental protection. Our objective is to improve the reporting of ecotoxicology studies so that they can be appropriately utilized in a fair and transparent fashion, based on their reliability and relevance. We propose a series of nine reporting requirements, followed by a set of recommendations for adoption by the ecotoxicology community. These reporting requirements will provide clarity on the the test chemical, experimental design and conditions, chemical identification, test organisms, exposure confirmation, measurable endpoints, how data are presented, data availability and statistical analysis. Providing these specific details will allow for a fuller assessment of the reliability and relevance of the studies, including limitations. Recommendations for the implementation of these reporting requirements are provided herein for practitioners, journals, reviewers, regulators, stakeholders, funders, and professional societies. If applied, our recommendations will improve the quality of ecotoxicology studies and their value to environmental protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  15. Strategy of Environmental Protection in the Traffic and Tourist Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A whole range of dangerous substances and harmful organicand inorganic materials are transported daily through thesystem of traffic and tourist environment and flows. The use ofthese substances covers a wide range: in the production ofdrugs, agrotechnical protective means, fertilisers, paint and varnish,po(vmers, detergents, fuel, and in other industries.Within the strategy of environmental protection and thetourist and traffic surrounding, the producers and traffic societiestake relatively good care about the so-called technologicalsafety during the production, handling and transport of thedangerous substances.According to the legislation, the obligations accepted fromthe Base{ Convention, and conclusions of the United NationsConference on Environment and Development (UNCED etc.,the elimination of the harmful ma ller and waste from the Croatianecological environment has a strategic objective, althoughthe necesswy protective measures have not been unde1takenand organised completely yet, just as the knowledge in case ofmajor accidents with dangerous material has not been acquiredyet.In the transport environment and the tourist flows it is necessaryto strengthen the control of selection, development andintroduction of the technologies that include dangerous substances.On the other hand, the technologies that represent anexcessively big risk regarding accidents, with the possibility ofendangering the inhabitants, goods and eco-environment,should be strongly opposed to.

  16. Investigating Environmental Determinants of Injury and Trauma in the Canadian North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Durkalec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional injury and trauma rates are disproportionately high in Inuit regions, and environmental changes are predicted to exacerbate injury rates. However, there is a major gap in our understanding of the risk factors contributing to land-based injury and trauma in the Arctic. We investigated the role of environmental and other factors in search and rescue (SAR incidents in a remote Inuit community in northern Canada using a collaborative mixed methods approach. We analyzed SAR records from 1995 to 2010 and conducted key consultant interviews in 2010 and 2011. Data showed an estimated annual SAR incidence rate of 19 individuals per 1,000. Weather and ice conditions were the most frequent contributing factor for cases. In contrast with other studies, intoxication was the least common factor associated with SAR incidents. The incidence rate was six times higher for males than females, while land-users aged 26–35 had the highest incidence rate among age groups. Thirty-four percent of individuals sustained physical health impacts. Results demonstrate that environmental conditions are critical factors contributing to physical health risk in Inuit communities, particularly related to travel on sea ice during winter. Age and gender are important risk factors. This knowledge is vital for informing management of land-based physical health risk given rapidly changing environmental conditions in the Arctic.

  17. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  18. The rich and the poor: environmental biodiversity protecting from allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Lasse; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Haahtela, Tari

    2016-10-01

    It has been proposed that biodiversity loss leads to reduced interaction between environmental and human microbiotas. This, in turn, may lead to immune dysfunction and impaired tolerance mechanisms in humans. That is, contact with environmental biodiversity is expected to protect from allergies. However, direct evidence linking contact with biodiversity and risk of allergy has been lacking. In this review, we consider the latest research on the biodiversity hypothesis of allergy. It is becoming clear that what you eat, drink, inhale, and touch all contribute to the grand scheme of host-microbial crosstalk that is needed for a balanced, healthy immune system to develop and maintain a healthy recognition between harmful and harmless invasions. Microbes can either communicate directly with host immune cells or affect the host via metabolism that can even lead to epigenetic modifications. Our living environment plays a key role in this process. Although especially, early exposure to diverse, beneficial microbiota from the environment is repeatedly found crucial, studies on immigrants demonstrate that condition in later life can also be decisive. We are still lacking a more detailed understanding of the interaction between natural, environmental biodiversity, and health, which calls for new innovative and more long-term investigations. The outcomes should be utilized in policy and urban planning efforts, promoting human interaction with natural biodiversity, and supporting a healthy lifestyle.

  19. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  20. Annual review 1994 (Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Ottawa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  1. Environmental Factors Influencing Adoption of Canadian Guidelines on Smoking Cessation in Dental Healthcare Settings in Quebec: A Qualitative Study of Dentists’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaline Kengne Talla; Marie-Pierre Gagnon; Aimée Dawson

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to understand dentists’ perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an integrative conceptual framework composed of three theoretical perspectives. Data collection was conducted in individual semi-directed interviews wit...

  2. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  3. Post-market drug evaluation research training capacity in Canada: an environmental scan of Canadian educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthew O; Soon, Judith A; MacLeod, Stuart M; Sharma, Sunaina; Patel, Anik

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing efforts by Health Canada intended to modernize the legislation and regulation of pharmaceuticals will help improve the safety and effectiveness of drug products. It will be imperative to ensure that comprehensive and specialized training sites are available to train researchers to support the regulation of therapeutic products. The objective of this educational institution inventory was to conduct an environmental scan of educational institutions in Canada able to train students in areas of post-market drug evaluation research. A systematic web-based environmental scan of Canadian institutions was conducted. The website of each university was examined for potential academic programs. Six core programmatic areas were determined a priori as necessary to train competent post-market drug evaluation researchers. These included biostatistics, epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology, health economics or pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics and patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Twenty-three academic institutions were identified that had the potential to train students in post-market drug evaluation research. Overall, 23 institutions taught courses in epidemiology, 22 in biostatistics, 17 in health economics/pharmacoeconomics, 5 in pharmacoepidemiology, 5 in pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics, and 3 in patient safety/pharmacovigilance. Of the 23 institutions, only the University of Ottawa offered six core courses. Two institutions offered five, seven offered four and the remaining 14 offered three or fewer. It is clear that some institutions may offer programs not entirely reflected in the nomenclature used for this review. As Heath Canada moves towards a more progressive licensing framework, augmented training to increase research capacity and expertise in drug safety and effectiveness is timely and necessary.

  4. Institutionalizing environmental protection through self-regulation: the case of environmental standards adoption in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bileisis, Mantas; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of human activity in the environment have a global dimension, but there are no effective global governance instruments to enforce environmental standards. At the same time, many national governments lack incentives to pursue strict environmental policies. In this context, self-regulation is seen as an alternative venue to address environmental challenges. This work aims to identify factors that influence companies to engage in environmental self-regulation? For this aim in March 2015 a survey of 482 companies was conducted. The target group were companies operating in Lithuania that hold ISO14001 certificates - one of the most prolific instruments for self-regulation. The questionnaire was designed to test assumptions developed in new institutionalist literature which claim that common practices can emerge through isomorphism.- The results showed that the main motive for environmental self-regulation is the desire to improve company image, rather than protecting the environment per se. Another important finding was that the main source of pressure to adopt self-regulation was based less on the perceived demands but the customers. Rather the driver for the adoption was a feeling of a need no to fall behind industry leaders. Thus, normative isomorphism is the main mechanism through which environmental self-regulation proliferates. We claim for a rapid proliferation of environmental self-regulation perceived industry leaders need to be identified and they need to be persuaded that environmental standards are key for the development of the industry. However, this also raises questions of sustainability. Few industries have long standing leaders, and through successful investment and technological development new actors can arise and this may risk stalling or even reversing self-regulation.

  5. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Amadu, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sectorreform taking place in many countries are th...... proposed for the Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation....... are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power systems in most countries in the region. Ghana, which isthe focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two....... The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implicationsof changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor...

  6. Ecological Situation and Environmental Protection Policy in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Olegovna Tagaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present ecological situation and negative influence of ecological factors on public health in the Russian Federation are analysed in this article. Russia is one of the most polluted countries in the world, and the environmental problem is very important here. In spite of some decrease in pollution during the crisis period, nature does not have time to neutralize pollution accumulated before, and as a result, there is an increase in the pollution concentration. In 66 cities (40 million people with excess 10 times and more than permitted maximum concentration level, the morbidity is above the average Russian level of 1.6 — 2 times. The forecast of emission according to the various scenarios of Russian development has been done: a pessimistic scenario with a slowdown in economic growth and an optimistic scenario with the acceleration of economic growth. The optimistic scenario is realized under the hypothesis about the oil prices increase and the real rouble exchange rate strengthening at the end of 2015, the revival of investment processes, the successful policy of import substitution, and the competent using of the instruments of monetary and fiscal policy. The pessimistic scenario is implemented under the assumption of negative economic tendency prolongation of 2014. For the forecast analysis, the dynamic inter-industry model with the ecological block was used. At the optimistic scenario implementation, the additional burden on the natural environment should be expected. The most important result of the research is the estimation of the rates of ecological payments which are necessary for performing the functions stimulating the environmental protection activity. The article presents the findings about the need to improve the institutional ecological structures, the scientific basis of pollution taxes, the introductions of the stimulating tools of the economic nature protection mechanism. The results presented in the article may be used

  7. 75 FR 80287 - Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... 40 CFR Part 36 Environmental Protection Agency Implementation of OMB Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace... Protection Agency is removing its regulation implementing the Governmentwide common rule on drug-free... make no substantive change in Environmental Protection Agency policy or procedures for drug-free...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise, and...

  9. JTS and its Application in Environmental Protection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Emanouil; Gurov, Todor; Slavov, Dimitar; Ivanovska, Sofiya; Karaivanova, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    The environmental protection was identified as a domain of high interest for South East Europe, addressing practical problems related to security and quality of life. The gridification of the Bulgarian applications MCSAES (Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis for Environmental Studies) which aims to develop an efficient Grid implementation of a sensitivity analysis of the Danish Eulerian Model), MSACM (Multi-Scale Atmospheric Composition Modeling) which aims to produce an integrated, multi-scale Balkan region oriented modelling system, able to interface the scales of the problem from emissions on the urban scale to their transport and transformation on the local and regional scales), MSERRHSA (Modeling System for Emergency Response to the Release of Harmful Substances in the Atmosphere) which aims to develop and deploy a modeling system for emergency response to the release of harmful substances in the atmosphere, targeted at the SEE and more specifically Balkan region) faces several challenges: These applications are resource intensive, in terms of both CPU utilization and data transfers and storage. The use of applications for operational purposes poses requirements for availability of resources, which are difficult to be met on a dynamically changing Grid environment. The validation of applications is resource intensive and time consuming. The successful resolution of these problems requires collaborative work and support from part of the infrastructure operators. However, the infrastructure operators are interested to avoid underutilization of resources. That is why we developed the Job Track Service and tested it during the development of the grid implementations of MCSAES, MSACM and MSERRHSA. The Job Track Service (JTS) is a grid middleware component which facilitates the provision of Quality of Service in grid infrastructures using gLite middleware like EGEE and SEEGRID. The service is based on messaging middleware and uses standart protocols like AMQP (Advanced

  10. New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana Hurricane Protection Project, Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    polychaetes, oligochaetes, and ciliate protozoans. Zooplankton such as cladocerans , decapod larvae, arrow-worms, urochordates, cumaceans, iso- pods...spionids are common in the shallow areas, while Corbicula, the Asiatic clam, predominates in the center. In the weter column, rotifers and cladoceran nauplil...Environmental Project Review US Environmental Protection Agency, Regional EIS Coordinator, Region VI US Environmental Protection Agency, the

  11. Older Adults' Perceptions of Nutrition as Protective against Detrimental Effects of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kristina; Gaetke, Lisa; Stephenson, Tammy; Brewer, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The aging process makes older adults vulnerable to the detrimental health effects of environmental contaminants. Our study assessed older adults' perceptions regarding diet as protective against environmental contaminants, levels of concern about exposure to environmental contaminants, and interest in learning about protective food-related…

  12. Influence of seabird colonies and other environmental variables on benthic community structure, Lancaster Sound Region, Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard Marmen, Mariève; Kenchington, Ellen; Ardyna, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The Canadian Arctic shelters millions of seabirds each year during the breeding season. By the excretion of important quantities of guano, seabirds locally concentrate nutrient-rich organic matter in the marine areas surrounding colonies. Seabirds, acting as biological vectors of nutrients, can markedly affect terrestrial ecosystems, but their influence on the structure of marine benthic communities is still under-studied. Sessile and long-lived megabenthic species can integrate environmental variation into marine food webs over long time frames. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the epifaunal and infaunal communities of the Lancaster Sound Region (LSR) and (2) to test the influence of the presence of seabird colonies and other environmental parameters on the structure of those benthic communities. Our prediction was that benthic diversity, number of taxa, total biomass of infauna and total density of epifauna and infauna, would be higher in areas with colonies present. Photos of the seafloor (data on epifauna) and grab samples (data on infauna) were taken at three control areas and at five areas near seabird colonies, within a depth range of 122 to 442 m. A database of 26 environmental parameters was built to study the environment-benthos relationships. Infauna, which was relatively uniform across the LSR, was numerically dominated by Annelida. Epifauna was much patchier, with each study area having unique epibenthic assemblages. Brittle stars were highly abundant in epifaunal communities, reaching 600 individuals per square meter. The presence of seabird colonies was not a major driver of benthic community structure in the LSR at the depths studied. Negative effects of colonies were detected on the density and number of taxa of infauna, perhaps due to top-down effects transmitted by the seabirds which feed in the water column and can directly reduce the quantity of food reaching the seabed. Sediment concentration of pigment, percent cover of

  13. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L; Gonzalez, A

    2015-01-01

    Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  14. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  15. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  16. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Sihang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-09-29

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  17. Free Economic Competition and Environmental Protection: An approach to the study of Environmental Compliance Voluntary Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid S. Ortiz Baquero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article pretends to illustrate the compatibility between two actual legal interests in the international economic order, the right to a healthy environment and the right of a free exercise of economic competition, by introducing voluntary agreements of compliance with environmental standards, making see that through these mechanisms can achieve compatibility of the two goals that once were considered diametrically opposed. This is an European system analysis, where these have been developed and are on track to consolidating, checking the advantages they would represent for the economy, as well as the concerns that have brought to the competition authorities, executing them in a practical scope and possible effects on the market. Finally, it aims to tackle the possible introduction of these in the Colombian legal system that would enable the rules to thereby achieve synergy between competition and environmental protection.

  18. Environmental protection implications of the electric power restructuring in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkson, J.K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Amadu, M.B. [Kumasi Inst. of Technology, Energy and Environment, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1999-09-01

    The electric utility industries in most African countries are confronted by the twin-problem of deficient capacity and lack of adequate financial resources to undertake capacity expansion of their respective systems. The critical aspects of power sector reform taking place in many countries are the shift away from state-owned monopoly model towards private sector participation and some competition in the industry. Hydropower plants dominate power system in most countries in the region. Ghana, which is the focus of this study, has such characteristics. The hydrology of the river on which the two dams (Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants) are built is increasingly becoming uncertain, and besides, the power output from the two plants is insufficient to meet the increasing electricity demand of the country. The alternative is to build thermal power plants to complement the two hydropower plants. The purposes of the study are: (i) to assess the environmental (more specifically air pollution) implications of changing fuel mix in power generation in Ghana within the context of the ongoing reform of the power sector and (ii) to assess the capacity of the environment protection agencies to regulate, monitor and enforce regulations in the emerging electricity industry. The study uses a spreadsheet-based simulation model to determine the potential levels of certain air pollutants - CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} - that would result from changes in fuel mix for electricity generation. Using different capacity expansion options proposed for The Volta River Authority (VRA) between 1997-2013, the levels of these air pollutants are estimated. The study further describes other potential environmental impacts of changes in fuel mix in power generation. (au)

  19. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental...

  20. Understanding clusters of risk factors across different environmental and social contexts for the prediction of injuries among Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K; Davison, C; King, N; Pike, I; Pickett, W

    2016-05-01

    Among Canadian youth, injury is the most common reason for presentation to the emergency department. Youth who commonly engage in multiple risk-taking behaviours are at greater risk for injury, but is it unknown if this phenomenon is more pronounced in different contexts. We aimed to study relationships between risk-taking behaviours and injury, and variations in such relationships between different environmental and social contexts, among youth in Canada. Risk-taking behaviour and injury outcome data were collected from grade 9 to 10 students using the 2009-2010 (Cycle 6) of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey (n=10,429). Principal components analysis was used to identify clusters of risk-taking behaviours. Within each identified cluster, the degree of risk-taking was categorized into quartiles from lowest to highest engagement in the behaviours. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the association between the risk of any injury and the degree of risk-taking behaviour specific to the cluster. Clusters were then examined across home, school, neighbourhood and sport contexts. Four clusters of risk-taking behaviour were identified which were labelled as "gateway substance use", "hard drugs and weapons", "overt risk-taking", and "physical activity". Each cluster was related to injury occurrence in a graded fashion. Clusters of risk behaviour were most strongly associated with injuries sustained in neighbourhood settings, and expectedly, increasing physical activity behaviours were associated with increased risk of sport injuries and injuries occurring at school. This study furthers understanding of clustered risk-taking phenomena that put youth at increasing levels of injury risk. Higher risks for injury and associated gradients were observed in less structured contexts such as neighbourhoods. In contrast, clustered physical activity behaviours were most related to school injury or sport injury and were more likely to

  1. Funding environmental protection by local self-governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trklja Radmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The budget is the main lever of local self government policy. During the year all the payments should be made from the budget meeting the needs within the scope of their activities as well as collecting revenues from which will be settled those obligations. The term 'budget' is a word of English origin. It originated from the Latin word 'bulga' which means a leather bag. Over time, it transformed into the French word 'bugette' - a small bag and the English word 'budget' - which is the 'king's bag containing the money necessary for public expenditure'. The budget is a plan of revenues and expenditures which is set for a specific time period, usually a year. The success of environmental protection policy is largely determined by the degree of economic development of the local community. European integration of our country in the field of environment speeds up the reform process and makes progress in the conduct of public policy and the preservation of a healthy living space.

  2. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  3. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  4. Environmental Protection Department LLNL NESHAPs 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldo, N A; Larson, J M; Wilson, K R

    2008-06-25

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2007 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0031 mrem (0.031 {micro}Sv) (42% from point source emissions, 58% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.0035 mrem (0.035 {micro}Sv) (90% from point source emissions, 10% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the U.S. EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose calculations. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  5. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  6. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  7. Exclusory and Transformative Dimensions of Adult Environmental Education in Two Brazilian Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Mayla Willik; de Oliveira, Haydée Torres; Logarezzi, Amadeu José Montagnini

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the limitations and potential for the development of an adult environmental education program in two protected areas in Brazil. The investigation was based on critical communicative methodology and involved 25 people variously related to puma conservation and environmental education. We found that the staff of protected areas…

  8. 36 CFR 223.40 - Cancellation for environmental protection or inconsistency with plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, as amended. Such provision shall provide for reasonable... environmental protection or inconsistency with plans. 223.40 Section 223.40 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.40 Cancellation for environmental protection or...

  9. 76 FR 72436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...; 2310-0057-422] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability for Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing Non-Native Ungulates. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS...

  10. 78 FR 52909 - Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Impact (FONSI) for Renovation and Modernization of the organization headquarters building located at 1700... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) based on the Final Environmental Assessment (FINAL EA) for the... PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

  11. 75 FR 23760 - Notice of Public Hearing Regarding Environmental Protection Agency Region III's Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Hearing Regarding Environmental Protection Agency Region III's Proposed... Withdrawal of Specification), of an Area as a Disposal Site; Spruce No. 1 Surface Mine, Logan County, WV...

  12. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Integrating Photovoltaic and Wind-Turbine Energy Systems in the Canadian Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ali M.; Fung, Alan S.; Ugursal, V. Ismet

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian residential sector contributes approximately 80 megatons of GHGs to the environment yearly. With the ratification of Kyoto Protocol, Canada has committed to reduce its 1990 GHG emission levels by at least 5% between 2008 and 2012. To meet this target, Canada must evaluate and exploit all feasible means to reduce fossil fuel energy…

  13. Examination of the environmental costs to industry of environmental protection in selected countries. Miljoeomkostningsundersoegelser for industrien i udvalgte lande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotte, L.; Simonsen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for estimating costs to industry of protecting the environment in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Holland and West Germany have been surveyed and evaluated, in order to make it possible to estimate the firms' international competive capacity, and the cost and methods of environmental protection. (CLS) 10 refs.

  14. Separation from the budget of the Republic of Serbia environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term 'budget' has international significance for national income and expenditure plan and used by most countries in the world. Symbolizes the bag Minister of Finance by the same 'opening' during the presentation to parliament plan of government revenues and expenditures. The main sources of environmental financing in the Republic of Serbia, the State Budget and fee income. Elements of the system of financing environmental regulations are defined in different areas. To collect data on the financing of environmental protection at the national level the fundamental importance of the Agency for Environmental Protection. The environment must have a much higher priority than it currently has in Serbia. Environmental protection is one of the most important activities of the company, it impinges on all aspects of people's daily lives. The analysis of economic instruments in environmental protection is very important, because it shows how much this activity is effectively implemented at the state and local level.

  15. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  16. The Effects of World Society on Environmental Protection Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofer, Evan; Hironaka, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The world environmental regime has encouraged nations to adopt new environmental policies and laws worldwide. But, scholars question the impact on the environment, suggesting that national policies may be "decoupled" from outcomes. We fill a gap in neoinstitutional theory by specifying the circumstances in which institutions will affect…

  17. The Complexity of Environmental Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is an implicit determination of the people to protect the human health of the sub-Saharan population and the environment from the adverse effects of pollution and degraded ...

  18. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  19. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  20. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  1. Symposium on integrating the science of environmental justice into decision-making at the Environmental Protection Agency: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Garcia, Lisa; Lee, Charles; Zenick, Hal; Grevatt, Peter; Sanders, William H; Case, Heather; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene

    2011-12-01

    In March 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, "Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decision Making: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts." The symposium provided a forum for discourse on the state of scientific knowledge about factors identified by EPA that may contribute to higher burdens of environmental exposure or risk in racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Also featured were discussions on how environmental justice considerations may be integrated into EPA's analytical and decision-making frameworks and on research needs for advancing the integration of environmental justice into environmental policymaking. We summarize key discussions and conclusions from the symposium and briefly introduce the articles in this issue.

  2. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - 05/12/2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point locations for sites in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 which are documented as being part of the National Priorities List as of May 12, 2014....

  4. Historical Precedents on the Protection or Defense of Natural Resources and salubritas in Rome. Towards an Administrative Environmental Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Ruiz-Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses certain situations involving the protection of natural resources by the Roman Law itself, some of which contain ancient environmental protections that today fall under a branch of Administrative Law, now known as Environmental Law.

  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 National Priorities List (NPL) Boundaries - 05/12/2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of sites in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6 which are documented as being part of the National Priorities List as of May 12, 2014. The...

  6. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  7. Notification: Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, December 20, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  8. EPA Administrator McCarthy in Boston with Canada and Mexico for Commission on Environmental Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOSTON, MA; WASHINGTON - On Tuesday and Wednesday, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will host Mexican Environment Deputy Secretary Dr. Rodolfo Lacy Tamayo representing Secretary Juan José Guerra Abud and Canadian E

  9. A Glance on Environmental Protection in Africa: Theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affirm Mugambi (2001) “human beings and nature as such are valuable and deserve to survive”. Therefore, global and local actors must take appropriate responsibility in order to ensure the ecological balance that will sustain life on this planet. Key terms: Africa; Creation; Human beings; Protection; Ecology; Environment; ...

  10. 75 FR 34666 - Stream Protection Rule; Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... of Engineers--``waters of the United States''-- in place of stream definitions; and (4) Using a flow... Protection Agency (EPA), and the Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works) entered into a... requirements for the cumulative hydrologic impact assessment. Definition of Material Damage to Hydrologic...

  11. 17 The Complexity of Environmental Protection in Sub-Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    people to protect the human health of the sub-Saharan population and the environment from the adverse effects ... of fulfilling their role as collaborators of God in .... governments and their manufacturing and industrial firms”. The colonial governments did make efforts to arrest the rapid degradation of the environment by ...

  12. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-section...

  13. IMPACT OF INVESTMENT IN QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ON REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Savovic; Maja Bacovic; Sanja Pekovic; Tatjana Stanovcic

    2016-01-01

    Considering that quality is one of foundation of harmonized regional development, in this paper, overall view of identified need for level of product quality, improvement of environmental protection, improvement of competitiveness and improvement of quality of tourism services has been analysed. In the next phase requests of stakeholders are presented. Author has also analysed feasibility of investing in quality improvement and environmental protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje and identifie...

  14. Assessment of municipal environmental protection expenditure: Case study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Soukopová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local authorities need simple economic tools and methodology how to evaluate public expenditure efficiency. There are a lot of ways for measuring efficiency of public expenditure however methods or economic tools which get actual information about efficiency of current public spending are rare. The paper presents new methodology for evaluating current municipal environmental protection expenditures based on a weighted assessment of multiple economic, social and environmental criteria. This methodology has issued from OECD methodology however it is a more complex tool and addresses the three pillars of sustainable development and following interdisciplinary approaches of Environmental Mainstreaming. The paper presents also case study, where is investigated environmental protection expenditure evaluation in the city of Brno, the second largest city in the Czech Republic. The results of this case study show the correct state of expenditure efficiency in the city of Brno and indicate possible improvements applicable for new investment to environmental protection and sustainable development.

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing Adoption of Canadian Guidelines on Smoking Cessation in Dental Healthcare Settings in Quebec: A Qualitative Study of Dentists’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Kengne Talla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to understand dentists’ perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an integrative conceptual framework composed of three theoretical perspectives. Data collection was conducted in individual semi-directed interviews with 20 private dentists lasting between 35 and 45 min. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, followed by a directed content analysis. Results: Some of the barriers identified to counselling in smoking cessation were lack of time, patient attitude, lack of prescription of nicotine replacement therapies, lack of reimbursement, and the lack of training of the dental team. Enablers cited by participants were the style of dentist’s leadership, the availability of community, human and material resources, the perception of counselling as a professional duty, and the culture of dental medicine. In addition to these variables, dentists’ attitude and behaviour were affected by different organisations giving initial or continual training to dentists, governmental policies, and the compatibility of Canadian smoking cessation guidelines with the practice of dentistry. Conclusion: Our findings will inform the development of smoking cessation interventions in dental healthcare settings.

  16. The Interface between Human Needs and Environmental Protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case study which is the focus of this article is the proposed development of a nuclear power plant at Thyspunt in the Eastern Cape which has become a contentious environmental dispute. The case examines the perceptions of key stakeholders, namely members of the St Francis Residents and Ratepayers Association, ...

  17. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  18. New security challenges in view of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the global within policy, government, science and practice have noticed difficulties that cause climate change which reflect the entire population of the planet earth. Security challenges that manifest themselves at the global, regional and national levels, indicate the need strategies - doctrinal and systematic approach to solving the preservation of society and environmental security. The issue of environmental security is not only the global and the national government. This is an issue of great importance to the interests of civil society, which, as it is currently excluded from their own responsibility in the work of environmental security. This paper examines the obligation to take measures to give effect to the adopted strategies, policies, laws, conventions, declarations, resolutions, agreements and other norms that regulate the area of environmental security. The goal of these standards is to be based on scientific knowledge, experiential norms and estimated conditions make timely assessments and plans with defined scope risks and threats, as well as understanding the consequences levels and response to them. Ditto, the paper analyzes the power of man and its impact on the process of globalization and disorders that are incurred by climate change.

  19. Machine learning methods for environmental monitoring and flood protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    More and more natural disasters are happening every year: floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. In order to reduce the risk of possible damages, governments all around the world are investing into development of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for environmental applications. The most important

  20. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  1. Searching for the Seventies: Photographs from the Environmental Protection Agency's DOCUMERICA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustard, Bruce; Potter, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, the newly established Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created DOCUMERICA, a federal government photography project born out of the nation's environmental crisis. The photographers hired by the EPA took thousands of photographs depicting pollution, waste, and blight, but they were given the freedom to capture the era's…

  2. College of Natural Resources doctoral student receives Environmental Protection Agency fellowship

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Christine Bergeron of Old Orchard Beach, Maine, a doctoral student in Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources, received a fellowship from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Environmental Research for her research on the reproductive success of American toads.

  3. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  4. Environmental protection in the frame of radiation protection. Recommendation of the Commission on radiological protection including justification and explanation; Schutz der Umwelt im Strahlenschutz. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission mit Begruendung und Erlaeuterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The environmental protection is part of the radiation protection but without defined regulations concerning the protection of non-human species and the ecological systems. In 2008 the SSK (Strahlenschutzkommission) was asked to elaborate measures for environmental radiation protection. Part of the recommendation was the application of sustainability concepts on radioactive materials.

  5. User's guide to a data base of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Defferding, J.; Chapman, E.G.; Bettinson, M.D.; Glantz, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    This document describes how to use a data base of current transboundary region environmental monitoring projects. The data base was prepared from data provided by Glantz et al. (1986) and Concord Scientific Corporation (1985), and contains information on 226 projects with monitoring stations located within 400 km (250 mi) of the US-Canadian border. The data base is designed for use with the dBASE III PLUS data management systems on IBM-compatible personal computers. Data-base searches are best accomplished using an accompanying command file called RETRIEVE or the dBASE command LIST. The user must carefully select the substrings on which the search is to be based. Example search requests and subsequent output are presented to illustrate substring selections and applications of the data base. 4 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Environmental assessment in the Netherlands: effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Laerhoven, F.S.J. van; Driessen, P.P.J.; Arts, J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its

  7. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands : Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; van Laerhoven, Frank; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its

  8. Impact of Open Source software on the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viduka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing development of computer hardware contributes to the constant throwing old computers ie. direct increase of electric and electronic equipment waste. This type of waste is a major threat to human health and the environment. By applying Open Source software solutions all users of computer hardware can significantly effect on the reduction of this type of waste. The aim of this paper is to present the advantages of using Open Source software package in terms of preserving and protecting the environment. This paper presents the results of testing MS Windows and Linux operating systems on an older computer, the results are obtained by applying the benchmark software GeekBench.

  9. Radiological protection and environmental management; La proteccion radiologica y la gestion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Fonseca, A.

    2010-07-01

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  10. Thoughts on the role of Mercosur in the environmental protection of aquatic and marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta S. Radovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role that the Southern Common Market(hereinafter referred to as “MERCOSUR” could assume concerning the legal environmental protection of aquatic and marine resources. Firstly, the current state of general regulations in force issued by MERCOSUR is analyzed. Secondly, the article focuses on environmental regulations adopted by MERCOSUR, specifically those pertaining to aquatic and marine resources. Then, the regulatory framework of the Río de la Plata Basin is analyzed in connection with the regulation of aquatic resources, since the geographical area of this basin is similar to that of MERCOSUR. The hypothesis is that MERCOSUR, as an institution, has made some strides in the regulation of overall environmental protection, especially with the creation of the MERCOSUR Framework Agreement on the Environment; however, there is still a long road ahead when it comes to specific environmental protection of both aquatic and marine resources. 

  11. Federal environmental legislation in the U.S. for protection of wildlife and regulation of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Anne

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. has a long history of legislation to protect wildlife, beginning with the Lacey Act of 1900. There are now over 170 Federal laws that regulate environmental activities which may affect wildlife. Two important laws are the Pittman-Robertson Act enacted in 1937 that authorizes a tax for wildlife management and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act passed in 1958 whose primary purpose is conservation of fish and wildlife, both of which continue to provide significant funding for wildlife management. Modern environmental regulations began by passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, followed by the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and other laws to regulate pesticides and toxics and clean up contaminated sites. International conventions regulate sale, use and disposal of toxics and ocean dumping. These laws and conventions should protect wildlife from unintended consequences of global industrialization.

  12. Environmental liability and nature protection areas Will the EU Environmental Liability Directive actually lead to the restoration of damaged natural resources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.M. van den

    2009-01-01

    The EU Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) requires remedial measures when environmental damage to protected species and natural habitats occurs. Thus, the ELD offers a minimum level of protection to natural resources in its Article 2. In order to finance the restoration of environmental damage

  13. Comparative analysis of the EU criminal law for environmental protection and the Albanian one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Petrela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two main parts where the first one presents the path how the environmental issue was included in the primary legislation of the European Union (EU, starting this theoretical panorama from the first founding treaty – Treaty of Rome, in 1957. It shows that with the passing of years the environmental protection has become one of the most important fields of action of the European Community supported by the primary and secondary legislation of the EU and its several bodies with competencies in this field. The second part of the paper starts with the commitments on the environmental protection that the Albanian state has made upon signature and entrance into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU. In addition, this article presents a summary of the legislative activity in Albania regarding environmental protection in the last two decades with special focus on the time period after the approval of the current Constitution of 1998, which is the basis and origin of every legislative initiative. Furthermore, there are presented the key features of the Albanian environmental legislation, as well as the protection mechanism from the criminal legislation point of view. The presentation of the European and national reality with special focus on environmental protection serves to a comparative purpose between the two models. It also serves to draw conclusions and propose suggestions on how the Albanian legislation should be developed and improved in order to be in line with that of the European Union and effective in practice to serve the ultimate goal of environmental protection and prevention from further environmental degradation.

  14. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  15. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  16. Economic instruments for environmental protection: experience in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barde, J.-P. [OECD, Paris (France). Environment Directorate

    1998-06-01

    The paper gives an overview of the application of economic instruments to pollution control in OECD countries and draws some lessons from this experience. The situation and role of economic instruments in OECD countries can be characterised by three main features: a growing reliance on economic instruments; the operation of `mixed` systems where economic instruments are used as an adjunct to direct regulations, and the emergence of green tax systems. Types of economic instruments are: charges and taxes, marketable permits (emissions trading), deposit-refund systems, and subsidies. The paper makes many points on evaluation of the effectiveness, environmental and economic impact of policy instruments. There is still insufficient evidence about their performance, due largely to a lack of data and practice in evaluation. 27 refs., 1 app.

  17. Data for Summary of the Development the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) Using Data from Nine Multigenerational Medaka Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to various legislative mandates the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which...

  18. Effective Management Of Resources for Environmental Protection – Using Taxes In The Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia CAPATINA; Irina ALECSANDRU; Cristina RADU

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existen...

  19. TODAY: EPA Administrator McCarthy in Boston with Canada and Mexico for Commission on Environmental Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOSTON, MA; WASHINGTON - On Tuesday and Wednesday, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will host Mexican Environment Deputy Secretary Dr. Rodolfo Lacy Tamayo representing Secretary Juan José Guerra Abud and Canadian E

  20. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  1. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  2. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  3. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  4. CCS - environmental protection framework for an emerging technology. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Ralf; Boehringer, Alexander; Charisse, Thomas (and others)

    2009-10-15

    With this paper, the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) updates1 its position paper of 20062 on the technical capture and geological storage3 of carbon dioxide (CCS: carbon capture and storage). After a brief description of the development status of the process steps of capture, transport and geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Chapter 1, we look into the possible risks for human health and the environment (Chapter 2), which up to now have been little discussed or researched. These risks will largely depend on the integrity of storage sites. On the assumption of functioning capture technology at cost-effective conditions, the capacity of available and secure storage sites will decisively determine the scale of possible greenhouse gas emission reductions through CCS (Chapter 3). In examining storage capacity, it has always to be considered that the geological storage of CO2 can compete with other uses of underground geological formations, such as geothermics or compressed-air and natural-gas storage (Chapter 4). The Federal Environment Agency takes the view that these factors determine the role that CCS can play as an additional climate protection measure (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 we show how CCS, in its application, should be integrated into emissions trading. CO2 emission reduction should in our view only be acknowledged when it is effectively and demonstrably ensured through permanent storage. Chapter 7 deals with necessary reforms of liability law, which legislators should undertake in order to assign the dangers and risks of CCS to those responsible for them. In Chapter 8, we summarize the fundamental demands on legislators, while Chapter 9 is devoted to issues concerning the source and application of funds for research and development. (orig.)

  5. Acid Deposition Simulations for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Canadian Oil Sands, using the Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Paul; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Moran, Michael; Wong, Isaac; Aherne, Julian; Hayden, Katherine; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Junhua; Baratzedah, Pegha; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip; Cole, Amanda; Kirk, Jane; Scott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) system (version 2) was used to carry out simulations of acid deposition for the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. These model predictions include the hourly deposition of four sulphur and eleven nitrogen containing species (SO2(g), HSO3(-)(aq) , SO4(2-)(aq), particulate sulphate, and NH3(g), NO2(g), HNO3(g), NH4(+)(aq), NO3(-)(aq), HONO(g), PAN(g), HNO4(g), particulate nitrate, particulate ammonium, and gaseous organic nitrate, respectively). A two-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH was used to estimate the annual deposition of these chemicals, for the period August 1, 2013 through July 31, 2014, at two resolutions—a 10km resolution North American domain and a 2.5km resolution Alberta and Saskatchewan domain. The model estimates of acid deposition from both resolutions (version 2), were used to determine the relative contributions of the different species towards total sulphur and nitrogen deposition, and to evaluate the effect of model resolution on estimates of acid deposition. The potential ecosystem impacts of acid deposition were examined via comparison of model-predicted total deposition to different sources of sulphur and nitrogen critical load data, for forest and lake ecosystems in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. The deposition estimates were compared to observations of snowpack sulphur and nitrogen ions, collected during the winter of 2013. The processes underlying acidifying deposition in the vicinity of the Canadian oil sands were examined in more detail using the 12-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH (version 2), for a period from mid-August to mid-September 2013. This time period corresponds to an aircraft measurement intensive campaign designed to examine emissions, transportation, and deposition associated with air pollution sources in the Canadian oil sands. Multiple model simulation scenarios were

  6. Integration of New Observation Techniques, Remote Sensing, and High Resolution Modelling for Improved Quantification of Rapid Environmental Change at a Canadian Arctic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P.; Toure, A.; Baltzer, J. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Berg, A. A.; Derksen, C.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, E.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-decade observations at a research watershed in the western Canadian Arctic has demonstrated rapid environmental change, but has also shown that our quantification of, and understanding of, these changes is greatly limited by both the large errors involved in many observation data sets and the limitations of standard models to operate at the extremely high resolution required. This paper will outline an expanding research program being developed at the Trail Valley Creek research watershed south of Tuktoyaktuk, NWT with the gaol to overcome these limitations. Although this watershed has existing high quality observations, the following example will illustrate the challenges faced in understanding the ongoing changes. As might be expected, the climate at this location is dramatically warming, but it is also drying, and the active layer is deepening, shrub patches are both infilling and expanding, the end of winter snow cover is expanding in shrub patches and possibly decreasing in slope drifts, and snowmelt rate is changing. However, the resulting decrease in streamflow and delayed melt runoff, is unexpected and hard to explain. Although we can postulate why these changes are occurring, the observations at this site, among the best in the Canadian Arctic, are not sufficient to allow us to fully explain the ongoing changes. Our experience at Trail Valley Creek suggests that in order to improve our understanding and predictive ability, we need enhanced field observations and models. This paper will outline how we are developing such a program at Trail Valley Creek with field observations across a range of scales (a network of cosmic ray sensors, eddy covariance measurements, and sap flow sensors for example); enhanced remote sensing using lidar, optical and radar methods from Unmanned Aerial Systems, aircraft and satellites; and high resolution, physics based, snow, permafrost and hydrologic models.

  7. The Technique of Licensing at European Union Level - Used as a Means of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandra Ilinca

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Licensing represents one of the modern techniques most often used as an environmental protection means. In concrete, this technique is envisaged in the obligation of obtaining an authorization (lato sensu in order to develop a certain activity or to use a product or service that is considered to attain an ecological risk, respectively the granting of permits, licences, authorisations or certifications. Authorisation (licensing is based on the Environmental Impact Assessment, which is a constitutive part of the authorization process, as the conclusions of the environmental impact assessment study are conditioning the result of the authorization process. In order to attain a panoramic and complete reflection of the authorization as an environmental protection legal instrument, we consider to be highly useful the presentation of two transversal instruments, characterised of proactive operativity, a high degree of participation on the part of the involved subjects and a high level of environmental protection that they tend to attain. Basically, these two instruments are Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment.

  8. Regional concept of environmental protection and waste management, with case studies of South Morava region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional concept of environmental protection and waste management represents a new methodology in spatial interventions which enable an integral view of all of the environmental parameters. In this way, contrary to the prevailing decentralized methodology of environmental protection and negation of the pollution aftereffects, it is recommended to form a unified database of main pollutants for the whole region. This database enables impact detection of specific factors (industrial facilities, waste dumps and other pollutants on a scale which transcends to neighboring municipalities, regions, or the overall country. The state of the environment and waste management in the South Morava region is directly impacted by an array of environmentally degradable factors, with economics being the most prominent one (industrial facilities, which represented the main pollutants in the past, applied little, if any, regard to the environmental protection, dumping their waste on improvised, unprotected waste dumps. On the other hand, low level of employment, rudimentary industrial technology made positive environmental effect in the past 5 to 10 years, because of lack of direct pollution. The subject of this paper will be based on recommendations for better organization on regional level in the environmental and waste management field, and based on examples from Jablanica and Pčinja district, which are located in the South Morava region.

  9. A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents’ participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies.

  10. A research on Exterior Wall Coating Based on Environmental Protection and Automatic Spraying Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Yixuan; Wu Jingrong

    2016-01-01

    As the main material for building facing decoration, building exterior wall coating can protect and decorate the building in the process of construction[1]. Exterior wall coating is characterized by low cost, convenient installation, rich colors and so on, so it has a wide application in building exterior walls. At present, due to the requirements for energy saving and environmental protection as well as the complexity of installation, application of exterior wall tiles is in decline[2]. Besi...

  11. The Technique of Licensing at European Union Level - Used as a Means of Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Ilinca; Adriana Elena Belu

    2011-01-01

    Licensing represents one of the modern techniques most often used as an environmental protection means. In concrete, this technique is envisaged in the obligation of obtaining an authorization (lato sensu) in order to develop a certain activity or to use a product or service that is considered to attain an ecological risk, respectively the granting of permits, licences, authorisations or certifications. Authorisation (licensing) is based on the Environmental Impact Assessment, which is a cons...

  12. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...... on the surrounding built and cultural heritage and examines how the environmental impact assessment was used during the development process....

  13. The right to defend the environment: The protection of the environmental defenders

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Borrás

    2013-01-01

    The increasing degradation of the environment and competitiveness on the exploitation of the natural limited resources demonstrates not only serious impacts on the environment, but also it generates important social impacts. The defenselessness which the victims of the environmental degradation face, as victims also of violations of human rights, has given origin to a movement of resistance led by the so called «environmental defenders», who, beyond the activism, try to protect the environmen...

  14. Evaluating the role of protected natural areas for environmental education in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Bonaiuto, Marino; Carrus, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental field studies (N = 419; 248) tested the effects of an outdoor environmental education program based in local Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) on 3rd-to-6th-grade students' proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. Results show the program increases children's place attachment...... and behaviors, highlighting the strategic importance of intervention procedures and moderators for environmental education activities applied to specific social-physical contexts....

  15. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate.

  16. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  17. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  18. Power engineering and environment protection. The environmental policy of OAO RAO EES Rossii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhukhovskii, I. S.; Novoselova, O. A.

    2007-06-01

    The main problems pertinent to the shaping and implementation of the environmental policy of OAO RAO EES Rossii are considered. A brief review is given of the situation with environment protection in the power industry of Russia taking into account the results from analyzing the main world trends. The main objectives and tasks that had to be achieved through conducting the Holding’s environmental policy in 2006 are described, and the most important lines of activities within the framework of the Program for Implementing the Environmental Policy of RAO are briefly reviewed.

  19. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for Hawaii 2002: Water Quality, Fish Taxon, Sediment Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0061250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2002, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), in conjunction with...

  20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance New Mapping Tool for Enforcement Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The new mapping tool shows facilities in the United States where the EPA concluded formal environmental enforcement actions between October 1, 2008 and September 30,...

  1. 40 CFR 10.10 - Limitation on Environmental Protection Agency's authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... only after consultation with the Department of Justice when, in the opinion of the Environmental Protection Agency: (1) A new precedent or a new point of law is involved; or (2) A question of policy is or... United States is involved in litigation based on a claim arising out of the same incident or transaction. ...

  2. Indicators for the Evaluation of Environmental Education, Interpretation and Information in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Jaume; Oliver, Miquel F.; Castells, Margalida

    2004-01-01

    By petition of the regional government of the Balearic Islands (Spain), the authors of this article evaluated activities of environmental education, interpretation, and information carried out in the most important protected areas of these islands. The following is a presentation of the model of the evaluation that was developed. Based on the…

  3. Juvenile criminal recidivism : relations with personality and post release environmental risk and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the present dissertation is to get more insight in the contribution of personality traits and post release environmental risk and protective factors on juvenile criminal recidivism. One year after their release from a juvenile detention centre, a sample of 60 adolescent male

  4. Evaluating the Role of Protected Natural Areas for Environmental Education in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Bonaiuto, Marino; Carrus, Giuseppe; Passafaro, Paola; Perucchini, Paola; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2017-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental field studies (N = 419; 248) tested the effects of an outdoor environmental education program based in local Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) on 3rd-to-6th-grade students' proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. Results show the program increases children's place attachment, proenvironmental attitudes, ethics and…

  5. Ensured power supply and environmental protection as elements of a provident social policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartkopf, G.

    1980-09-01

    The conflict situation between the industry and environmental protection, which has developed in post-war Germany is examined in the light of the current governmental approach to the power supply problem. Means of resolving the principal problem areas are discussed.

  6. The role of environmental protection in EC competition law and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingston, Suzanne Elizabeth Joy

    2009-01-01

    Competition policy is often viewed as an area where maximising economic efficiency is the exclusive aim. Dealing with broader policy concerns, such as redistribution or environmental protection, is the job of the legislator, not the competition enforcer. In this thesis, it is argued that, in the

  7. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  8. A Guide for Planning Post-Secondary Programs for Agribusiness, Natural Resources, and Environmental Protection Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Gary F.

    This publication is intended to provide a reference for teachers, counselors, and administrators in planning, administering and conducting vocational and technical programs in agribusiness, natural resources and environmental protection at the postsecondary level. The material is presented in sections, each with a list of selected references, as…

  9. Relations between economic wealth, ecological footprint, and environmental protection depend on climatic demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Vlek, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Richer societies have larger ecological footprints and are more inclined toward environmental protection. But this is an incomplete story as long as climatic temperature is left out of consideration. Our 116-nation study shows that all countries, but especially richer countries, have larger

  10. Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Common Sense Initiative (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Special Assistant to the Secretary california Environmental Protection 555 Captal Mail, Suite 235 Sacramento, CA 95814 John Borum Vice President of... ECO The Robbina Co. 400O’Neil Blud. Attieboro, MA 02703 Mr. Andraw Cornai Research Director, Toxics Reduction Ecology Center of Ann Arbor 417 Detroit

  11. Provincial soil-quality monitoring networks in the Netherlands as an instrument for environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink, E.R.V.; Postma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, several provinces in the Netherlands have put much effort in establishing soil-quality monitoring networks. The purpose of these networks is to provide insight in the trends in (geochemical) soil quality, on which new policies for environmental protection can be based, such as

  12. 75 FR 75847 - 40th Anniversary of the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... to make clean air, safe water, and unpolluted land a priority, and encourage America to be a leader... expect clean air and drinking water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created... water we drink, the quality of our environment has a profound effect on our public health, the well...

  13. Protecting the environment for future generations. Principles and actors in international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental and Technology Law

    2017-08-01

    This book compiles the written versions of presentations held at the occasion of an international symposium entitled ''Protecting the Environment for Future Generations - Principles and Actors in International Environmental Law''. The symposium was organized by the Institute of Environmental and Technology Law of Trier University (IUTR) on the basis of a cooperation scheme with the Environmental Law Institute of the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, and took place in Trier on 29-30 October 2015. It brought together a distinguished group of experts from Europe and abroad to address current issues of international and European environmental law. The main objective of the symposium was to take stock of the actors and principles of international and European environmental law, and to analyze how and to what extent these principles have been implemented on the supranational and domestic legal levels.

  14. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Environmental Features for Streambank Protection Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    cations to maintenance procedures include such things as pruning of * shrubs and other actions to control the size, type, and density of vegetation.o...willows, alders, cattails, and blackberry and snowberry vines , will invade the stabilized buffer strip. Planting of these species may be desirable if...practices . often require removal of all vegetation (a) to protect the structure from damage by roots and other vegetative structures (e.g., vines

  15. The contribution to sustainable development : taxation as an economic instrument for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Basso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled exploration of the environment has threatened the assimilative and regenerative capacity of nature. Against this problem, there is a need to take actions aiming at environmental protection, in order to prevent an irreversible trepidation of the balance of the natural environment, which consequences are grievous. Given that situation, it´s important to note that there has to be harmony between economic growth and the environment so that we can achieve sustainable development. The objective of this study is to outline an approach to environmental taxation, presenting its importance to matching economic measures with the protection of natural environment. This leads to the conclusion that for the achievement of environmental protection, environmental taxation can guide to a desirable behavior. That is, it can act in two paths; one positive, through the application of more costly taxation to the activities damaging to the envi- ronment and the other negative, providing a smoother taxation charge for those whom attending political and environmental conservation measures which will result in sustai- nable development.

  16. Environmental Protection of the Arctic Region: Effective Mechanisms of Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gladun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal regulations on environmental issues that arise in the Arctic due to intensive exploitation of its oil and gas resources need to be explored. There are gaps in environmental regulations over the Arctic region both at international and domestic levels. For Russia, at least two basic problems can be seen in the legal norms: the absence of a coherent approach to the Arctic environmental legislation and policy, and the need to develop effective mechanisms of environmental protection in the process of the Arctic development. In recent years, the Arctic states have expanded legislation on the Arctic issues. Currently, the most effective legal instruments targeting the protection of the fragile Arctic environment have been created by the Arctic countries. The introduction of a system of integrated environmental management is the first step that should be taken. Deep scientific research should be the obligatory foundation of any Arctic project. Moreover, much attention should be paid to the analysis of biological diversity preservation schemes. Lastly, special laws are needed in Russia to ensure: the regulation, prevention, and response to pollution by oil and other containments; the protection and rational use of Arctic resources; and the conservation of the Arctic marine areas and natural landmarks. These ideas are based on a comparative analysis of the legal rules contained within the laws of Norway, Canada, and the United States.

  17. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  18. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  19. Environmental awareness and public support for protecting and restoring Puget sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E; Levin, Phillip S

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure-tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices-is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  20. STUDY CONSIDERING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND LIFE QUALITY IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Sebastian SÂRB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental protection represents an important subject in international debates, being accentuated by the alert rhythm of economic development and the higher demands of the current consumer generations. In general, it can be claimed that the most developed countries are producing the largest quantities of waste and pollutants and are consuming large quantities of energy and natural resources. The impact these countries have upon the natural environment is strong and destructive. Therefore, it can be remarked that the industrialization level is inversely proportional with the environmental state, which is getting worse by the year: reduced timbered areas, agricultural soil degradation, a thinner ozone layer, numerous extinct plant and animal species, accentuated greenhouse effect, etc. Affecting the natural environment has severe repercussions upon the quality of life, manifesting itself through water, soil and atmospheric pollution. These are the reasons why the authors of this paper are analysing, in the present study, the problems concerning the environmental protection and life quality.

  1. A state of the art on coastal environmental protection using radioisotope tracer technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Jin, J H; Kim, J B

    2002-01-01

    Construction of artificial structures has caused a sediment process change due to the variation of hydraulic condition in Korea. Subsequently we have a serious problem of shoaling for shoreline deformation, siltation of the harbor and shipping channel. To protect those abnormal environmental changes, a large estimate has been spent for additional construction such as outer wall facilities, littoral nourishment and dredging. Systematic long-term studies should be carried out to understand the causes of environmental change. In addition, comprehensive plan is required for its monitoring and prevention. The radioisotope application studies for coastal environmental protection have not been actively performed only in the developed countries like France, Canada, and Australia etc., but also in many developing countries like Poland, India. Since KAERI has performed two experiments in costal area of Korea in 1960s, no more study has been reported. Recently the studies of radiotracer application technology is getting...

  2. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  3. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  4. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-11-25

    Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Cross-sectional study. 32 Australian secondary schools. Grade 7-10 students (aged 11-17 years). Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures ('goals and aspirations', 'prosocial peers'); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures ('home support' (5 of 7), 'school support' (3 of 7), 'self-awareness' (2 of 7), 'community meaningful participation' (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use ('community support' (3 of 7), 'peer caring relationships' (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of such factors when considered collectively. Such results suggest that interventions seeking to reduce

  5. Redesigning current instruments as a precondition for a more effective environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžemović Mesud R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of environment and evaluation of natural capital belong to the phenomenology of externalities, and the requirements of environmental economics are ever more oriented towards the elaboration of the ecological–economic category of the externalization of internal expenses, wherefrom reasons for the introduction of ecological–economic instruments, before all payments for pollutions, ensue. Demystification of the negative conviction relating ecological payments as taxes is very important, since it must be shown that ecological payments correct, mitigate or remove externalities. Environmental protection is a complex system and it consists in a set of rules, measures and instruments that are applied for the surveillance of pollution sources, and shaping of instruments for environmental protection is a complex process intended for the accomplishment of established ecological goals. Among all instruments available for bridging the gap of internalization and exerting a significant effect on polluters to diminish their emissions of pollution, the ecological and economic ones are most important. The results of our investigation have demonstrated that it is necessary to reshape the current set of instruments regarding protection of vital functions of nature and an efficient environmental protection, and one of the key cognitions is that the scientific and professional public must not be excluded from the appraisals of creating and redesigning the instruments of environmental protection. These assertions have their foundation in the premise that the significance of elements of the social dimension in sustainable development is to a great extent determined by the level of environmental degradation and reduction in capacity of renewable sources. The paper, approach and data processing of the conducted research offer a new model and new elements of methodology for establishing the state and quality of the environment, whereby social

  6. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  7. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  8. An insight into environmental laws in Canada | Jhansi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People in Canada are gradually becoming more aware of the urgent need to protect the environment. Canadians are involved with many projects to protect fragile ecosystems and stop further environmental destruction. Some projects are individual efforts and some are carried out through Non- Governmental Organizations ...

  9. Energy saving and emission reduction revolutionizing China's environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Great pressure to curb carbon emission and increased need for energy have forced China to develop an 'energy saving and emission reduction' (ESER) plan. ESER has become China's basic national policy, and a guideline for China's energy and environmental issues during the 11th Five-Years Plan (2006-2010). ESER represents a recalibration of China's economic model, moving away from growth-at-all-cost in favor of a more 'balanced and sustainable' output. In 2007, China's GDP grew by 11.4%, but emission of COD and SO{sub 2} decreased by 3.14% and 4.66% respectively compared to 2006, energy consumption for each unit of GDP declined by 3.27% also compared to 2006. ESER is also the engine behind reform of China's traditional administrative system which has always favored economic growth over environmental protection. The ESER accountability system sets green efforts as a decisive factor in determining the career prospects of local leaders. Also, China's State Environmental Protection Agency has been upgraded to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, gaining cabinet status for the first time. A greener future relative to the previous three decades can be anticipated with confidence for China provided that the best practices enunciated by ESER are taken to heart by policymakers. (author)

  10. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A.

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  11. Functional issues and environmental qualification of digital protection systems of advanced light-water nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of infrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. While these technologies have several advantages, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems` environmental qualification and functional reliability. To bound the problem of new I&C system functionality and qualification, the authors focused this study on protection systems proposed for use in ALWRs. Specifically, both functional and environmental qualification issues for ALWR protection system I&C were addressed by developing an environmental, functional, and aging data template for a protection division of each proposed ALWR design. By using information provided by manufacturers, environmental conditions and stressors to which I&C equipment in reactor protection divisions may be subjected were identified. The resulting data were then compared to a similar template for an instrument string typically found in an analog protection division of a present-day nuclear power plant. The authors also identified fiber-optic transmission systems as technologies that are relatively new to the nuclear power plant environment and examined the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber-optic components and systems. One reason for the exercise of caution in the introduction of software into safety-critical systems is the potential for common-cause failure due to the software. This study, however, approaches the functionality problem from a systems point of view. System malfunction scenarios are postulated to illustrate the fact that, when dealing with the performance of the overall integrated system, the real issues are functionality and fault tolerance, not hardware vs. software.

  12. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  13. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  14. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Protection Department's well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  16. Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory through the second quarter of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells recorded in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: to provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored, to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.

  17. Distorted competition or environmental protection? State funding of electric-powered cars; Wettbewerbsverzerrung oder Umweltschutz? Staatliche Foerderung der Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Nicole Denise [Kanzlei Dr. Rademacher, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-10-17

    With respect to Article 20a of te Constitutional Law, the environmental protection in Germany enjoys constitutional status and is supported by the majority of Germans. The support of electrically powered cars by the state or by the automotive industry and energy industry could be an important step forward towards environmental protection and climate protection, and it can design the production or marketing more attractive. There are legal issues to be clarified when the state intervenes by means of subsidies.

  18. REFLECTIONS ON ROMANIA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The destructive impact of antropic activities can no longer be ignored and all the human activities – from industry to domestic household - must impose a friendly behavior in relation to the environment. The environmental protection is an esential part of the enlarged reproduction and modern economic growth, aiming to ensure the dinamic ecological equilibrium, preserving and improving the quality of natural factors, the development of country's natural riches, ensuring better conditions of life and work for present and future generations. Thus, the whole activity for environmental protection in all of its components has a productive beeing creative of net income and value. On the long term, the achievement of dynamic economic equilibrium is illusory, without observing and respecting of ecological balance, the economic imbalances will cannot be resolved on the basis of creating some ecological imbalances, because these latter generate huge economic damage, a to which we can add a series of consequences, most often unpredictable.

  19. Overall view of the preparation of the environmental protection programme or Local Agenda 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Šterbenk

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available An Environmental Protection Programme and a Local Agenda 21 are documents intended for promotion of sustainable development in the local co-mmunities. Both documents should be realistic and capable of implementation. The local community, the public and all the main companies and organisations should be involved in the preparation and the realisation of the programmes. In this contribution the contents of the programmes and some experiences and advice tothose taking part are discussed.

  20. Technical advance in China's petroleum exploitation and production and its environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingchun, Li; Wei, Fan; Jialin, Wang; Yong, Li

    2010-09-15

    China has gained great development in the fields of petroleum exploitation and production, and these achievements provide reservation for China's energy safety. Some of them may strengthen the environment protection from the source, while some of them may bring certain environmental pressure. This study analyses the opportunities and the challenges brought by the technology development and gives countermeasures for decrease the negative impact of technology development.

  1. Influence of environmental protection measures on the design of chemical engineering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitt, J.S. (Badger Ltd., Brentford (UK))

    1979-11-01

    The interactions among public opinion, government, and industry are described with respect to matters of environmental protection. A breakdown is given of emission problems and, in special processes, of those associated with the sulfur content of crude oil, aromatic amines, plants for chlorinated hydrocarbons and alkylation plants, impurities in rain water, priority and cost problems, and investment problems connected with expenditures serving to create a cleaner environment.

  2. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  3. The right to defend the environment: The protection of the environmental defenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Borrás

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing degradation of the environment and competitiveness on the exploitation of the natural limited resources demonstrates not only serious impacts on the environment, but also it generates important social impacts. The defenselessness which the victims of the environmental degradation face, as victims also of violations of human rights, has given origin to a movement of resistance led by the so called «environmental defenders», who, beyond the activism, try to protect the environment and to defend the most vulnerable groups affected by this type of environmental aggressions. This has led to the recent and worrying proliferation of abuses against the human rights of these people. The frequency of murders and threats that the defenders suffer, the infringement of the rights of its peoples and the subsequent impunity of the authors of these serious violations generate the need to point out the existing problems in the identification of this reality, in its recognition and legal protection and of analyzing which is the protection and assistance, that from the international area, these persons are awarded in situation of high risk.

  4. IMPACT OF INVESTMENT IN QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ON REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Savovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering that quality is one of foundation of harmonized regional development, in this paper, overall view of identified need for level of product quality, improvement of environmental protection, improvement of competitiveness and improvement of quality of tourism services has been analysed. In the next phase requests of stakeholders are presented. Author has also analysed feasibility of investing in quality improvement and environmental protection in Sumadija and Pomoravlje and identified the most significant types of economic benefits and economic costs that may result from the introduction of ISO 9001, ISO 14001, HACCP and obtaining the CE mark for products and diagrammatic unveiled in the assumed maximum, realistic and minimum value applying cost/benefit analysis. On these bases, mathematical functions and calculations are applied to determine if there are different variants of total economic benefits and total economic costs. Goal was to determine if the investment in quality improvement and environmental protection in SMEs in Sumadija and Pomoravlje is largely justified and profitable.

  5. Financing Sources of Tasks in the Field of Environmental Protection in Poland – an Overview of Applied Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant development of investments to protect environment has been noticed in the past ten years in Poland. The purpose of this paper is to present financial instruments which are the financing sources of the tasks in the field of environmental protection. It has been noticed their special role. It has also been emphasized that without the participation of all those instruments would be impossible to achieve environmental plans and priorities, projected in the National Environmental Policy and local environmental programs. This study is a comprehensive analysis of the normative material and ideas presented in the literature of financial and environmental law.

  6. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS AND CONTEMPORARY: ECONOMIC COMPONENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND THE WARRANTY OF SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lucas Cardoso Balbino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The negative externalities for society have their origin in fact that companies do not payfor the use of natural resources or environmental services in the production of goods and services. Spontaneously, companies do not internalize the social costs associated with externalities, since they all seek to reduce costs in a scenario of increasingly intense competition. Only through the concerted effort of organized social movements, governments, public prosecutors and the judiciary, the costs of negative externalities are accounted for in production costs of enterprises. In this direction, the theory of the Pigovian internalization of negative externalities contains effective economic instruments to promote the protection of natural resources and Environmental services. However, the social acceptability of a new resource management nature, which considers the protection of natural resources and environmental services as a factor to be prioritized for the maintenance of social welfare, is a great problem to affect the competitive advantages of companies. Meanwhile, it is justified when one considers the use of nature resources and environmental degradation in the production of final goods are local, while their consumption is done everywhere.

  7. Environmental protection management by monitoring the surface water quality in Semenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana SÂMBOTIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment seems to have been the war against all. In fact recently most people polluted the environment and those few are cared for his cleaning. Today, the relationship evolvedas societies have changed in favour of ensuring environmental protection. With modern technology, performance, monitoring the environment becomes part of human activity ever more necessary, more possible and more efficient. The quality of the environment, its components: air, water, soil, plants, vegetable and animal products, is a condition "sine qua non" for the life of the modern man. The consequences of environmental pollution areso dangerous that modern man cannot afford considering them. Through this paper I will study the environmental quality by monitoring the surfaces waters from the Semenic- Gărâna area.

  8. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease.

  9. The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The New Nordic Diet (NND) was designed by gastronomic, nutritional, and environmental specialists to be a palatable, healthy, and sustainable diet containing 35% less meat than the Average Danish Diet (ADD); more whole-grain products, nuts, fruit, and vegetables; locally grown food...... in season; and >75% organic produce. The environmental impact of the 2 diets was compared based on 16 impact categories, which were monetized to evaluate the overall socioeconomic effect of a shift from an ADD to an NND. Objective: The objective was to determine whether this diet shift can be an effective...... tool in environmental protection. Design: The 3 features by which this diet shift affects the environment—composition, transport (import), and type of production (organic/conventional)—were separately investigated by using life cycle assessment. Results: When both diet composition and transport were...

  10. Environmental assessment of plant protection strategies using scenarios for pig feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Wivstad, Maria; Bergkvist, Peter; Mattsson, Berit; Ivarsson, Kjell

    2005-06-01

    Two scenarios for future pig meat production were constructed. The first was a "business as usual" scenario, where the pig feed was based on domestic grain and imported soy-meal, and no efforts were made to reduce pesticide use. The second scenario had a strong environmental focus, and both peas and rapeseed were grown at pig-farm level to produce grain and protein feed. Preventive measures, such as a more diverse crop rotation and mechanical weed control, were combined to reduce pesticide use. The two scenarios were environmentally assessed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a pesticide risk indicator model (PRI-Farm). The results showed environmentally sound possibilities to reduce pesticide dependency and risks by using altered plant protection strategies in pig-feed production. Organizing on-farm feed production so that protein feed crops are integrated with grain crops contributes to a more diverse crop rotation.

  11. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leonard, Elliott J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  12. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  14. The environmental protection in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interconnections between environmental issues and the protection of human rights, in a process that began in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and has been developed by the greening of the regional human rights systems. In the Inter-American system the article 11 of the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1988 — the Protocol of San Salvador — guarantees the right to a healthy environment. However the American Convention (on its arts. 3-25, 44-51 and 61-69 and its Additional Protocol (on its arts. 8, 13 and 19.6 only allow the submission of individual petitions to the Inter-American Commission and the possible acting of the Inter-American Court, in complaints containing alleged violations of civil and political rights, trade union rights and the right to education. Despite the lack of devices that are capable to ensure an effective protection to the right to a healthy environment, by itself, the Inter-American Court has demonstrated the greening of the human rights, which means, in other words, that it is quite possible to protect environmental issues by the demonstration of its interconnections with civil and political rights that are directly protected by the inter-American system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the contributions of the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court in the strengthening of the civil and political rights in cases related to environmental issues.

  15. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation into the Environmental Awareness of the Omani Public and their Willingness to Protect the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Abdul-Wahab

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the present status of environmental awareness of Omani citizens and their willingness to contribute to environmental protection. The focus of the study was to investigate the Omani publics level of knowledge about general basic and current local and international environmental issues and to find out their environmental attitudes and behaviors towards their environment. This information was gathered through a survey questionnaire with i...

  17. Guidance Document: Surface Soils Sampling for Munitions Residues in Military Live Fire Training Ranges: Canadian Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    substances in water , while the Canadian Environmental Protection Act [3] is concerned with pollution prevention and toxic substances releases...dish, metal spatula, interior of fume hood) must be washed thoroughly using soapy hot water (Micro-90 soap is recommended), rinsed with demineralised...aluminum liner (if used) is discarded and all the other materials are washed (sieve, bowl, fume hood surface) using soapy hot water (Micro-90 soap is

  18. Environmental Public Health Research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Addressing Community Exposures and Outcomes from One Researcher’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) mission is to protect human health and the environment. Those not familiar with U.S. EPA’s mission often do not realize that U.S. EPA is a public health agency. In this presentation, Dr. Danelle Lobdell will provid...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF INDONESIAN, SUFI AND UNITED KINGDOM MUSLIM ENVIRONMENTALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge posed by the world’s current environmental crisis has elicited a response from mainstream world religions in the form of efforts to construct an environmental ethics, based on religious and spiritual values. Suggestions for protecting and conserving the environment are a very ancient and fundamental aspect of religious teaching.  The  author will explore the perspectives  of a number of environmental thinkers, including Fachruddin Mangunjaya of Indonesia, Hossein Nasr as a representative of Sufism,  and  Fazlun Khalid of the United Kingdom. The paper draws on structured and unstructured interviews with these thinkers and on exploration of their published works on nature conservation. From these sources the author has realized the urgency for religious communities to engage in sustaining the planet. The author has also identified the means to utilize and empower religious doctrines for environmental conservation. From these three sources we can learn strategies for elaborating productive Islamic values of environmental conservation and promoting a greater need of engagement and collaboration among them in initiating practical conservation projects.

  20. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  1. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Poljšak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants.

  2. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  3. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes.

  4. A research on Exterior Wall Coating Based on Environmental Protection and Automatic Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yixuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the main material for building facing decoration, building exterior wall coating can protect and decorate the building in the process of construction[1]. Exterior wall coating is characterized by low cost, convenient installation, rich colors and so on, so it has a wide application in building exterior walls. At present, due to the requirements for energy saving and environmental protection as well as the complexity of installation, application of exterior wall tiles is in decline[2]. Besides, with the automatic machine technology becoming more mature, there is an increasing application of exterior wall coating. This paper is designed to conduct an analysis on the wide application prospect of current exterior wall coating based on the advantages of it and the maturity of automatic spraying technology.

  5. Cleaning and Decontamination Using Strippable and Protective Coatings at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; K. Archibald; L. Lauerhass; M. Argyle; R. Demmer

    1999-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Liquid Waste Reduction (RLWR) group is conducting a testing and evaluation program on strippable and protective coatings. The purpose of the program is to determine how and where these coatings can be used to aid in the minimization of liquid waste generation. These coatings have become more important in daily operations because of the increased concern of secondary liquid waste generation at the INEEL. Several different strippable and protective coatings were investigated by the RLWR group, including Pentek 604, Bartlett (TLC), and ALARA 1146. During the tests quantitative data was determined, such as effectiveness at reducing contamination levels, or costs, as well as some qualitative data on issues like ease of application or removal. PENTEK 604 and Bartlett TLC are seen as superior products with slightly different uses.

  6. Physiological Tolerance Times while Wearing Explosive Ordnance Disposal Protective Clothing in Simulated Environmental Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian B.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Worringham, Charles J.; Costello, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) technicians are required to wear protective clothing to protect themselves from the threat of overpressure, fragmentation, impact and heat. The engineering requirements to minimise these threats results in an extremely heavy and cumbersome clothing ensemble that increases the internal heat generation of the wearer, while the clothing’s thermal properties reduce heat dissipation. This study aimed to evaluate the heat strain encountered wearing EOD protective clothing in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Eight healthy males [age 25±6 years (mean ± sd), height 180±7 cm, body mass 79±9 kg, V˙O2max 57±6 ml.kg−1.min−1] undertook nine trials while wearing an EOD9 suit (weighing 33.4 kg). The trials involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4 and 5.5 km⋅h−1 at each of the following environmental conditions, 21, 30 and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in a randomised controlled crossover design. The trials were ceased if the participants’ core temperature reached 39°C, if heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, if walking time reached 60 minutes or due to fatigue/nausea. Tolerance times ranged from 10–60 minutes and were significantly reduced in the higher walking speeds and environmental conditions. In a total of 15 trials (21%) participants completed 60 minutes of walking; however, this was predominantly at the slower walking speeds in the 21°C WBGT environment. Of the remaining 57 trials, 50 were ceased, due to attainment of 90% maximal heart rate. These near maximal heart rates resulted in moderate-high levels of physiological strain in all trials, despite core temperature only reaching 39°C in one of the 72 trials. PMID:24586228

  7. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineered nano materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research at the Western Ecology Division in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanoparticles represent a unique hazard to human health and the environment because their inherent characteristics differ significantly from commonly used chemicals and bulk forms of materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecti...

  9. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  10. Notification: Audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0135, February 10, 2014. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin fieldwork for an audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA).

  11. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  12. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) Sites Point Data with CIESIN Modifications, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) Sites Point Data with CIESIN Modifications, 2008 is a modified version of the 2008 EPA...

  14. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  15. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This regulation sets environmental standards for public protection from the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level wastes and wastes that contain elements with atomic numbers higher than uranium (transuranic wastes).

  16. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  17. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.

  18. Critical comments on the US Environmental Protection Agency Standards 40 CFR 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflum, C.G. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Krishna, P. [TRW, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-01-14

    This paper is about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ``Environmental Standards for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Wastes,`` 40 CFR 191. These standards regulate the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. Currently, two repository sites are under investigation: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, may become the repository for defense-generated transuranic waste (TRU); and the Yucca Mountain site, located near Las Vegas, Nevada, may become the repository for spent reactor fuel and a small amount of reprocessing waste (hereinafter called high-level radioactive waste or HLW). The paper was written for readers who have an interest in 40 CFR 191 but do not have the time or inclination to ponder the technical details.

  19. The Idea of Sustainable Development to Reconcile the Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreselassie, Abeba T.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability.The concept of sustainable development is enshrined in a number of global and regional treaties, declarations, and reports such as the Brundtland Commission Report, the Rio...... Declaration, Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals[MDGs], the Johannesburg Declaration and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, and the 2000 Cotonou Agreement between African, Caribbean and Pacific States and the European Union [the Cotonou Agreement]. The purpose of this Article is to integrate...... in the following sections shows, the successful implementation of the CBD partly depends on the cooperation of other states and that there is thus a need for an international integration of environmental protection into development laws, policies and programs. Second, the intersection between the CBD...

  20. Multimodal aspects of CSR communication related to gender empowerment and environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    Purpose – This paper explores how the multimodal persuasive strategies of CSR communication related to Coca-Cola’s “5 by 20” succeed to highlight the company’s continuous commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection. Launched in 2010, “5 by 20” is a program designed to empower 5...... a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by the company in their CSR communication. The paper is focused on the analysis of the video series that can be accessed at: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/5by20. Based on a social...

  1. State aid for adaptation to EU standards for environmental protection in times of economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Munitlak-Ivanović, Olja; Domazet, Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Environmental protection is one of the priority areas for the European Union, even during the current economic and financial crisis. Bearing in mind that companies in times of economic and financial crisis generally do not have enough own resources in order to comply with EU standards in this area, state aid is effective and often the only means. However, state aid is not allowed in competition law and is incompatible with the internal market within the meaning of Article 107 (1) of the Treat...

  2. Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: The World Health Organization perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Kozieł, Anna; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Miśkiewicz, Paulina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing approximately half of the people who use it. Several strategies have been proved to reduce tobacco use. However, more than 50 years after the health effects of smoking were scientifically proven, and more than 20 years after evidence confirmed the hazards from exposure to second-hand smoke, few countries have implemented effective and recognized strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. This paper summarizes the World Health Organization recommendations for effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke along with the existing tobacco control programs and legislation in force in Poland.

  3. Site planning and environmental protection - principles and practical examples. Standortplanung und Umweltschutz - Grundsaetze und Praxisbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, S.; Cisielski, G.; Hoehn, R.; Kaiser, T.; Klemm, W.; Kruschwitz, A.; Schuettauf, B.; Strobel, R. (Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Bereich Fabrikplanung und Fabrikautomatisierung) (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    In the present phase of fundamental change in the industrial and economic structure of the new federal States, questions of factory planning and ecology at factory level are acquiring topical imporance. The objective to present to the reader basic knowledge on and practical experience in site planning and environmental protection is also at the root of this publication. Besides the contribution of a more general or theoretic nature, short reports from practice also point out connections between industrial sites and their regional or municipal context under the infrastructural aspects population potential, transport system, system of education, and other components. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Toward the definition of specific protection goals for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals: A perspective on environmental regulation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A Ross; Whale, Graham; Jackson, Mathew; Marshall, Stuart; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Woods, Richard; Nadzialek, Stephanie; Maltby, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This critical review examines the definition and implementation of environmental protection goals for chemicals in current European Union (EU) legislation, guidelines, and international agreements to which EU countries are party. The European chemical industry is highly regulated, and prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) are tailored for different classes of chemical, according to their specific hazards, uses, and environmental exposure profiles. However, environmental protection goals are often highly generic, requiring the prevention of "unacceptable" or "adverse" impacts on "biodiversity" and "ecosystems" or the "environment as a whole." This review aims to highlight working examples, challenges, solutions, and best practices for defining specific protection goals (SPGs), which are seen to be essential for refining and improving ERA. Specific protection goals hinge on discerning acceptable versus unacceptable adverse effects on the key attributes of relevant, sensitive ecological entities (ranging from organisms to ecosystems). Some isolated examples of SPGs for terrestrial and aquatic biota can be found in prospective ERA guidance for plant protection products (PPPs). However, SPGs are generally limited to environmental or nature legislation that requires environmental monitoring and retrospective ERA. This limitation is due mainly to the availability of baselines, which define acceptable versus unacceptable environmental effects on the key attributes of sentinel species, populations and/or communities, such as reproductive status, abundance, or diversity. Nevertheless, very few regulatory case examples exist in which SPGs incorporate effect magnitude, spatial extent, and temporal duration. We conclude that more holistic approaches are needed for defining SPGs, particularly with respect to protecting population sustainability, ecosystem function, and integrity, which are implicit in generic protection goals and explicit in the International

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRINCIPAL PLAN OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACTIONS FOR KOTLASS PULP AND PAPER PLANT AND ITS ECOLOGICAL FEASIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frog Boris Nikolaevich

    2012-10-01

    On the basis of the above, the principal environmental protection plan of actions was developed to assure that the maximal permissible discharge limit is not exceeded by Kotlass pulp and paper plant. The proposed plan is designated to resolve specific process-related issues from the viewpoint of economy and environmental protection. Its implementation will reduce discharges of suspended solids by 50 %, whereas the concentration of methanol in the wastewater will also go down.

  6. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  7. Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Sunwise School Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenausis Kristin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma incidence is rising at a rate faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV light increases risk for skin cancer as an adult, thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. Methods The Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise School Program, a national environmental and health education program for sun safety of children in primary and secondary schools (grades K-8, was evaluated with surveys administered to participating students and faculty. Results Pretests (n = 5,625 and posttests (n = 5,028 were completed by students in 102 schools in 42 states. Significant improvement was noted for the three knowledge variables. Intentions to play in the shade increased from 68% to 75%(p Conclusions Brief, standardized sun protection education can be efficiently interwoven into existing school curricula, and result in improvements in knowledge and positive intentions for sun protection.

  8. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter, (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  9. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  10. Dose assessment in environmental radiological protection: State of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Goméz-Ros, José M; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Kapustka, Lawrence A; Wood, Michael D; Bradshaw, Clare; Real, Almudena; McGuire, Corynne; Hinton, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry. Therefore, a workshop on environmental dosimetry was organized by the STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) Network of Excellence to review the state of the art in environmental dosimetry and prioritize areas of methodological and guidance development. Herein, we report the key findings from that international workshop, summarise parameters that affect the dose animals and plants receive when exposed to radiation, and identify further research needs. Current dosimetry practices for determining environmental protection are based on simple screening dose assessments using knowledge of fundamental radiation physics, source-target geometry relationships, the influence of organism shape and size, and knowledge of how radionuclide distributions in the body and in the soil profile alter dose. In screening model calculations that estimate whole-body dose to biota the shapes of organisms are simply represented as ellipsoids, while recently developed complex voxel phantom models allow organ-specific dose estimates. We identified several research and guidance development priorities for dosimetry. For external exposures, the uncertainty in dose estimates due to spatially heterogeneous distributions of radionuclide contamination is currently being evaluated. Guidance is needed on the level of dosimetry that is required when screening benchmarks are exceeded and how to report exposure in dose-effect studies, including quantification of uncertainties. Further

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ECONOMY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION - AN ECONOMIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of modern economy and environmental protection there are no significant changes: the old problems are not solved, and the existing ones are deepening. Humanity is still struggling with three existential problems: lack of food, lack of drinking water and insufficiently energized energy. They are also associated with the dangers of further degradation of the environment, the general fear and fear of terrorism and wars, the emergence of diseases for which modern medicine simply has no solution and which threatens to overcome the challenge of pandemic. Energy is still a mood of economic development, with at the same time a disastrous effect on the environment, when traditional sources of fossil resources are used as sources of energy. The paper explores the phenomenon of the impact of energy on the sustainable development of the economy, with a key focus on environmental protection, as well as the possibilities for adaptation to mitigate the consequences of this global phenomenon. In this regard, special attention has been devoted to researching the role and significance of energy from renewable sources as a possible response to current or expected climate stimuli or their consequences in natural and humanism systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the principle of adaptation, which includes mitigation of damages or the exploitation of effective opportunities; understanding how climate can change, what can be impacts, and capacity building and action on these impacts

  12. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office I Appendix I to Chapter 15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ch. 15, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 15—Environmental... open competition under the authority in 41 U.S.C. 253(c)(5) as sources required by statute, i.e., 18 U...

  13. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  14. United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan: November 9, 1993, to November 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The hub of today`s programs at the Hanford Site are activities dedicated to managing stored and new wastes and cleanup of waste sites. To ensure focused planning and implementing efforts for these programs, management of the site is assigned to DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report describes policies and procedures in the following areas: Compliance activities; Environmental restoration; Waste management; and Technology development. Procedures for notification of environmental occurrences, long-range environmental protection planning and reporting, waste management programs; environmental monitoring programs, and quality assurance and data verification are also described and discussed.

  15. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  16. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  17. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  18. Imboacica Lagoon: proposal of Conservation Unity as additional strategy of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes Cristo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imboacica Lagoon is an ecosystem heavily impacted by economic growth driven by oil and gas industry. These impacts, such as disordered land occupation, dilution of untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents without proper monitoring can be perceived throughout the water body. Despite of its many environmental problems, this ecosystem has outstanding scenic beauty and its ecological importance has been exhaustively studied, regarding its actual and possible uses, among which fishing can be detached. Regarding strategic localization and environmental relevance of Imboacica Lagoon, this work aims to identify possible vegetation fragments in order to propose the creation of a Conservation Unit to reinforce environmental protection for the site. To do so, besides literature search, a survey of nearby Conservation Units in conjunction with a research on water and land uses in Imboacica Lagoon surroundings was done. Thus, it was possible to indicate priority areas for conservation of biodiversity and water resource sustainability.

  19. Integrating Biodiversity Management and Indigenous Biopiracy Protection to Promote Environmental Justice and Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Many potentially useful medicines arise from developing countries’ biodiverse environments and indigenous knowledge. However, global intellectual property rules have resulted in biopiracy, raising serious ethical concerns of environmental justice, exploitation, and health disparities in these populations. Furthermore, state-based approaches have not led to adequate biodiversity protection, management, or resource sharing, which affect access to lifesaving drugs. In response, country delegates adopted the Nagoya Protocol, which aims at promoting biodiversity management, combating biopiracy, and encouraging equitable benefits sharing with indigenous communities. However, the effectiveness of this framework in meeting these objectives remains in question. To address these challenges, we propose a policy building on the Nagoya Protocol that employs a World Health Organization–World Trade Organization Joint Committee on Bioprospecting and Biopiracy. PMID:22515858

  20. The family Bignoniaceae in the Environmental Protection Area Serra Branca, Raso da Catarina, Jeremoabo, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Regina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bignoniaceae comprises 82 genera and 827 species distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical regions, with a few species in temperate climates, and is most diverse in South America. The Brazil is the center of diversity for the group, with about 406 species in 33 genera, of which 22 genera and 90 species occur in the Caatinga. The floristic survey of Bignoniaceae in the Environmental Protection Area Serra Branca included analysis of 31 specimens collected from August 2009 to February 2012. The analyses were supplemented with dried collections from the following herbaria: ALCB, HRB and HUEFS. Nine genera and 11 species were recorded: [Anemopaegma Mart ex DC; Bignonia L.; Cuspidaria DC.; Fridericia Mart.; Handroanthus Mattos; Jacaranda Juss; Lundia DC.; Mansoa DC. and Tabebuia Gomes ex DC.]. Fridericia was the most representative genus with three species. The taxonomic treatment includes a key for the identification, descriptions, illustrations, photos, data of the geographical distribution, reproductive phenology and comments about the species.

  1. Survey of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in an environmentally protected area in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Saraiva

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003, and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%, these data indicate the circulation of the parasite

  2. CEEPRA - Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solatie, D.; Leppaenen, A.P. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Kasatkina, N. [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russian Federation); Nalbandyan, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland); Reinikainen, K.; Nissi, M. [Poeyry Finland Oy (Finland); Vaaramaa, K. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    CEEPRA (Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research) is an EU-funded project acting under the Kolarctic ENPI CBC programme. The CEEPRA project's main aim is to develop a collaboration network between key radiation research institutions in the EuroArctic region, which will lead to improved emergency preparedness capabilities in the event of any nuclear accidents. The project is studying the current state of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the EuroArctic region by examining environmental samples collected from Lapland in Finland, Finnmark and Troms in Norway, the Kola Peninsula in Russia and in the Barents Sea. The results provide updated information on the present levels, occurrence and the fate of radioactive substances in the Arctic environments and food chains. Special attention is given to collection and analyses of natural products widely used by general public in Finland, Russia and Norway, such as berries, mushrooms, fish and reindeer meat. The region-specific risk assessments are carried out through modelling and studying of long-term effects of potential nuclear accidents in the EuroArctic region and possible impacts on the region's indigenous population, terrestrial and marine environments, reindeer husbandry, the natural product sector, tourism and industries. The project partners are Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) from Finland, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) from Russia, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Finnish Meteorological Institute and Poeyry Finland Oy. The Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SSC RAS) and Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) are taking part in the project as well. The main results of the project are presented in this study. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ROMANIA THROUGH EUROPEAN STRUCTURAL FUNDS – A SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Codruta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available European Structural Funds have been created with the clear goal to redistribute money among European Union members in such a way as to help poorer regions diminish the gaps between them and the richer ones. The present study assesses this problem for the Structural Operational Programme Environment in Romania. Using spatial econometrics methods, we evaluate two issues on the sample of 42 Romanian counties. The first one is if any clusterization process takes place in what regards contracting funds through ESF for environmental protection projects. The second one is intended to test whether the main principle of the ESF is satisfied – helping the poor in a sustainable development process. Using the quartile maps and the spatial Moran's I autocorrelation coefficient we show different results for the clusterization topic. When considering the budget value of the projects implemented through SOP ENV, both as total and as eligible share, Romanian counties group based on a positive global spatial autocorrelation. This means that counties with approximately the same budget levels are neighbours. Transylvanian counties have gained the most out of the projects on environment. When the number of contracts is assessed, the distribution of the counties proves to be random and no global spatial autocorrelation was found. Moreover, the map analysis shows that, in general, there is a negative relationship between the value of the budget and the number of contracts. The spatial regression analysis shows the violation of the ESF principle. The coefficients of the GDP are positive. This implies a direct relationship between the richness of the county and the projects implemented through the SOP ENV. Thus, instead of being used by the poorer regions, money goes to the richer ones. The higher the GDP, the higher the value of the budget for the environmental protection programmes financed through European funds. The GDP also positively influences the number of

  4. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  5. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mark A; Davis, Sonnet S; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M; Mitchell, Kylie P; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H; Hubbard, Troy D; Lamba, Deepak A; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2'-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice.

  6. Managing Water to Protect Fish: A Review of California's Environmental Water Account, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Kimmerer, Wim; Brown, Randall

    2009-02-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches.

  7. Managing water to protect fish: A review of California's environmental water account, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Kimmerer, W.; Brown, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the landward reach of the San Francisco Estuary, provides habitat for threatened delta smelt, endangered winter-run Chinook salmon, and other species of concern. It is also the location of huge freshwater diversion facilities that entrain large numbers of fish. Reducing the entrainment of listed fishes into these facilities has required curtailment of pumping, reducing the reliability of water deliveries. We reviewed the first 5 years (2001-2005) of the Environmental Water Account (EWA), a program instituted to resolve conflicts between protecting listed fishes and providing a reliable water supply. The EWA provided fishery agencies with control over 0.2-0.4 km3 of water to be used for fish protection at no cost to users of exported water, and fish agencies guaranteed no disruption of water supply for fish protection. The EWA was successful in reducing uncertainty in water supply; however, its contribution to the recovery of listed fishes was unclear. We estimated the effectiveness of the EWA to be modest, increasing the survival of winter-run Chinook salmon by 0-6% (dependent on prescreen mortality), adult delta smelt by 0-1%, and juvenile delta smelt by 2-4%. Allocating EWA water for a single life stage of one species could provide larger gains in survival. An optimally allocated EWA of equal size to the median of the first 5 years could increase abundance of juvenile delta smelt up to 7% in the springs of dry years. If the EWA is to become a long-term program, estimates of efficacy should be refined. If the program is to be held accountable for quantitative increases in fish populations, it will be necessary to integrate scientific, possibly experimental, approaches. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Why the Legislation does not Protect Native Forests in Argentina? Environmental Conflicts and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Silvetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a political ecology framework, we analyze the environmental conflicts arising from the discussion of a law aiming at protecting native forests in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina (Law 9814/2010. The main social actors involved in the discussion are characterized, as well as the alliances and conflicts that emerged among them along the legislative discussion of the law. Two major stakeholders emerged during the conflict, which fostered a series of political actions aiming at influencing provincial legislators. The conflict showed what was at stake during the conflict: the discussion, at the local/provincial level, of the dominant rural-development model prevailing at national/global level. The research suggests that the approved law expresses the power alliances historically developed by the most powerful social actors. This group uses the institutional framework provided by the State in order to seek their own advantage and disregarding environmental and/or social costs. This situation undermines and weakens the demands and rights of the most disadvantaged social groups, ignores the processes of civil participation, and affects the provision of ecosystem services of central Argentina’s native forests

  9. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  10. Setting the Record Straight: Interest Group Influence on Climate Policy at the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jeffrey J.

    It is clear that interest groups are involved in the rulemaking process at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but it has been difficult to determine whether certain groups are more influential on outcomes. This debate persists because the literature illustrates that groups can be influential at discrete stages in the process, but the field rarely analyzes the entire rulemaking process. This uncertainty has spurred controversy regarding the EPA's recent climate change regulations. Therefore, this dissertation conducted three case studies of recent climate change regulations and addresses three questions. First, what, if any, strategies did interest groups use to influence the content of these climate change rules? Second, did these strategies translate into influence? Third, what can these climate change case studies tell us about the role of interest groups in other controversial rules at the EPA, and across the bureaucracy more broadly? Ultimately, I argue that interest group influence was generally balanced across each of the three case studies. These findings then serve as the basis to develop my Regulatory Spheres of Influence Framework. The framework illustrates that given the nature of EPA rulemakings, it is very difficult for one side either business or environmental to dominate the process in highly controversial rules. It is possible that these conclusions track to other controversial rules across the bureaucracy and I note that my framework could be applied in other contexts to test this assertion.

  11. Environmental protection in Hong Kong amidst transition: Is Hong Kong ready to manage its environment by law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing-Hung Lo, Carlos

    1995-05-01

    Within the context of political democratization, this article explores environmental protection in Hong Kong since the government lauched a ten-year program to “save the environment” in 1989. Examining environmental management by law from a social-choice perspective, it argues that the government has yet to reach an integrative policy orocess. Hence the preconditions for an integrative set of environmental legislation are absent. Institutionally, without a comprehensive green policy, the current arrangements lack a vision as an integrative force to promote effective coordination among various sectoral environmental coordination among various sectoral environmental programs. The dominant approach of policy and law enforcement through consultation has rendered impossible strict enforcement of environmental rules and regulations as local economic growth enjoys a priority over environmental protection. At a time of environmental awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared to participate in environmental management in a strict legal manner. The overall observation is that Hong Kong has yet to see more mature political, legal, administrative, and social conditions for managing its environment within a legal framework.

  12. Absence of protective effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on atrial fibrillation development: insights from the Canadian Trial of Atrial Fibrillation (CTAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palardy, Maryse; Ducharme, Anique; Nattel, Stanley; Tardif, Jean-Claude; White, Michel; Racine, Normand; Tétreault, Karine; Dabouz, Farida; Talajic, Mario; Roy, Denis

    2008-09-01

    Antiarrhythmic agents have modest efficacy in preventing atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence. Although retrospective analyses have suggested a preventive effect of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on AF development in patients with congestive heart failure or hypertension, the value of these agents has not been evaluated in patients with AF but without a high prevalence of hypertension or heart failure. A retrospective analysis of the Canadian Trial of Atrial Fibrillation (CTAF) was conducted. CTAF demonstrated the superiority of amiodarone (A) over sotalol or propafenone (SP) in maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with AF. Of the 403 patients randomly assigned in CTAF, 11.7% of the A group and 12.7% of the SP group were receiving a RAS inhibitor at baseline. By multivariate analysis (including all the risk factors known to be associated with AF available in the database), the use of RAS blockers in addition to antiarrhythmic agents was not associated with additional benefit against AF development. There was a recurrence of AF in 59 patients (38.3%) and 14 patients (29.8%) of groups A and A-RAS, respectively, while 93 patients (61.6%) and 32 patients (62.8%) of the SP and SP-RAS groups, respectively, experienced recurrent AF. Blocking the RAS did not provide additional benefit against AF recurrence in CTAF patients treated with an antiarrhythmic drug. These results underscore the need for randomized clinical trials to clearly define the role of RAS inhibitors in treating AF.

  13. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  14. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  15. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods.Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed.The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  16. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  17. Aspects sociolinguistiques du bilinguisme canadien (Aspects of Canadian Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Jacques, Bernard

    The Canadian government opted for a politics of bilingualism according to the "personal solution" whereby the Canadian citizen, whether English or French, can demand the protection of his language regardless of the section of the country in which he lives. In a "territorial solution," an individual can claim official status for…

  18. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Annual report of the Institute, which represents the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry on environmental, health, safety, and business issues affecting the industry and Canadian society. The report describes the Institute; gives highlights for the year; describes the recipient of the first CPPI Chairman's Award, Dr. Linton Kulak; provides a general policy and guiding principles for environment, health, and safety; describes the environmental achievements and challenges of the Canadian petroleum industry; and describes industry economics and operations. A list of 1991 publications is also included.

  19. The influence of differing protected area status and environmental factors on the macroinvertebrate fauna of temperate austral wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Furlonge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One means of conserving wetlands is to designate the area around them as ‘protected’. Although many different types of protected areas exist, ranging from international (Ramsar-listed to local importance, there is little information on how the type of protection influences biodiversity conservation. Studies of the effectiveness of protected area systems are a priority, if we are to understand their importance and design systems effectively. Many Tasmanian wetlands are regarded as having high to very high conservation values with more than 60% located within protected areas. This study tested macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage responses to a range of environmental attributes and differing types of protected area status at 66 protected Tasmanian (Australian wetlands. Two hundred and eighteen taxa were identified with an average of 33 species (or morphospecies and 18 families recorded per wetland. The wetland assemblages were idiosyncratic, four families contributed 21% of the total recorded and only two families contributed greater than 10%. Wetlands were not significantly nested on the basis of the composition of their macroinvertebrate assemblages. No single environmental attribute had a strong relationship with macroinvertebrate richness or assemblage composition and neither species richness nor assemblage composition varied significantly between different types of protected areas. Although the majority of protected area types were designed to support terrestrial conservation objectives rather than wetland values, our results suggest that the latter were also afforded protection. The state of the proximal zone (the terrestrial zone within 50m of the wetland edge and the type of aquatic habitat present (macrophyte or sediment-dominated substrates were the most important determinants of macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage composition across all types of protected wetlands. These results suggest that for temperate austral wetlands

  20. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  1. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  2. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Canadian Border Boat...

  3. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  4. Overexpression of DeltaFosB in nucleus accumbens mimics the protective addiction phenotype, but not the protective depression phenotype of environmental enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafang eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats. ΔFosB is a transcription factor that regulates reward in the brain and is induced by psychological stress as well as drugs of abuse. However, the role played by ΔFosB in the protective phenotypes of environmental enrichment has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is differentially regulated in rats reared in an isolated condition (IC compared to those in an enriched condition (EC in response to restraint stress or cocaine. Chronic stress or chronic cocaine treatment each elevates ΔFosB protein levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc of IC rats, but not of EC rats due to an already elevated basal accumulation of ΔFosB seen under EC conditions. Viral-mediated overexpression of ΔFosB in NAc shell of pair-housed rats (i.e., independent of environmental enrichment/isolation increases operant responding for sucrose when motivated by hunger, but decreases responding in satiated animals. Moreover, ∆FosB overexpression decreases cocaine self-administration, enhances extinction of cocaine seeking, and decreases cocaine-induced reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self-administration, all behavioral findings consistent with the enrichment phenotype. In contrast, however, ∆FosB overexpression did not alter responses of pair-housed rats in several tests of anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Thus, accumulation of ΔFosB in NAc shell mimics the protective addiction phenotype, but not the protective depression phenotype of environmental enrichment.

  5. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  6. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals: I. review of protection goals of EU directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, U.; Baveco, J.M.; Galic, N.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water

  7. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s medaka Extended One-Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research...

  8. PROSPECTS OF CCS PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION IN RUSSIA: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tcvetkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of environmental protection is determined by its intensive change because of human impact, which, among other things, accompanied by an increasing of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. One of the ways to reduce the emission is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS technologies. To date, developed countries have successfully implemented a number of CCS demonstration projects. Their main purpose is to study the effectiveness of CO2 storage. Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of CO2 emissions. However, CO2 capture and storage issues are not studied by Russian enterprises due to the absence of environmental taxes. The experience of developed countries shows that CO2 storage projects, in addition to the reduction of anthropogenic impact, can be commercially effective not only by reducing the tax burden. This review presents the analysis of international experience in the field of CO2 capture and storage. Given the immaturity of technology and lack of the necessary volume of statistical data, it was an attempt to determine the minimum conditions, which permit the implementation of CCS projects in Russian oil fields. On the basis of the Russian development forecast and the fuel balance structure the volumes of CO2 emissions in the 2016–2030 years were calculated. According to significant difference in opinions about the feasibility of CCS implementation in Russia, this review presents the main arguments for and against such projects. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of CCS projects to enhance oil recovery factor showed that in spite of the absence of CO2 emissions taxes, such projects could be commercially effective in Russia due to the increase in oil recovery.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1981 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1981. The five parts of the report are oriented to particular segments of the program. Parts 1 to 4 report on research performed for the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research in the Office of Energy Research. Part 5 reports progress on all research performed for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The parts are: Part 1: Biomedical Sciences under Program Manager, H. Drucker; Part 2: Ecological Sciences, under Program Manager, B.E. Vaughan; Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences under Program Manager, C.E. Elderkin; Part 4: Physical Sciences under Program Manager, J.M. Nielsen; and Part 5: Environmental and Occupational Protection, Assessment, and Engineering under Program Managers, D.L. Hessel, S. Marks, and W.A. Glass.

  10. Capacity development for environmental protection : towards better performing environmental impact assessment systems in low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolhoff, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a legal tool used to support government decisions on projects that could harm the environment. It is applied to such decisions, to study the possible environmental impacts of the proposed project and any mitigating measures necessary to minimize them. In the

  11. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: water quality, sediment grain, and chemistry data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  12. US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment for American Samoa 2004: Water Quality, Sediment Grain and Chemistry Data (NODC Accession 0000455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) National Coastal Assessment (NCA), coordinated through the...

  13. Documentation to the workshop 'Cluster in the environmental protection economy'; Dokumentation zum Workshop ''Cluster in der Umweltschutzwirtschaft''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-11

    Within the workshop 'Cluster in the environmental protection economy' at the Umweltbundesamt (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) at 27th November, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Which contribution can cluster and cluster politics contribute to the promotion of the environmental protection economy? (Harald Legler); (b) Cluster in the environmental protection economy: Targets and expectations (Dieter Rehfeld); (c) Demands at the management of clusters (Karin Hoerhan); (d) Demands at the cluster politics in the environmental protection economy (Bernhard Hausberg); (e) Photovoltaics in Eastern Germany (Johann Wackenbauer); (f) Automotive industry in Bergisches Land (Thomas Lemken); (g) Competence centre environment Augsburg-Schwaben (Egon Beckord).

  14. Prevention and protection of the effects of biocorrosion and biofouling minimizing the environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez de Saravia, S. G.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion and biofouling processes are mediated by microorganisms adhered to the metal surfaces or embedded in a gelatinous matrix called biofilm. Biofilms affect the interaction between metals and the environment not only in deleterious processes like corrosion but also in several biological processes applied to materials recovery and handling. The growth of the microorganisms capable to induce biocorrosion is conditioned by favorable environmental conditions. However, the chemical agents generally used to prevent or protect metallic structures from biocorrosion are highly toxic and after use can have a negative impact on the environment. Four different approaches developed in our laboratory to prevent and control biocorrosion but minimizing the environmental impact, are successively presented in this paper: a the use of ozone as an environmentally friend biocide for cooling water systems; b the assay of the effectiveness of natural biocides on planktonic and sessile bacteria; c the potential use of film forming corrosion inhibitors; d the use of innovative preventing substances.

    Los procesos de biocorrosión y biofouling están mediados por microorganismos que adhieren a las superficies metálicas embebidos en una matriz gelatinosa llamada biofilm. Los biofilms afectan a la interacción entre metales y el medio ambiente, no solo a través de procesos deletéreos tales como la corrosión sino, también, en el manipuleo de diversos materiales. El crecimiento de los microorganismos capaces de inducir biocorrosión esta condicionado por un medio ambiente favorable. Sin embargo, generalmente, los agentes químicos usados para prevenir o proteger las estructuras metálicas de la biocorrosión son altamente tóxicos y su uso puede tener un impacto negativo para el ambiente. En este trabajo se presentan cuatro vías diferentes, desarrolladas en nuestro laboratorio, para prevenir y controlar la biocorrosión minimizando el impacto

  15. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  16. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  17. Can Protection Motivation Theory predict pro-environmental behavior? Explaining the adoption of electric vehicles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive

  18. Technical issues affecting the implementation of US environmental protection agency's proposed fish tissue-based aquatic criterion for selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is developing a national water quality criterion for selenium that is based on concentrations of the element in fish tissue. Although this approach offers advantages over the current water-based regulations, it also presents new challenges with respect to implementation. A comprehensive protocol that answers the ‘‘what, where, and...

  19. EPA Public Notice: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Reviews Cleanup at Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting its third five-year review of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Superfund Site, located in the city of Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, New York. This review seeks to confirm that the cleanup acti

  20. SYNOPSIS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESIDENTIAL REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS EVALUATION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper is a recapitulation of the experimental testing at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's NRMRL's (National Risk Management Research Laboratory's) Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs). R/F testing at the NRMRL lab...

  1. Conditions for caribou persistence in the wolf-elk-caribou systems of the Canadian Rockies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Hebblewhite; Jesse Whittington; Mark Bradley; Geoff Skinner; Alan Dibb; Clifford A. White

    2007-01-01

    Woodland caribou populations are considered threatened in Alberta and have declined in the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks of Banff and Jasper despite protection from factors causing caribou...

  2. FINDING THE BALANCE BETWEEN THE ENERGY SECCURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Z Bukurov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few issues that are as important to our collective future as energy. Like everyone else, Serbia has its stake in reducing energy price, enhancing the security of energy supply, and reducing emissions, including greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with fossil fuels. In the years to come Serbian economy is expected to grow and industry to search and explore the potential of using cleaner alternative fuels. There is a lot that could be done to conserve energy and to reduce environmental footprint. But the most important thing that could be done to enable Serbian industry to reduce emissions is the implementation of a modernized Power Generation system. At the same time the reality can't be neither sugarcoated nor ignored and alternatives to fossil fuel will succeed only if they are economically feasible for suppliers and users alike. New technologies currently under development should be considered to allow Serbia the use of energy resources in a more efficient ways and with better protection of the environment. If successfully deployed, the development of alternative, renewable fuels will allow Serbian energy sector to effectively decouple its growth from GHG emissions. This paper explore opportunities and the potential of alternative fuels for increasing competition in energy supply, for reducing emissions and in Serbia while decreasing dependence on imported energy.

  3. Environmental Protection Department, Operations and Regulatory Affairs Division, LLNL NESHAPs 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R

    2007-06-20

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2006 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.0045 mrem (0.045 {micro}Sv) (36% from point source emissions, 64% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.016 mrem (0.16 {micro}Sv) (87.5% from point source emissions, 12.5% from diffuse source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured radionuclide concentrations and dose coefficients. Specific inputs to CAP88-PC for the modeled sources included site-specific meteorological data and source emissions data, the latter variously based on continuous stack effluent monitoring data, stack flow or other release-rate information, ambient air monitoring data, and facility knowledge.

  4. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  5. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  7. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations: secondary analysis of the Canadian Incident Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Michael A; Black, Tara; Fallon, Barbara; Marshall, Alena

    2013-01-01

    This national study of child custody disputes within the context of child protection investigations confirms and reinforces the perception in the field that child custody disputes are more likely to reopen for investigations, include higher rates of malicious referrals and involve a higher proportion of children with emotional and functioning issues compared to non-custody-related investigations. Future research might consider the reasons for these higher rates so to improve the identification of these cases and to make more informed decisions about how best to respond to these families. The greatest contribution of this study is that it provides important new evidence to reinforce the need to prioritize child custody disputes within the context of child protection services given the unique challenges and opportunities for making well-informed case plan decisions.

  9. Can Environmental Laws Fulfill Their Promise? Stories from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Bankes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Canadian environmental law has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, responding to some of the flaws and weaknesses identified by commentators seeking to explain the continuing trend in environmental degradation. The aim of this article is to tell the story of three pieces of Canadian environmental legislation, the Alberta Land Stewardship Act, the federal Species at Risk Act, and Alberta’s Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, with a view to exploring whether the environmental ambition underlying these pieces of legislation is being realized. Our overall conclusion is that there is a significant gap between the ambition of these three pieces of environmental legislation and their actual implementation but this gap arises from design choices made by the legislature and the executive, rather than something inherent in the law itself.

  10. Environmental economic appraisal as a tool for water resources conservation: a proposal for assisting management of the Environmental Protection Area in Macaé de Cima, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Formagini Brant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of the use of evaluation methods in the management of Environmental Protection Areas (APAs, in order to provide the necessary tools for the management of APA - Macaé de Cima/RJ, still under development. Thus, the paper presents some concepts related to the study of natural resource economics, emphasizing ways of evaluating tropical ecosystems. The article proposes that water resources should be analyzed by using contextualization of environmental appraisal methods that show the importance of water resources for local society and associated ecosystems.

  11. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  12. Integrating human and environmental health in antibiotic risk assessment: A critical analysis of protection goals, species sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Gareth; Gunnarsson, Lina; Snape, Jason; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are vital in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases but when released into the environment they may impact non-target organisms that perform vital ecosystem services and enhance antimicrobial resistance development with significant consequences for human health. We evaluate whether the current environmental risk assessment regulatory guidance is protective of antibiotic impacts on the environment, protective of antimicrobial resistance, and propose science-based protection goals for antibiotic manufacturing discharges. A review and meta-analysis was conducted of aquatic ecotoxicity data for antibiotics and for minimum selective concentration data derived from clinically relevant bacteria. Relative species sensitivity was investigated applying general linear models, and predicted no effect concentrations were generated for toxicity to aquatic organisms and compared with predicted no effect concentrations for resistance development. Prokaryotes were most sensitive to antibiotics but the range of sensitivities spanned up to several orders of magnitude. We show reliance on one species of (cyano)bacteria and the 'activated sludge respiration inhibition test' is not sufficient to set protection levels for the environment. Individually, neither traditional aquatic predicted no effect concentrations nor predicted no effect concentrations suggested to safeguard for antimicrobial resistance, protect against environmental or human health effects (via antimicrobial resistance development). Including data from clinically relevant bacteria and also more species of environmentally relevant bacteria in the regulatory framework would help in defining safe discharge concentrations for antibiotics for patient use and manufacturing that would protect environmental and human health. It would also support ending unnecessary testing on metazoan species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. In utero and lactational exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants detected in Canadian Arctic human populations alters retinoid levels in rat offspring with low margins of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbas, Lubna E; Esteban, Javier; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Viluksela, Matti; Borg, Daniel; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Arctic inhabitants are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP), which may produce adverse health effects. This study characterized alterations in tissue retinoid (vitamin A) levels in rat offspring and their dams following in utero and lactational exposure to the Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM), a mixture of 27 contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), present in maternal blood of the Canadian Arctic Inuit population. Further, effect levels for retinoid system alterations and other endpoints were compared to the Arctic Inuit population exposure and their interrelationships were assessed. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed with NCM from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were obtained from offspring on PND35, PND77, and PND350 and their dams on PND30 for analysis of tissue retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes, and serum thyroid hormones. Benchmark doses were established for all endpoints, and a partial least-squares regression analysis was performed for NCM treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, CYP enzyme induction, and thyroid hormone levels, as well as body and liver weights. Hepatic retinoid levels were sensitive endpoints, with the most pronounced effects at PND35 though still apparent at PND350. The effects on tissue retinoid levels and changes in CYP enzyme activities, body and liver weights, and thyroid hormone levels were associated and likely driven by dioxin-like compounds in the mixture. Low margins of exposure were observed for all retinoid endpoints at PND35. These findings are important for health risk assessment of Canadian Arctic populations and further support the use of retinoid system analyses in testing of endocrine-system-modulating compounds.

  14. Methods based on remote sensing data for environmental monitoring to support National and Regional Protection Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, V.; Lasaponara, R.; Macchiato, F. M.; Simoniello, T.

    2001-05-01

    Remote sensing provides useful data for environmental monitoring nevertheless, efforts are required to test and evaluate methods and techniques to be applied for operational applications. Since 1994, in the context of several projects founded by the Italian Environment Protection Agency (ANPA) and Environmental Department of Basilicata Region, we have experienced the use of remote sensing for environmental monitoring in operative contexts. Particularly, we have developed and tested methodologies based on the integration of remote sensed data aimed at: estimations of space/temporal dynamics of surface parameters (such as temperature and vegetation indexes), forest fire detection and danger estimation, risk assessment, change detection, desertification, alpine ice monitoring, etc. Some examples are briefly summarized below. The action C of Timoran projects was devoted to forest fire monitoring. We devised a dynamic short time fire forecasting based on the integration of remote sensing and GIS. A daily fire susceptibility assessment was performed, from NOAA-AVHRR exploiting the cross analysis of the temporal evolution of NDVI and the middle-infrared channel. Four danger classes have been obtained (low, moderate, high and very high). We also estimated the expected fire severity combining and integrating different danger variables, such as: (1) fire susceptibility (water stress) performed using satellite AVHRR data, (2) fuel type, (3) incidence of topography, (4) wind forecast, obtained from meteorological models. Potential and limitations of AVHRR for fire detection were evaluated in the Italian ecosystems. At present we are working on evaluating the effectiveness of Landsat-TM imagery for mapping burned area in heterogeneous regions, characterized by different cover types, rough topography and complex ecosystems. In the context of "Devising of environmental indicators based on remote sensing data" project, funded by ANPA, we investigated on an AVHRR time series from

  15. Experimental test results from an environmental protection agency test method for determination of vapor suppressant effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tock, Richard W.; Ahern, Daniel W.

    2005-04-01

    The results obtained from laboratory experiments conducted using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subpart WWWW of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 63 (1)-test method are discussed in this article. The original test method was developed to measure the effectiveness of wax suppressants used to reduce hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from unsaturated polyester (UP)/vinyl ester resins. Wax additions of ˜1.5% by weight to commercial UP resins suppress HAP emissions through the formation of surface barrier films. However, the tests performed in this study included the use of limestone and an adjunct, organic fiber reinforcement, rather than the wax. The addition of either commercial product to the UP formulations tested in this study was also shown to reduce HAP emissions. Suppression was a combination of absorption and an increased diffusion path barrier for the volatile organic carbon (VOC) components. Based on the limited data obtained, it was shown that the oil absorption characteristics of the two adjunct products could be used to estimate the expected level of vapor suppression for a specific resin formulation. Values reported in the literature for the oil adsorption characteristics of the adjunct limestone and the commercial biomass fiber were used in the laboratory tests. Although the oil adsorption characteristic of any ingredient added to a base resin formulation is indicative of its potential for emissions reduction, the EPA test protocol is still required to be performed for validation. Such screening tests will always be needed due to the variability associated with commercial UP resins and the evolution of customized UP/fiberglass composite formulations developed by custom molding shops.

  16. Empirical models of transitions between coral reef states: effects of region, protection, and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Phillip K; Bruno, John F; Selig, Elizabeth R; Spencer, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    There has been substantial recent change in coral reef communities. To date, most analyses have focussed on static patterns or changes in single variables such as coral cover. However, little is known about how community-level changes occur at large spatial scales. Here, we develop Markov models of annual changes in coral and macroalgal cover in the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR) regions. We analyzed reef surveys from the Caribbean and GBR (1996-2006). We defined a set of reef states distinguished by coral and macroalgal cover, and obtained Bayesian estimates of the annual probabilities of transitions between these states. The Caribbean and GBR had different transition probabilities, and therefore different rates of change in reef condition. This could be due to differences in species composition, management or the nature and extent of disturbances between these regions. We then estimated equilibrium probability distributions for reef states, and coral and macroalgal cover under constant environmental conditions. In both regions, the current distributions are close to equilibrium. In the Caribbean, coral cover is much lower and macroalgal cover is higher at equilibrium than in the GBR. We found no evidence for differences in transition probabilities between the first and second halves of our survey period, or between Caribbean reefs inside and outside marine protected areas. However, our power to detect such differences may have been low. We also examined the effects of altering transition probabilities on the community state equilibrium, along a continuum from unfavourable (e.g., increased sea surface temperature) to favourable (e.g., improved management) conditions. Both regions showed similar qualitative responses, but different patterns of uncertainty. In the Caribbean, uncertainty was greatest about effects of favourable changes, while in the GBR, we are most uncertain about effects of unfavourable changes. Our approach could be extended to provide

  17. Empirical models of transitions between coral reef states: effects of region, protection, and environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip K Lowe

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent change in coral reef communities. To date, most analyses have focussed on static patterns or changes in single variables such as coral cover. However, little is known about how community-level changes occur at large spatial scales. Here, we develop Markov models of annual changes in coral and macroalgal cover in the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR regions. We analyzed reef surveys from the Caribbean and GBR (1996-2006. We defined a set of reef states distinguished by coral and macroalgal cover, and obtained Bayesian estimates of the annual probabilities of transitions between these states. The Caribbean and GBR had different transition probabilities, and therefore different rates of change in reef condition. This could be due to differences in species composition, management or the nature and extent of disturbances between these regions. We then estimated equilibrium probability distributions for reef states, and coral and macroalgal cover under constant environmental conditions. In both regions, the current distributions are close to equilibrium. In the Caribbean, coral cover is much lower and macroalgal cover is higher at equilibrium than in the GBR. We found no evidence for differences in transition probabilities between the first and second halves of our survey period, or between Caribbean reefs inside and outside marine protected areas. However, our power to detect such differences may have been low. We also examined the effects of altering transition probabilities on the community state equilibrium, along a continuum from unfavourable (e.g., increased sea surface temperature to favourable (e.g., improved management conditions. Both regions showed similar qualitative responses, but different patterns of uncertainty. In the Caribbean, uncertainty was greatest about effects of favourable changes, while in the GBR, we are most uncertain about effects of unfavourable changes. Our approach could be

  18. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (Pconflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area-community conflicts, we recommend improving environmental education, establishing community co-management, and launching substitute sources of cash for traditional cultivation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  20. Examining Child Welfare Decisions and Services for Asian-Canadian Versus White-Canadian Children and Families in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Fallon, Barbara; Black, Tara; Trocmé, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Using administrative child welfare data from the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS), this study compared the profiles of Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that experienced a case closure after an investigation instead of being transferred to ongoing child protection services (CPS). Child protection investigations involving Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that were transferred to ongoing CPS presented a different profile of case characteristics and caregiver and child clinical needs. Asian-Canadian children and families received ongoing CPS for over a month longer than White-Canadian children and families and were less likely (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.39) to be reinvestigated for any form of maltreatment-related concerns within 1 year after case closure. It appears that child protection investigations involving Asian-Canadian children and families are less likely to be closed prematurely than White-Canadian children and families, and the child protection system may be meeting the needs of Asian-Canadian communities. Alternatively, it is possible there is unaccounted biases that may be reflective of systemic problem of discriminative practices in the child protection system. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon.

  1. Approaches to teaching high school students about environmental protection in the Greater Bielsko-Biała Metropolitan Area (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczewska-Popowycz Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to assess the level of knowledge about local environmental protection among high school students in Bielsko-Biała and the surrounding areas. This sort of knowledge is part of the curriculum and is covered in various natural science school courses, such as geography, biology, chemistry, and social sciences. Various laws and regulations mandate that ecology is part of the secondary education curriculum – “Podstawa programowa kształcenia ogólnego” (2002, 2008 a, b. The Bielsko-Biała area is known for its valuable natural resources and natural attractions. It is home to twelve protected natural areas, including: two sanctuaries, two scenic landscape parks, four nature and landscape complexes, two unique endangered ecosystems, and two protected Natura 2000 areas, as well as 62 natural landmarks. The present paper presents results of a study that was conducted by means of a survey of Bielsko-Biała’s high school students with respect to their knowledge about these protected natural areas. The results of the study revealed that the vast majority of the students do not take an interest in environmental protection issues. Moreover, the high school students displayed unsatisfactory knowledge about the protected natural areas around their city. The survey revealed that the study subjects were unable to identify the types of natural protected areas surrounding their city, let alone list or name the specific sanctuaries or natural landmarks. These disappointing findings generalize for both the students who live in Bielsko-Biała, and those who live in the distant northern provinces of the region. The results of the study stress the need for field trips and other programs aimed at advancing students’ knowledge in this area. The need to incentivize teachers to organize field trips and other events of this kind is also highlited.

  2. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  3. Preventive legal obligations and principles in modern international environmental law. The current status of international environmental exploitation and protection. Praeventive Rechtspflichten und -prinzipien des modernen Umweltvoelkerrechts. Zum Stand des Umweltvoelkerrechts zwischen Umweltnutzung und Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    The doctoral dissertation first examines the contribution of international organisations and bodies to the development of international environmental law outside of international agreements. It then analyses the international agreements on the protection of the environment. The three characteristics of modern international environmental law, namely direct protection of environmental media, relationship of several states, who are emitters or have protective obligations, to a multitude of spatially distant victim states, and thinking in terms of common responsibilities, regional cooperation or global common-concern criteria are shown to be also present in the environmental agreements. The author comes to the conclusion that a switch of paradigms has taken place in international environmental law. Traditional international law, with its fixation on the efficient allocation of resources, has developed since roughly 1982/1987 into the modern form of international environmental law, which is primarily concerned with environment protection, and is largely characterized by precautionary/preventive legal obligations and principles. (orig./HSCH).

  4. The Extent to which Laws and Regulations on Environmental Liability Protect the Environment and Compensate the Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Maidment, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an examination and analysis of the laws and regulations on environmental liability, in light of the growing global concern of oil pollution of the marine environment. It considers several fundamental legal provisions that have attempted to protect the environment and compensate the victims of oil pollution and assesses the extent to which these provisions have achieved these aims. A recent high profile incident has reinstated the issue as a worldwide public concern and p...

  5. Analysis of the Design and Energy Performance of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Cambria Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Sheffer, M.; Lau, A.

    2005-03-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection asked NREL to evaluate the energy performance of the Cambria Office Building to determine if it had met design goals. The focus of this report is the analysis of an integrated design process used to construct the facility and the postoccupancy energy performance. NREL collected energy use and other performance data and compared that data with a standard ASHRAE baseline computer model. NREL used this metered data and analysis to formulate recommendations to further improve building performance.

  6. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  7. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  8. Coherence of land surface layout as intangible environmental resource (Vooremaa landscape protection area, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Karasov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vooremaa Landscape Protection Area provides a specimen of native Estonian agricultural lands, alternating with picturesque moraine lakes. The overall visual environment within this area was basically changed by glacial agents and, hereafter, by cultural activities, such as crop farming. Topography consists of about 100 drumlins (some of them are cultivated, as well as depressions, filled with lakes and covered by forests and grasslands. A rich combination of the mentioned factors determined the study area selection. There was accepted, that the harmony, or pleasing organization of distinguishable units of visual environment (with no attention to their colours or textures, but regarding their geographical meaning only, depends on the system effect: the more complexity of the overall system exceeds the algebraic sum of the complexity of its components, the more its organization does. In this way, some developments of information theory could be applied to the analysis of visual environment (from top view, similarly to the analysis of the text (considering units of land relief, land cover, and land cover relief, or a land surface in total, as the symbols of some alphabet, and their diversity within the floating circle – as words, consisting of the symbols. Since mentioned notions of organization and harmony are frequently implied in the concept of landscape coherence, the latter term was used as a fixed and well-known one in the landscape and environmental aesthetics. Hartley’s formula was used to compute the coherence of the land surface layout and the respective regionalization within the study area and surroundings. The effectiveness of the proposed method for representation of visual harmony was non-rigorously verified with transect of Google Street View panoramic photo series, while everyone is welcomed to use the Google Street View to compare the presented results with his own conclusions. There was found, that the proposed index

  9. Analysing the environmental harms caused by coal mining and its protection measures in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The coal mining has brought a series of ecological problems and environmental problems in permafrost regions. Taking Muli coal-mining area as an example, this article attempts to analyse the environmental harms caused by coal mining and its protection measures in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. This article analyses the influence of open mining on the surrounding permafrost around the open pit by using the numerical simulation. The results show that (1 based on the interrelation between coal mining and permafrost environment, these main environmental harm include the permafrost change and the natural environment change in cold regions; (2 once the surface temperature rises due to open mining, the permafrost will disappear with the increase of exploitation life. If considering the solar radiation, the climate conditions and the geological condition around the pit edge, the maximum thaw depth will be more than 2 m; (3 the protection measures are proposed to avoid the disadvantage impact on the permafrost environment caused by coal mining. It will provide a scientific basis for the resource development and environment protection in cold regions.

  10. Environmental Effects of Sediment Transport Alteration and Impacts on Protected Species: Edgartown Tidal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Stephen B; Schlezinger, David, Ph.D; Cowles, Geoff, Ph.D; Hughes, Patricia; Samimy,; Roland, I; and Terray, E, Ph.D.

    2012-12-29

    potential for biofouling and foundation scouring. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, cooperating with SMAST, developed an oceanographic model to predict changes in sediment transport as a result of the proposed tidal energy project. Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies prepared background material on protected species - including whales, seals, and sea turtles - in the project area and implemented an initial tagging program to record location specific information on seals and sea turtles. HMMH communicated research plans and findings with local stakeholder groups, state and federal resource agency staff, and the ocean power industry. The information is being used to prepare environmental permit applications and obtain approvals for project construction.

  11. Naturalness and beyond: Protected area stewardship in an era of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Laurie Yung; Erika S. Zavaleta; Gregory H. Aplet; F. Stuart III Chaplin; David M. Graber; Eric S. Higgs; Richard J. Hobbs; Peter B. Landres; Constance I. Millar; David J. Parsons; John M. Randall; Nathan L. Stephenson; Kathy A. Tonnessen; Peter S. White; Stephen Woodley

    2008-01-01

    FOR MOST LARGE U.S. PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, enabling legislation and management policy call for preservation of these protected areas unimpaired in perpetuity. Central to the notions of protection, preservation, and unimpairment has been the concept of maintaining "naturalness," a condition imagined by many to persist over time in the absence of human...

  12. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  13. Alternatives to the conflict between environmental authorities and communities of protected areas in Colombian Páramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country biologically and culturally megadiverse. Presented inside the largest expanse of páramos of the world, which are considered the planet's water plants and habitats of high biological diversity. However, human occupation of the Colombian Páramos has generated conflict between environmental regulations and productive land uses. This article analyzes the alternative proposed solutions to the conflict between environmental authorities of protected areas and inhabitants of the Páramos in Colombia. Previously there were two types of alternatives: The first suggested granting ecotourism services in parks and land purchases by mixed companies. The second proposed the abandonment of the production activities of farmers, mediated by educational processes and in compliance with environmental standards on pain of facing punitive action by the state. We propose a third alternative, that involves community management plans with time and institutional funding, and implementation of agroecological models, biocultural rescue memory and changes in agrarian structure

  14. Effect of adverse environmental conditions and protective clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew W

    2017-07-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, simulating a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worker wearing protective clothing subject to RF-EMF exposure, and subject to various environmental conditions including high ambient temperature and high humidity, with full thermoregulatory mechanisms in place. How the human body responds in various scenarios was investigated, and the information was used to consider safety limits in current international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards. It was found that different environmental conditions had minimal impact on the magnitude of the thermal response due to RF-EMF exposure, and that the current safety factor of 10 applied in international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards for RF-EMF workers is generally conservative, though it is only narrowly so when workers are subjected to the most adverse environmental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:356-363, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Summary of the US Army Corps of Engineers/US Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Major areas of environmental concern with upland disposal include effluent quality, surface runoff quality, leachate quality, and lethal and...surface runoff quality, leachate quality, and other effects including toxicity and bioaccumulation on colonizing plants and animals. Background on...eduZis and Polychaete Worm Nephtys inaisa After Laboratory and Field Exposures," Technical Report D-87-8, Environmental Research Laboratory, US

  16. Environmental Assessment Proposal to Protect Wildlife Habitat at Lake Umbagog 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this United States Fish & Wildlife Service proposal is to ensure the long-term protection of unique wetland habitats adjacent to Lake Umbagog, on...

  17. Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area: a choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özge; Alp, Emre

    2012-11-15

    Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lack of efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18TL/month and 16.6TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Harnessing sensor and information/communication technologies to revolutionize how environmental data are collected and integrated to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Raymond, Michelle; Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States); Armbruster, Walter J. [Farm Foundation, Darien, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring the levels of pollutants in ambient air has long been the responsibility of environmental agencies, and traditional programs have relied on a relatively small number of fixed stations that are expensive to install and operate. The spatial coverage of pollutant data ranges from limited in many urban areas to very sparse in smaller suburban and rural areas. Increasingly, the latter are being affected by new pollutant sources such as backyard drilling systems for energy development, and concentrated animal feeding operations and biodiesel production facilities on former agricultural lands. Regional measurement stations are not able to inform local communities about the types and concentrations of pollutants in their ambient and indoor air. Meanwhile, epidemiology studies and clinical data continue to indicate a link between air pollutants and adverse health effects, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease. With asthma on the rise and heart disease among the leading killers, the public has become increasingly concerned about knowing what their personal exposure levels are so they can determine appropriate measures to protect their health. To address this long-standing need, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embarked upon an innovative program to improve the understanding of air pollution at the community and neighborhood scales. This program harnesses striking advances in sensor technology, mobile applications, and environmental informatics, with citizens playing a key role. The goal is to facilitate the development and widespread use of inexpensive mobile sensors, for widespread collection and integration of air quality data by citizens across the nation (and world), to help guide environmental health protection programs. (orig.)

  19. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  20. Reconciling Trade and Environmental Protection in ASEAN-China Relations: More than Political Window Dressing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Dosch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the growing pro-environment rhetoric in ASEAN-China relations resulted in the effective mainstreaming of environmental issue into trade agreements and multilateral cooperation frameworks? The article discusses the cases of the ASEAN China Free Trade Area (ACFTA and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and argues that there is no shortage of national and regional policy agendas that visibly link trade growth and environmental considerations. However, this nexus is still a weak one in terms of implementation and effectiveness. The most promising initiatives towards an effective reconciliation of trade growth and environmental sustainability are promoted and often driven by foreign donors, most prominently the European Union (EU.

  1. Differentiated Application Of Astreintes On Environmental Law For Guarantee The Effectiveness Of Your Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Federici Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the present article, is discussed an institute and function of the daily fine as an instrument for effecting specific guardianship of obligations in environmental law. The problem resides in consequences of a previous calculation, the so-called pecuniary roof, of the daily fine of the obligations to make, inhibit and deliver in procedural guardianship environmental differentiated. The research methodology used was the documentary theorist, with a qualitative bibliographical technique. The conclusion points to the impossibility of setting a roof for such daily fines, given the specificities of environmental law.

  2. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001; Avfall och miljoe vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna. Tillsynsrapport 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Monica [and others

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations.

  3. Environmental Protection for Sale : Strategic Green Industrial Policy and Climate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Industrial policy has long been criticized as subject to protectionist interests; accordingly, subsidies to domestic producers face disciplines under World Trade Organization agreements, without exceptions for environmental purposes. Now green industrial policy is gaining popularity as governments

  4. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases : Review of Known Environmental Protective and Risk Factors Involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, Kimberley W. J.; Amini, Marzyeh; Peters, Vera; Dijkstra, Gerard; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at

  5. Annual report 2005 - 2006. Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Savolahti, M. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Energy conversion has a major impact on our environment, on the local environment and globally. The core research at the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection (ENY) is environmental friendly energy conversion. We participate in many research projects at national and international levels. Our research is always done in close collaboration with the industry. In addition to creative thinking, dialogue with industry is one of the most important factors for effective research in technical fields. This makes it possible to ensure that the research will also produce economical benefits for industry. The research fields of the laboratory are moving with the time in the direction of finding new forms of energy conversion and minimizing the effect on the environment. Research on Co{sub 2} capture and storage is increasing worldwide and also ENY participates in international research project focusing on minimizing greenhouse gas emission. In the past years we have been focusing on how to integrate Co{sub 2} capture into industrial processes to produce useful products for the industry. The production of PCC by carbonating slag from metallurgy processes seems to be very promising. The bulk of our research can be classified into four groups: Energy systems, Spraying and combustion, Thermal treatment of waste and CO{sub 2} capture and storage. We have been partners in the Nordic energy research in the field of Co{sub 2} capture and storage and in the EU project 'ToMeRed' on toxic trace elements emission control. We are the operating agent for the IEA research project: 'IEA-DHC Annex VIII - proved cogeneration and heat utilization in DH networks'. We represent Finland in EFCE working part on Multiphase fluid flow, European Multiphase Systems Institute and we represent our university in IFRF Finland. Ron Zevenhoven was a Lead Author for a special report on Co{sub 2} capture and storage by the IPCC published in 2005. We have been

  6. Transfrontier environmental protection and German penal law. Grenzueberschreitende Umweltbelastungen und deutsches Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forkel, H.W.

    1988-01-22

    The author investigates the problem of how far German penal law is valid in case of transfrontier environmental pollution. He distinguishes between cases in which the interests of Germany and the neighbour state are congruent, and cases in which they are not congruent. According to the author, German law should be applied in cases where the other country has no environmental penal legislation, and where the emissions exceed the limits set by German and foreign law. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  9. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: deborabpsousa@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  10. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  11. Capacity and principles of participation of the provincial fund of environmental protection and water management in Cracow in Cracow program of elimination of low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolek, K.; Sarzynski, H. [Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management in Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In general, the principles of environmental protection was determined by Law issued January 31, 1980. Certain detailed solutions have been included in several amendments in subsequent years and the uniformed text of the Law on Environmental Protection and Creation was published in 1994. The Provincial Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management was established in 1989 but until 1993 the Fund has no legal status. The main purpose of the creation of such fund was to assign certain financial means to the defined tasks related to environmental protection. This way the fund accumulates financial means from the fees paid for the usage of the natural environmental for business purposes and from penalties becoming due in the case of non-observance of the environmental protection standards. On the other hand, the Fund spends money for tasks in the field of environmental protection requiring urgent implementation. It should be added that - after few amendments brought into force - the Provincial Funds are able to assign a greater amount of money to the implementation of these tasks. The basic purposes of Provincial Fund activity, defined by Law, determine the policy and criteria of the selection of undertaking. This is also a base for making programs of activity and for creation of the list of priorities. The environmental protection problems in the individual provinces are different. Therefore, the scope of works partly financed by the Fund is very differentiated both in essence and in the method of financing. The former system of subsidies is now being replaced with a wide range of partial financing of undertakings in the field of environmental protection. The system of selection of these undertakings has been changed essentially. The selection of tasks and methods of their financing is based on economic criteria.

  12. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Fire Protection Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Tuan, George C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station. Working with NASA fire and materials experts, this approach outlines the best requirements for both the closed out area of the vehicle, such as the avionics bay, and the crew cabin area to address the unique challenges due to the size and configuration of the CEV.

  13. Environmental cues to UV radiation and personal sun protection in outdoor winter recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter A; Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark D

    2010-11-01

    To predict the prevalence of UV radiation (hereinafter, UV) at North American ski resorts using temporal, seasonal, altitudinal, and meteorological factors and associate UV with a set of adult sun protection behaviors. Ultraviolet radiation observations and cross-sectional survey of adults on sun protection were collected. Data were collected at 32 high-altitude ski areas located in western North America from 2001 through 2003. The sample consisted of 3937 adult skiers or snowboarders. Measurements of direct, reflected, and diffuse UV were performed at 487 measurement points using handheld meters and combined with self-reported and observed sun protection assessed for adults interviewed on chairlifts. The strongest predictors of UV were temporal proximity to noon, deviation from winter solstice, and clear skies. By contrast, altitude and latitude had more modest associations with UV and temperature had a small positive relationship with UV. Guest sun safety was inconsistently associated with UV: UV was positively related to adults wearing more sunscreen, reapplying it after 2 hours, and wearing protective eyewear, but fewer adults exhibited many of the other sun protection behaviors, such as wearing hats and protective clothing or using lip balm, on days when UV was elevated. Guests took more sun safety precautions on clear-sky days but took steps to maintain body warmth on inclement days. In future sun safety promotions, adults should be encouraged to wear sunscreen on cloudy days because UV is still high and conditions can change rapidly. They need reminders to rely more on season and time of day when judging UV and the need for sun safety.

  14. Environmental Cues to Ultraviolet Radiation and Personal Sun Protection In Outdoor Winter Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) at North American ski resorts was predicted using temporal, seasonal, altitudinal, and meteorological factors and associated with a set of adult sun protection behaviors. Design UV observations and cross-sectional survey of adults on sun protection were collected. Setting Data were collected at 32 high-altitude ski areas located in Western North America in 2001–03. Participants The sample consisted of 3,937 adult skier or snowboarders. Main Outcome Measures Measurements of direct, reflected, and diffuse UV were performed at 487 measurement points using handheld meters and combined with self-reported and observed sun protection assessed for adults interviewed on chair lifts. Results The strongest predictors of UV were temporal proximity to noon, deviation from winter solstice, and clear skies. By contrast, altitude and latitude had more modest associations with UV and temperature had a small positive relationship with UV. Guest sun safety was inconsistently associated with UV: UV was positively related to adults wearing more sunscreen, reapplying it after two hours, and wearing protective eyewear but fewer adults exhibited many of the other sun protection behaviors, such as hats, protective clothing or lip balm, on days when UV was elevated. Guests took more sun safety precautions on clear-sky days but took steps to maintain body warmth on inclement days. Conclusions In future sun safety promotions, adults should be encouraged to wear sunscreen on cloudy days because UV is still high and conditions can change rapidly. They need reminders to rely more on season and time of day when judging UV and the need for sun safety. PMID:21079060

  15. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  16. Canadian Income Tax Reporting Requirement PROTECTED

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    Pursuant to paragraph 221(1)(d) of the Income Tax Act, payments made by federal Crown corporations (IDRC) under applicable service contracts (including contracts involving a mix of goods and services and services provided abroad) must be reported on a T1204 Government Service Contract Payment slip. To enable ...

  17. An environmental Escherichia albertii strain, DM104, induces protective immunity to Shigella dysenteriae in guinea pig eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fatema Moni; Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur; Khan, Sirajul Islam; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2014-05-01

    The environmental Escherichia albertii strain DM104, which cross-reacts serologically with Shigella dysenteriae was assessed for pathogenic properties, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in different animal models to evaluate it as a vaccine candidate against S. dysenteriae, which causes the severe disease, shigellosis. The DM104 isolate was found to be non-invasive and did not produce any entero- or cyto-toxins. The strain also showed negative results in the mouse lethal activity assay. The non-pathogenic DM104 strain gave, however, a high protective efficacy as an ocularly administered vaccine in the guinea pig eye model against S. dysenteriae type 4 challenge. It also induced a high titer of serum IgG against S. dysenteriae type 4 whole cell lysate and lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, all these results indicate a good potential for the use of the DM104 as a live vaccine candidate against shigellosis.

  18. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  19. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  20. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protecting ecotourism resources in a time of rapid economic and environmental transformation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Watson; Dave Ostergren; Peter Fix; Bill Overbaugh; Dan McCollum; Linda Kruger; Martha Madsen; He Yang

    2009-01-01

    In the Far East of Russia, similar to many places in Asia, ecotourism and the environment are in transition. A science team, cooperating with the United Nations Development Programme project "Demonstrating Sustainable Conservation of Biological Diversity in Four Protected Territories in the Kamchatka Region, Russian Federation," is working to provide vital...

  2. PRESERVING DRINKING WATER INTEGRITY IN OUR COMMUNITIES: HOMELAND SECURITY PRIORITIES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A book chapter published in a 3-volume textbook series by the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, Combating Terrorism Center. Book title: Homeland Security: Protecting America's Targets. The chapter is a review of background of water systems, impact of September 11, 2001, a...

  3. Polypyrrole electrochemistry : Environmentally friendly corrosion protection of steel: (im)possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chromate compounds have been widely used to improve the corrosion protection of galvanised steel and aluminium objects in the past decades. The hexavalent chromium in chromate enhances the adherence of coatings to galvanised steel and aluminium. Additionally, if the passive layers on these materials

  4. New MARKAL Tool Designed to Help Cities Meet Environmental Protection Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are creating an energy and water technology tool—called the Community-Scale MARKAL Model—to help cities and other municipalities make decisions on how to protect the environment, while also providing energy required for water services.

  5. Total cylindrospermopsins, microcystins/nodularins, and saxitoxins data for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency National Lake Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Maksimowicz, Megan M.; Toyne, Kathryn D.

    2016-05-26

    Phytoplankton communities in freshwater lakes, ponds, and reservoirs may be dominated by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) under certain environmental conditions. Cyanobacteria may cause a range of water-quality impairments, including the potential for toxin production. Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) may adversely impact human and ecological health. Microcystins are considered to be one of the most commonly found classes of cyanotoxins in freshwater ecosystems, and as such were selected as a recreational indicator of water quality for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Lakes Assessment. However, much less is known about the occurrence of other classes of cyanotoxins in fresh surface water such as anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularins, and saxitoxins.

  6. It's time to set some standards: Environmental classification of freshwater wetlands in New Zealand and their protection from eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Clarkson, Beverly

    loading. We have developed a database of physico-chemical, nutrient and species composition information for over 100 freshwater New Zealand wetlands, ranging from true rainwater-fed bogs to relatively fertile swamps and marshes. In this presentation, we use these data to describe the range of trophic...... and which are likely to differ in sensitivity to nutrient enrichment. Ranges of nutrients in different environmental classes and their relationship to catchment modification allowed us to model threshold levels of soil and plant indicators relevant for protection of natural character. Similarities...

  7. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites: Best Management Practice Case Study #12 - Laboratory/Medical Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakley, H.

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA's ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  8. Recreation, values and stewardship: Rethinking why people engage in environmental behaviors in parks and protected areas: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Sharp, Ryan; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Vagias, Wade M.; Kwenye, Jane; Depper, Gina; Freimund, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Successfully promoting and encouraging the adoption of environmental stewardship behavior is an important responsibility for public land management agencies. Although people increasingly report high levels of concern about environmental issues, widespread patterns of stewardship behavior have not followed suit (Moore 2002). One concept that can be applied in social science research to explain behavior change is that of values. More specifically, held and assigned values lie at the heart of understanding why people around the world continue to live in unsustainable ways that impact parks and protected areas. A held value is an individual psychological orientation defined by Rokeach as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally and socially preferable” (1973, 550). Held values are at the core of human cognition, and as such, influence attitudes and behavior. Assigned values on the other hand, according to Brown (1984), are the perceived qualities of an environment that are based on and deduced from held values. In other words, assigned values are considered the material and nonmaterial benefits that people believe they obtain from ecosystems. Held and assigned values predict stewardship behaviors (Figure 1). During the 2013 George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites, we organized a session to improve our understanding of why individuals and groups choose to engage in stewardship behaviors that benefit the environment. We used held and assigned values as vehicles to explore what people cared about in diverse landscapes, review select case studies from across the globe, and question how best to incorporate visitor perspectives into protected area management decisions and policymaking. In addition to sharing project results, we also discussed the importance of accounting for multiple and often competing value perspectives, potential ways to integrate disciplinary perspectives on

  9. Bavarian Land Office for Environmental Protection. 1996 annual report and abstracts of publications; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz. Taetigkeitsbericht 1996 und Kurzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The annual report informs about the activities of the Bavarian Land Office for Environmental Protection in the following fields: clean air policy, waste management, management of soil pollution and remedial action, nuclear energy and radiation protection, nature conservation and landscape conservation, LfU laboratory, environmental hygiene, and data processing (SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht beschreibt die Taetigkeiten des Bayerischen Landesamtes fuer Umweltschutz auf folgenden Gebieten: Immissionsschutz, Abfallwirtschaft, Altlasten und Bodenschutz, Kernenergie und Strahlenschutz, Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege, Zentrallabors und Umwelthygiene, sowie Datenverarbeitung. (SR)

  10. PRINCIPIOS DE COMPETENCIA JUDICIAL INTERNACIONAL Y DE PROTECCIÓN DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE Principles of international jurisdiction and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Moscoso Restovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Como se resuelve el problema de la objetivación del vínculo de conexión cuando intervienen daños civiles y daños ambientales? Es decir, ¿podemos sostener que el fuero "lugar del hecho dañoso" puede determinarse con independencia de los sujetos que intervienen? ¿Es relevante el principio favor laesi en los casos de daño ambiental? Proponemos abordar estos problemas desde la relación que existe entre los principios de Competencia Judicial Civil Internacional y los principios de protección del medioambiente. Así, advertiremos que la mayor o menor extensión del fuero "lugar del hecho dañoso", adquiere connotaciones especiales si interpretamos armónicamente los principios de competencia judicial internacional y los principios de protección internacional del medio ambiente. En efecto, la política de protección ambiental, constituye un "valor superior del ordenamiento", y por tanto incide directamente en el juicio razonabilidad que el juez debe realizar sobre el vínculo de conexión. Si bien abordamos el problema desde la experiencia europea, las conclusiones tendrán validez universal.How to solve the problem of objectivity in the link between the court and the action, when engaging civil damages and environmental damages? In other words ¿ can we argue that the place of the harmful event can be determined independently of the persons involved? ¿Is favor Iaesi principle relevant in cases of environmental damage? We propose analyze those problems through the connections between International Civil Jurisdiction principles and environmental protection principles. In fact, environmental protection policy constitutes a "superior value". Therefore it affects directly the judge opinion about the connection link. Our approach is European, but the findings have universal validity.

  11. Identification of threatened areas of environmental value in the Conservation Area of Mexico City, and setting priorities for their protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenia Saavedra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost 60% of the Conservation Area of Mexico City is to the south within the Valley of Mexico; there is an extensive area of forests, scrub, wetlands, grasslands and agricultural zones. It is important for the city’s sustainability because of the environmental services provided such as aquifer recharge, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. It is being threatened by human activities despite a program of ecological regulation; this is partly because environmental problems are not always immediately visible to the government and general public in terms of the need for prompt action. The present study uses spatial evidence to identify and prioritize threatened environmentally valuable areas. Data from a variety of sources are combined, and information geo-referenced with Geographical Information Systems is verified in the field. The resultant maps show that the most threatened ecologically valuable areas are as follows: the oak wood and scrub relicts east of Milpa Alta; the forests west of Cuajimalpa, Álvaro Obregón and Magdalena Contreras; the forests of the Pelado and Malacatepec volcanoes in Tlalpan; and the forests of the Tláloc and Chichinautzin volcanoes in Milpa Alta. These results could be used by decision makers to design timely strategies to protect the Conservation Area and its supply of environmental services to Mexico City.

  12. Power politics in the revision of China’s Environmental Protection Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhu, X.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental law making, like other legislative processes in China, used to take place behind closed doors. A major innovation in recent years is that it is now normal to consult the public on draft laws, although it is not yet prescribed in the Law on Legislation. It is tempting to interpret the

  13. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  14. The case of two self-enforcing international agreements for environmental protection with asymmetric countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osmani, D.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Non-cooperative game theoretical models of self-enforcing international environmental agreements (IEAs) that employ the cartel stability concept of D'Aspremont et al. (Can J Econ 16:17-25, 1983) frequently assume that countries are identical, and they can sign a single agreement only. We modify the

  15. Chinese Students' Awareness of Relationship between Green Finance, Environmental Protection Education and Real Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Zhu, Zhengguo; Fang, Shuqiong; Pan, Wentsao

    2017-01-01

    Chinese government puts forward a concept: five in one, putting environment in the same significant position as economy, politics, society and culture, which highlights the significance of environment. With the continuous increase of environmental awareness, many scholars pay more attention to green finance. However, the researches based on…

  16. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information, and other factors identified under “Limitations,” (subsection D.6., of this enclosure). The study... “Limitations” (subsection D.6., of this enclosure) and controls on classified information, and furnished copies.... Whether to Prepare an Environmental Review. Sufficient information will be gathered, to the extent it is...

  17. Incentives for environmentally friendly vehicles. A report from the Environment and Health Protection Administration in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Cecilia; Paedam, S. [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    This report deals with incentives for environmentally friendly vehicles. The report includes a description of the current status of these vehicles in Sweden, Stockholm County Council, and the City of Stockholm. A forecast of possible development of zero and low emission vehicles is carried out. The major obstacles which currently hinder a market for these vehicles are noted. In order to determine market readiness and factors which affect these firms' purchase of vehicles, interviews were carried out with private firms. This analysis indicates that institutional barriers in Sweden hinder zero and low emission vehicles, with laws and tax policies which offer conflicting signals. To follow international developments, these obstacles must be reduced. Therefore, it is important that Stockholm works to create a positive climate for environmentally friendly vehicles. This means that it is important that the policies recommended in this report are implemented with adequate intensity. Because knowledge about zero and low emission vehicles is limited, there is a need to produce factual information. Information can be spread to a larger group, but it is more cost effective to reach a group which is most likely to accept environmentally friendly vehicles. This could include companies with environmental profiles, or those who drive and use company cars. To increase the effectiveness of this information campaign, we suggest that the City also maintain a demonstration fleet with loaner cars for companies who wish to test these vehicles in daily operation before deciding whether or not to purchase them. The incentive package recommended for Stockholm includes offering parking rebates to various groups who park in the city centre; residents , commercial vehicles, and temporary visitors. For equity reasons, all groups should in practice be offered the rebate. To increase the positive effect of the incentive, environmentally friendly vehicles should also be allowed to drive in

  18. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  19. Development of an integrated environmental data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, H. J.; Bingham, R. A.; Howell, Geoffrey D.; Duerden, F. Colin; Roberts, Christopher

    1993-03-01

    The ability to access information for use in decision making is a well-recognized need within the context of management sciences. A similar need exists in order to make effective technical decisions pertaining to environmental resource management. Data bases are the principle vehicle by which scientists, engineers, and resource managers store and access environmental information. An integrated data-base mechanism is essential in order for federal agencies to manage programs such as enforcement of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), state of the environment (SOE) reporting, and the environmental assessment and review process (EARP). A data-base structure and data dissemination mechanism under current development within Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Atlantic Region, is presented along with some of its operational benefits and constraints.

  20. The absorption of european funds for environmental protection during the period 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Simina POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Political realities of the European Union regarding the environment protection segment formed the basis of a specific reorientation of cohesion policy, the including this area as one of the main priorities for obtaining grants. In other words, due to long-term challenges such as climate change, energy security, scarcity of resources (raw materials, water, biodiversity loss, environment protection has become one of the strategic priorities of the European Union. These challenges are coupled with short-term threats like increasing public debt of States Members, in particular as a result of loans contracted by these to eliminate or counteract the financial crisis effects and the the dimensioning of fiscal discipline, both internally and at Community level.

  1. A review of Alberta's environmental and emergency response capacity : learning the lessons and building change[Report of the Alberta Environmental Protection Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    Alberta's Environmental Commission was established in August 2005 following a train derailment and spill of Bunker C oil and pole treating oil into Lake Wabamun. Its role was to review and make recommendations on Alberta's ability to respond to environmental incidents. The Commission found that the problems and solutions to environmental protection go beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment. They lie within decisive and proactive emergency management and response systems. In light of growing industrial activity, as well as a growing population and economic base, the comprehensive response approach to an emergency must be world-class in order to minimize impacts on land, air, water, wildlife and people. The conclusions presented in this report refer to the overall system and the 5 frameworks that support it, including prevention and mitigation; preparedness; response; recovery; and research and knowledge. The Commission examined response systems in other provinces and jurisdiction and reviewed the current model in Alberta to assess its strength and weaknesses. Focus was on the following 6 objectives: recommend any changes needed to the Alberta government's capacity to respond to environmental incidents where industry cannot; review Alberta Environment's emergency response system in order to make recommendations to prevent, mitigate and respond to these incidents; review the provision of information needed in a report to Alberta Environment and the associated reporting process regarding the substances involved in spills; review potential high-risk situations affecting Alberta's lake and rivers as part of an overall risk management strategy; review best practices for preventing, mitigating and responding to incidents that can have a significant impact on the environment; and provide advice to the Ministries on safety and rail transportation issues to help them collaborate with the appropriate jurisdictions. It was concluded that action is

  2. The Protection and Valorization of Cultural and Environmental Heritage in the Development Process of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As is well-known, art and science are two ways of presenting the history of the world, not two subjects in contrast with each other. Art, in other words cultural and landscape heritage, rightly considering as such also the environment, is linked to the history of man. Related to this, are the various artistic expressions and, therefore, the various generational movements with their related social events and problems from the past to the present, which are linked to each other temporally. It is true that “Nature does not support the human footprint”: this is what the World Wide Fund for Nature highlights in describing the great imbalance that exists due to the consequent irreversible damage that occurs with the passing of time. In the processes directed at the possible reacquisition of the compatibilities to protect nature, life conditions and the historical-artistic heritage, some case studies are reported that have been carried out over the years. The research concerned the protection and valorization of the “system: artifact of historical-artistic interest-conservation environment-biota” and dealt with the following problems: atmospheric pollution, degradation of monuments and historical-artistic environments – protection and consequent benefits; conservation and monitoring in confined environments.

  3. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  4. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Overcoming Environmental Monitoring Inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, T.G.; Desmond, J.A. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Stevens, A.K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The first nuclear reactors at Sellafield went critical in 1951 and fuel reprocessing commenced shortly afterwards. As the nuclear programme expanded, reprocessing increased and there was an associated increase in discharges to the environment. An initial environmental monitoring programme was formulated on the basis of research and assessment of the likely behaviour of radionuclides. In addition to the routine process sources there were also incidents that gave rise to acute releases of radioactivity to the environment. Of key significance were: the Windscale fire, 1957; short-cooled fuel reprocessing, 1981; and discharge of contaminated solvent, 1983. All of these incidents added to the requirements for environments for environmental monitoring. The monitoring programme has evolved over a period of more than 50 years. (N.C.)

  5. Proposal of landscape management of the Environmental Protection Area in Sana, Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Luz Jeronymo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Preservation Area (EPA in Sana, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State went through a historical process of deforestation resulting from agriculture and livestock production. Recently, this area has been occupied in unplanned ways, due to its tourist attractions and real estate speculation. A major negative impact in the region is forest fragmentation. Based on the concept of landscape management, we propose a study to identify the priority fragments to conservation and recovery in the EPA. Results of this project are essential support tools to assist the manager in the environmental planning of the EPA in its process of monitoring, inspection and management.

  6. Actions in the electrical sector to propitiate the environmental protection; Acciones en el sector electrico para propiciar la proteccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Gaspari, Mateo [Fideicomiso de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The saving of electrical energy is one of the most efficient means to propitiate the environmental protection in the surroundings of the facilities used in the production of electrical energy. The emission of polluting agents associated with the electric power generation is analyzed, among them, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, along with the particulate emission of ash or soot. In addition, an analysis is made of the contribution of the electrical energy saving to the environmental protection and the actions that the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico will undertake on the electric energy saving for the 1995 to the 2000 period. [Spanish] El ahorro de energia electrica es uno de los medios mas eficientes para propiciar la proteccion ambiental en el entorno de las instalaciones usadas en la produccion de energia electrica. Se analiza la emision de contaminantes asociados con la generacion electrica, entre ellos, el CO{sub 2}, el SO{sub 2} y NO{sub 2}, junto con la emision de particulas de ceniza o de hollin. Ademas se analiza la contribucion del ahorro de energia electrica a la proteccion ambiental y las acciones que emprendera la Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico sobre ahorro de energia electrica para el periodo 1995 al 2000.

  7. Environmental equity and the conservation of unique ecosystems: an analysis of the distribution of benefits for protecting Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Aldy; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    Some critics in the environmental equity literature argue that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks, while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The authors test this hypothesis in an analysis of the decline of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. They calculate willingness-to-pay...

  8. Environmental Assessment for Beach Shoreline Protection at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    The signing of this FONSIIFONPA completes the environmental impact analysis process. SEPH H. SCHWARZ , Colonel, eputy Director for Installations...strongly subjected to wind and wave/tide events, seasonal and storm erosion, and seabed/sand fluctuations. Situated among expanses of bare sand bottom...USEPA. 1971. Noise from Construction Equipment and Operations, Building Equipment, and Home Appliances , NJID, 300 1, December 31, 1971. U.S. Fish and

  9. Environmental radiological protection of Bariloche Atomic Center; Proteccion radiologica ambiental del Centro Atomico Bariloche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, Pablo A.; Levanon, Izhar S., E-mail: andresp@cab.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: levanon@cab.cnca.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Division Proteccion Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    This plan of monitoring radiological environmental routine fits on environmental policy of CNEA, satisfying national and international recommendations for licensed facilities. Sampling matrices are related to direct routes of exposure: air and water (river, lake, sediments, drinking water). Soil samples are also analyzed for having integrated matrices. They are considered as minimum three points of measurement: a white point (water or winds up), a point of maximum (water or winds down) and a point corresponding to the location of the individual representative or a point of public interest. Measurements in air estimate KERMA rate with thermoluminescent dosimeters, bi-monthly, and concentrations of particulate material and aerosols. For water samples (monthly), soil and sediments (quarterly), radionuclides that have download limits are analyzed, according to its importance in the dosages produced in the representative individual. In these cases artificial radionuclides using gamma spectrometry, beta total and Sr-90 by radiochemical techniques if the value of total screening (1 Bq/L) is exceeded. Foods are not included because no possible matrices were detected, either by their distance. by located not predominant wind direction. They are however still looking for milk producers that fulfills the minimum requirements.The data collected are compared with environmental baselines to set trends that might point to future significant changes in the environment during the life of the facilities. So far it was not observed significant differences with respect to baseline values.

  10. Risk-based decision making : environmental risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graydon, C.F. [Lawson Lundell Lawson and McIntosh, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Risk based environmental decision making was described as the process which involves the identification of any potential or existing environmental impacts, and which attempts to quantify the magnitude of such impacts. Each stage of the decision making process is influenced by ecological, political, economic, cultural and social concerns. The process of defining risk is outlined, and four Canadian examples of decision making processes dealing with environmental risk assessment are described. These are : (1) legislation provisions and definitions under the Alberta Environmental Enhancement and Protection Act which invite a risk based decision making approach, (2) examples of comments made and approaches taken by Courts and Tribunals in addressing risk based risk assessment of environmental matters, (3) environmental enforcement agencies and the approach adopted by the Alberta Department of Environmental Protection in dealing with underground storage tank contamination, and (4) the approach taken by the Courts under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The issue of whether environmental management systems and risk based assessment should be built into the corporate model is also discussed.

  11. Supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the Swedish nuclear facilities 1999; Avfall och miljoe vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna. - Tillsynsrapport 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in 1999. A summary of the inspections during 1999 and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 1999 have focused on the management of liquid discharges and components containing induced activity at some of the nuclear facilities. Also, routines for filing environmental samples, discharge water samples and documents were inspected at all the different nuclear facilities. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations.

  12. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    In the continuum between command & control (CaC) regulation on the one hand and economic policy instruments on the other, the institutional location of “ protected” areas is often perceived as solidly within the reign of CaC, as a means to safeguard a piece of the earth biosphere as “nature...... offering both nature protection and economic functions. The latter may be limited to local livelihood purposes, but may also involve integration into a larger regional, national or international economy. Based on inspiration from development and implementation of Natura 2000 areas and the evolution...

  13. Effectiveness of a pressurized stormwater filtration system in Green Bay, Wisconsin: a study for the environmental technology verification program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, J.A.; Corsi, Steven R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized stormwater filtration system was installed in 1998 as a stormwater-treatment practice to treat runoff from a hospital rooftop and parking lot in Green Bay, Wisconsin. This type of filtration system has been installed in Florida citrus groves and sewage treatment plants around the United States; however, this installation is the first of its kind to be used to treat urban runoff and the first to be tested in Wisconsin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored the system between November 2000 and September 2002 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Fifteen runoff events were monitored for flow and water quality at the inlet and outlet of the system, and comparison of the event mean concentrations and constituent loads was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Loads were decreased in all particulate-associated constituents monitored, including suspended solids (83 percent), suspended sediment (81 percent), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (26 percent), total phosphorus (54 percent), and total recoverable zinc (62 percent). Total dissolved solids, dissolved phosphorus, and nitrate plus nitrite loads remained similar or increased through the system. The increase in some constituents was most likely due to a ground-water contribution between runoff events. Sand/silt split analysis resulted in the median silt content of 78 percent at the inlet, 87 percent at the outlet, and 3 percent at the flow splitter.

  14. Colloidal Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Materials as Photocatalysts for Environmental Protection of Architectural Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Petronella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rod-shaped TiO2 nanocrystals (TiO2 NRs, capped by oleic acid molecules (OLEA, were synthesized with controlled size, shape and surface chemistry by using colloidal routes. They were investigated for application as coating materials for preserving architectural stone of monumental and archaeological interest, in consideration of their self-cleaning and protection properties. For this purpose, two different deposition techniques, namely casting and dipping, were tested for the application of a nanocrystal dispersion on a defined stone type, as a relevant example of porous calcarenites, namely the Pietra Leccese, a building stone widely used in monuments and buildings of cultural and historic interest of the Apulia region (Italy. The physical properties of the stone surface were investigated before and after the treatment with the prepared nanostructured materials. In particular, colour, wettability, water transfer properties and stability of the coating were monitored as a function of time and of the application method. The self-cleaning properties of the TiO2 NRs coated surfaces were tested under simulated and real solar irradiation. The obtained results were discussed in the light of the specific surface chemistry and morphology of TiO2 NRs, demonstrating the effectiveness of TiO2 NRs as an active component in formulations for stone protection.

  15. FY 1998 survey report on the feasibility study of environmental cooperation in environmental protection technology, system, etc. for spread to developing countries; 1998 nendo kankyo taisaku gijutsu seidonado no tojokoku fukyu ni kakawaru kankyo kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The paper arranged the present situation and the problems of environmental cooperation for developing countries, and studied based thereon how to cooperate in environmental protection for developing countries in the future. At the same time, it arranged the problems/subjects posed when environment-related companies in Japan try to transfer environmental technology to developing countries, for the purpose of using them as data in studying possibility of reviewing the environmental cooperation presently conducted. A view on environmental cooperation is that as security of mankind, it is necessary to help developing countries in technology/knowledge/fund. However, a trial calculation indicated that the initial investment of 11.1 trillion yen is needed only for desulfurization and water treatment in China and ASEAN countries. Such a huge amount of money cannot be paid at all even by developed countries. As the support of environmental protection measures, the one also including energy and resource is needed. Further, the support of environmental protection measures should be the one that has the exhibition effect and influential effect, promotes efforts of developing countries' own, and pushes independent environmental measures forward. From this point of view, a study was made on what the details of the environmental cooperation should be like. (NEDO)

  16. Radiation protection and environmental management at the relativistic heavy ion collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, S V; Briggs, S L; Stevens, A J

    2001-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a high energy hadron accelerator built to study basic nuclear physics. It consists of two counter-rotating beams of fully stripped gold ions that are accelerated in two rings to an energy of 100 GeV/nucleon or protons at 250 GeV/c. The beams can be stored for a period of five to ten hours and brought into collision for experiments during that time. The first major physics objective is to recreate a state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma, that has been predicted to have existed at a short time after the creation of the universe. Because there are only a few other high energy particle accelerators like RHIC in the world, the rules promulgated in the US Code of Federal Regulations under the Atomic Energy Act, State regulations, or international guidance documents do not cover prompt radiation from accelerators to govern directly the design and operation of a superconducting collider. Special design criteria for prompt radiation were developed to provide guidance tor the design of radiation shielding. Environmental Management at RHIC is accomplished through the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. The applicability, benefits, and implementation of ISO 14001 within the framework of a large research accelerator complex are discussed in the paper.

  17. Sepiolite: A domestic mineral raw material for small and medium enterprises and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Miroslava M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the phases in the research of sepiolite - hydrated in fibrous magnesium silicate, and in the development of different products based on sepiolite, at the Institute of General and Physical Chemistry (IGPC. Also, a review on sepiolite world deposits, general properties and practical uses is given in the paper. An the IGPC sepiolite from the mine Golesh was investigated, concerning its uses in paints, as a pigment and rheological aditive; in the rubber industry, as an active filler; in sepiolite, papers, for purifying, waste gases in industry and homes and as a powder combined with sepiolite paper, to purify old transformer oils. It was concluded that a number of technologies based on sepiolite could be developed in small or medium industrial enterprises, which are of the strategic interest for Serbia, especially since domestic sepiolite deposites can be further developed and that some of these technologies are important in environment all protection.

  18. Biosensing and environmental sensing for emergency and protection e-Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenes, G; Curone, D; Secco, E L; Bonfiglio, A

    2011-01-01

    The ProeTEX project introduced for the first time a complete set of smart garments integrating sensors for the physiological and environmental monitoring of emergency operators. These "smart" garments have been deeply tested in emergency-like contexts by professional rescuers, in order to assess real-time acquisition, processing and transmission of data from moving subjects while operating in harsh conditions. Here we report an overview of the main results obtained during field trials performed in 2010 by Italian and French professional firefighters, in specialized training centers, while dressing the ProeTEX prototypes. Results clearly demonstrate the benefit and step forward of such a system in order to monitor and coordinate rescuers even during intervention far away from the emergency headquarter.

  19. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  20. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  1. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  2. Social and Environmental Protection in Bilateral Investment Treaties: Foreign Investors’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ajisatria Suleiman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The limit of host states’ right to regulate foreign investment within their jurisdiction has been the main, yet unresolved issues in international investment law. This makes it more difficult, given the global structure of investment law that consists of networks of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs. This article will not deal with the question of optimal structure of regulatory discretion under BITs which is still debatable among scholars. The central agenda of this article is to address the precondition for an efficient outcome to materialize within the complex web of BITs already signed among states. It is even more complex to be concluded. This issue is due to the absence of international coordinating institution, letting alone that of global supranational authority. This is different from the case of domestic regulatory takings which “simply” requires the correct information and measure from the benevolent government, that means, the existence of an efficient provision, if any, will not necessarily result in an efficient outcome. The main research question addressed in the article is: under what condition a capital exporting state could introduce higher flexibility for regulating public interest in an investment treaty negotiation? The article offer the answer on issue linkage between the level of protection under BIT, the degree of openness of access to domestic legal and regulatory making of the host state, and the foreign investor’s capabilities to deal with the trade-off. Ceteris paribus, the linkage enables a set of feasible Pareto improving deals out of BIT negotiation

  3. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Protection Rad Neshaps Radionuclide Inventory Web Database and Rad Neshaps Source and Dose Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Patricia A; Smith, Linda L; Johnson, David N

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U.S. Department of Energy operations on Oak Ridge Reservation, combined, must meet the annual dose limit of 0.1 mSv. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are monitored sources and numerous unmonitored sources. To maintain radiological source and inventory information for these unmonitored sources, e.g., laboratory hoods, equipment exhausts, and room exhausts not currently venting to monitored stacks on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus, the Environmental Protection Rad NESHAPs Inventory Web Database was developed. This database is updated annually and is used to compile emissions data for the annual Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad NESHAPs) report required by 40 CFR 61.94. It also provides supporting documentation for facility compliance audits. In addition, a Rad NESHAPs source and dose database was developed to import the source and dose summary data from Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer model files. This database provides Oak Ridge Reservation and facility-specific source inventory; doses associated with each source and facility; and total doses for the Oak Ridge Reservation dose.

  5. Flood protection as a key-component of the environmental restoration of Canal del Dique, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolewicz Marius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canal del Dique is a man-made distributary of Rio Magdalena. After its widening in 1980’s environmental degradation caused by abundant sediment load and changes to hydrology took a catastrophic form. In 2010, the Canal’s dike breached and 35,000 ha of land were flooded. In 2013 a huge effort to restore the environment in the Canal del Dique system and to flood-proof the villages was started. An integrated approach was adopted to provide an optimal solution for flood control, environment, fresh water supply and navigation. In order to prepare restoration plans, an extensive hydrologic and hydraulic assessment was carried out. 1D, 2D and 3D numerical models were developed to answer different questions, to evaluate different alternatives and to enable selection of optimal solutions. To assess the flood risk, a hindcast of 2010 flood was carried out. A solution was designed in which the inlet of water from the Magdalena River is regulated by a control structure, managed by an automated system based on SCADA and Delft-FEWS flood forecasting software and advanced statistics.

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of waste rocks from a gold mine in northeastern Thailand: application for environmental impact protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawincharoenkij, Thitiphan; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Ettinger, Karl; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2017-11-20

    Waste rocks from gold mining in northeastern Thailand are classified as sandstone, siltstone, gossan, skarn, skarn-sulfide, massive sulfide, diorite, and limestone/marble. Among these rocks, skarn-sulfide and massive sulfide rocks have the potential to generate acid mine drainage (AMD) because they contain significant amounts of sulfide minerals, i.e., pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite. Moreover, both sulfide rocks present high contents of As and Cu, which are caused by the occurrence of arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite, respectively. Another main concern is gossan contents, which are composed of goethite, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), quartz, gypsum, and oxidized pyroxene. X-ray maps using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) indicate distribution of some toxic elements in Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals in the gossan waste rock. Arsenic (up to 1.37 wt.%) and copper (up to 0.60 wt.%) are found in goethite, HFO, and along the oxidized rim of pyroxene. Therefore, the gossan rock appears to be a source of As, Cu, and Mn. As a result, massive sulfide, skarn-sulfide, and gossan have the potential to cause environmental impacts, particularly AMD and toxic element contamination. Consequently, the massive sulfide and skarn-sulfide waste rocks should be protected from oxygen and water to avoid an oxidizing environment, whereas the gossan waste rocks should be protected from the formation of AMD to prevent heavy metal contamination.

  7. Airport environmental noise mapping and land use management as an environmental protection action policy tool. The case of the Larnaka International Airport (Cyprus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2012-05-01

    The evidence from epidemiological studies on the association between exposure to traffic and aircraft noise and hypertension and ischemic heart disease has increased during the recent years. Both road traffic and aircraft noise increase the risk of high blood pressure. Environmental noise mapping, as per the 2002/49/EC Directive, is an obligation of all European Union (EU) member states. In the framework of the present article a complete Strategic Noise Mapping research and Action Noise Plans assessment and evaluation are presented and aim to access land use management as an effective tool for protection from aircraft noise. The case of the Larnaka International Airport in Cyprus, a typical Mediterranean airport, (considered as a "large airport" according to the above EU Directive and the recent Cyprus Legislation Law No. 224(Ι)/2004), is presented. In this paper a review of both assessment and action implementation procedures focusing on the dominant--in the area--aircraft traffic noise is presented, with emphasis to (a) a full calculation of Strategic Noise Map (SNM) scenarios of actual and future airport operation using the ECAC.CEAC Doc 29 methodology for both EU common indicators L(den) and L(night) in scales of 5 dB, (b) a full evaluation of results with emphasis to the Larnaka greater area land uses and the exposure of inhabitants in residences in various levels of environmental noise, and (c) a full evaluation of Noise Action Plans (NAP) introducing especially a new land use management scheme for the future Larnaka Town Land Use Plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. From energy security to environmental protection: Understanding swings in the energy policy pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    1994-01-01

    The various factors that have shaped the energy policies of oil-importing countries over the past 20 years are reviewed. For each phase, changes in the modes of intervention are linked to changing attitudes towards the externalities associated with energy supply and changing opinions about the legitimate sphere of government. After the oil price crises of the 1970s, importing countries redefined their energy policies in terms of energy security and governments introduced measures to lessen dependence on foreign oil, including development of strategic stocks of oil, diversifying import sources, encouraging substitution of petroleum-based fuels, promotion of new energy technologies, and initiatives to reduce energy demand. The resulting decrease in dependence on energy and oil led to a return of more moderate oil price levels in the 1980s, and oil dependence was no longer regarded as a priority issue. A retreat from government intervention was manifested in such ways as dismantling of energy trade barriers, less support for commercially unviable production and for energy conservation, partial deregulation, privatization, increased competition in energy distribution industries, and a decline in government-sponsored energy research. However, since the late 1980s, even those governments most devoted to free markets have become much more interventionist in regard to energy, reflecting a resurgence of interest in the environment. Various measures were implemented which forced energy consumers to absorb a substantial part of the environmental costs associated with supplying and using energy products. Policies are now primarily demand-oriented and seek to reduce market obstacles with respect to energy conservation and to promote clean fuels. 20 refs.

  9. Lead from hunting activities and its potential environmental threat to wildlife in a protected wetland in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Oceguera-Vargas, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    This study provides insights into the status of lead in the protected wetland of El Palmar, located on the northwestern littoral of the Yucatan Peninsula. This reserve is ecologically and economically important because it provides feeding and breeding habitats for many species, as well as being an ecotourism destination (especially for bird watching). Although it is a protected area, duck species are heavily hunted within the reserve during the winter. As a result, animals feeding or living in sediments could be exposed to anthropogenic lead. Total lead and its geochemical fractionated forms were measured in sediment cores from six selected sites in "El Palmar" wetland, during pre- and post-hunting seasons, to approximate the potential environmental threat (especially for benthonic living/feeding organisms). Anthropogenic lead concentrations detected in soil cores ranged from below the minimum infaunal community effect level (30.24 μg g(-1)) during the pre-hunting season, to bordering the probable infaunal community effect level (112.18 μg g(-1)) during the post-hunting season, according to SquiiRTs NOAA guidelines. Yet, these results were lower than expected based on the intensity of hunting. Consequently, this article explores the possibility that the lower than expected lead concentration in sediments results from (1) degradation of shot and transformation to soluble or particulate forms; or (2) ingestion of lead shot by benthic and other lacustrine species living in the protected area. Geochemical fractionation of lead demonstrated that in the top 6 cm of the soil column at heavily active hunting sites (EP5 and EP6), lead was associated with the lithogenic fraction (average 45 percent) and with the organic fraction (average 20 percent). Bioavailable lead (sum of lead adsorbed to the carbonates, Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and organic fractions) in sediments was lower than 50 percent for the heavily active hunting areas and higher for the rest of the sites

  10. Advances in environmental radiation protection: re-thinking animal-environment interaction modelling for wildlife dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Beresford, Nicholas A. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M4 4WT (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Centre for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hinton, Thomas G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-07-01

    Current wildlife dose assessment models adopt simplistic approaches to the representation of animal-environment interaction. The simplest approaches are to assume either that environmental media (e.g. soil, sediment or water) are uniformly contaminated or relating organism exposure to activity concentrations in media collected at the point of sampling of the animal. The external exposure of a reference organism is then estimated by defining the geometric relationship between the organism and the medium. For example, a reference organism within the soil would have a 4p exposure geometry and a reference organism on the soil would have a 2p exposure geometry. At best, the current modelling approaches recognise differences in media activity concentrations by calculating exposure for different areas of contamination and then estimating the fraction of time that an organism spends in each area. In other fields of pollution ecology, for example wildlife risk assessment for chemical pollution, more advanced approaches are being implemented to model animal-environment interaction and estimate exposure. These approaches include individual-based movement modelling and random walk modelling and a variety of software tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation of these models. Although there are more advanced animal-environment interaction modelling approaches that are available, it is questionable whether these should be adopted for use in environmental radiation protection. Would their adoption significantly reduce uncertainty within the assessment process and, if so, by how much? These questions are being addressed within the new TREE (TRansfer - Exposure - Effects) research programme funded by the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and within Working Group (WG) 8 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's MODARIA programme. MODARIA WG8 is reviewing some of the alternative approaches that have been developed for animal

  11. Project Canada West. Canadian Environmental Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The overall objective of the curriculum development project is to develop a general high school level interdisciplinary course on environment studies. This potential five to ten month course is outlined as follows: ecology, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, population, socioeconomic implications, and resource management. The general…

  12. Actual legal questions and problems of the free access to information, especially in the environmental protection; Aktuelle Rechtsfragen und Probleme des freien Informationszugangs, insbesondere im Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Meinhard (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 26th Trier colloquium on the law governing environmental protection and technology at 5th to 7th September, 2010 in Trier (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The environmental law in the light of federalism and Europeanization (Hans-Juergen Papier); (2) Information rights in the EU (Astrid Epiney); (3) Environmental policy by freedom of information (Friedrich Schoch); (4) The legal framework for the opening of the access to information as well as the appearance of accessible information under special consideration of the environmental information Directive 2003/4/EG and its implementation in the German Law (Joern Axel Kaemmerer); (5) The utilization of electronic media: REACh data bases, publication of authorizing procedures in the Internet and geo data mediation such as google maps (Indra Spiecker); (6) Protection position of companies in the right of access to information. The protection of business secrets and commercial confidentialities as well as application dossiers in the European and German law (Matthias Rossi); (7) Limited protection of business secrets and commercial confidentialities as a part of genetic engineering legal approval procedures (Hartwig Stiebler); (8) The NRW pipeline cadastre (Alexander Schink); (9) Legal protection by European and national courts under consideration of the European Ombudsman in his function in securing the access of information (Sabine Schlacke).

  13. A method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingang; Zhang, Mingbo; Li, Dong; Liu, Jia

    2017-10-04

    In China, chemical enterprises are required to cluster into a large number of chemical industrial parks (CIPs), which increase risks and threats to the environment and human being's health due to aggregation of the complicated chemical process and huge unit scale. Setting a scientific and reasonable protection zone around CIP is a very efficient way to protect surrounding people's health. A method was designed to determine the comprehensive protection zone of CIP, taking into account multiple factors: air quality, health risk and environmental risk. By establishing a comprehensive and multi-levels index system, the protection zone and the corresponding environmental risk management countermeasures can be proposed hierarchically, which are very important to the development and environmental risk management of CIP. A CIP located in coastal area of Shandong Province was studied, and it is turned out that the method to determine the protection zone of chemical industrial park considering air quality, health risk and environmental risk has great advantages compared with other methods.

  14. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  15. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.

  16. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  17. The representations of work-life balance in Canadian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Katherine T; Davis, Jane A; Polatajko, Helene J

    2009-01-01

    Work-life balance has become a topic of increasing interest in the media as well as a concern among working Canadians. Since print media discourse can both reflect and shape societal values, cultural norms and ideals of workers in this country, it is important to understand this representation and its potential influence on the occupational engagement and life transitions of Canadian workers. Articles from four major Canadian newspapers published between 2003 and 2005 were used as data sources to examine the media construction of "work-life balance". Thematic analysis of 100 articles was performed using a modified affinity diagramming process. Representations within the Canadian print media conveyed both themes pertaining to the perceived experiences of imbalance and balance, as well as, a process of life balance. Obtaining balance was portrayed as an ongoing process during which an individual negotiates and sacrifices in an attempt to achieve his or her ideal level of balance. Environmental expectations and individual practices and perceptions were conveyed as reasons for the success or derailment of balance. The representations of work-life balance found in the Canadian print media were predominantly of professionals, focused on the demands of work and family, and did not appear to be a broad representation of the multiple realities that all Canadians face.

  18. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  19. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  20. Main issues in research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generally summarize the main issues in the operational period of water conservancy and hydropower projects in China over the past several decades. First, the adverse impacts of these projects since the technical guidelines were proposed in 2006 are analyzed. Then, combined with projects and experience from 2006 to 2014, the four main issues are summarized: (1 There exist many questions in the design and construction of fishways, which are useful for fish migration, and the migration effects are not as expected. (2 Temperature stratification affecting the downstream fish is the major impact of temperature, and alters fish spawning in the reproduction season. (3 Ecological base flow has been one of the primary questions of the last 30 years in China, the greatest related difficulty being quantification of the amount and flow process necessary to satisfy fish life history. (4 Fish habitat protection and restoration are popular topics in recent years with the development of river ecosystem restoration. Fish habitat loss due to the impacts of dam construction and habitat fragmentation has become more and more serious. These four issues are now the main difficulties in water project management, and interact with one another to bear combined effects on river ecosystems. The issues of eco-hydraulic consideration in the design period are the key factors. Finally, future priorities for research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China are proposed. The main purpose of this paper is to enhance the scientific research, monitoring, and assessment of operating effectiveness.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: summary of a peer-review report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anna K.; Daston, George P.; Boyd, Glen R.; Lucier, George W.; Safe, Stephen H.; Stewart, Juarine; Tillitt, Donald E.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee conducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and resources of the program. The subcommittee found that the long-term goals and science questions in the EDC Program are appropriate and represent an understandable and solid framework for setting research priorities, representing a combination of problem-driven and core research. Long-term goal (LTG) 1, dealing with the underlying science surrounding endocrine disruptors, provides a solid scientific foundation for conducting risk assessments and making risk management decisions. LTG 2, dealing with defining the extent of the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has shown greater progress on ecologic effects of EDCs compared with that on human health effects. LTG 3, which involves support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program of the U.S. EPA, has two mammalian tests already through a validation program and soon available for use. Despite good progress, we recommend that the U.S. EPA a) strengthen their expertise in wildlife toxicology, b) expedite validation of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening and Testing Advisory Committee tests, c) continue dependable funding for the EDC Research Program, d) take a leadership role in the application of “omics” technologies to address many of the science questions critical for evaluating environmental and human health effects of EDCs, and e) continue to sponsor multidisciplinary intramural research and interagency collaborations.

  2. Application And Implication Of Nanomaterials In The Environment: An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to teach a course on analytical techniques, quality assurance, environmental research protocols, and basic soil environmental chemistry at the Environmental Health Center and Babes Bolyai University in Cluj, Romania. FOR FURTHER INFORMATI...

  3. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    applications). To advance the technical readiness for the proposed lunar missions, including a lunar plant growth lander, lunar "salad machine" (i.e. small scale plant production unit) and a full scale lunar plant production system, a suite of terrestrial developments and analogue systems are proposed. As has been successfully demonstrated by past Canadian advanced life support activities, terrestrial technology transfer and the development of highly qualified personnel will serve as key outputs for Canadian advanced life support system research programs. This approach is designed to serve the Canadian greenhouse industry by developing compliance measures for mitigating environmental impact, reducing labour and energy costs as well as improving Canadian food security, safety and benefit northern/remote communities.

  4. Women and the Canadian welfare state: challenges and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wekerle, Gerda R; Evans, Patricia M

    1997-01-01

    ... the paid labour force, provide for dependants, and leave abusive relationships. Access to political resources has helped women to form solidarities, alliances, and organizations. In Women and the Canadian Welfare State, scholars from environmental studies, law, social work, sociology, and economics explore the changing relationship between wom...

  5. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Kawasaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila. This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP, HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and

  6. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Fumiko; Koonce, Noelle L; Guo, Linda; Fatima, Shahroz; Qiu, Catherine; Moon, Mackenzie T; Zheng, Yunzhen; Ordway, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS)-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP), HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and the microtubule

  7. Integrated labour, health and environmental protection management system of RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG; Das integrierte Arbeits-, Gesundheits- und Umweltschutzmanagementsystem der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumachers, Rudolf [Zentralbereich Arbeits- Gesundheits- und Umweltschutz der RAG Aktiengesellschaft (RAG), Herne (Germany)

    2009-07-02

    Important successes have been achieved in recent years in labour, health and environmental protection (LHE) at RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG. An integrated LHE management system was established by linking processes and activities. In addition to some management system principles specific examples of successful integration of LHE in the German coal mining industry are described and explained in this contribution. (orig.)

  8. Environmental protection in politics. Ought ecological demands to be met at any price?; Der Umweltschutz in der Politik. Das oekologisch Gute tun um jeden Preis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutzbach, W.

    1997-02-01

    The term ``ecology`` was coined in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, professor at Jena, and denotes the entire science of the relations between organisms and the surrounding environment. Accordingly, environmental protection is only a part of the thus defined ecology. Yet, both terms are nowadays largely used synonymously. But even in this narrowness, the notion of ``environmental protection`` remains complex enough. And quite as diverse (and by far not always compatible with each other) are the groups that have committed themselves to environmental protection: opponents of nuclear power, opponents of animals experiments, town planners concerned with improving the quality of the city environment - to name only a few: they all rally around the banner of environmental protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Den Begriff Oekologie hat im Jahre 1866 den Jenenser Professor Ernst Haeckel als Bezeichnung fuer die gesamte Wissenschaft von den Beziehungen des Organismus zur umgebenden Aussenwelt eingefuehrt. Danach ist der Schutz der Umwelt nur ein Teil der so definierten Oekologie. Trotzdem werden beide Begriffe heute weitgehend synonym gebraucht. Aber auch in dieser Einengung bleibt der Begriff `Umweltschutz` komplex genug. Entsprechend vielfaeltig (und bei weitem auch nicht immer kompatibel) ist die Palette derer, die sich dem Schutz der Umwelt verschrieben haben: Kernkraftgegner, Tierschuetzer, Staedteplaner, die sich um die Verbesserung der Wohnumfeldqualitaet kuemmern, um nur einige zu nennen - alle sind unter dem Ziel, die Umwelt zu schuetzen, vereint. (orig.)

  9. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  10. Water management, environmental protection and spatial planning reconciliation: "Accommodating" the Danube and the Tisa river in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihler Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Serbia has been mostly operating in a framework of public companies and institutions focused on strictly sectorial and technical expertise on hydraulic engineering, environmental protection and navigable traffic engineering within the highly autonomous legislative framework. On the cross-point of spatial planning and water management there is a growing debate on the important discourses of the policy domains. Seeing rivers as an “accommodated” generator of opportunities is a statement which is opposing the traditional consideration of strict separation of water from the land. Spatial planning as a framework for regulating the land use has an important function in integrating the water management and landscape more closely. In Serbian spatial planning practice there is growing practice of area-specific development planning (reflected through the Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are considered to accommodate new ideas on spatiality better than the traditional, sectorial planning documents. The question is placed as to how these practices could direct new spatial arrangements of integrative collaborative spatial planning and not just merely reflect the framework of the existing planning order. This paper seeks the potential and actual role of spatial planning in addressing challenges related to particular river environments on the Tisa and the Danube rivers. The research is based on the analysis of two Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are still in conceptual phase - The Cultural landscape of Bač and Multifunctional ecological corridor of the Tisa river.

  11. Adsorption and chemical precipitation of lead and zinc from contaminated solutions in porous rocks: Possible application in environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Gabriella; Mlinárik, Lilla; Török, Ákos

    2016-10-01

    Natural porous rocks, like limestone and rhyolite tuff are able to reduce heavy metal pollution by adsorbing or precipitating them from heavy metal containing solutions due to the favourable physical and chemical properties of these rocks. In our experiment, two porous rocks, a porous limestone and rhyolite tuff were used. Petrophysical parameters namely apparent density, real density, capillary water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, total porosity and open porosity of the two porous rocks were determined in water-saturated and dried conditions. Powdered rock samples and cylindrical specimens were placed in lead-nitrate and zinc-sulphate solutions (initial concentration: 1000 ppm) and the amount of lead (II) and zinc (II) ions were identified by titration (chelatometry) of the residual solution. According to the experiments, powdered rocks and rock specimens of limestone and rhyolite tuff reduced the lead (II) and zinc (II) ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The results were cross-checked by ICP-MS. Heavy metal removal capacity was relatively high, 92-99% in each case. The treated powdered rocks and rock specimens were also studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) and new heavy metal precipitates were identified. According to the tests result, it could be confirmed that these types of lithologies are capable of removing heavy metals and can be used in environmental protection technologies in a form of permeable reactive barrier.

  12. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  13. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  14. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  15. The Prospects for Reforming the Tax System of Ukraine in Accordance with the Requirements of the Association Agreement with the EU in the Sphere of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garlytska Diana A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the prospects for reforming the tax system of Ukraine in accordance with the requirements of the Association Agreement with the EU in the sphere of environmental protection. The current status of the environmental taxation both in the European Union and in Ukraine, as well as the necessary steps to meet the requirements and commitments made under the Agreement, have been analyzed. In particular, the article analyzes prospects of entry of Ukrainian enterprises to the emissions market according to the System of emissions trade in the European Union. The relevance of implementing the financial tools in general and reforming the tax system in particular for the purpose of environmental protection and in the context of compliance with the requirements of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU, based on the interests of each key player in the management of sustainable development (the State, enterprises, economic entities or households, has been substantiated.

  16. From the LCA of food products to the environmental assessment of protected crops districts: a case-study in the south of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Maurizio; Ardente, Fulvio; Longo, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the energy consumption and environmental burdens associated with the production of protected crops in an agricultural district in the Mediterranean region. In this study, LCA was used as a 'support tool', to address local policies for sustainable production and consumption patterns, and to create a 'knowledge base' for environmental assessment of an extended agricultural production area. The proposed approach combines organisation-specific tools, such as Environmental Management Systems and Environmental Product Declarations, with the environmental management of the district. Questionnaires were distributed to producers to determine the life cycle of different protected crops (tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, peppers, melons and zucchinis), and obtain information on greenhouse usage (e.g. tunnel vs. pavilion). Ecoprofiles of products in the district were also estimated, to identify supply chain elements with the highest impact in terms of global energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, water consumption and waste production. These results of this study enable selection of the 'best practices' and ecodesign solutions, to reduce the environmental impact of these products. Finally, sensitivity analysis of key LCA issues was performed, to assess the variability associated with different parameters: vegetable production; water usage; fertiliser and pesticide usage; shared greenhouse use; substitution of plastics coverings; and waste recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  18. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienstedt, Karin M. [European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Brock, Theo C.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Wensem, Joke van [Soil Protection Technical Committee, P.O. Box 30947, The Hague (Netherlands); Montforts, Mark [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hart, Andy [Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Aagaard, Alf [European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Alix, Anne [General Directorate on Food, Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Affairs, 251 rue de Vaugirard, 75732 Paris Cedex (France); Boesten, Jos [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bopp, Stephanie K., E-mail: pesticides.ppr@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Brown, Colin [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Capri, Ettore [Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 86, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Forbes, Valery [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Koepp, Herbert [Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Liess, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. System Ecotoxicology, Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Luttik, Robert [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maltby, Lorraine [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, The University Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-01-15

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer How to define specific protection goals (SPGs) for environmental risk assessment? Black

  19. Managing Water-Food-Energy Futures in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Nazemi, A.; Elshorbagy, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The water-food-energy nexus is a convenient phrase to highlight competing societal uses for water and the need for cross-sectoral policy integration, but this can lead to oversimplification of the multiple dimensions of water (and energy) management. In practice, water managers must balance (and prioritize) demands for water for many uses, including environmental flows, and reservoir operation often involves managing conflicting demands, for example to maximize retention for supply, reduce storage to facilitate flood control, and constrain water levels and releases for habitat protection. Agriculture and water quality are also inextricably linked: irrigated agriculture requires appropriate water quality for product quality and certification, but agriculture can be a major source of nutrient pollution, with impacts on human and ecosystem health, drinking water treatment and amenity. And energy-water interactions include energy production (hydropower and cooling water for thermal power generation) and energy consumption (e.g. for pumping and water and wastewater treatment). These dependencies are illustrated for the Canadian prairies, and a risk-based approach to the management of climate change is presented. Trade-offs between economic benefits of hydropower and irrigation are illustrated for alternative climate futures, including implications for freshwater habitats. The results illustrate that inter-sector interactions vary as a function of climate and its variability, and that there is a need for policy to manage inter-sector allocations as a function of economic risk.

  20. European aid control policy and environmental protection - an evaluation of the new Community guidelines; Die europaeische Beihilfenaufsicht im Umweltschutz - Darstellung und Kritik des neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewringmann, D.; Thoene, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Fischer, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    On 3 February 2001 the European Commission adopted the new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. These guidelines outline the methods and criteria used by the Commission when controlling environmental state aid according to Art. 87 and 88 of the EC-Treaty. The study analyses the development of the new guidelines and their potential effects on environmental protection and environmental policy in the Member States of the European Union. In essence, the guidelines display three harmful tendencies: - they hamper progressive and innovative environmental policy that improves on 'least common denominator'-Community standards; - they do not respect the limits of the Commissions's authority, and interfere with the Member States' exclusive authority to decide on strategies and instruments of their respective environmental policies, and they especially affect Member States' choices between different energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply; - finally, they do not improve the protection of air competition on the common market. Based on these findings, the report delineates perspectives for an aid control policy that protects fair competition, and that gives incentives for voluntary national and regional environmental protection, allows for the equal treatment of clean techniques, and provides a consistent framework for exemptions from ecological taxes and environmental levies at the same time. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Kommission hat mit Wirkung vom 3. Februar 2001 einen neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmen fuer staatliche Umweltschutzbeihilfen erlassen. Dieser skizziert die Verfahren und Kriterien, welche die Kommission in ihrer Ueberpruefung staatlicher Umweltschutzbeihilfen auf Vereinbarkeit mit dem gemeinsamen Markt nach Art. 87 u. 88 EGV nutzen will. Die vorliegende Untersuchung schildert die Entstehung des Beihilferahmens und analysiert dessen potenzielle Wirkungen auf den Umweltschutz und die