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Sample records for canadian city supermarket

  1. Different Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何峣杰

    2012-01-01

    There are three big supermarkets in our city. They are Better Life St, permarket, Wangli Supermarket and Jiahui Supermarket. We can buy all kinds of things in the supermarkets. We can buy skirts. T-shirts, fried chicken, bread, backpack and so on.

  2. Improving Customer Satisfaction and Customer Service Levels : Case: Nakumatt Mega City Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Shalotte Salmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze the current customer satisfaction and service levels of the Nakumatt mega city Supermarket through an efficient customer satisfaction survey. It is important for a company to work towards satisfying customers’ needs and expectations in order to flourish. The main objective of the study was to discover solutions to improve customer satisfaction and to increase the level of Nakumatt customer services in order to retain and attract new customers. Ano...

  3. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour of...... imported food products in four major Chinese cities (i.e., Bejing, Shanghai, Gaungzhou, and Chengdu). Knowledge about potential differences in supermarket structure and buying behaviour between regions will be a prerequisite to foreign food suppliers trying to capitalise on increased consumer demands for...... importance of supplier selection criteria and buying behaviour as well as structural characteristics of the retailers. The findings have important implications for exporters of food products to the Chinese retail market....

  4. Community attitudes to waterfront change in Canadian port cities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary, working report on research designed to apply an established method of enquiry in an innovative way to a range of community groups in a series of contrasted Canadian port cities. Community groups are a critical element in Canadian society in general, and in the process of urban waterfront change. Building on earlier work on other 'actors' such as port authorities, urban planners and real-estate developers, this report explores the attitudes and influence of such gr...

  5. ANALYSIS OF NEIGHBORHOOD IMPACTS ARISING FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF SUPERMARKETS IN CITY OF SÃO CARLOS

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Silveira Gonçalves Neto; José Augusto de Lollo

    2010-01-01

    The study included supermarkets of different sizes (small, medium and large - defined based on the area occupied by the project and volume of activity) located in São Carlos (São Paulo state, Brazil) to evaluate the influence of the size of the project impacts neighborhood generated by these supermarkets. It was considered the influence of factors like the location of enterprises, size of the building, and areas of influence contribute to the increased population density and change of use of ...

  6. ANALYSIS OF NEIGHBORHOOD IMPACTS ARISING FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF SUPERMARKETS IN CITY OF SÃO CARLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silveira Gonçalves Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study included supermarkets of different sizes (small, medium and large - defined based on the area occupied by the project and volume of activity located in São Carlos (São Paulo state, Brazil to evaluate the influence of the size of the project impacts neighborhood generated by these supermarkets. It was considered the influence of factors like the location of enterprises, size of the building, and areas of influence contribute to the increased population density and change of use of buildings since it was post-deployment analysis. The relationship between the variables of the spatial impacts was made possible by the use of geographic information system. It was noted that the legislation does not have suitable conditions to guide the studies of urban impacts due to the complex integration between the urban and impacting components.

  7. Immigration and the economic health of Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Laura A Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research explores relationships between diversity of local populations and economic well-being: specifically, the connections between foreign-born populations, other measures of community diversity, and local economic health. Using data from the population of mid-sized Canadian cities, I conclude that there is a significant relationship between immigration and health. Several other aspects of diversity—language, visible minority status, and religion—are also related to economic health, b...

  8. Canadian cities in transition: new sources of urban difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry S. Bourne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities, increasingly, are the principal arenas in which global, national and local forces intersect.Canadian cities are no exception. Those cities are currently undergoing a series ofprofound and irreversible transitions as a result of external forces originating from differentsources and operating at different spatial scales. Specifically, this paper argues that Canadiancities are being transformed in a markedly uneven fashion through the intersection ofchanges in national and regional economies, the continued demographic transition, andshifts in government policy on the one hand, and through increased levels and new sourcesof immigration, and the globalization of capital and trade flows, on the other hand. Theseshifts, in turn, are producing new patterns of external dependence, a more fragmented urbansystem, and continued metropolitan concentration. They are also leading to increased socioculturaldifferences, with intense cultural diversity in some cities juxtaposed with homogeneityin other cities, and to new sets of urban winners and losers. In effect, these transitionsare creating new sources of difference - new divides - among and within the country=surban centres, augmenting or replacing the traditional divides based on city-size, location inthe heartland or periphery, and local economic base.

  9. Congestive Traffic Failure: The Case for High-Occupancy and Express Toll Lanes in Canadian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Dachis

    2011-01-01

    Congestion on Canadian highways is having a significant negative economic impact on major Canadian cities. Rather than face the political challenge of introducing road tolls to discourage traffic, governments have chosen to build carpool lanes on urban highways, despite evidence that these lanes have limited effectiveness in curbing congestion. Policymakers in major Canadian cities need realistic options for reducing the economic cost of congestion and increasing revenue for transportation in...

  10. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Gondim Calvasina; Cíntia Maria Torres Rocha Silva; Gilka de Albuquerque Forte Aguiar; Milena Rebouças Aguiar; Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Question...

  11. Supermarket Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  12. Supermarket Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  13. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    differences in the relative importance of supplier criteria were found across supermarkets' buying behaviour, firm demographics and the cities where they are located. This will have managerial implications for suppliers of food products to the fast-growing Chinese supermarket segment.......This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most...

  14. Building Affordable Rental Housing in Unaffordable Cities: A Canadian Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Steele; Francois Des Rosiers

    2009-01-01

    Many Canadian cities are short of affordable rental housing. Waiting lists for low-income housing are years in length, and new-build construction of rental housing has fallen over the last two decades. This study proposes a better way to build more low-income housing in expensive Canadian cities. A made-in-Canada Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) could leverage private sector expertise in site location, building, and management to build more and better low-income rental housing.

  15. Lung cancer mortality and indoor radon concentrations in 18 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon and radon daughter concentrations were measured in a survey of 14,000 homes in 18 Canadian cities conducted in the summers of 1978 through 1980. Mortality and population data for the period 1966 through 1979 were retrieved for the geographic areas surveyed in each city. The results of analysis of the relation between lung cancer and radon daughter concentration, smoking habits and socioeconomic indicators for each city showed no detectable association between radon daughter concentrations and lung cancer mortality rates with or without adjustment for differences in smoking habits between cities

  16. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gondim Calvasina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Questionnaires structuralized with questions on transgenic foods with consumers of a situated supermarket in noble area of the city of Fortaleza in the period of March of 2003 had been applied. Sixty consumers had participated of the study who at the moment were making purchases in the supermarket. It was presented the end of the interview, to each consumer, a list of products, removed of the guide of the transgenic food consumer and not transgenic, available on the Greenpeace. In each list, people would have to recognize or not products of its habitual consumption. It was verified that 50% of the interviewed people had higher level of school knowledge, with 63,3% answering that they knew what transgenic foods are; 53,3% always look at the label during the purchase, being that the majority (76,7% never saw, in the label, mention if the product is or not transgenic. It was evidenced, when interrogating on the possible risks to the health, that 33.3% find that they cause illnesses, however 51.7% would not be imported in consuming them. The opinion of the people regarding the release of these products is major (73,3% in agreeing that the Federal Government must wait more research. From the list of products presented to the interviewed, 60% had told that they consume enter 5 to 9 products. It was evidenced that still a lack knowledge exists on the presence of transgenic in industrialized products, as well as how much to the risks consuming it. It has necessity of

  17. THE USE OFACCOUNTING TOOLS IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN NICHE SUPERMARKETS OF CACOAL CITY, RONDÔNIA (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleberson Eller Loose

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The decision making in day-to-day management of companies are of the utmost importance, because each decision outlines a path to take both by the company and by employees (owners, employees, suppliers, customers, among others. The accounts together with the analysis of financial statements assists in the management of the business, because they are used to capture the information and analyzing them , being that when used together, serve to support the manager take effective decisions and accurate. With this, the object of research of this article was to verify how are used information extracted by means of the analysis of accounts and balance sheets in the decision-making process by managers of supermarkets of Cacoal/RO. Having specific objectives check as is used in accounting; knowledge of managers about the accounting and the benefits of analysing the accounts and balance sheets. To achieve the proposed objectives, was used the deductive method combined with qualitative research and field study, being that in order to obtain the data were applied questionnaires with open and closed questions. To conduct the survey, it was found that most managers do not have detailed knowledge about the accounting, however use the accounting information in making their decisions.

  18. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  19. 大城市内部连锁超市空间分布格局及其区位选择——以南京市苏果超市为例%Spatial pattern and location decision of chain supermarkets within large cities:A case study of Suguo supermarkets in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琛; 陈雯; 袁丰; 程绍铂

    2013-01-01

    连锁超市已成为中国大城市内部零售商业的主要业态.针对目前研究中对城市内部尺度连锁超市空间布局问题关注不足,本文以南京市苏果超市为例,从空间格局演化、集聚分布状况、不同类型超市的区位选择等方面进行分析.研究方法包括点模式分析、空间密度分析和空间自相关分析等.结果发现:南京市苏果超市的空间总体分布呈中心到外围递减的倒“U”型集聚特征;不同类型苏果超市的分布特征不同,华润卖场的空间分布相对分散,社区店、便利店的分布相对集聚;空间分布热点呈蔓延扩散与等级扩散混合模式.运用Binary Logistic二分逻辑回归对影响超市区位选择的因素进行计量分析,结果表明经济发展情况、消费者规模、交通通达性、居民购买力、城乡差别、公司战略等多种因素,通过综合作用机制,共同推动了南京市苏果超市的空间分布格局.%Chain supermarkets have been main formats of retail business within large cities of China. Current studies pay little attention to spatial distribution of chain supermarkets on the scale of internal city. Taking Suguo supermarkets in Nanjing as an example, this paper focuses on spatial pattern evolution, agglomeration, and location decisions of different types of supermarkets using research methods including point pattern analysis, space density analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results show that Suguo supermarkets present an inverted-U-shaped pattern with the mode of extending to the surrounding area around the core of the downtown area. Different types of supermarkets present different distribution characteristics. Resource stores are relatively disperse while community and convenience stores are relatively concentrated. The spatial distribution of hot spots shows a mixed mode of spreading diffusion within the main city and hierarchical diffusion from the main city to the suburbs

  20. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-09-01

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

  1. Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Crouse, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of environmental justice in Canadian cities have linked lower socioeconomic status to greater air pollution exposures at coarse geographic scales, (i.e., Census Tracts). However, studies that examine these associations at finer scales are less common, as are comparisons among cities. To assess differences in exposure to air pollution among socioeconomic groups, we assigned estimates of exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related pollution, from city-wide land use regression models to respondents of the 2006 Canadian census long-form questionnaire in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Data were aggregated at a finer scale than in most previous studies (i.e., by Dissemination Area (DA), which includes approximately 400-700 persons). We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models, which account for spatial autocorrelation, to identify associations between NO2 exposure and indicators of social and material deprivation. In Canada's three largest cities, DAs with greater proportions of tenants and residents who do not speak either English or French were characterised by greater exposures to ambient NO2. We also observed positive associations between NO2 concentrations and indicators of social deprivation, including the proportion of persons living alone (in Toronto), and the proportion of persons who were unmarried/not in a common-law relationship (in Vancouver). Other common measures of deprivation (e.g., lone-parent families, unemployment) were not associated with NO2 exposures. DAs characterised by selected indicators of deprivation were associated with higher concentrations of ambient NO2 air pollution in the three largest cities in Canada. PMID:26950027

  2. Reasons for Hope: Canadian Breast Cancer Research Conference, Le Concorde Hotel, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, 3–5 May 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Roskelley, Calvin

    2001-01-01

    Canadian breast cancer researchers and international colleagues met recently to present and discuss their latest data. The conference, which was sponsored by the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative, was held in Quebec City, 3–5 May 2001. The Research Initiative was founded in 1993 and is a unique partnership of groups from the public, private and non-profit sectors committed to funding a broad spectrum of breast cancer research. From this meeting, and others like it, it is becoming inc...

  3. Social and economic context and attitudes toward immigrants in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schissel, B; Wanner, R; Frideres, J S

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a study of the effects of a number of socioeconomic features of Canadian cities, particularly their unemployment rates, on the attitudes toward immigrants of their native-born residents. Using data from a national study of ethnicity and multiculturalism, the authors estimate several regression models predicting 3 separate dimensions of attitude toward immigrants and including as independent variables both individual characteristics and structural characteristics of city of residence. They found no evidence of a sizeable effect of local unemployment rate on attitude toward immigrants. Of the other contextual variables included in the models, the only 2 consistently influencing these attitudes included in the models, educational attainment and income, along with mother tongue, exhibit the strongest and most consistent effects on the attitude dimensions. PMID:12315958

  4. Managing Tree Diversity: A Comparison of Suburban Development in Two Canadian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. Nitoslawski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Is (suburban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities with contrasting pre-urbanized or pre-settlement landscapes—woodlands in Halifax and agricultural fields in London—also revealed differences in urban tree diversity losses and/or gains due to urbanization. In each city, four residential neighbourhoods representing two age categories, older and newer (40–50 years, <15 years, were examined and trees on three land types were sampled: public (street, private (residential, and remnant (woodland. All public street trees within the chosen neighbourhoods were inventoried and approximately 10% of the residential property lots were sampled randomly. Plots were examined in remnant forests in or near each city, representing the original forest habitats prior to agricultural and/or urban landscape transformations. Diameter at breast height, species richness and evenness, and proportions of native and non-native trees were measured. In both cities, streetscapes in newer neighbourhoods exhibit greater species richness and evenness, and are characterized by substantially more native trees. Despite this trend, developers and home owners continue to intensively plant non-native species on newer and smaller property lots. Older neighbourhoods in Halifax containing remnant forest stands hold the greatest number of native trees on private property, alluding to the importance of residual forest buffers and patches in promoting naturalness in the private urban forest. These results suggest that identifying and quantifying flows of species between green spaces during and after development is valuable in order to effectively promote native species establishment and enhance overall urban forest diversity.

  5. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  6. Defining a Canadian approach to municipal consolidation in major city-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lightbody

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Where there is a central government with an exclusive mandate over municipalities, along with a state executive structure using the Westminster model, then the consolidation of squabbling municipalities within metropolitan boundaries becomes a distinct possibility A general model of municipal restructuring for the Canadian metropolis is more widespread than the superficially unique circumstances of each case might suggest. The thinking here is informed by Clarence Stone’s urban regime model, which helps to clarify what influences constituted the political tipping point for central government action. The paper focuses primarily on the Toronto and Montreal city-regional municipal consolidations at the end of the last century. It is argued that the decisive element in setting the stage for significant change lay in the pervasive influence of corporate Canada in generally shaping provincial political discourse. What has not previously been of much interest for investigators is the matter of direct consequences for the low politics of city-regional governance. As will be seen, they were both tangible and considerable.

  7. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and...... neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...... analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). Results: In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models...

  8. Differentiation through Aesthetics in Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Meng; Ekiz, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Background:This thesis strives to analyze aesthetic services used in supermarkets. Supermarkets facefierce competition and varied marketing dilemmas such as traditional marketing versusservice marketing. Nevertheless, encompassing elements from both traditionalmarketing, such as physical products, and service marketing, such as relationshipbuilding, supermarket management is challenging. Thus, it is crucial to understandconsumers’ perceptions for both services and products in order to satisfy...

  9. Evaluation of region-specific residential energy systems for GHG reductions: Case studies in Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with operations of alternative residential energy systems. In case studies, the same detached four-bedroom house built in accordance with R2000 standards is studied in five Canadian cities with different climate and electricity mix. Conventional energy systems and alternatives using three technologies, namely ground source heat pumps (GSHPs), photovoltaics, and energy-efficient appliances; and their combinations are investigated. The results show that using a GSHP in Calgary may increase overall GHG emissions, as electricity to drive the pump is primarily produced in coal-fired power stations. Using photovoltaics to generate electricity from carbon-free sources or energy-efficient appliances to reduce electricity demands result in almost no GHG reductions in Montreal and Vancouver, where over 90% of electricity comes from hydro power. The results also show that the use of photovoltaics in combination with GSHPs in Ottawa and Toronto, or with energy-efficient appliances in Calgary, can lead to more GHG reductions, compared to the use of a single technology. As a result, while climate affects energy use to some degree, local sources of electricity may have a greater impact on overall GHG emissions, which is an important measure of environmental impacts

  10. Decontamination of radium from a commercial building located in a large Canadian city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1975, the Ministry of Health of the Province of Ontario at the request of one of the tenants of a building in a large Canadian city conducted a radiation survey of the third floor of the building. The survey, although preliminary, showed that high radiation existed on the third and second floors and that significant contamination existed in some other parts of the six-floor building. The contamination was identified as radium-226. An investigation revealed that the third floor of the building had been used during World War II for processing radium and also for some radium dial painting work. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) requested Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to remove the radium contaminant from the building. AECL assigned the job to its Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). The objectives were to reduce the radium concentration throughout the building so that radon decay products would be less than 0.02 Working Levels (WL) and exposure rates would be less than 50 μR/h. The techniques used and the extent of decontamination achieved are reported

  11. Survey on Microbiological Contamination of Fresh Chilled Chicken Sold on Supermarkets in Beijing City%北京市大型超市中冰鲜鸡肉微生物污染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢旭红; 李鑫; 阳宇恒; 李昂狄; 郑海涛

    2014-01-01

    为了调查北京市大型超市中冰鲜鸡肉卫生状况,于2013年4月—2014年1月在北京市8家大型超市采集冰鲜鸡肉样品70份,检测其基本微生物指标以及常见食源性致病菌。所测全部样品的检验不合格比例:菌落总数38%、大肠菌群37%,沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌未检出,金黄色葡萄球菌检出率32%,因此市售冰鲜鸡肉制品中细菌污染状况不容忽视,相关部门应加强冰鲜鸡肉屠宰、加工、运输等各环节的监测。%In order to investigate the sanitary conditions of fresh chilled chicken in supermarkets in Beijing city, a total of 70 frozen fresh chicken samples were collected from 8 big supermarkets in Beijing from 2013 April to 2014 January, and microbial indicators and basic common foodborne pathogens of all the samples were tested by the national standard. The sample unqualified ratios were that the total number of colonies was 38%, coliform bacteria was 37%, no Salmonella or Shigella was detected, the detection rate of Staphyloccocus aureus Rosenbach was 32%. Therefore, bacterial contamination in the sale of frozen fresh chicken products is unnegligible, and relevant depart-ments need to strengthen the monitoring of links of the slaughter, processing, transportation and so on.

  12. 北京市大型超市中冰鲜鸡肉微生物污染状况调查%Survey on Microbiological Contamination of Fresh Chilled Chicken Sold on Supermarkets in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢旭红; 李鑫; 阳宇恒; 李昂狄; 郑海涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the sanitary conditions of fresh chilled chicken in supermarkets in Beijing city, a total of 70 frozen fresh chicken samples were collected from 8 big supermarkets in Beijing from 2013 April to 2014 January, and microbial indicators and basic common foodborne pathogens of all the samples were tested by the national standard. The sample unqualified ratios were that the total number of colonies was 38%, coliform bacteria was 37%, no Salmonella or Shigella was detected, the detection rate of Staphyloccocus aureus Rosenbach was 32%. Therefore, bacterial contamination in the sale of frozen fresh chicken products is unnegligible, and relevant depart-ments need to strengthen the monitoring of links of the slaughter, processing, transportation and so on.%为了调查北京市大型超市中冰鲜鸡肉卫生状况,于2013年4月—2014年1月在北京市8家大型超市采集冰鲜鸡肉样品70份,检测其基本微生物指标以及常见食源性致病菌。所测全部样品的检验不合格比例:菌落总数38%、大肠菌群37%,沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌未检出,金黄色葡萄球菌检出率32%,因此市售冰鲜鸡肉制品中细菌污染状况不容忽视,相关部门应加强冰鲜鸡肉屠宰、加工、运输等各环节的监测。

  13. Entry and Prices: Evidence from the Chilean Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto Lira; Rosario Rivero; Rodrigo Vergara

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the last couple of decades in the retail industry has been the emergence of large supermarkets (hypermarkets). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect on prices of the entry of a large supermarket into a given location. We use a panel with data from fifteen cities in Chile for the period 1998:I – 2004:IV. The dependent variable is the price of a bundle of 52 food products in each city relative to Santiago. We find that the entry of a ...

  14. Supermarkets and Planning Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Rachel; Harmgart, Heike

    2008-01-01

    We are interested in evaluating the impact of restrictive planning regulation on entry into the UK grocery retail industry. We estimate a model similar to Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) where we allow for multiple store formats. We find that more restrictive planning regulation reduces the number of large format supermarkets in equilibrium. However, the impact is overstated if variation in demographic characteristics across markets is not also controlled for. Our estimates suggest that restrictiv...

  15. Supermarket Pricing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul B. Ellickson; Sanjog Misra

    2008-01-01

    Most supermarket firms choose to position themselves by offering either everyday low prices (EDLP) across several items or offering temporary price reductions (promotions) on a limited range of items. While this choice has been addressed from a theoretical perspective in both the marketing and economic literature, relatively little is known about how these decisions are made in practice, especially within a competitive environment. This paper exploits a unique store level data set consisting ...

  16. The Supermarket Game

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiaming

    2012-01-01

    A supermarket game is considered with $N$ FCFS queues with unit exponential service rate and global Poisson arrival rate $N \\lambda$. Upon arrival each customer chooses a number of queues to be sampled uniformly at random and joins the least loaded sampled queue. Customers are assumed to have cost for both waiting and sampling, and they want to minimize their own expected total cost. We study the supermarket game in a mean field model that corresponds to the limit as $N$ converges to infinity in the sense that (i) for a fixed symmetric customer strategy, the joint equilibrium distribution of any fixed number of queues converges as $N \\to \\infty$ to a product distribution determined by the mean field model and (ii) a Nash equilibrium for the mean field model is an $\\epsilon$-Nash equilibrium for the finite $N$ model with $N$ sufficiently large. It is shown that there always exists a Nash equilibrium for $\\lambda <1$ and the Nash equilibrium is unique with homogeneous waiting cost for $\\lambda^2 \\le 1/2$. Fu...

  17. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village in...... Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour the...... hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  18. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from t...... represented in a manner that is sufficiently simple to communicate to a market operator in the form of a bid for the provision of regulating power....

  19. Competition Effects of Supermarket Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Alessandro; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of in-store services on retail food prices, supermarket competition, and demand using fluid milk as a case study. It is shown that higher-service supermarkets charge higher milk prices essentially because of an increase in market power due to differentiation of service offering. Results show that different types of services impact milk prices differently, that upscale food-retailers face stronger competition in newer services, and that service competition re...

  20. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    S. Morin; Finch, L; Sara, A.; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C. C.; Giangregorio, L.M.; Adachi, J. D.; Morin, S. N.; Crilly, R. G.; Marr, S.; Josse, R.G.; Matta, J.; Dionne, I; Payette, H.

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  1. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer. -- Air pollution has a greater influence on acute human mortality than weather type, with significant differences in risk from exposure to gaseous air pollution based on cause of death

  2. Spatial Variability and Application of Ratios between BTEX in Two Canadian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds were carried out in two similarly sized urban industrial cities, Windsor and Sarnia, ON, Canada. For Windsor, data were obtained for all four seasons at approximately 50 sites in each season (winter, spring, summer, and fall over a three-year period (2004, 2005, and 2006 for a total of 12 sampling sessions. Sampling in Sarnia took place at 37 monitoring sites in fall 2005. In both cities, passive sampling was done using 3M 3500 organic vapor samplers. This paper characterizes benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o, and (m + p-xylene (BTEX concentrations and relationships among BTEX species in the two cities during the fall sampling periods. BTEX concentration levels and rank order among the species were similar between the two cities. In Sarnia, the relationships between the BTEX species varied depending on location. Correlation analysis between land use and concentration ratios showed a strong influence from local industries. Use one of the ratios between the BTEX species to diagnose photochemical age may be biased due to point source emissions, for example, 53 tonnes of benzene and 86 tonnes of toluene in Sarnia. However, considering multiple ratios leads to better conclusions regarding photochemical aging. Ratios obtained in the sampling campaigns showed significant deviation from those obtained at central monitoring stations, with less difference in the (m + p/E ratio but better overall agreement in Windsor than in Sarnia.

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to...

  4. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in...

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula...

  6. THE 2003 SUPERMARKET PANEL ANNUAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.; Jacobson, Elaine M.; Behl, Ajay S.; Seltzer, Jonathan M.

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary The Food Industry Center established the Supermarket Panel in 1998 as the basis for an ongoing study of the supermarket industry. Since 2000 the core of the Panel has been a random sample of stores drawn from the approximately 32,000 supermarkets in the U.S. that accept food stamps. The purpose of collecting data on supermarket operations and performance is to: Provide timely, useful information for the industry through benchmark reports and annual summaries, trends on key i...

  7. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village in...... Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  8. The Cedar Project: correlates of attempted suicide among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moniruzzaman, Akm; Pearce, Margo E; Patel, Sheetal H; Chavoshi, Negar; Teegee, Mary; Adam, Warner; Christian, Wayne M; Henderson, Earl; Craib, Kevin J.P.; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Aboriginal leadership and families are deeply concerned about the rate of suicide attempt among their young people. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe the prevalence of suicide attempt and (b) to describe correlates of vulnerability to suicide attempts within a cohort of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in 2 Canadian cities. We aimed to situate the findings within the context of historical and lifetime trauma. Study design. The Cedar Project is a prospective co...

  9. Supermarket fluid milk pricing practices in the western United States

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, Hoy F.; Sexton, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes retail milk pricing by supermarkets and marketing margin behavior for four fluid milk products in nine large metropolitan markets in the Western United States. Multiple empirical approaches are utilized to investigate retailer pricing behavior, and, on balance, these methods provide significant evidence of noncompetitive price behavior in each of the markets. Correlations of retail price changes indicate considerable pricing independence among retailers across cities, whil...

  10. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. - Highlights: • We model effect modification of aeroallergens on air pollutant–asthma association. • The air pollutant association was modelled in seven synoptic weather types. • Aeroallergens modify CO, O3, NO2, SO2, and PM2.5 effect on asthma hospitalisations. • Synoptic weather types modify the air pollutant and asthma association. - We identify a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the relationship between air pollutants and hospitalisation rates for asthma, that differs under specific synoptic weather types

  11. Dynamics of Citizenship and Identity: Obstacles to Sustainable Immigration in a Small Canadian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritendra TAMANG

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the challenges confronting immigrants in Prince George, a small city in the province of British Columbia, Canada, and evaluates the responses of local agencies to the diverse needs of newcomers. Specifically, it will explore the effects of the current economic restructuring and the lack of coordination among public employment, housing, education, and health agencies and private agencies such as churches. Shortfalls in the quality and effectiveness of the delivery of essential services to immigrants, particularly those who do not speak English or French, have affected immigrants’ sense of belonging, patterns of settlement, and negotiation of new identities in the community.

  12. Educators of the Information Society: Information Literacy Instruction in Canadian Informational Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henkel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As information literacy is a key competence of the information society, information literacy instruction in public as well as academic libraries is crucial. Today, librarians do not only act as providers of information but also as educators of the information society's citizens. The rapid development of information and communications technologies is constantly changing the way we interact with information, making it difficult to keep up to date with instructional trends. This study aims to assess the perceived quality of information literacy instruction in libraries of Canada's informational cities: Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Therefore, librarians were interviewed by means of a questionnaire inspired by the SERVQUAL diagnostic tool. The questionnaire comprises of two parts: The first part consists of questions regarding information literacy instruction, in the second part the focus is on the seven competence areas of information literacy. Based on the difference between the librarians' "Expectation" and "Experience", gap scores for all questionnaire items were calculated and are now being presented and discussed.

  13. Pengaruh Citra Supermarket Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Di Metro Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna, Soneta

    2010-01-01

    Consumer Loyalty as a measure of consumers' attachment to particular supermarket, has become an important notion in consumer behavior. The producers understand that better retain existing customers than new customers. Therefore, in order to build consumer affinity with the product, then developed the concept of brand community. A community based on shared commitment to a particular product, brand and consumer activities. Store image expected to be able to contribute in building consumer attit...

  14. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Freitas-Rego; Pereira, M.G.; S. O. Loureiro; M. T. de Santana; R. G. Garrido; F. de S.R.G Garrido

    2007-01-01

    After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA) startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078). Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative ana...

  15. Pricing strategies of the supermarket sector

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Joana Lobato da Fonseca Sáragga

    2014-01-01

    The food retail industry is a very competitive market. Supermarkets use a combination of price, quality of products and service to lure consumers and increase their profit. This work project draws upon both empirical and theoretical literatures to understand the different pricing strategies that the supermarket sector uses. Everyday Low Price, Promotional, Zone Pricing and Loyalty Programs are the most common pricing strategies in this industry. By using data from the Portuguese supermarket l...

  16. Fresh Food Online Supermarket Development Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Xiang; Liu Jiashi; Guan Zhongliang; Ke Xinsheng

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of fresh food is difficult, so the problems of food safety and the waste of it are very serious. The development of Fresh food online supermarkets will contribute to solve the problem. On the basis of describing the concept, scope and development status of fresh food, the development advantage and disadvantage of fresh food online supermarket is analyzed by SWOT method, future development analysis of the fresh food online supermarkets is been done. Predictive analysis of the ...

  17. THE 2002 SUPERMARKET PANEL ANNUAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robert P.; Jacobson, Elaine M.; Seltzer, Jonathan M.

    2002-01-01

    The Supermarket Panel collects data annually from individual supermarkets on store characteristics, operations, and performance. It was established in 1998 by the Food Industry Center as the basis for ongoing study of the supermarket industry. The Panel is unique because the unit of analysis is the individual store and the same stores are tracked over time. This makes it possible to analyze the processes by which new technologies, business practices, and competitive forces are changing the in...

  18. THE 2001 SUPERMARKET PANEL ANNUAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    King, Robert P.; Jacobson, Elaine M.; Selzer, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    The Supermarket Panel collects data annually from individual supermarkets on store characteristics, operations, and performance. It was established in 1998 by the Food Industry Center as the basis for ongoing study of the supermarket industry. The Panel is unique because the unit of analysis is the individual store and the same stores are tracked over time. This makes it possible to analyze the processes by which new technologies, business practices, and competitive forces are changing the in...

  19. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte;

    Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio......-economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure, but not with...

  20. Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Maantay, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction and consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fas...

  1. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  2. Analysis of supermarket dehumidification alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.W. Urban, R.E.; Beckman, W.A.; Dorgan, C.E.; Lindell, C.J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Solar Energy Lab.)

    1992-11-01

    Alternative methods to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were studied. Four basic air-conditioning systems were selected for evaluation in a store in Miami, Florida: (1) conventional vapor compression systems, (2) vapor compression air-conditioning systems designed for supermarket loads, (3) hybrid desiccant air-conditioning systems, and (4) cool storage systems. Computer models were created and annual simulations of performance were made. The impacts on energy use and cost of circulation flow rate, store humidity set point, heat pipe heat exchangers, and climate on energy use and cost were determined. Dual path electric systems and desiccant systems were found to consume the least electrical energy. Savings of the desiccant system are partially offset by natural gas needed to reactivate the desiccant. Single path systems with reduced circulation air flow consumed significantly less electricity than the conventional system. Lower humidity shifts the air-conditioning load from the refrigerated cases to the HVAC system and reduces the electrical use for all but the conventional system. Heat pipe heat exchangers provide little benefit. Flat and time-of-use electric rate schedules were used to estimate operating savings and to determine the cost effectiveness of the alternative approaches.

  3. Lighting designs for supermarket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.S.

    1996-05-01

    Designers of lighting systems for supermarket applications face a number of challenges when the goals are to present merchandise in an attractive environment, but to do so in an energy-efficient manner. The Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) operates several hundred stores worldwide, and more than 150 within the United States. DeCA is a federal agency that was organized in 1991 to operate commissaries that had previously been operated by the various armed services. As a federal agency, DeCA is also under a federal executive order to reduce its total energy consumption per square foot of floor space by 20 percent by the year 2005, compared to energy use in the year 1990. On the average, lighting consumes more than 20 percent of a store`s total energy use. Lighting retrofit projects offer opportunities to save significant energy costs with reasonable cost payback. The variety of ages and architectural styles of the commissaries offer opportunities for analysis and design of a wide diversity of projects. These projects range from simple replacements of lamps and ballasts to luminaire replacements and complete redesign of systems, including circuits. The requirements of merchandising products (illumination) also affect system designs. Several types of lighting retrofit projects are discussed. Problems that were encountered and solutions that were developed are shown. Because commissaries are supermarkets, lighting system designs are applicable to commercial establishments.

  4. (Re)Producing a Peaceful Canadian Citizenry: A Lesson on the Free Trade of the Americas Quebec City Summit Protests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrouse, Gada

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that despite common assumptions that peace education efforts achieve social change, it is often a normalizing, nation-building project that obscures hierarchies of power. Focussing on a lesson from a popular peace education program currently used in Canadian schools, I have analyzed the convergences between peace and…

  5. Better supplier managemet for supermarket chains in China : Case study of Beiguo Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to search for reasonable solutions of supplier management for Beiguo Supermarket, a typical local supermarket chain located in Hebei, China. In order to give recommendations at the end of this thesis, the related theory is analyzed including purchasing process and organization and supplier management. The supermarket chain is defined. Last but not least, the step of doing analytic hierarchy process which is used in the recommendation part to finalize the solution...

  6. Future remote systems in supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was started as a result of an Executive Order that states a date for phasing out HFC-refrigerants, furthermore, the Executive Order states an upper limit for filling when HFCs are used. The Executive Order will mean new cooling system designs in the retail trade and the Danish cooling system manufacturers are facing major technology changes. This report deals with seven different cooling system designs for the retail trade. The systems cover the entire range from small condensation units and plug-in units to large refrigeration systems in supermarkets. The report comprises the following items: reliability, energy consumption, environmental effects, financial analysis, life cycle costs, personnel safety as well as potential barriers with regard to legislation. (BA)

  7. Sustainability in the supermarket; Nachhaltigkeit im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    The food retailing discovered the sustainable construction. The prototypes of energy-saving supermarkets already are established and partly certified or decorated with prices. However, it will take time until the concepts are recognized.

  8. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  9. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  10. Following up on smallholder farmers and supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Camilla I.M.; Kiria, Christine G.; Qaim, Matin; Rao, Elizaphan J.O.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries, supermarkets are expanding rapidly. This also affects farmers’ marketing options. Previous studies have analyzed welfare effects for smallholders with crosssection data. Here, we use panel data and a differencing approach to study supply chain dynamics and better account for unobserved heterogeneity in impact assessment. The analysis focuses on vegetable producers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels is associated with large income gains, which have fu...

  11. Anatomy of a failed sustainability initiative: government and community resistance to sustainable landscaping in a Canadian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Booth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of a "failed" sustainability initiative to establish sustainable landscaping demonstration sites in a northern, resource-dependent Canadian community. This failure is attributable to fears by municipal staff regarding public acceptance of landscaping alternatives and, in consequence, partial and ever-changing levels of support for the project. The outcomes suggest several lessons for achieving success in sustainability initiatives, including ensuring education for all parties, establishing and maintaining mutual commitments, and overt planning for potential negative public response.

  12. TRANSPORTATION SERVICES AND PARKING POOLS NEXT TO MODERN SUPERMARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Chaika, A.

    2005-01-01

    Both analysis of transportation system operation to provide services for supermarkets and correlations to defermine the optimum parameters of areas next to supermarkets are considered in the paper. Recommendations to improve road traffic organization are provided.

  13. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  14. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  15. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...... sites are present in the supermarket. The first approach to solve this problem is to design an overall control system which coordinates the compressor capacity and the current refrigeration load. The drawback of this approach is the complexity of the single controller. The solution is investigated in...... the first part of the report. A second solution is investigated where only the compressor control is considered. This controller try to feed-forward the measured disturbances, i.e. opening and closing of the cooling site AKV’s. Last a performance analysis of the refrigeration system is performed....

  16. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal;

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time constrai......This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  17. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village in...... Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one in the...

  18. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers and organizations worldwide are searching for low-carbon alternatives to conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their impact on the environment. A comprehensive technique used to estimate overall cost and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment (LCA). In this article, a comparative LCA of diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered heavy duty refuse collection vehicles (RCVs) is conducted. The analysis utilizes real-time operational data obtained from the City of Surrey in British Columbia, Canada. The impact of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their life. No net gain in energy use is found when a diesel powered RCV is replaced by a CNG powered RCV. However, significant reductions (approximately 24% CO2-equivalent) in GHG and criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions are obtained. Moreover, fuel cost estimations based on 2011 price levels and a 5-year lifetime for both RCVs reveal that considerable cost savings may be achieved by switching to CNG vehicles. Thus, CNG RCVs are not only favorable in terms of reduced climate change impact but also cost effective compared to conventional diesel RCVs, and provide a viable and realistic near-term strategy for cities and municipalities to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Life cycle analysis is performed on two alternative refuse collection vehicle technologies. ► Real-time operational data obtained by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. ► The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. ► A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO2-equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel to CNG. ► CNG RCVs are estimated to be cost effective and may lead to reduced fuel costs.

  19. Charge ahead : London's fee for driving in the city centre raises money, reduces traffic and is a model for Canadian cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainsbury, B.

    2006-07-01

    This article presented details of London's city congestion charge, with reference to its suitability for North American cities. All private cars entering London between the hours of 7:00 and 18:30 are subject to a charge equivalent to CND$11. The program has surpassed initial expectations, and has raised the equivalent of CDN$215 million in 30 months of operation. Overall traffic congestion has been reduced by over 20 per cent. Benefits of the program include faster journey times; lower greenhouse gas emissions; and more reliable commuting habits for workers. The success of the program was attributed to an already excellent public transport system, a public weary of traffic jams, and the charisma and persuasiveness of London's current mayor. Since February 2003, London has registered a reputed 12 per cent fall in atmospheric pollution. Evidence has suggested that some commuters are switching over to hybrids and other cleaner cars in order to make use of the discounts and schemes offered to more fuel-efficient vehicles. However, car dependency is more ingrained in North America, and public transportation is poor. Significant political leadership and grassroots support will be needed if federal and provincial planners in Canada attempt to follow London's footsteps. Pollution alone should be sufficient reason to prompt administrators to follow a similar course of action. 1 fig.

  20. Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Maantay, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction and consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

  1. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  2. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.;

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the...... additional measurements is to make a more detailed investigation of the energy efficiency possible.According to this investigation, a considerable part of the energy consumption is used for anti sweat heaters in refrigerated cabinets.At present, the energy test has only been carried out on five different...

  3. Clustering supermarkets: the role of experts

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Armando B.; Cardoso, Margarida G.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This work is part of a supermarket chain expansion study and is intended to cluster the existent outlets in order to support the evaluation of outlet performance and new outlet site location. To overcome the curse of dimensionality (a large number of attributes for a very small number of existing outlets) experts' knowledge is considered in the clustering process. Three alternative approaches are compared for this end, the experts being required to: (1) a priori: provide values for perceived ...

  4. Cornering the market: restriction of retail supermarket locations

    OpenAIRE

    Nairne Cameron; Carl G Amrhein; Karen E Smoyer-Tomic; Raine, Kim D; Lee Yen Chong

    2010-01-01

    A major source of healthy foods, North American supermarkets have become larger in recent years, with new stores opening and older stores closing. Upon closure, there is evidence of some supermarket sites being placed under restrictive covenants, a practice that restricts future use of the site. The purpose is usually to limit food sales at the location, thus minimizing competition for a chain’s nearby stores. In Edmonton, Alberta eighteen covenants have been documented on former supermarket ...

  5. A Study of Customer Loyalty Management in Chinese Retail Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Cheng Wang; Ying Chang Chen; Ying Chien Chu

    2009-01-01

    The retailer style includes department store, hypermarket, supermarkets, convenience stores, cooperative union, traditional markets and shopping mall in Taiwan. This thesis wants from the supermarkets to make the further discussion. The study of customer loyalty, particularly customer loyalty research on Chinese retail supermarket--Wumart Group has some significance. With the increasingly furious competition, the profit margins constantly decline and it needs to find new profit growth points ...

  6. Academics in the aisles: Establishing a university-supermarket partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy-Joe Milliron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US is a serious public health problem. Supermarkets in the US are responding to the obesity epidemic by providing the unique asset of food, pharmacy and registered dietitians in one location to help grocery shoppers manage diseases and improve nutrition. Recent studies report that supermarket point-of-purchase interventions focusing on improving healthy food purchasing behaviours are feasible and potentially efficacious. We describe our experiences and lessons learned while developing a university-supermarket partnership and pilot testing a supermarket POP intervention (Healthstyles-Eat Smart© prior to its dissemination throughout the region. Barriers to and facilitators of developing university-supermarket partnerships and strategies to increase the feasibility of supermarket POP research are discussed. We conclude that strong university-supermarket partnerships are essential to conducting supermarket intervention research and are worth the time and effort it takes to build them. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable purchases, point-of-purchase intervention, supermarket partnership, shopping behaviour

  7. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    Annex 26 is the first international project under the IEA Heat Pump Programme that links refrigeration and heat pump technology. Recovering heat from advanced supermarket refrigeration systems for space and water heating seems obvious and is beneficial for owners and operators. Because the great...... number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable...... provide valuable information for practitioners (designers, installers) and manufactures of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  8. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. RESULTS: Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. CONCLUSION: A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  9. IMFG Graduate Student Papers: (1) Development Charges across Canada: An Underutilized Growth Management Tool? (2) Preparing for the Costs of Extreme Weather in Canadian Cities: Issues, Tools, Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Baumeister; Cayley Burgess

    2012-01-01

    (1) Increasingly, compact and sustainable development has become a priority for Canadian municipalities. In order to realize these growth objectives, it is possible to look not only to conventional land use and growth management policies, but also to fiscal instruments to achieve planning goals. Existing literature suggests that development charges, which are financial tools used by municipalities in several Canadian provinces to pay for the growth-related capital costs associated with new de...

  10. Quem vende a cesta básica mais barato? Um abalo no mito da eficiência das grandes redes supermercadistas [Who practices the low prices? A shake-down on myth of the efficiency of the large supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Altivo R. A. de Almeida Cunha; Moisés Machado

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of the historical series of a set of prices of food products and other and consumption products of household in Belo Horizonte, raised for "Cesta-Smab" in diverse supermarkets of the city in the years of 1999 and 2000. It approaches the main characteristics of the recent process of reorganization of the retail sector in Brazil and according to uses crossings special of the information gotten for primary research of the supermarkets. The surprising gotten concl...

  11. Store Image Attributes and Customer Satisfaction in Supermarkets in Campo Grande-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluiza Alberto de Morais Watanabe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between image attributes and consumer satisfaction in supermarkets. Specifically, we sought to: a identify the variables which make up the image attributes of supermarkets and group them into factors, and b assess the impact of image attributes on consumer satisfaction. We conducted a quantitative study, which met quotas by region and city income class, among 400 individuals from Campo Grande, MS, southwest Brazil, who were responsible for purchasing supermarket products for their families. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that the attributes are grouped into five factors. The constructs “environment” and “promotions” were not considered significant in determining satisfaction, while the attributes “employees”, “product” and “price” had a positive effect on satisfaction, with the latter having the greatest impact. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v12i4.2561

  12. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Minetto, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The electricity consumption for air conditioning and refrigerated cases in large supermarkets represents a substantial share of the total electricity consumption. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrige...

  13. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  14. STRATEGY, COMPETENCES AND LEARNING: A SUPERMARKET CASE IN THE CITY OF SOROCABA ESTRATEGIA, COMPETENCIAS Y APRENDIZAJE: EL CASO DE UN SUPERMERCADO EN LA CIUDAD DE SOROCABA ESTRATÉGIA, COMPETÊNCIAS E APRENDIZAGEM: O CASO DE UM SUPERMERCADO NA CIDADE DE SOROCABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz Marietto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link among strategy, skills and learning, based on a supermarket case in the city of Sorocaba. The paper takes learning as beliefs changes that has impact over strategies and argue how the competences are based on customers’ value perceptions, the Critical Success Factors (FCS. To take the FCS in this case it using the trade-off matrix to set the preferences for a number of people in a set of variables. The experiment involved the preferences investigation of two hundred customers of a supermarket with relation to seven attributes related to services provision. The research revealed the misalignment between what the company considered competence and what the customers really valorized. The finding starts a learning process with beliefs replace, strategic reorientation and investment in new business competences. Another point to be noted is the use of Trade-off matrix as research technique appropriate to Micro and Small Enterprises due a low cost and also  not requires hard procedures of technological knowledge for use the tool enabling reliable results and capable of changing the Micro and Small Enterprises learning structure.Este trabajo examina la relación entre estrategia, competencias y aprendizaje, teniendo como base el caso de un supermercado en la ciudad de Sorocaba, en el Estado de São Paulo. El artículo considera el aprendizaje como un cambio de creencias que tiene impacto en las  estrategias, y  discurre sobre la forma por la cual las competencias derivan de las percepciones de valor de los clientes, en los factores críticos de éxito (FCE. Para aprehender los FCE, en el caso en cuestión, se utilizó la Matriz  Trade-off, con el objetivo de definir preferencias de un grupo de personas en relación con un conjunto de variables. El experimento incluyó la investigación de las preferencias de doscientos clientes de un supermercado relativas a siete atributos relacionados a la prestaci

  15. Effects of Supermarkets on Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Small-Scale Farmers in Central Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Riungu, Claris Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Supermarkets have been spreading very rapidly in developing countries for the past decade. Kenya is the second advanced country in terms of presence of supermarkets, after South Africa. Supermarkets in Kenya have been increasing tremendously since 2003 and thus competition has increased. Growth in supermarket business has involved increase in the variety of products offered for sale, including agricultural produce. The effect of supermarkets on small-scale farmers has not been assessed. The m...

  16. Synchronization Analysis of the Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Chen, Liang; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2009-01-01

    analyzed using the bifurcation and chaos theory. It is demonstrated that the system can have a complex chaotic behavior, which is far from the synchronization. This shows that making the system chaotic is a good choice for a de-synchronization strategy. The positive maximum Lyapunov exponent is usually......The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewiseaffine switched system. Stability analysis is performed bygluing the subsystems and polyhedra together to form a single dynamical system defined on a coherent state space. Then, system behavior is...

  17. Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes De La Rencontre Annuelle 2012 Du Groupe Canadien D'étude en Didactique Des Mathématiques (36th, Québec City, Québec, Canada, May 25-29, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Allan, Darien, Ed.; Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Laval University in Québec City, Québec. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  18. Addendum: Are Supermarket Advertisements Designed to Deceive Consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. Barry; Wilkinson, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Assesses the magnitude and incidence of experimentally determined deceptive advertising decisions in supermarket advertisements. Shows that many reduced-priced items are displayed less prominently, lessening a consumer's ability to show economically. (RL)

  19. When Supermarket Consumers get Stocked in the Middle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Møller Jensen, Jan; Stubbe Solgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether consumer supermarket satisfaction is influenced by the mere composition of consumers' preference structure, as opposed to more widespread approaches where consumer satisfaction is regarded as the degree to which consumer expectations and...... consumers who attach only medium weight to both parameters. For traditional supermarkets (i.e. supermarkets offering medium quality at medium prices) satisfaction occurs equally for both groups of consumers. Practical implications – Consumers' level of satisfaction with various retailers may not solely be....../or preferences are met. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 130 consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the authors' proposed hypotheses. Findings – According to consumers, not many supermarkets offer high quality at low prices...

  20. Super-Exponential Solution for a Retrial Supermarket Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan-Lin; Wang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a new and effective approach for studying super-exponential solution of a retrial supermarket model with Poisson arrivals, exponential service times and exponential retrial times and with two different probing-server numbers. We describe the retrial supermarket model as a system of differential equations by means of density-dependent jump Markov processes, and obtain an iterative algorithm for computing the fixed point of the system of differential equations. Based on the fixed point, we analyze the expected sojourn time that a tagged arriving customer spends in this system, and use numerical examples to indicate different influence of the two probing-server numbers on system performance including the fixed point and the expected sojourn time. Furthermore, we analyze exponential convergence of the current location of the retrial supermarket model to the fixed point, and apply the Kurtz Theorem to study density-dependent jump Markov process given in the retrial supermarket model, whic...

  1. Intra- and Interformat Competition Among Discounters and Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Cleeren; Frank Verboven; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Katrijn Gielens

    2010-01-01

    The price-aggressive discount format, popularized by chains such as Aldi and Lidl, is very successful in most Western economies. Its success is a major source of concern for traditional supermarkets. Discounters not only have a direct effect on supermarkets' market shares, but they also exert considerable pressure to improve operational efficiency and/or to decrease prices. We use an empirical entry model to study the degree of intra- and interformat competition between discounters and superm...

  2. Embodying responsibility: children’s health and supermarket initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Colls; Bethan Evans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we interrogate the ways in which supermarkets ‘place’ responsibility for children’s ‘healthy’ eating with parents and/or children, as set within the contemporary British public health concern with the prevalence of childhood obesity. We use British food retailers’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a way of identifying specific relations of responsibility between supermarkets, parents, and children. We do this through focusing upon a critical interrogation of two ...

  3. Private Labels: Supermarket Chain Buyer Power in Action

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Michael Cohen; Li Tian

    2006-01-01

    The issue of supermarket chain power in wholesale markets has been around at least since the 1930’s when A&P surfaced as a nationwide chain with centralized buying (Adelman, 1959). Curiously those that complained the loudest were not firms that sold to supermarkets. Small retailers, who were unable to wrest concessions from brand manufacturers or wholesalers of fresh fruits and vegetables, alleged that large chain buyer power was driving them out of business. Consequently the Robinson Patman ...

  4. The Decision to Enter Consumer Direct Initiatives by Supermarket Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kristen; Park, John L.

    2000-01-01

    IN THE MID TO LATE 1980S, as computer networks grew and online services were developing, companies including supermarkets started to view home shopping as an exciting, new competitive venture. Now, food retailers are struggling with the possibility of providing a home shopping or consumer direct service for their customers. The decision for a supermarket company with traditional land-based stores to enter the online realm of marketing, however, represents a tremendous commitment. Through the ...

  5. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So, this...... regarding their power/energy consumptions in the future smart grids. Moreover, the developed model is validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The utilization of the produced model is also illustrated by a simple simulation example....

  6. Diet And Perceptions Change With Supermarket Introduction In A Food Desert, But Not Because Of Supermarket Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Gerald P; Flórez, Karen R; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A; Sloan, Jennifer C; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-11-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts--areas with limited access to healthy food--has been promoted as a way to reduce inequalities in access to healthy food, improve diet, and reduce the risk of obesity. However, previous studies provide scant evidence of such impacts. We surveyed households in two Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods in 2011 and 2014, one of which received a new supermarket in 2013. Comparing trends in the two neighborhoods, we obtained evidence of multiple positive impacts from new supermarket placement. In the new supermarket neighborhood we found net positive changes in overall dietary quality; average daily intakes of kilocalories and added sugars; and percentage of kilocalories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. However, the only positive outcome in the recipient neighborhood specifically associated with regular use of the new supermarket was improved perceived access to healthy food. We did not observe differential improvement between the neighborhoods in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption, or body mass index. Incentivizing supermarkets to locate in food deserts is appropriate. However, efforts should proceed with caution, until the mechanisms by which the stores affect diet and their ability to influence weight status are better understood. PMID:26526243

  7. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  8. A Study of Customer Loyalty Management in Chinese Retail Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Cheng Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The retailer style includes department store, hypermarket, supermarkets, convenience stores, cooperative union, traditional markets and shopping mall in Taiwan. This thesis wants from the supermarkets to make the further discussion. The study of customer loyalty, particularly customer loyalty research on Chinese retail supermarket--Wumart Group has some significance. With the increasingly furious competition, the profit margins constantly decline and it needs to find new profit growth points through customer loyalty resources mastered by the retail enterprise. At the same time, major retail enterprises in China have taken different management strategies to avoid brutal price wars. The customer loyalty provides support for differentiated strategies, such support is not only reflected in materials of the purchase information provided by the customer information, but also reflected in the learn-type relationship between the retail business and customer loyalty. Therefore, the research on customer loyalty is a required course for modern retail enterprises, especially for supermarkets.Research will focus mainly on surveys to get data and the interviews. The second objective of the research is to identify the determinants of service loyalty in Wumart Group. Apart from assessing the extent of customer churn in the supermarket, primary research is carried out to test the proposed model of customer loyalty. This study seeks not only to examine the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, but also to include the analysis on the areas of customer loyalty and switching behaviours influenced by loyalty club cards.

  9. Spatial Supermarket Redlining and Neighborhood Vulnerability: A Case Study of Hartford, Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mengyao; Debarchana, Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    The disinclination of chain supermarkets to locate or pull out existing stores from impoverished neighborhoods is termed as “supermarket redlining”. This paper attempts to map and understand the spatial effects of potential supermarket redlining on food vulnerability in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods of Hartford, Connecticut. Using a combination of statistical and spatial analysis functions, we first, built a Supermarket Redlining Index (SuRI) from five indicators such as...

  10. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly high...

  11. INTELLIGENT APRIORI ALGORITHM FOR COMPLEX ACTIVITY MINING IN SUPERMARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ganesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As shopping becomes a shared experience and joint process with friends or family members nowadays, the most important problems arise with variety of products and the product information available in the supermarkets. This study proposes a system that uses Intelligent Apriori algorithm to support consumers in getting the required items from various supermarkets. Also this work intelligently suggests the best movement and reducing unwanted movement of the customer and quickly finds out the next operation which includes the next supermarket which is visited by the customer for the next item he/she purchases. This approach can further be extended to the world of mobile communication where the next movement of the mobile user can be predicted and used intelligently to arrange necessary requirements at the destination before he actually reaches. The feasibility of this approach is tested under simple conditions and the results are presented in this study.

  12. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2014-01-01

    In a supermarket refrigeration, the temperature in a display case, surprisingly, influences the temperature in other display cases. This leads to a synchronous operation of all display cases, in which the expansion valves in the display cases turn on and off at exactly the same time. This behavior...... increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration...... map to determine whether this periodic trajectory is asymptotically stable. To illustrate, this procedure is applied for a refrigeration system with two display-cases....

  13. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality. PMID:22148133

  14. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  15. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  16. Investment, awareness, supermarkets, and profits: heterogeneous chili farmers in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.H.; van Marrewijk, C.; Stringer, R.; Umberger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the distribution channels for food production in developing countries raises the demand for high quality products sold through supermarkets at higher prices. We model the willingness of farmers to invest in high quality production, taking the role of traders into consideration. We test ou

  17. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance is...

  18. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  19. Guidelines for Supermarket Management Programs in the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, William O.

    Unprecedented growth and technological advances in the food industry have created a need for well-trained supermarket management personnel. The community college is able to fill this need by offering sound 1- and 2-year career-oriented programs in this rapidly expanding area. This document contains suggestions for developing these programs,…

  20. Anti-synchronizing control for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to...

  1. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate the...

  2. Aggregation and Control of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Green, Torben

    supermarkets. Two simulations are conducted based on high-fidelity supermarket models: a small-scale simulation with 20 supermarkets where the performance of the two strategies are compared and a large-scale simulation with 400 supermarkets which only the PI/dispatch controller is able to handle. The large......In this work, control strategies for aggregation of a portfolio of supermarkets towards the electricity balancing market, is investigated. The supermarkets are able to shift the power consumption in time by pre-cooling the contained foodstuff. It is shown how the flexibility of an individual...... supermarket can be modeled and how this model can be used by an aggregator to manage the portfolio to deliver upward and downward regulation. Two control strategies for managing the portfolio to follow a power reference are presented and compared. The first strategy is a non-convex predictive control strategy...

  3. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  4. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  5. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity consumption for air conditioning and refrigerated cases in large supermarkets represents a substantial share of the total electricity consumption. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low-temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study is aimed at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis chillers and heat pumps working with R410A, medium temperature systems working with R404A and low-temperature systems working both with R404A and R744 were considered. The investigated solutions enable an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for the considered climates.

  6. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  7. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  8. Do consumers give Fairtrade a fair chance in the supermarket?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Rasmus; Eckerblad, Robin

    2014-01-01

    How often have you walked around in the supermarket trying to decide what product by which brand to choose? The options are many. Some people look for the price tag while others are more influenced by the esthetic appeals of the packaging design. Some people might look for ethical or environmental aspects of the brand. The area of corporate social responsibility (CSR) interests many people today and is a growing concern. We found that consumers consider companies acting ethically while also ...

  9. Integration of deduction and induction for mining supermarket sale data

    OpenAIRE

    Giannotti, Fosca; Manco, Giuseppe; Nanni, Mirco; Pedreschi, Dino; Turini, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Datasift, a prototype system for the analysis of supermarket sales data based on data mining techniques, is presented. In market basket analysis, mining knowledge on customer behavior, which is actually useful to support marketing actions, is a difficult task, which requires non-trivial methods of employing and combining the data mining tools. To this purpose, we propose an architecture that integrates the deductive capabilities of a logic-based database language, LDL++, with the inductive ca...

  10. The global rise and impact of supermarkets: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A ‘supermarket revolution’ has occurred in developing countries in the past two decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the ‘newcomers’ — India and Vietnam — have grown even faster. Although forei...

  11. Intra- and Inter-Format Competition Among Discounters and Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Gielens, Katrijn; Verboven, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The price-aggressive discount format, popularized by chains such as Aldi and Lidl, is very successful in most Western economies. Its success is a major source of concern for traditional supermarkets. Discounters not only have a direct effect on supermarkets’ market shares, they also exert considerable pressure to improve operational efficiency and/or to decrease prices. We use an empirical entry model to study the degree of intra- and inter-format competition between discounters and supermark...

  12. Intra- and inter-format competition among discounters and supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Verboven, Frank; Dekimpe, Marnik

    2007-01-01

    The price-aggressive discount format, popularized by chains such as Aldi and Lidl, is very successful in most Western economies. Its success is a major source of concern for traditional supermarkets. Discounters not only have a direct effect on supermarkets’ market shares, they also exert considerable pressure to improve operational efficiency and/or to decrease prices. We use an empirical entry model to study the degree of intra- and inter-format competition between discounters and sup...

  13. The correlation between supermarket size and national obesity prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Adrian J; Waterlander, Wilma E; Svastisalee, Chalida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Supermarkets provide healthy and affordable food options while simultaneously heavily promoting energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and drinks. Store size may impact body weight via multiple mechanisms. Large stores encourage purchasing of more food in a single visit, and in larger packages. In addition they provide greater product choice (usually at lower prices) and allow greater exposure to foods of all types. These characteristics may promote purchasing and consumption. Our objec...

  14. Marketing environment and marketing communication analysis for supermarket O

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Xi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop an marketing environment and markeitng communication analysis for Supermarket O., which is an Asian food supplier with a grocery store located in Hakaniemi, Helsinki. The company deals with both business customers and consumers by supplying Asian products and offering related services in this market. Yet this analysis was only focused on regular customers rather than its business customers. Research objectives were: to analyze marketing environment, i...

  15. Conscious consumer resistance? Local organic food networks versus the supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Supermarkets have responded to the growth in direct marketing and alternative agri-food networks by promoting local produce ranges, and increasingly sourcing organic produce from the UK. Thus consumers now have a choice of outlets for local and organic produce. This paper examines the implications of that choice for direct marketing in particular, and sustainable consumption in general. Mainstream and alternative models of sustainable consumption are described. The paper tests the hypothesis ...

  16. Price Dispersion and Informational Frictions: Evidence from Supermarket Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Pierre; Perrone, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Traditional demand models assume that consumers are perfectly informed about product characteristics, including price. However, this assumption may be too strong. Unannounced sales are a common supermarket practice. As we show, retailers frequently change position in the price rankings, thus making it unlikely that consumers are aware of all deals o¤ered in each period. Further empirical evidence on consumer behavior is also consistent with a model with price information frictions. We develop...

  17. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni; Matheus Alberto Consoli; Jonny Mateus Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Category management (CM) is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context...

  18. Consumption of salmon. A survey of supermarkets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingling

    2003-01-01

    To keep up with the recent trends in consumer demand for salmon product in supermarkets, an understanding of the relationship between consumption and variation of lifestyle is needed. The present paper seeks to address this question by hypothesizing that consumption is strongly influenced by consumers’ sociodemograhic status, experience of salmon, beliefs with salmon’s attributes and preference for the preferred type of salmon. Understanding the main lifestyle factors influe...

  19. Internet Shopping: The Supermarket Model and Customer Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Roberts; Xianzhong M. Xu; Nekatarios Mettos

    2003-01-01

    It has been widely speculated that new markets and customers can be reached through the use of the Internet and new ways of conducting business can be developed. A major growth in electronic commerce (EC) is organisations that directly interact with their customers (business to-consumer EC). The supermarket sector is at the forefront of this development. However, little empirical evidence is documented to reveal whether consumer shopping patterns have significantly changed toward Internet sho...

  20. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  1. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Trevena; Bruce Neal; Elizabeth Dunford; Hila Haskelberg; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-01-01

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) ...

  2. Antitrust Analysis of Supermarket Retailing: Common Global Concerns that Play Out in Local Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic antitrust standards for the supermarket industry including definition of product and geographic markets and the exercise of coordinated and unilateral market power. It surveys the structure-conduct-performance and the New Empirical Industrial Organization literature to highlight alternative tests for supermarket power. The focus is a supermarket chain?s ability to exercise buyer as well as seller power. Recent research on vertical pricing topics including noncompe...

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from...

  4. Peacock: 100 years of servicing Canadian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 Peacock Inc., a supplier of pipeline, filtration, pumping, materials handling and mechanical equipment of all kinds to the Canadian oil and natural gas industries, will celebrate its 100th year of servicing Canadian industry, and 50th year in the oil patch. The company has outlets in several Canadian cities from Halifax to Vancouver. It manufactures, distributes, maintains and repairs all types of industrial equipment. It also manages the Naval Engineering Test Establishment at LaSalle, PQ, for the Department of Defence. Peacock service centres provide 24-hour service response to emergency breakdowns anywhere in Canada; its engineers and technicians are ISO 9003 qualified or better, and are experts in turnarounds and planned maintenance outages, major overhauls of critical equipment, supplying mechanical crews for emergency equipment breakdowns, and grouting of heavy machinery. By close coordination of its four divisions, and by maintaining their dedication to service, the company looks to the future with pride and confidence

  5. Investigation and Heath Risk Assessment of Quinolone Antibiotics in Vegetables:Taking Supermarket Vegetables of Guangzhou City for an Exemple%蔬菜中喹诺酮类抗生素污染探查与风险评价:以广州市超市蔬菜为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小莲; 莫测辉; 李彦文; 王纪阳; 苏青云; 黄显东; 屈相龙

    2011-01-01

    Quinolones ( QNs ) including norfloxacin ( NOR ) , enrofolxacin ( ENR ), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin ( LOM ) in vegetables sampled from supermarkets of Guangzhou were determined using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detected frequencies of four quinolone compounds in vegetables were all above 90%. The maximum concentration of individual compounds was about 150 μg/kg. Total concentrations of quinolones ( ∑ QNs ) ranged from 10.16 to 193.25 μg/kg( D. W. ), with the average of 74.38 μg/kg and the orders for different kinds of vegetables as followed: melon-fruit vegetable ( 91.29 μg/kg ) > rhizome vegetable ( 82. 09 μg/kg ) > leafy vegetable ( 52.30 μg/kg ), and green vegetable ( 104.49 μg/kg) > pollution-free vegetable( 79.06 μg/kg) > organic vegetable ( 62.38 μg/kg) > routinely cultivated vegetable( 61.23 μg/kg).The average intake and the maximum intake of CIP + ENR for human body via vegetable consumption were 1.8 μg and 3.7 μg respectively,which were lower than those with the maximum intake limit (10 μg) via meat consumption. So it can be concluded that quinolone antibiotics in vegetables were frequently detected. Though their concentrations and health risks to human body were relatively lower, potential health risk should not be neglected for long term intake and synergism of various antibiotics.%基于超声提取-固相萃取(MW-SPE)预处理方法和高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)分析技术,对广州市超市蔬菜中4种喹诺酮类抗生素(QNs)的污染状况进行探查与健康风险评价.结果表明,4种喹诺酮类化合物的检出率均大于90%,蔬菜(干重,下同)中单个化合物最高含量约150μg/kg,总含量(∑QNs)在10.16~193.25μg/kg之间,平均为74.38μg/kg,其中瓜果类(91.29μg/kg)>根茎类(82.09μg/kg)>叶菜类(52.30μg/kg),绿色蔬菜(104.49μg/kg)>无公害蔬菜(79.06μg/kg)>有机蔬菜(62.38μg/kg)>普通蔬菜(61.23μg/kg

  6. Qualidade de produtos minimamente processados e comercializados em gôndolas de supermercados nas cidades de Lavras - MG, Brasília - DF e São Paulo - SP Quality of fresh-cut produce commercialized on supermarket shelves in the cities of Lavras-MG, Brasília-DF, and São Paulo-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula

    2009-02-01

    quality of fresh-cut produce collected from shelves of supermarkets in Lavras, Brasília and São Paulo as so to guide their suppliers and consumers for the need for an increased quality control due to the risks of contamination of raw material by pathogenic and decay-causing microorganisms. 144 samples were submitted to pH, titratable acidity, soluble solid analyses and microbiological analyses (coliforms at 45ºC, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. The results showed significant alterations in pH values. A decrease in acidity and soluble solids during storage was found. Contamination by coliforms at 45ºC during manufacture was verified in 50% of the presence verified. We have isolated Escherichia coli, which evidences contamination coming from inadequately cleaned raw material or by their presence on the handlers. However, no contamination by Salmonella sp. was detected. Our results indicate the need of the implementation of the Good Handling Practices for the quality control of these produce.

  7. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  8. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  9. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1 all products in 2013; (2 products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3 products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23% lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001. For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3% mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73. New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02. Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  10. Vegetable Supply Chains of Supermarkets in Sichuan, China and the Implications for Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Fu, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of supermarkets in the inland province of Sichuan in China over the past decade, with special attention to vegetable products. Both foreign and domestic supermarkets are expanding in the region with different store formats. Five types of vegetable p

  11. "But Pasta Is Pasta, It Is All the Same": The Language, Literacy and Numeracy Challenges of Supermarket Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Kim; Strauss, Pat; Kell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographically based study of entry level supermarket work. The study, carried out in a large suburban supermarket in Auckland, New Zealand, focused on the literacy and numeracy practices of supermarket assistants, all who had English as an additional language. It found that skills such as oral communication, personal…

  12. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing. PMID:23154998

  13. Basic Living Expenses for the Canadian Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald; Doug Andrews; Brown, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Our research undertakes to determine the basic living expenses required by Canadian seniors living in different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter, means of transportation and health status. The paper develops required expenses for food, shelter, health care, transportation and miscellaneous. The research identifies the typical expenses of seniors in each of these categories. Using 2001 as our base year, we follow the US Elder Standar...

  14. Supermarket tampering: cocaine detected in syringes and in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J A; Crowe, J B; Ranieri, N; Kindig, J P; Platek, S F

    2001-01-01

    Product tampering, as detailed by the Federal Anti-Tampering Act of 1983 (1), is a felony punishable by both fine and imprisonment. The rationale for product tampering ranges from pranks and attention seeking acts to extortion, terrorism, and homicide. One such case submitted for analysis involved four medical syringes found in a supermarket and suspected of being used to tamper with various products. One of the syringes was found piercing a pear while the other three syringes were found with needles exposed in other parts of the supermarket. Microscopic analysis was used to collect residue from the syringe barrels and the pear. A multidiscipline approach involving SLM, PLM, including microchemical analysis, FTIR, and GC/MS analyses, performed on the residual liquid found in the syringe barrels and in the suspect pear, confirmed the presence of cocaine. This multidisciplinary approach is often necessary when there is a possible health risk to the public and rapid response is important. With this approach, it was quickly determined which drugs or poisons were used in this tampering. PMID:11210900

  15. Energy-efficient lighting applications in a supermarket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of energy-efficient lighting in a retail environment, specifically a supermarket. It will reveal the general theory behind Big V`s chosen lighting design, and then discuss two examples of the application: one, a retrofit to an existing supermarket; the other, the adaption of the design to a new store. The factors that influence Big V`s lighting design are: (1) the best presentation of product for merchandising purposes, and (2) the lowest operating cost. These two factors can often be mutually exclusive. For merchandising purposes, the best design would make the product `jump off the shelf` at a customer, preferably into his/her shopping cart. Such an arrangement would include high footcandle levels along with a very high color rendering index (CRI). To design only to these requirements would result in very high original and operating costs for the lighting system. However, to base the design on cost considerations alone would result in low light levels at a very low CRI. Since neither option is acceptable, Big V`s design is a compromise, combining the best light quality at a reasonable cost.

  16. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  17. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  18. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  19. AGENT AND RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR SUPERMARKET INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Sakran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the acceptance of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology in business environments has been increasing rapidly due to its competitive business value. Adopting a suitable RFID-based information system has become increasingly important for supermarkets. However, most supermarkets still use conventional barcode-based systems to manage their information processes, which are consistently reported as one of the most unenthusiastic aspects of supermarket shopping for both customers and management. We propose an RFID agent-based architecture that adopts intelligent agent technology with an RFID based applications. RFID provides capability to uniquely identify an object within a supermarket area, while agents are able to establish a channel of communication which can be used to facilitate communications between a RFID device and supermarket back-end system. The proposed framework includes a design of intelligent mobile shopping cart equipped with both RFID and agent technologies. As a result of using the proposed RFID agent based architecture, the customer shopping experience will be improved due to ease of retrieving of the detailed information on items and quick checkout by scanning all items at once, thus eliminating queues. From supermarket management point of view the proposed architecture will reduce the cost of operation e.g., decreasing cost of goods sold which comes in the form of labor efficiency in areas of checkout operation, inventory management and alerting the supermarket management when a certain product is running out of stock and needs to be restocked.

  20. Control optimizations for heat recovery from CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Application of supermarket energy control system model. • Heat recovery from CO2 refrigeration system in supermarket space conditioning. • Effect of pressure controls of CO2 refrigeration system on heat recovery potentials. • Control optimization of CO2 refrigeration system for heat recovery in supermarket. - Abstract: A modern supermarket energy control system has a concurrent need for electricity, food refrigeration and space heating or cooling. Approximately 10% of this energy is for conventional gas-powered heating. In recent years, the use of CO2 as a refrigerant in supermarket systems has received considerable attention due to its negligible contribution to direct greenhouse gas emissions and excellent thermophysical and heat transfer properties. CO2 refrigeration systems also offer more compact component designs over a conventional HFC system and heat recovery potential from compressor discharge. In this paper, the heat recovery potential of an all-CO2 cascade refrigeration system in a supermarket has been investigated using the supermarket simulation model “SuperSim” developed by the authors. It has been shown that at UK weather conditions, the heat recovery potential of CO2 refrigeration systems can be increased by increasing the condenser/gas cooler pressure to the point where all the heat requirements are satisfied. However, the optimum level of heat recovery will vary during the year and the control system should be able to continuously optimize this level based on the relative cost of energy, i.e., gas and electricity

  1. Introduction to the RFID Technology in the Application of the Smart Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RFID technology is no stranger to more or less have contacted various of industries in nowadays. Premier wen Jiabao put forward the “experience China” in 2009, after the application of IOT (Internet of things is rocketed development and RFID technology is absolutely necessary as the core of IOT. On the experiment background of campus supermarket, this paper briefly introduces the application of RFID technology in the intelligent supermarket that mainly included four parts. Through analysis of system, it detailed interpretation that IOT bring changes to campus supermarket.

  2. Asiakastyytyväisyyskysely : Case: K-supermarket Sipatti

    OpenAIRE

    Riippa, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimii K-supermarket Sipatti. Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia yrityksen asiakastyytyväisyyttä niin asiakkaiden kuin myös henkilökunnan näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli saada selville asiakkaiden tyytyväisyys yritykseen. Li-säksi haluttiin selvittää, miten palvelua voisi kehittää vielä enemmän asiakaslähtöi-semmäksi. Teoreettinen viitekehys muodostuu asiakastyytyväisyydestä, palvelun laadusta ja nii-hin vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Opinnäytetyön teoria on pyritty ...

  3. Integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to determine if the integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets can determine consumer behaviour, and to establish if such activities can help satisfying the environmental elements of the clients corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in an attempt to create a competitive advantage. A literature review of existing material considered the history and drivers of sustainability, the types of energy efficient technologies and factors concerning CSR and consumer behaviour in relation to the supermarket industry. Interviews with 15 senior store managers were recorded and transcribed. The opinions of the senior store managers were then sought and analysed using qualitative research software NVivo software. Validity of the data was achieved at a later stage through workshops. The results of this paper suggested that there is a definite lack of awareness and knowledge amongst customers regarding energy efficient technologies. From the findings, it was further established that the key driver for retailers who integrate energy efficient technologies is fiscal incentives, although it was suggested some retailers use CSR strategies to report there are environmental achievements it was ultimately found that cost savings were the primary driver. - Highlights: • The effect of sustainability towards consumer behaviour was explored. • Majority of consumers are unaware of energy efficient technologies. • Energy efficient technologies do not determine or create shifts in paradigm in consumer actions. • Stores are driven to integrate energy efficient technologies more by government legislation. • Participants were clear in making the point that their image and reputation was based on trust

  4. Bilingualism: A Canadian Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bilingualism in French and English is a much-to-be hoped for common and shared characteristic of Canadian citizenship—even though to date the effect of forty years of the Official Languages Act has been most marked in government services and among various Canadian elites. Although it is important that Canada hold onto a goal of the widest possible bilingualism,more modest objectives are outlined for the years immediately ahead.

  5. Teaching Technology Applied in the Main Stream: The Supermarket Discovery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Robert T.; Gillette, Pearl

    1969-01-01

    Describes the approach and results of the Supermarket Discovery Center Demonstration Project, a program attempting to provide pre-school children with meaningful learning experiences while their parents are shopping. (LS)

  6. Plant-wide dynamic and static optimisation of supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh;

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the operation of a supermarket refrigeration system under dynamic as well as steadystate conditions is addressedin thispaper. For thispurpose anappropriateperformance function that encompasses food quality, system efficiency, and also component reliability is established. The choice of...

  7. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shu-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-hong

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail , the political, economical, social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed. The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out, including single products and uneven level of quality, the products, which can not satisfy farmers’ needs; low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system, thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged. I...

  8. A NEW PARADIGM FOR INDIAN SUPERMARKET RETAILERS BASED ON CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Seema S. Shenoy; Dr.A.H.Sequeira; Dr. Devaraj K

    2011-01-01

    Supermarket retailers in India admist fierce competition and the only way out is through the attainment of competitive advantage. Strategy is the route to attain competitive advantage that could facilitate firms attain superior performance. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on customer-centric retail strategy, to facilitate supermarket retailers in India attain competitive advantage. The paper draws heavily from existing literature on retail strategies and ...

  9. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Hong; Shen, Xin; Huang, Zhipeng

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics, this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products, and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results, it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-...

  10. Isolated Sub-Dehumidification Strategies in Large Supermarkets and Grocery Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with reducing the relative humidity in the vicinity of refrigerated display cases in supermarkets, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of maintaining a relatively higher and uniform humidity level throughout the entire supermarket. Existing and new strategies for maintaining lower relative humidity levels near the vicinity of refrigerated display cases were analyzed to determine their effectiveness and limits of application.

  11. Prices, profits, and pass-through of costs along a supermarket supply chain: bargaining and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H; Thanassoulis, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical study of a supermarket supply chain to understand the determinants of prices and profits enjoyed by farmers, processors, and supermarkets. We study the liquid milk market which has seen much controversy about both the distribution of rents and the mechanisms firms have used to influence the distribution. We discuss insights from a series of interviews we conducted with executives and farmer representatives. Our interviews suggest a model in which the farm...

  12. Running on Empty? Financial Leverage and Product Quality in the Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matsa, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether debt financing can undermine a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of a retailer's quality. Using US consumer price index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that taking on high financial leverage increases shortfalls. Highly leveraged firms appear to be degrading their products' quality in order to preserve current cash flow for debt service. Although reducin...

  13. Shoppers Perception of Retail Service Quality: Supermarkets versus Small Convenience Shops (Dukas) in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Wambui Kimani; Elias Kiarie Kagira; Lydia Kendi; Cleophas Muhavini Wawire

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine shoppers perceptions of service quality offered in Kenyan supermarkets and very small convenience shops. A cross sectional design of explorative nature was adopted for this study to evaluate the shoppers¡¯ perception of the convenience shops and supermarkets. Data from semi-structured questionnaire was analyzed using factor analyses and Pearson correlation analysis. Factor analysis revealed the following as important factors that customers of conveni...

  14. Application of Customer Relationship Management in Chinese Retail Industry : Case: Lianhua Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, JingJing

    2016-01-01

    As the most dynamic retail form, the chain supermarket has maintained rapid development in the the early 21st century. However, the market of chain supermarket is approaching saturation level and an increasing homogenization also causes fiercer competition. Therefore, how to survive and develop in a growing competitive environment has become a serious problem for retail industry. and customer relationship management for retail business also come into being. Customer relationship manageme...

  15. Using Relative Utility Pricing to Explain Multibuy Prices in Supermarkets and on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Thomas; Alec Chrystal

    2013-01-01

    The Relative Utility Pricing (RUP) model is used to explain the prices for commodities being sold in supermarkets and on the internet. Grocery prices offered by the supermarkets, Tesco, Sainsbury and Waitrose in December 2009 and August 2013, are considered, as well as the prices of electronic items offered by Amazon on the internet at the same dates. The observed price for a pack can be given an explanation in terms of its size relative to the smallest pack considered ...

  16. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; Ohnuma, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  17. Tomato Farmer Participation in Supermarket Market Channels in Guatemala: Determinants and Technology and Income Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Ricardo; Reardon, Thomas; Berdegue, Julio A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows that in a comparison between supermarket channels (working via dedicated wholesalers) and traditional channels, farmers selling to supermarkets tend to be in the upper-end of the "small farmer" category (whereas the traditional-channel growers are in the smaller end), have more capital (in particular, irrigation, which allows them to supply all year and attain greater productivity and consistency), and be much more specialized in commercial horticulture in general and in tomat...

  18. Research Note—Using Basket Composition Data for Intelligent Supermarket Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda Kumar; Ram Rao

    2006-01-01

    How can supermarkets use the vast data they have to design strategies to compete for large-basket shoppers, potentially their most profitable customers? We say, analyze the data to glean basket composition of heterogeneous consumers. Of theoretical and practical interest is the question, will our suggestion improve supermarket profits, and if so, by what pricing strategies? By answering this we can also answer the question, do results of extant research on single-product marketing that using ...

  19. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, YT; Laraia, BA; Mujahid, MS; Blanchard, SD; Warton, EM; Moffet, HH; Karter, AJ

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last super...

  20. Pengaruh Bauran Pemasaran Ritel Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Dengan Kepuasan Konsumen Sebagai Variabel Intervening Pada Supermarket Pante Pirak Di Banda Aceh

    OpenAIRE

    Maullizar

    2015-01-01

    Various forms of modern supermarkets result in various expectation of customers related to the service and facilities offered. Expectation of customer and the application of retail marketing mix can, in fact, influence the satisfaction of customer. If the satisfaction of customer can be materialized, the loyalty to the supermarket can also be materialized. It is also emphasized that the loyalty to the supermarket is the important factor in the success of retail business and the ability of sup...

  1. An Antitrust Economic Analysis of Stop & Shop's Proposed Acquisition of the Big V Shop Rite Supermarket Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    2002-01-01

    In early 2002, the Royal Ahold subsidiary, Stop & Shop Supermarkets, offered to purchase the Big V supermarket chain, which was in bankruptcy court after three successive, unsuccessful leveraged buyouts over the past ten years. At a later date, Pathmark Supermarkets joined the offer to purchase. Big V was Wakefern Food Corporation?s largest member. The acquisition was a horizontal merger in at least three local markets, Newburgh NJ, Poughkeepsie NY, and Trenton NJ. This research was conducted...

  2. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  3. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  4. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  5. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

  6. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Liese, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  7. Spatial patterning of supermarkets and fast food outlets with respect to neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne E.; Bottai, Matteo; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature has reported differences in exposure to environments supporting either healthy (e.g. supermarkets) or unhealthy (e.g. fast food outlets) dietary choices by neighborhood characteristics. We explored the associations of both supermarkets and fast food outlets availability with neighborhood characteristics, and clustering of these two outlet types in a largely rural state. Compared to block groups without a supermarket, those with a supermarket had a significantly higher income, higher housing value, larger population with high school education and above, lower minority population and lower population living below poverty even after controlling for urbanicity and population density of census block groups. Surprisingly, a similar relationship was found for block groups with and without fast food outlets. This was due to spatial co-occurrence and clustering of fast food outlets around supermarket locations. Hence, future studies exploring the associations of food environment with diet or diet-related health outcome should concurrently examine all aspects of food environment (healthy and unhealthy). PMID:23933445

  8. A NEW PARADIGM FOR INDIAN SUPERMARKET RETAILERS BASED ON CUSTOMER-CENTRIC STRATEGIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S. Shenoy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket retailers in India admist fierce competition and the only way out is through the attainment of competitive advantage. Strategy is the route to attain competitive advantage that could facilitate firms attain superior performance. The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on customer-centric retail strategy, to facilitate supermarket retailers in India attain competitive advantage. The paper draws heavily from existing literature on retail strategies and competitive advantage in order to ascertain the most effective customer-centric strategies. Adding strength to the research is the result derived from interviews of supermarket managers and customers; and also the results of pilot study .The work involves identification of constructs and research hypothesis for the proposed framework. The framework contributes to literature by emphasizing on not just effective customer-centric strategies but also, on specific performance outcomes that supermarket retailers could be enjoying riding on these strategies. A new dimension to attainment of competitive advantage and superior performance has definitely been recognized by this research effort. Supermarket retailers in India can be certain of attaining competitive advantage by riding on the proposed strategies.

  9. Types of packaging waste from secondary sources (supermarkets)--the situation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Hardy, Darron W; Curran, Beverley A

    2009-03-01

    Packaging waste is a contributing factor to the large quantity of waste that is sent to landfill in the UK. This research focuses on waste from the secondary packaging sector in the UK. In particular, supermarkets were investigated as they supply a large section of consumers with their grocery and other requirements and generate high quantities of packaging waste due to the high turnover within the store. In general, supermarkets use either metal cages or wooden pallets to transport products from depot to store. Investigation shows that packaging waste produced when using the wooden pallets is greater than for metal cages but the use of wooden pallets allows for greater versatility when in the store. The type of transit packaging used depends on what the products are initially packaged in and how the supermarket supply chain works. All cardboard and high-grade plastic is recycled but, depending on the facilities at the stores, the low-grade plastic can be recycled as well. This paper details types of packaging used within the supermarket secondary packaging sector and how waste can be reduced. To reduce the amount of packaging waste produced by the supermarkets, the products will have to be wrapped differently by the producers so that less packaging is needed in transit. PMID:18976897

  10. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  11. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  12. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  13. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  14. Canadian Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  15. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  16. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  17. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail,the political,economical,social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed.The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out,including single products and uneven level of quality,the products,which can not satisfy farmers’ needs;low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system,thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged.In the end,from the perspective of products,position,price,and personnel,the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    Purpose Socioeconomic status and exposure to the neighbourhood food environment is separately associated with fruit and vegetable intake in youth. We investigated whether the association between food outlet concentration and fruit and vegetable intake differed among children from various social...... backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1...

  19. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  20. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  1. Relationship between mode choice and the location of supermarkets – empirical analysis in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of the study work is to gain data about shopping and mobility behaviour at small local supermarkets with sales floor space less than 1.000 m2. Four location types have been defined and discussed; rural  peripheral location, rural  central location, urban – central location and urban – peripheral location. 200 shoppers each location were interviewed at the exit of the supermarket, which means a total of 800 interviews were carried out during all day times and working days of the supermarket. As expected, the mode choice is strongly dependent on the location of the supermarket. In car oriented settlements, which can be found at rural peripheral locations, nearly all shoppers accessed the supermarket with their cars. If weighting the expenditure per visit with the frequency of visits, the average expenditure per month and mode can be derived. The average purchase per month between the modes is more or less balanced. A difference in behaviour lies in the fact that cyclists and pedestrians go shopping more frequently but are spending less per visit. Additionally, the results of this study are indicating the existence of a potential mode shift, especially if there is better land use planning for supermarket locations. Furthermore, considering the given situation and a given threshold of less than 5 kilograms of weight of the goods purchased, more than fifty percent of all shoppers could use non motorised modes with insignificant loss of travel quality. Combined with short travel distances to the next shop (the average distance is 4.9 km, a change to alternative means of transport would be relatively easy for a significant number of shoppers.

  2. Retail private label’s strategies: A case study in a large brazilian Supermarket chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bulamah Spineli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the advantages and risks related to private labels under a retailers’ perspective, as well as the private label strategies and its growth in the Brazilian market. The paper analyses the strategies used by a large Brazilian supermarket chain with regards to its private labels’ management, using the case study method. The results showed the existence of two private label lines of products, with different strategies: one line of light products (proprietary brand and another line of products that carry the name of the supermarket under study (retail brand endorsement, both classified as using the fantasy positioning strategy.

  3. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  4. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  5. Canadian acid rain policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  7. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  8. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  9. The Impact of Legislative Reforms to Canadian Federalism on Toronto’s Ability to Reduce Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Schabas, Jake

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Canadian city of Toronto has undergone radical internal shifts in its socioeconomic geography and governance structure while simultaneously emerging on the world stage as an extremely livable and financially successful city. These trends have been accompanied by growing poverty concentrated in the inner suburbs at the municipality’s boundaries. In 2006, the provincial government passed the Stronger City of Toronto for a Strong Ontario Act explicitly recognizing Toronto...

  10. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  11. Nutritional Informatics: Mining Supermarket Sales Data as a Nutritional Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Many nutritional assessment techniques, including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls have innate limitations such as expensive protocols, high respondent burden, and self-reporting biases. Supermarket sales data have shown promise as a new, indirect, inexpensive nutritional assessment method in recent studies. The…

  12. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  13. Research on Performance Evaluation of Integrates with Agriculture Food Base and Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of integrate with agriculture food base and supermarket is a research hotspot and difficulty in the theory and practice research of agriculture super-docking mode. The study presents an evaluation indicator system and a fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm for evaluating performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket. Firstly, a performance evaluation indicator system is designed through analyzing the similarities of general performance evaluation and the specialties of the evaluation of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket; Secondly, the study integrates the advantages of fuzzy evaluation methods and BP neural network evaluation methods, designs a new algorithm structure, selects different learning methods and analyzes the algorithm performance, then presents a new fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm; Finally, three integrates are taken for experimental examples and the results illustrate that the improved algorithm can be used for evaluating the performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket feasibly and effectively and can provide reference for evaluating other complex systems.

  14. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Pinson, Pierre; O'Malley, Mark

    In this paper we propose a method for identifying and validating a model of the heat dynamics of a supermarket refrigeration display case for the purpose of advanced control. The model is established to facilitate the development of novel model-based control techniques for individual display unit...

  15. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation. PMID:26296352

  16. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd;

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality is...

  17. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.;

    2011-01-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario...

  18. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  19. Diet quality of supermarket sales circulars measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the contents of weekly supermarket sales circulars conform to current dietary guidance and how closely the diet quality of those foods compare to that of the U.S. population’s intakes. Food and beverage items (n = 9,151) in 52 weekly circulars ...

  20. Preventing refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets from being discarded on hot days by mpc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems. It deals with one special condition when the extremely high outdoor temperature causes the compressor to saturate, and work at its maximum capacity. In a traditional control, refrigerated foodstuffs inside display...

  1. SUPERMARKET PRICING AND GAME THEORY: THE PRESENCE OF WAL-MART

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    Wal-Mart is a giant in the grocery industry and its influence is growing at a rapid pace. Despite Wal-Mart's success with Everyday Low Pricing (EDLP), there is little to no evidence to suggest that other supermarket chains wish to follow a similar path. Why? This research addresses this question.

  2. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  3. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all, to cr...

  4. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VSadded was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VSadded, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VSadded was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly

  5. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  6. Estimated Fresh Produce Shrink and Food Loss in U.S. Supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Buzby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data on fresh fruit and vegetable shrink in supermarkets is important to help understand where and how much shrink could potentially be reduced by supermarkets to increase their profitability. This study provides: (1 shrink estimates for 24 fresh fruits and 31 fresh vegetables in U.S. supermarkets in 2011 and 2012; and (2 retail-level food loss. For each covered commodity, supplier shipment data was aggregated from a sample of 2900 stores from one national and four regional supermarket retailers in the United States, and this sum was then compared with aggregated point-of-sale data from the same stores to estimate the amount of shrink by weight and shrink rates. The 2011–2012 average annual shrink rates for individual fresh vegetables varied from 2.2 percent for sweet corn to 62.9 percent for turnip greens and for individual fresh fruit ranged from 4.1 percent for bananas to 43.1 percent for papayas. When these shrink estimates were used in the Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series, annual food loss for these commodities totaled 5.9 billion pounds of fresh fruit and 6.1 billion pounds of fresh vegetables. This study extends the literature by providing important information on where and how much shrink could potentially be reduced. Precise comparisons across studies are difficult. This information, combined with information on available and cost-effective technologies and practices, may help supermarkets target food loss reduction efforts though food loss will never be zero.

  7. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  8. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  9. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  10. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  11. Accuracy of Canadian Food Labels for Sodium Content of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fitzpatrick

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories. Results were requested for products with ≥1 of the following nutrients tested: sodium, calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sugar. Differences between the label and laboratory values were calculated for each product. Overall, 16.7% (n = 169 of products were “unsatisfactory” with laboratory values exceeding ±20% of the NFt value. Sodium had the highest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 49, 18.4% and trans fat had the lowest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 16, 4.3%. The proportion of unsatisfactory products for saturated fat, calories, and sugar was 15.8%, 14.2%, and 12.9%, respectively. All of the unsatisfactory products had excess nutrient content relative to the NFt. Sodium and calories were consistently underreported (p < 0.05, while NFt values for the other nutrients were not statistically different than laboratory values. Increased monitoring of NFt sodium values is recommended in order to increase consumer confidence in this nutrition tool, to encourage industry to accurately report nutrient content and to continue using the NFt to guide research, education, and policy development.

  12. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66 revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food

  13. Prediction and analysis of the seasonal performance of tri-generation and CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Integration model of a trigeneration with CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarket. ► Validation of the developed integration model with site and laboratory measurement. ► Application of the trigeneration system in power generation and space conditioning. ► Performance analysis and comparison of the integrated system in supermarket. - Abstract: A modern supermarket energy control system has a concurrent need for electricity, space heating or cooling, and food refrigeration. The power supply to the supermarket is primarily from the national grid, where losses in efficiency are due to the processes of energy conversion and transmission. Combined heat and power (CHP) offers the potential to locally produce electrical power and heating which could save energy and reduce CO2 emissions in the long run. During the summer months, as the space heating requirement in a supermarket is relatively small, the energy efficiency of a CHP installation can be improved by using excess thermal energy to drive a sorption refrigeration system to provide space cooling or refrigeration. This process is also known as tri-generation. In recent years, the use of CO2 as a refrigerant in supermarkets has received considerable attention due to its negligible contribution to direct greenhouse gas emissions and excellent thermophysical and heat transfer properties. Consequently, the application of a tri-generation system in a supermarket with CO2 refrigeration merits further investigation. In this paper, to evaluate the performance of a tri-generation system in the supermarket, a previously tested 80 kWe microturbine device was applied into an operational supermarket to generate power and provide space heating and cooling through exhaust heat. The performance evaluation and comparison for this tri-generation application is based on the prediction from an integrated model of supermarket energy control, cascade CO2 refrigeration and tri-generation systems. The results from

  14. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  15. The Effect of Entry by Supercenter and Warehouse Club Retailers on Grocery Sales and Small Supermarkets: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Bobby J.; Florax, Raymond J G M; Dooley, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluates the effects of entry by supercenters and warehouse clubs on retail grocery sales and the exit of small supermarkets. Drawing on literature from trade area analysis, agglomeration, and location theory, spatial econometric models are estimated. Results suggest that warehouse and supercenter stores have a significant and large effect on the change in grocery sales and the exit of small supermarkets operating at the county level.

  16. Internal organization and management of fresh produce marketing in retail supermarket chains :implications for marketing specialty produce

    OpenAIRE

    Beamer, Bobby G.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the management of the fresh produce marketing system in retail supermarket chains and to assess the marketing opportunities for specialty produce therein. Results provide new growers with knowledge of the retail industry necessary to establish good relationships with retailers. A selective sample of 17 retail supermarket chains in the Virginia area were identified for inclusion in the study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the person ...

  17. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Simon; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own bran...

  18. Canadian cogeneration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aggressive cogeneration industry has developed in Canada, and is becoming a tool for provincial utilities to manage the procurement of independently generated power, while restricting plant size, maximizing socioeconomic benefit, minimizing environmental impacts and managing their own risks. An overview is presented of the economics of cogeneration in Canada. The Canadian cogeneration industry is driven by 3 key economic factors: utility power sale contracts, fuel pricing, and tax benefits. Utility cogeneration purchases, tax benefits, fuel prices, cogeneration efficiency, fuels, fuel strategies, displacement projects, solid fuel vs natural gas, operating flexibility, gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators, industrial and aeroderivative units, combined cycle steam turbines, steam injection, supplementary or duct firing, financial aspects and project management are discussed. 15 figs., 7 tabs

  19. The Moderating Influence of Supermarket Satisfaction on Out-of-Stock Store Switching Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    Consumer store switching behaviour – going to another store to buy an item that is out-of-stock is often considered to be associated with high brand loyalty in combination with low store loyalty, making a study of the causes for such behaviour highly important to both store and brand managers...... variables on out-of-stock store switching. The results indicate that whereas preferred supermarket satisfaction negatively moderates the relation between quality consciousness and out-of-stock store switching, preferred supermarket satisfaction positively moderates the relation between price consciousness...... and out-of-stock store switching. In addition, it is demonstrated that quality consciousness, price consciousness, and pre-planning propensity positively influence consumer out-of-stock store switching behaviour....

  20. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  1. Supporting the Supermarket Shopping Experience through a Context-Aware Shopping Trolley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim of...... the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior...... than traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  2. First supermarket with heat and cold storage; Eerste supermarkt met warmte/koudeopslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuiper, N.

    2008-04-15

    A short overview is provided of the energy saving measures that were taken by a supermarket in Almere, the Netherlands. This supermarket is the first in the Netherlands to make use of heat and cold storage. Heat from the soil is feeding the underfloor heating. Moreover, extra insulation measures, energy efficient tubular lighting and sliding doors and sliding windows are covering cooling and freezing equipment. [mk]. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de maatregelen die zijn genomen voor een supermarkt in Almere, Nederland, om energie te besparen. De supermarkt is de eerste in Nederland die gebruik maakt van de opslag van warmte en koude. Warmte uit de bodem voedt de vloerverwarming. Daarnaast wordt gebruik gemaakt van extra isolatie, energiezuinige TL-buizen en schuifdeuren en schuiframen die de koel- en diepvriesmeubelen afsluiten.

  3. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart

    2010-01-01

    A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign dir...

  4. Deconstructing Supermarket Interventions as a Mechanism for Improving Diet: Lessons from the Seacroft Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudkin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Supermarkets, with vast product ranges and relatively low prices, are an established solution to problems of availability of healthy foodstuffs in areas of limited retail access. However, where they may indeed raise consumption of desirable goods they also open up new opportunities to buy less healthful items for less, a situation which potentially undermines their ability to improve diet. Using under-reported diary data from the Seacroft Intervention Study in the United Kingdom takes this pa...

  5. An Interaction-Oriented Model of Customer Behavior for the Simulation of Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Kubera, Yoann; Mathieu, Philippe; Picault, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Since several years, great distribution firms implement more and more complex layout and shelf allocation strategies, so as to force empirical know-how to combine with Artificial Intelligence tools. Thus simulation has become an essential tool for designing efficient article layouts. Mathematical models based on statistical observations have been replaced by agent-based models. In this paper we argue that the modelling of individual behaviors of customers in a supermarket must be done through...

  6. 'Open' markets but no food?: Establishing the links between supermarket growth in India and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Abhishek Pawan

    2011-01-01

    India is a land of great contrasts as evident through its different religions, cultures and languages. However, a bigger contrast lies in its phenomenal economic growth in the last few years on one hand and the glaring inequalities on the other. This study tries to explain a similar contrast in the country; between the fast growth of supermarkets within the retail sector and the growing food security problem. The dissertation approaches the issue by connecting the different aspects of foo...

  7. To fix food deserts, we need to address transit options and supermarket stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers have become increasingly concerned about the rise of ‘food deserts’ – those areas with poor access to foods that are not highly processed and nutritionally poor. While policy solutions to address food deserts tend to include introducing supermarkets selling a wider range of foods into such areas, new research from Jerry Shannon may challenge this policy. Studying the shopping habits of low-income residents of Minneapolis, Minnesota, he finds that food shopping can oft...

  8. Supermarket refrigeration. Optimization of suction pressure in existing refrigerators; Supermarktkaelte. Saugdruck optimieren in Bestandskaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Philipp; Mueller, Markus [Eckelmann AG, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The new E*LDS firmware E*COP{sup +} from Eckelmann AG (Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany) for the optimization of the suction pressure supplies a demand-oriented adaptation of the suction pressure. The new feature is ideal for an update of existing systems with thermostatic expansion valves. Using this update operators of supermarket operators may save about 10% energy with little effort.

  9. Values, food and bags: A study of consumption decisions in a laboratory supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Kasser, Tim; Matthey, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    We study the relation between people's personal values and environmentally friendly consumption behavior. We first assessed subjects' personal values using the Aspiration Index. Then subjects participated in a laboratory supermarket offering organic and conventional food products and different kinds of bags. The results suggest that subjects' personal values are poor predictors of their ecologically-relevant consumption behavior. However, we find that subjects who spontaneously reflected upon...

  10. Small farmers, NGOs, and a Walmart World: Welfare effects of supermarkets operating in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Michelson, Hope C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of NGO and government activities promoting developing world farmer participation in high-value agricultural markets, evidence regarding the household welfare effects of such initiatives is limited. This paper analyzes the geographic placement of supermarket supply chains in Nicaragua between 2000 and 2008 and uses a difference-in-difference specification on measures of supplier and non-supplier assets to estimate the welfare effects of small farmer participation. Th...

  11. Investigating Thai Shopping Behavior: Wet-Markets, Supermarkets and the ‘Big Middle’

    OpenAIRE

    Gorton, Matthew; Sauer, Johannes; Supatpongkul, Pajaree

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the Big Middle theory of retail evolution, an analysis of primary survey data on Thai shopping behavior seeks to understand the relative satisfaction of consumers with wet markets and supermarkets, identifying the factors that affect frequency of visit to, and purchase behavior within, these retail outlets. This provides the basis for engaging in a wider debate on the possibility of a ‘Global Big Middle’ for food retailing. On all salient attributes affecting retail outlet choice, ...

  12. Opportunities for small organic shops despite the rise of organic supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Runge, Silke; Cornehl, Michaela; Häring, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Similar to the trend in the German organic food industry as a whole, development on the Berlin organic market is currently very dynamic. As a result, many organic supermarkets and chains are moving to Berlin, creating a major challenge for small Berlin organic shops in particular. We examined the current competitive situation on the natural foods retail market on the basis of a market analysis and interviews with experts. Potential measures for improving the competitive positioning of smaller...

  13. NEW INSIGHTS INTO SUPERMARKET PROMOTIONS VIA SCANNER DATA ANALYSIS: THE CASE OF MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Geoffrey M.; Park, John L.

    1998-01-01

    Supermarket companies expend significant resources and employ many promotional activities so as to convince consumers to shop their stores. This analysis investigates the promotional activities of a single retail food company to determine the price and promotion responsiveness of fluid milk products that differ by milkfat content. It utilizes weekly, store-level scanner data. Seasonality and advertising are significant determinants of retail sales of fluid milk. Own-price elasticities are neg...

  14. Pengaruh Store Atmosfer dan Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Pada Supermarket Maju Bersama di Letda Sujono

    OpenAIRE

    Siboro, Rosa Yunita Evelina L.

    2015-01-01

    In the era of globalization business competition develops very rapidly, both in the domestic market or national and on the international market or global .One whose business is currently is happening which is retail business or retail .A variety of retail business or retail springing in all shapes and sizes. This research aims to analyze the influence of store atmosphere or the atmosphere and quality service of customers satisfaction the Supermarket Maju Bersama at Letda Sujono. Researc...

  15. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    metals and environmental contaminants were quantified in pregnant women from six Canadian Cities. ► Significant differences between cities were documented. ► Concentrations of several metals and contaminants were higher in foreign-born vs. Canadian women.

  16. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    -Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of metals and environmental contaminants were quantified in pregnant women from six Canadian Cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant differences between cities were documented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of several metals and contaminants were higher in foreign-born vs. Canadian women.

  17. A study of Canadian retail gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retail gasoline pricing in Canadian markets was examined to demonstrate why retail prices tend to follow one of two distinct patterns and that neither pattern is observable in the wholesale price. In many cities, retail prices are more rigid than wholesale prices, while in other markets, retail prices follow a cyclic pattern not seen in wholesale prices. This study examined why constant prices are observed in some cities, while other cities have cyclic prices. Theoretical justification was given to the argument that prices will remain constant only in markets in which there are only few gasoline companies with a small number of stations, but a large per-station capacity. It was shown that when one firm operates significantly more stations than its rival, a constant cost equilibrium cannot be maintained. However, a cycle equilibrium can be constructed in this case, and also when the two companies are similarly sized. An initial examination of available price, cost and market structure data shows that there is a positive correlation between price stability and concentration. The response of retail prices to wholesale price movements in the presence of a retail price cycle was also examined through the use of a simple model based on the predictions of the above theory. Data for the city of Windsor, Ontario was used for the modelling approach. A new cycle is created by an increase in price whenever the distance between the previous retail price and the current wholesale prices is very small. Retail prices are more responsive to wholesale prices over the increasing portion of the cycle. It was shown that when the asymmetric error correction model of Borenstein, Cameron and Gilbert is estimated, it indicates a more rapid response to wholesale price increases than to decreases. 72 refs., 22 tabs., 8 figs

  18. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  19. Trigeneration in food retail: An energetic, economic and environmental evaluation for a supermarket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results on the evaluation of energy utilisation efficiency and economic and environmental performance of a micro-gas turbine (MGT) based trigeneration system for supermarket applications. A spreadsheet energy model has been developed for the analysis of trigeneration systems and a 2800 m2 sales area supermarket was selected for the feasibility study. Historical energy demand data were used for the analysis, which considered factors such as the fraction of the heat output used to drive the absorption chillers, the chiller COP and the difference between electricity and gas prices. The results showed that energy and environmental benefits can be obtained from the application of trigeneration systems to supermarkets compared to conventional systems. The payback period of natural gas driven trigeneration systems and greenhouse gas emissions savings will depend on the relative gas and electricity prices and the COP of the vapour compression and absorption systems. It was also shown that operation at full electrical output gives a better performance than a heat load-following strategy due to the reduction of the electrical generation efficiency of the MGT unit at part load conditions.

  20. 1944. The Canadians in Normandy

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Dorning

    2012-01-01

    The story of the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 has been told in countless military-history books. Previous publications on the Allied invasion and the subsequent Normandy campaign have, however, tended to concentrate on the British and American role in the fighting, while the Canadian contribution has received scant attention. This in itself is surprising, as the Canadians played a far from peripheral role in the invasion and the campaign which followed in the hinterland of Normandy....

  1. Marketing and Merchandising Practices for Fresh Sweet Corn in Supermarkets -- Challenges and Opportunities for the New York State Fresh Sweet Corn Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cuellar, Sandra; Uva, Wen-fei L.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on investigating key issues related to marketing fresh sweet corn through supermarket firms and implications for the New York sweet corn industry. In summer 2002, a survey was conducted with supermarket firms that operate stores in the market area of three Northeast States - New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Executives from 25 supermarket firms responded to the survey. Participating firms operated 921 stores, and their 2000 sales ranged from $21 million to $10.5 billio...

  2. Practice and Exploration of Rural Sci-tech Service Supermarket:A Case Study of Jurong Economic Forest and Fruit Industrial Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhong; LIU; Yabo; LIU; Jianying; ZHANG; Nini; MAO; Zhijian; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The rural sci-tech supermarket in Jiangsu Province is an innovative model of rural sci-tech service. With reference to the concept of modern commodity supermarket, this model integrates variety, technology and achievement information into the sci-tech supermarket platform, provides various agricultural sci-tech services, and improves farmers recognition and acceptance of science and technology, so as to accelerate conversion of scientific and technological achievements and demonstration and popularization of new varieties, new technologies and new models. This paper analyzes practice of Jurong economic forest and fruit industrial branch and presents recommendations for building Jiangsu rural sci-tech service supermarket.

  3. A study of the relationship between degree of ethnocentrism and typologies of food purchase in supermarkets in central-southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish different types of consumers according to their level of ethnocentrism in relation to the consumption of foodstuffs in central-southern Chile. To do this a modification of the CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale) was applied through direct survey of 800 habitual supermarket shoppers in two cities in central-southern Chile. The modified CETSCALE presented a sufficient level of internal consistency and there were three factors which included the 17 items of the scale. Five typologies of consumer with different degrees of ethnocentrism were distinguished by cluster analysis, based on the values of the factors and items in the CETSCALE. The composition of the typologies of consumers were related to the city and zone of residence, age, socioeconomic level, self-declared life-style, ethnic origin, knowledge of the origin of the foodstuffs purchased, frequency of purchase of imported foodstuffs and reasons for rejection in the case of a low purchase frequency. It may therefore be concluded that different levels of ethnocentrism exist in the consumption of foodstuffs, related with some socio-demographic characteristics of consumers and their attitudes to imported foodstuffs. PMID:21335039

  4. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  5. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  6. A postura no trabalho dos operadores de checkout de supermercados: uma necessidade constante de análises Supermarket checkout operators posture at work: The continuous need for analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Concepción Batiz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As condições de trabalho nas quais os operadores de checkout de supermercados realizam suas atividades têm sido uma preocupação dos especialistas nos últimos tempos. Essa pesquisa foi realizada em oito supermercados de duas cidades do Brasil com o objetivo de conhecer as condições em que os operadores realizam suas atividades, detectando os fatores de risco para propor medidas que eliminem ou minimizem o aparecimento de efeitos adversos nos trabalhadores. Foi aplicado um questionário e o método RULA a uma amostra de 80 trabalhadores. O estudo mostrou que o mobiliário não está adaptado às características antropométricas da população, a maioria das posturas analisadas é inadequada, não existem revezamento nem pausas que poderiam ajudar a minimizar a situação, existência de sobrecarga, mental e física, entre outras. Conclui-se que a atividade pode representar riscos à saúde dos operadores de caixa de supermercados.The work conditions in which supermarket checkout operators perform activities have been a recent concern to specialists. This research was carried out in eight supermarkets of two cities in Brazil with the aim of knowing the conditions under which operators work, in order to detect risk factors and to propose procedures that could eliminate or minimize their adverse effects on workers. Structured questionnaire and the RULA method was applied to a sample of 80 workers. Major findings of the study as follows: furniture was not adapted to anthropometric characteristics of the workers, most of analyzed positions are not adequate, there was no rotation or pauses that could reduce the risk, there was a significant amount of mental and physical work overload. We conclude that, under current conditions, checkout operations at supermarkets poses health risk to operators.

  7. A STUDY ON CUSTOMER PREFERENCE TOWARDS BIG BAZAAR IN COIMBATORE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Brindha, K.; P. Sathya

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the Customer preference towards Big Bazaar in Coimbatore city,. The phenomenal growth of retail in India is reflected in the rapid increase in number of supermarkets, departmental stores and hypermarkets in the country. With the help of consumer preference, the retail outlets increase their sale and provide total customer satisfaction. The term consumer preference refers to the preference that consumers display in searching for purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing...

  8. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi S J; Khoushnevis S H; Gholampour Azizi I

    2007-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature) (UHT) milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. ...

  9. Canadian fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU power reactor fuel has demonstrated an enviable operational record. More than 99.9% of the bundles irradiated have provided defect-free service. Defect excursions are responsible for the majority of reported defects. In some cases research and development effort is necessary to resolve these problems. In addition, development initiatives are also directed at improvements of the current design or reduction of fueling cost. The majority of the funding for this effort has been provided by COG (CANDU Owners' Group) over the past 10 to 15 years. This paper contains an overview of some key fuel technology programs within COG. The CANDU reactor is unique among the world's power reactors in its flexibility and its ability to use a number of different fuel cycles. An active program of analysis and development, to demonstrate the viability of different fuel cycles in CANDU, has been funded by AECL in parallel with the work on the natural uranium cycle. Market forces and advances in technology have obliged us to reassess and refocus some parts of our effort in this area, and significant success has been achieved in integrating all the Canadian efforts in this area. This paper contains a brief summary of some key components of the advanced fuel cycle program. (Author) 4 figs., tab., 18 refs

  10. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  12. Specialization in services: a Canadian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Simmons

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern urban systems the economic growth of cities is largely driven by services. In many regions employment growth in primary and secondary activities is close to zero, or even negative. Growth depends on the ability to attract jobs in the services. This study explores the pattern of specialization in various service activities for 159 Canadian urban areas in 1996, as the basis for a series of maps for the Atlas of Canada. The hierarchical specialization is evaluated for each service sector by computing a regression model of ser-vice employment as a function of urban population and income per capita. The rapidly growing business and financial services are the most strongly oriented to larger cities. The horizontal specialization is measured as residuals from the regressions. Strong regional differences contrast the central place roles of agricultural communities with the more loca-lized markets of resource and manufacturing centres. Public sector decisions about the loca-tion of major health and education facilities complement the choices of the private sector.

  13. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  14. Canadian Food Irradiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) began work on the irradiation of potatoes in 1956, using spent fuel rods as the radiation source. In 1958 the first Gammacell 220, a self-contained irradiator, was designed and manufactured by AECL, and cobalt-60 was then used exclusively in the food irradiation programme. In 1960 the first food and drug clearance was obtained for potatoes. The next stage was to demonstrate to the potato industry that cobalt-60 was a safe, simple and reliable tool, and that irradiation would inhibit sprouting under field conditions. A mobile irradiator was designed and produced by AECL in 1961 to carry out this pilot-plant programme. The irradiator was mounted on a fully-equipped road trailer and spent the 1961/1962 season irradiating one million pounds of potatoes at various points in Eastern Canada. In 1965 the first commercial food irradiator was designed and built by AECL for Newfield Products, Ltd. Whilst the potato programme was under way, AECL initiated co-operative programmes with Canadian food research laboratories, using additional Gammacells. In 1960, AECL constructed an irradiation facility in a shielded room at its own plant in Ottawa for the irradiation of larger objects, such as sides of pork and stems of bananas. During 1963 the mobile irradiator, already a most useful tool, was made more versatile when its source strength was increased and it was equipped with a product cooling system and van air conditioning. Following these modifications, the unit was employed in California for the irradiation of a wide spectrum of fruits at the United States Department of Agriculture Station in Fresno. The Gammacell, mobile irradiator, shielded-room facility, the commercial food irradiator and some of the main food programmes are described in detail. There is an increasing amount of interest in irradiation by the food industry, and prospects are encouraging for future installations. (author)

  15. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  16. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  17. Political Affiliation of Canadian Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Nakhaie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The social role of universities has been the subject of a lengthy debate as to whether those who teach in the academy are system-legitimizing conservatives or radicals helping to generate critical thinking that challenges the status quo. The aim of this paper is to evaluate political affiliations of Canadian university professors based on a national survey conducted in 2000. The study shows that Canadian professors’ political affiliation can be identified as either left or right depending on how the political orientation of political parties is conceptualized. University professors tend to vote more for the Liberal Party than other parties, and view it as centrist party. Moreover, the study highlights a complex and non-monolithic picture of the Canadian academy. University professors are not politically homogenous and party vote depends on the prestige of their university, their discipline, gender, ethnicity, marital status, generation, and agreement with liberalism.

  18. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  19. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  20. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  1. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  2. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  3. Testing for asymmetric pricing in the Canadian retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper applies a Threshold Regression model to test for asymmetric pricing in the retail gasoline market in Canada, using weekly data for the period January 1990 to December 1996. We present results for 13 Canadian cities for both premium and regular gasoline. Within the context of an error correction model we test for the presence of asymmetric price behaviour using average changes in crude prices as well as various lags for the change in crude as possible thresholds. We are unable to find any evidence to support this view. 23 refs

  4. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  5. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Tindale, Kathryn [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Li, Hongxia, E-mail: lihongxia@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Rodayan, Angela [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yargeau, Viviane, E-mail: viviane.yargeau@mcgill.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  6. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  7. Sin City?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  8. The Stockouts Study: an Examination of the Extent and the Causes in the São Paulo Supermarket Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Rigato Vasconcellos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Stockouts remain a significant retail problem. Progress has been limited, as estimates of stockout rates in the past forty years have consistently averaged above 8 percent. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance and extent of the stockout problem in the supermarket sector in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from the perspective of the supermarket managers themselves. Results suggest that the level of stockouts is high. Generally, the suppliers are mentioned as being the ones mainly responsible for stockouts. These results suggest that managers have significant opportunities to reduce retail stockouts by taking preventative actions.

  9. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  10. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  11. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  12. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  13. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  14. Empirical analysis of consumer's demand for organic agricultural products in supermarkets%超市业态下有机农产品消费需求实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方平; 周保吉; 刘茜; 陆受义; 苏翔

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting consumer' s willingness for purchasing organic food in supermarkets in Nanning City in order to provide some theoretical references for improving the sales mode for organic agricultural product. [Method]Sampling survey method was used to investigate the consumer's willingness to purchase organic food in supermarkets of Nanning City, and the characteristics of consumer' s purchasing behavior were analyzed. Based on the analysis, Logit regression model was established and used to analyze the relationship between different influencing factors and consumer s willingness to purchase organic agricultural products from supermarkets. [Result] The analysis showed that the most affecting factors were the monthly income of the family, confidence level of organic agricultural products and acceptance of organic agricultural products in supermarket. Market place and presence of children and old persons in family were also the important influencing factors. However, the factors of consumer' s age, education background, concern about health and knowledge about organic agricultural products slightly affected the consumer' s purchasing willingness. [Suggestion]In order to promote the sale of organic agricultural products in supermarket, some suggestions have been put forward which included strengthening the supervision of organic agricultural product quality, realization of scale operation, decrease in the cost of production and retail, perfection sale methodology, etc.%[目的]对南宁市消费者在超市业态下购买有机农产品意愿的影响因素进行调查分析,为促进有机农产品营销模式的优化提供理论参考.[方法]对南宁市有机农产品的消费市场需求进行抽样调查,分析不同消费个体的特性,并建立Logit回归模型,分析各影响因素与消费者在超市购买有机农产品的相关程度.[结果]超市有机农产品的购买意愿受消费者家

  15. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  16. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems working with natural refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current trends in commercial refrigeration aim at reducing the synthetic refrigerant charge, either by minimising the internal volume of the circuit or by utilising natural refrigerants, and at energy saving. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study aims at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions where only natural refrigerants are used and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis, chillers and heat pumps working with ammonia or propane, medium temperature systems working with ammonia or propane and carbon dioxide as heat transfer fluid or with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and low temperature systems working with carbon dioxide are considered and benchmarked with a state-of-the-art HFCs based plant. The most efficient investigated solution enables an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for all the considered climates. - Highlights: ► Different natural refrigerants supermarket HVAC and R integrated systems are analysed. ► Some of the proposed solutions offer a significant benefit over the baseline one. Up to 18.7% energy saving is achieved in the considered climates. ► The refrigeration unit condensation by the AC chiller offers the poorest results.

  17. Brand perception: an analysis of supermarket retail of Aracaju after acquisitions of international companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pinto Correia dos Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study under review proposes to investigate how three of the most important brand´s supermarket - representatives of multinational retailed - are perceived. In this article they will be named by P, W and C. Specifically, demanded up: identify the socioeconomics and psychograph customers in PDV and it´s influential´s areas at store; and investigate the perception of brands values of supermarkets under review. Through the method descriptive and quantitative, were applied some questionnaires in 288 costumers of the principals stores about the brands studied and their surroundings, using a probabilistic systematic sampling, looking for answer the constitutive hypotheses made in study. The data were analyzed with software SPSS help (Statistical Package for Social Sciences and were applied in statistical tests: ANOVA, T-Student and Tukey, and Cluster Analysis. The result allows concluding that despite of consumers of the studied brands has in general similar characteristics, there some differences that may have directed strategies. About the aspect of brand equity (loyalty, memory/association and perceived quality, it is possible affirm that C brand stands out with better perception of its proximity aspects within the studied public.

  18. Supermarket market-channel participation and technology decisions of horticultural producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Y. Mainville

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationships between growers’ choice of market channel (emphasizing the supermarket market-channel versus others, technology use, and grower characteristics such as human capital and farm size. Three key findings emerged. First, both tomato and lettuce growers selling to the supermarket market-channel had more human capital than those not participating. Second, while farm size was important in whether lettuce growers sell to supermarkets, it was not important for tomato growers. Third, technology use was significantly more capital-intensive among lettuce growers selling to the supermarket channels, however, that was generally not the case for tomato growers. These results are important to agribusiness researchers and policymakers interested in technology design and research and extension to enable producers to adapt to the needs of changing agrifood markets, with new requirements of attributes of products and transactions, which in turn have implications for technology adoption and human capital investment among growers. This is particularly pressing in places like Brazil where the market for horticultural products is changing quickly, conditioned by the rapid rise of supermarkets.Este artigo analisa as relações entre a escolha dos canais de distribuição dos produtores (enfatizando distribuição por meio de supermercados versus outros canais, o uso da tecnologia e as características dos produtores como capital humano e tamanho da propriedade. Foram identificados três resultados principais. O primeiro revela que produtores de tomate e alface que distribuem por meio de supermercados apresentaram maior capital humano que aqueles que não utilizam esse canal. O segundo resultado indica que enquanto o tamanho da propriedade foi importante para produtores de alface decidirem distribuir por meio de supermercados, essa variável não foi importante para produtores de tomate. O terceiro resultado sugere que o uso da

  19. Multi-ejector concept for R-744 supermarket refrigerators; Multi-Ejektoren Konzept fuer R-744 Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Foersterling, Sven [TLK-Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Banasiak, Krzystof [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    Supermarkets are commercial buildings with major energy consumption and contribute also to relatively large direct emissions of greenhouse (GHG) through emissions of refrigerants from the refrigeration plants and the air conditioning system installed. The huge majority of these systems, which are installed in European supermarkets, are applying HFC-404A as working fluid. Average annual leakage rates in Europe are in the range of 15-20 % of the total charge. Worldwide the figure is about 30 % and HCFC-22 being the main refrigerant in use. Restrictions on the use of synthetic refrigerants are coming into force in several countries. There is a need for a natural refrigerant which allows for a safe investment in efficient refrigeration systems which will not be forced to be retrofitted by legislation in the future. Systems applying R-744 as the only refrigerant have been developed and more than 500 supermarkets exist in Europe, mainly in northern and mid-European countries. However, the systems still have large potential in development with respect to energy efficiency, heat recovery and cost efficiency. The paper describes the calculation method to identify the possible annual energy savings for different supermarket systems layout. The adoption of non-controlled ejectors and additional function such as heat recovery are evaluated. Results show relevant improvements in system efficiency when heat recovery has been adopted. Ejector usage is not widely spread at the moment. Thus, a theoretical analysis applying the programming language Modelica has been carried out. (orig.)

  20. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the pr

  1. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS FOR SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS. Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-95/028)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that provided information regarding the merits of using ammonia with a secondary brine loop for supermarket refrigeration systems. The ammonia systems were compared with an equivalent R-22 system. The models used in the study are provided with...

  2. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children: Parent-Child Communication in Supermarket Breakfast Cereal Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    In this study, naturalistic patterns of parent-child interaction were unobtrusively observed in supermarkets to describe characteristics of breakfast cereal selection by 516 family units. The interaction sequence was summarized into five dimensions: initiating party, tone of initial message, type of response, type of consequence, and references to…

  3. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  4. Cooling of chiller condensers by district cooling in supermarkets; Kylning av kylmaskiners kondensorer med fjaerrkyla i livsmedelsbutiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Cooling of the chiller condensers in supermarkets can be performed in different ways. To start with, the condensers can be cooled by use of outdoor air in dry coolers, but the ventilation air can also perform the cooling, totally or partially. In such a way the total or a part of the heating demand of the supermarket might be covered. A third alternative for condenser cooling is use of district cooling. However, in such a case the possibility to heat the supermarket by heat recovery is lost. The purpose of this study is to outline when district cooling offers the most advantageous alternative for condenser cooling in comparison to the other alternatives. This assessment is to be performed taking costs, electricity use and environmental impact into consideration separately. The results from calculations for a case supermarket show that the price for district cooling is generally to high for making it profitable for a supermarket to cool the condensers by district cooling. However, cooling the condensers by district cooling might lead to savings for the supermarket, both in terms of investments and use of electricity. This leads to the fact that cooling the condensers by district cooling could offer a profitable alternative for the supermarket, if the prices are adapted to this type of costumer. Hopefully, such a business could be profitable for the producers of district cooling as well. In addition, there are other advantages associated with condenser cooling by district cooling, which are hard to evaluate in economic terms. When it comes to the comparison of electricity use, it is shown that condenser cooling by district cooling is the alternative that uses least electricity in a national point of view, if the district cooling is produced by a deep-water source. In this comparison, the electricity used for production of district cooling and district heating is included as well. If district cooling is co-produced with district heating in heat pumps, the result is

  5. Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  6. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  7. The Canadian safeguards support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  8. Study about simulation of supermarket queuing system%超市排队系统仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦琮; 杨公平; 张福强

    2011-01-01

    针对超市顾客等候过久问题,基于Agent范型,建立了顾客排队系统仿真模型.将顾客、收银台抽象为不同的Agent,并引入收银台管理Agent和引导员Agent.通过不同Agent之间的交互仿真超市排队系统的运行.模型中给出了一种收银台快速结算动态调整算法.实验数据和分析显示,该模型不仅可以真实地模拟超市排队系统运行现象,而且减少了顾客平均等待时间,降低了超市运营成本.%For the problem of the wait time of customers being too long in supermarkets, based on the agent paradigm, a simulation model of supermarket queuing system is established.The customers and check-outs are abstracted as different agents.Guide agent and check-out management agent are also introduced.The interaction among agents simulates the situation of supermarket queuing system.In the model a fast-track checkout scheduling algorithm based on dynamic adjustment is pro-posed.The experimental result and analysis show that the system not only can simulate the situation of supermarket queuing system actually,but also reduces the waiting time of customers and the operating costs of supermarket.

  9. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  10. Canadian wind energy industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies and organizations involved, either directly or indirectly, in the wind energy industry in Canada, are listed in this directory. Some U.S. and international companies which are active or interested in Canadian industry activities are also listed. The first section of the directory is an alphabetical listing which includes corporate descriptions, company logos, addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail addresses and contact names. The second section contains 54 categories of products and services associated with the industry

  11. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  12. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  13. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  14. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  15. THE USE OFACCOUNTING TOOLS IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN NICHE SUPERMARKETS OF CACOAL CITY, RONDÔNIA (BRAZIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Cleberson Eller Loose; Clodoaldo Oliveira De Freitas; Valdinei Leones De Souza; Maycom Antunes Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The decision making in day-to-day management of companies are of the utmost importance, because each decision outlines a path to take both by the company and by employees (owners, employees, suppliers, customers, among others). The accounts together with the analysis of financial statements assists in the management of the business, because they are used to capture the information and analyzing them , being that when used together, serve to support the manager take effecti...

  16. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  17. Are Canadian Banks Ready for Basel III?

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Kutum; Khaled Hussainey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test the current liquidity coverage ratio of Canadian banks’, and draw conclusions about the readiness of Canadian banks to meet Basel III regulations. Liquidity coverage ratios for six major Canadian banks were calculated using the liquid assets and liabilities listed on their balance sheets from 2009 to 2013. The actual assets that meet Basel III requirements could not be acquired, as this is private information that does not have to be released u...

  18. entering the postindustrial society: the canadian case

    OpenAIRE

    Matejko, Alexander J.

    1986-01-01

    abstract: the canadian federation is based on the substantial autonomy of the provinces constituting it, the welfare orientation of central bodies, the volunteer activities at the grass-root level, and the external policy open to the world. there are no any doubts about the genuinely democratic character of canadian internal politics or the commitment of canadians to the world peace. the economic prosperity of the country is secured by the mineral resources, good agriculture, and the intensiv...

  19. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P., E-mail: spchawla@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 {sup o}C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 {sup o}C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  20. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part Two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    The Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Unknown Input Observer (UIO) for a supermarket refrigeration system is investigated. The original system's state $T_{goods}$ (temp. of the goods) is regarded as a system unknown input in this study, so that the FDI decision is not disturbed by the...... system uncertainties relevant to this state dynamic and the original system disturbance $Q_{airload}$ (the thermal feature of the air). It has been observed that a single UIO has a very good detection capability for concerned sensor and parametric faults. However, only the parametric fault can be...... isolated by using a bank of UIOs. Thereby, a complete FDI approach is proposed by combining the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) and UIO methods, after an extensive comparison of KF-, EKF- and UIO-based FDI methods is carried out. The simulation tests show that the complete FDI approach has a good and...

  1. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 oC for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 oC compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  2. Influence of information systems on stock management in little and middle sized supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Luis Pick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a multiple case study in which was analyzed the influence of information systems usage on the stock management processes in medium and little-sized retailers. We assessed four supermarkets from the inner land of Rio Grande do Sul, with different status in information systems development. The performance in stock management was appraised with the aid of five numerical indicators, defined in focus group sections with experts, led by researcher. The main observed influences were: average inventory, stock cycle, percentage of shortages and GM-ROI. WE observed high negative correlations between these variables and the level of usage of information systems: the more the company uses it, the less the variables grew, what is a desirable behavior. We do not found influence of the information system on sales volumes.

  3. Model-Based Predictive Control Scheme for Cost Optimization and Balancing Services for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerts, Hermanus H. M.; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    A new formulation of model predictive control for supermarket refrigeration systems is proposed to facilitate the regulatory power services as well as energy cost optimization of such systems in the smart grid. Nonlinear dynamics existed in large-scale refrigeration plants challenges the predictive...... the same objective as of cost optimization one. A simulation benchmark validated against real data and including significant dynamics of the system are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme....... control design. It is however shown that taking into account the knowledge of different time scales in the dynamical subsystems makes possible a linear formulation of a centralized predictive controller. A realistic scenario of regulatory power services in the smart grid is considered and formulated in...

  4. Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaghan, Diane

    A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

  5. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (<4%); 11% was resistant to streptomycin. No glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were observed. Resistance rates of bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading

  6. The microbial content of unexpired pasteurized milk from selected supermarkets in a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melisa Anderson; Patrice Hinds; Stacyann Hurditt; Princena Miller; Donovan McGrowder; Ruby Alexander-Lindo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence and levels of microbes in unexpired pasteurized milk from randomly selected supermarkets in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: The quantitative study used a stratified random sampling technique in the selection of the 20 representative milk samples from six (6) supermarkets. Microbiological tests such as methylene blue reduction, standard plate count (SPC), coliform plate count (CPC), purity plate culture, gram staining and biochemical tests were performed to examine the microbes in purchased unexpired pasteurized milk. Results: One sample (BCr016) had a pH of 4.0, a rancid odour and curdled appearance. It decolourized within one hour during the methylene blue reduction test and was classified as class 4 milk. Seven of the samples were sterile with no microbe growth on the plate count agar and violet red bile salt agar (VRBA). The milk samples that appeared to be safe for consumption were all 10, 11, 12 and 13 days before expiration. The VRBA sample BCr016, had a colony count of 13 400 CFU/ mL. There was the presence of Escherichia coli in sample LCr021 which had a standard plate count of 1 580 SPC/mL and a coliform count of 500 CFU/mL. Enterobacter sp. was present in colonies from BCr016 and all the other milk samples. Conclusions: Unacceptable levels of Enterobacter spp. and Escherichiacoli were found in most of the samples. Effective measures to ensure safe milk for human consumption such as the phosphatase test and methylene blue reduction test should be routinely performed on each batch of milk processed by dairy plants.

  7. The microbial content of unexpired pasteurized milk from selected supermarkets in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melisa; Hinds, Patrice; Hurditt, Stacyann; Miller, Princena; McGrowder, Donovan; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence and levels of microbes in unexpired pasteurized milk from randomly selected supermarkets in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods The quantitative study used a stratified random sampling technique in the selection of the 20 representative milk samples from six (6) supermarkets. Microbiological tests such as methylene blue reduction, standard plate count (SPC), coliform plate count (CPC), purity plate culture, gram staining and biochemical tests were performed to examine the microbes in purchased unexpired pasteurized milk. Results One sample (BCr016) had a pH of 4.0, a rancid odour and curdled appearance. It decolourized within one hour during the methylene blue reduction test and was classified as class 4 milk. Seven of the samples were sterile with no microbe growth on the plate count agar and violet red bile salt agar (VRBA). The milk samples that appeared to be safe for consumption were all 10, 11, 12 and 13 days before expiration. The VRBA sample BCr016, had a colony count of 13 400 CFU/ mL. There was the presence of Escherichia coli in sample LCr021 which had a standard plate count of 1 580 SPC/mL and a coliform count of 500 CFU/mL. Enterobacter sp. was present in colonies from BCr016 and all the other milk samples. Conclusions Unacceptable levels of Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were found in most of the samples. Effective measures to ensure safe milk for human consumption such as the phosphatase test and methylene blue reduction test should be routinely performed on each batch of milk processed by dairy plants. PMID:23569760

  8. The Secret of Canadian Banking: Common Sense?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Booth

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the basic reasons why the Canadian banking system was recently judged by the World Economic Forum to be the soundest in the world. It does so by first examining the basic functions of a financial system and what Canadian banks are allowed to do as intermediaries within that system. It then considers the market structure of Canadian banking and the role of the Canadian government in regulating the financial system. It finishes with a discussion of the four basic managemen...

  9. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    OpenAIRE

    J. Chen; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometr...

  10. Process evaluation of two environmental nutrition programmes and an educational nutrition programme conducted at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); A. Reubsaet; G.J. Kok (Gerjo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programs and a educational nutrition program, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programs had no effect on consumers’ eating behavior. Consequently, the more

  11. Immunity to diphtheria in a sample of the Canadian adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Louise; Duclos, Philippe; Gill, Peter; Deforest, Adamedia

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess immunity to diphtheria in a sample of Canadian adults.DESIGN: A seroprevalence study of a group of plasmapheresis donors was performed over a four-month period in 1996. A convenience sample of 1619 sera was collected to obtain a good distribution by age groups and centres. The determination of diphtheria antitoxin concentrations was performed by neutralization of diphtheria toxin in cell culture.SUBJECTS: A total of 1619 plasmapheresis donors from Halifax, Quebec City, Lo...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  13. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  14. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  15. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  16. Customer perceived service quality in the supermarket and the discount store - Examination of a service quality measurement scale in a Swedish context

    OpenAIRE

    Anselmsson, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Service has traditionally been a forceful competitive tool in grocery retailing. Lately discount stores has proven to be a winning concept within North European grocery re-tailing and this has evoked a renewed interest in service quality and grocery retailing. The overall aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of customer perceived service quality within grocery retailing, by testing a previously published service qual-ity model for Spanish supermarkets in a Swedish supermarket and...

  17. Why Chinese Consumers Prefer the Wet Market Rather Than the Supermarket for Daily Food Consumption -An Investigation in Chinese Food Shoppers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to explore Chinese consumers shopping intentions and decisions to purchase food and hence to explain why Chinese consumers prefer to shop in traditional markets rather than supermarkets for daily food consumption. The survey is conducted by asking the participants eight well-structured questions and all the participants are the consumers who have relevant shopping experiences with both the supermarket and the wet market. It is found that when compared with the wet market, the ...

  18. Resource Allocation in Multiuser Multi-Carrier Cognitive Radio Network via Game and Supermarket Game Theory: Survey, Tutorial, and Open Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ghafoor, Omar B.; Ismail, Mahamod; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Shaat, Musbah M. R.

    2014-01-01

    In this tutorial, we integrate the concept of cognitive radio technology into game theory and supermarket game theory to address the problem of resource allocation in multiuser multicarrier cognitive radio networks. In addition, multiuser multicarrier transmission technique is chosen as a candidate to study the resource allocation problem via game and supermarket game theory. This tutorial also includes various definitions, scenarios and examples related to (i) game theory (including both ...

  19. Turning the Shelves: Empirical Findings and Space Syntax Analyses of Two Virtual Supermarket Variations Judgements of Building Complexity and Navigability in Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kalff, Christopher; Keuhner, David; Senk, Martin; Dalton, Ruth; Strube, Gerhard; Hoelscher, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Finding a product in a new supermarket is a complex, cognitive process. Earlier studies (Kalff & Strube, 2009, Gil et al., 2009)indicate that shopper’s path choice decisions in such environments are strongly influenced by their background knowledge: the placement of products in a store, especially the collocation of semantically similar types of products (e.g., tinned sweetcorn found with tinned goods rather then fresh corn‐on‐the‐cob). Supermarkets provide an apparently spatially homogenous ...

  20. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    North, R G

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB) and 15 broadband (BB) stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP) stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk ...

  1. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  2. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  3. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  4. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  5. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Natalia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role and importance in modern Canadian society.

  6. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  7. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  8. Potential Cities_

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  9. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  10. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  11. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  12. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  13. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  14. Factors Affecting Market Entry Mode of Retailer to Enter Developing Country Markets: The Case of Tesco Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanakomut, Rapeephan

    2013-01-01

    Intense market competition, market saturation and high rates of globalization have influenced businesses to seek foreign markets for factor endowment, increased sales and sustenance of long-term profits. Developing countries provide foreign markets with high potential owing to increasing incomes, high population and low production costs. This study attempts to apply the Dunning Eclectic Theory on the selection of modes of entry into foreign market in developing countries by Tesco Supermarket....

  15. Our products are safe (don't tell anyone!). Why don't supermarkets advertise their private food safety standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Carlo; Perito, Maria Angela; Di Fonzo, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Large retail chains have spent considerable resources to promote production protocols and traceability across the supply chain, aiming at increasing food safety. Yet, the majority of consumers are unaware of these private food safety standards (PFSS) and retailers are not informing them. This behavior denotes a pooling paradox: supermarkets spend a large amount of money for food safety and yet they forget to inform consumers. The result is a pooling equilibrium where consumers cannot discrimi...

  16. Supermarket Interventions and Diet in areas of Limited Retail Access: Policy Suggestions from the Seacroft Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudkin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Globally supermarkets have been seen as a remedy to the problems of poor diets in deprived neighbourhoods where access to healthy foodstuffs has been limited. This study seeks to quantify the consequences of one such United Kingdom intervention, in Seacroft, Leeds. Where previous work often focused on fruit and vegetables, this paper presents evidence on all food and drink consumed before, and after, the new opening. It is shown that utilising large format retailers can also bring significant...

  17. Examining the effect of retail service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty: The case of the supermarket shopper

    OpenAIRE

    Beneke, J; C. Hayworth; Hobson, R; Z. Mia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Post Apartheid, the South African supermarket industry has rapidly increased in size and stature, yet customer satisfaction and fostering goodwill don't appear to have kept pace with growth. This research considers which aspects of retail service quality impact upon customer satisfaction and, ultimately, pay dividends in terms of generating store loyalty amongst urban shoppers in the middle to upper market segments. Design/methodology/approach: A survey approach was used to co...

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Pernille Due

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social ...

  19. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  20. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van, P.L.J.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the prices of organic products have been reduced below current price levels. The report shows that consumer demand for organic food is sensitive to changes in consumer prices. However, for five out of ei...

  1. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a New Supermarket in a Food Desert: Contributions to Everyday Life and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Initiatives to build supermarkets in low-income areas with relatively poor access to large food retailers ("food deserts") have been implemented at all levels of government, although evaluative studies have not found these projects to improve diet or weight status for shoppers. Though known to be influential, existing evaluations have neglected in-store social dynamics and shopper behaviors. Surveys and walking interviews were used with shoppers (n = 32) at a supermarket developed through the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative in Philadelphia, PA. Key informant interviews with stakeholders in the supermarket's development and operations provided additional context to these shopper experiences. Data were collected in July and September 2014 and qualitatively analyzed in NVivo 10.0. Participants described how the retailer helped them adapt or cope with difficult shopping routines and how it presented a reliable high-quality option (in terms of cleanliness, orderliness, and social atmosphere) in contrast to other neighborhood retailers. Health concerns were also identified, especially among those managing chronic disease for themselves or a family member. These issues underscored multiple points of challenge required to adjust shopping and eating behavior. In-store supports that reflect these challenges are warranted to more fully address food deserts and reduce health disparities. PMID:27197735

  2. Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Poultry at a Slaughterhouse and Supermarkets in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Chiaki; Kishimoto, Michiru; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Fifty strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli were detected in 108 specimens of chicken meat and organs sampled at six supermarkets and one poultry slaughterhouse (large scale) between April and October 2013 (isolation rates: 84.8% from the slaughterhouse, 29.3% from the supermarkets). 46/50 strains were successfully recovered and subjected to the E-test to examine their susceptibility to three fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents authorized for use in poultry in Japan: enrofloxacin (ERFX), ofloxacin (OFLX), and norfloxacin (NLFX). 29 isolates (63%) were resistant to all three agents and 2 isolates (4.3%) were resistant to two agents (ERFX and OFLX). The resistance rates of strains isolated fom the supermarkets and slaughterhouse were 61.9% and 72.0%, respectively. Because the chickens processed at the slaughterhouse were raised without the use of fluoroquinolone, the results did not suggest a positive relationship between the use of these agents and the distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin [EM]) was also tested in 42 strains, and one strain (2.4%), C. coli from a retailer sample, showed resistance. Previous studies have detected high rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, suggesting an expanding distribution of resistant bacteria. The detection of EM-resistant bacteria downstream in the food distribution chain (i.e., closer to consumers) is a concern for human health. PMID:26412697

  3. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M.; Holstein, Bjørn E.; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6, 096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow = 1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid = 1.40; CI:  1.03–190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR = 1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds. PMID:22988491

  5. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  6. Analysis and Study of Supermarket Queuing System%超市排队系统的分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春荣

    2012-01-01

    Using queuing model theory to simulate the supermarket queuing system, influence on the queuing system by the number of check-out counters is analyzed. Calculation result is simulated by MATLAB.compared with actual data. The experimental result and analysis show that the system can simulate the situation of supermarket queuing system actually, reduce the waiting time of customers and the operating costs of supermarkets, and improve the satisfaction degree of consumers.%运用排队模型理论对超市排队系统进行模拟仿真,通过分析模拟出收银台的数目对超市排队系统的影响.应用MATLAB模拟运算结果,并与实际数据进行对比分析.实验数据和分析显示,该系统不仅可以真实地模拟超市排队系统运行情况,而且减少了顾客平均等待时间,降低了超市运营成本,增加了顾客的满意度.

  7. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Polet, Ilse A.; Holthuysen, Nancy T. E.; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers’ purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices. PMID:27010704

  8. Purchase policies to fresh fruit and vegetables in supermarkets in Campo Grande, Brazil Formas de compra e procedência de hortaliças na rede de supermercados em Campo Grande (MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dario de O Lima-Filho; Leidy Diana de S de Oliveira; Eluiza AM Watanabe; Marcia Mitiê D Maemura

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze purchase policies to fruits and vegetables in supermarkets in Campo Grande, Brazilian Midwest. Thirteen interviews were conducted with representatives from supermarkets, small, medium and large, responsible for purchasing fresh vegetables. By analyzing the responses obtained through interviews, we can observe that producers make almost the entire supply of fruits and vegetables in large supermarkets from other states, and the small and medium establishments usually ...

  9. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  10. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  11. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  12. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  13. ASSESSING SUPERMARKET FOOD SHOPPER REACTION TO HORSEMEAT SCANDAL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer reaction to food scares has been given considerable research attention but insights into specific shopper segments’ reactions to food scares, especially those that do not pose direct health risk to the public is limited. This paper examines how different life-stage shopper segments reacted to the horsemeat scandal in the UK. This paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million beef burger shoppers to establish the effect of the horsemeat scandal on retail sales value and volume as well as the rate of withdrawal of life-stage shopper segments from the affected products. The results show consistent weekly decline in retail sales value and volume across all life-stage segments over six consecutive weeks after the first horsemeat scandal announcement. Young families, pensioners and young adults segments withdrew from affected products in accordance with their typical perception and attitudes to risk. Contrary to expectation older adults withdrew faster than young families from the affected products. The findings of the study offer useful insights and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that food scares are managed to the benefit of the public and the food industry.

  14. Trends in heat recovery in modern Dutch supermarkets; Trends in WTW bij moderne Nederlandse supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, R. [Coolsultancy, Breda (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    The signing of the energy efficiency covenant by a large number of supermarkets has made the deployment of heat recovery in refrigeration quite common. Previous reports have mentioned the importance of aligning the various disciplines. Generally, the heat installer is unaware of the influence he has on the energy use of refrigeration. This article addresses several types of heat recovery that may be suitable for deployment, depending on the situation (new buildings, renovation, et cetera) [Dutch] Doordat een groot aantal supermarkten het convenant energiebesparing bij supermarkten hebben ondertekend is het toepassen van WTW op de koel- en vriesinstallatie nagenoeg gemeen goed geworden. In eerdere rapportages is reeds melding gemaakt van het belang van de afstemming tussen de verschillende disciplines. Over het algemeen kan gezegd worden dat de warmte-installateur zich niet bewust is welke invloed hij uitoefent op het energiegebruik van de koel- en vriesinstallatie. In dit artikel komen een aantal uitvoeringsvormen van WTW aan de orde die op dit moment afhankelijk van de situatie (nieuwbouw/renovatie, enz.) overwogen kunnen worden.

  15. A diffusion perspective on temporal networks: A case study on a supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shiguo; Qiu, Lu; Yang, Yue; Yang, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    From a large amount of records, one can extract behavioral characteristics of a social system at different scales. Theoretically, it can help us to know how the global behavior of a social system is formed from individual activities. Practically, it can be used to optimize and even to control the social system. Complicated relationships between the individuals form a network, which evolves with time. The behavior of the system can be accordingly understood in the framework of temporal network. In the present paper, instead of focusing on microscopic structures, we develop a framework to investigate temporal networks from the viewpoint of diffusion process, in which each snapshot network is divided into groups and the ID number of the group a node belongs to is used to measure its state. By this way trajectories of the nodes form an ensemble of realizations of a stochastic process. As an illustration, we investigate the diffusion behavior of a supermarket. One can find that with the increase of time the customers cluster and separate into different groups. Meanwhile, the system evolves in a significant order way, instead of a complete random one.

  16. Factors Influencing Consumption "Green": A Study on Buying Behavior in the Supermarket Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Silva Braga Júnior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, companies have incorporated into their daily and strategic planning, elements of social and environmental management. This has been implemented in an attempt to adapt to new consumer trends that have come to appreciate such initiatives in its product evaluation and to align with new legal obligations relating to environmental issues. It is is justified both for the supermarket retail industry and for the field of sustainability studies to examine the main factors influencing consumers to buy retail market consumer products considered "green." A survey was conducted with a sample of 174 students in postgraduate courses. The regression lines of each factor were evaluated according to the categorical variables: gender, family income, age group and marital status. The results show differences concerning gender and marital status. There are differences in the factor “reduction of environmental impacts” regarding the variables family income and age. This analysis indicates that the views of the sample is homogeneous (everyone pays attention to product information and there is an apparent concern with environmental issues and with the purchase of green products.DOI:10.5585/remark.v10i1.2213

  17. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB and 15 broadband (BB stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk and access to the most recent three days of data is provided through a mail-based AutoDRM system. Continuous data from the VBB sites are sent to the FDSN Data Management Centre approximately one month after being recorded.

  18. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  19. Canadian natural gas price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  20. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  1. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function

  2. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  3. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  4. Canadian national internal dosimetry performance testing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and construction of new Performance Testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC) had determined that their licensees, in addition to the existing In Vivo and In Vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results. The program is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the In Vitro and In Vivo. At time of writing, the first round has not been completed and the pass/fail criteria have not been determined. (author)

  5. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  6. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  7. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  8. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  9. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  10. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  11. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  12. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.

  13. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  14. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  15. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  16. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  17. Shocking Aspects of Canadian Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Sutton; Tamim Bayoumi; Andrew Swiston

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the flexibility of the Canadian labor market across provinces in both an interand intra-national context using macroeconomic data on employment, unemployment, participation, and (for Canada) migration and real wages. We find that Canadian labor markets respond in a similar manner to their U.S. counterparts and are more flexible than those in major euro area countries. Within Canada, the results indicate that labor markets in Ontario and provinces further west are more flexible, par...

  18. Labour Market Progression of Canadian Immigrant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether Canadian immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the labor market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit the profile of secondary workers, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by marrie...

  19. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  20. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  1. Supermarket refrigeration - what will be the right technology?; Supermarktkuehlung - in welche Technologie investieren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegglin, A. [Wurm AG, Reutlingen (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    Over the last two years secondary coolant systems have found wide acceptance in supermarkets, especially in applications for food refrigeration. Compared to direct expansion systems the content of refrigerant in secondary coolant systems can be reduced dramatically. If the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) is taken as a criterion for the environmental impact of such refrigeration systems one can observe that not anymore the refrigerant as such but the total consumption of energy is a significant contributor to pollution. Hence the efforts should be directed towards minimizing power consumption even considering common refrigerants rather than new, unestablished refrigerants. Reducing power consumption of such systems is possible only with electronic control of evaporators, variable coolant pumps, adequate heat reclaim concepts and demand control of condensing units. Investment costs of secondary coolant systems are slightly higher compared to DX-installations. These costs are nevertheless offset by lower maintenance and - with adequate control strategies in place - lower operating costs. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kaeltetraegeranlagen werden heute in der Schweiz verbreitet in Supermaerkten eingesetzt, dies vor allem im Bereich der Normalkuehlung. In Deutschland fehlen vorlaeufig klare Entscheidungskriterien, welche dieser Technik in breitem Masse zum Durchbruch verhelfen. Allerdings haben auch hier zahlreiche Firmen Anlagen auf der Basis von Kaeltetraegersystemen realisiert. Verglichen mit Direktverdampferanlagen kann in neuen, ideal konzipierten Systemen die Kaeltemittelfuellmenge um bis zu 85% reduziert werden. Wird der TEWI als Mass fuer die Umweltvertraeglichkeit angenommen, zeigt sich, dass aufgrund der stark reduzierten Kaeltemittelmenge nicht mehr die direkten Emissionen durch die Kaeltemittel von zentraler Bedeutung sind, sondern der absolute Energieverbrauch der Installation. Es zeigt sich auch, dass Kaeltetraegersysteme fuer die Pluskuehlung gleiche oder

  2. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P < 0.01), indicating that if the consumer has a job or has had access to information on functional foods, the probability increased of knowledge of what these mean. There was thus majority acceptance of yoghurt enriched with fibre and with added sweetener. PMID:21866689

  3. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetable salads sold at supermarkets in Santiago, Chile: prevalence and strain characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Ana María; Jacquet, Christine

    2009-06-30

    Between 2000 and 2005, 717 samples of three types of salads were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes in Santiago, Chile in order to provide information to Chilean health authorities on the presence of the pathogen in vegetable salad samples and to ascertain the risk of these products for consumers. L. monocytogenes isolates were found in 88 out of 347 (25.4%) samples of frozen vegetable salads and in 22 out of 216 (10.2%) freshly supermarkets prepared, cooked or raw ready-to-eat vegetable salads; no Listeria was isolated from 154 samples of raw minimally processed salads industrially prepared. Enumeration of L. monocytogenes was done by plate count for 20 positive frozen samples, randomly chosen. Most of them (90%) had or = 1100/g, five ranged between 240 and 93, eight between 23 and three and nine had contaminated frozen samples. Isolation of strains was done using three selective agars. Sixty-two L. monocytogenes were isolated from lithium chloride phenylethanol moxalactam agar, 95 from Listeria selective agar Oxford formulation, and 103 from polymixin acriflavine lithium chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol agar. Fifty isolates (45.5%) belong to PCR group IIb (including strains serovar 1/2b), 41 (37.3%) to PCR group IVb (including strains serovar 4b), 17 (15.5%) to PCR group IIa (including strains serovar 1/2a), and 2 (1.8%) to PCR group IIc. With the use of DNA macrorestriction patterns analysis, 17 different clusters were detected among 71 isolates, with P10, the most frequent with 25 isolates (35.2%) of PCR group IIb. PMID:19410317

  4. 库存控制在超市管理中的应用%Inventory Control Applied in Supermarket Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项溪

    2012-01-01

      The supermarket and convenience store business model is commonly used in retail enterprises. For convenience, we choose the supermarket as the research object, to study the inventor control theory in the supermarket management inventory application. To ensure the normal operating activities, the supermarket needs some inventories. So the inventory management became an essential question for the distribution center of supermarket. And reasonable inventory ensures the supply and demand of supermarket management. Taking the speed up of the capital into consideration, reduce the capital takes up on the inventory, and makes every efforts to keep inventory form the reasonable proportion between relations, so as to further make the cost of inventory minimum. However, make inventory strategies for all the goods-stored needs a lot of time and money, this is obviously not advisable in the actual economic. There to study on financial management, select several typical articles for the resident daily use which are being the representatives on the storage solution for work. In this article, only for a few kinds of special goods inventory management, and may, according to ABC control theory to all sorts of goods classification, make use of various inventory strategy of inventory.%  超市和便利店的经营模式是常用的零售企业。为方便起见,我们选择超市作为研究对象,研究在超市管理库存应用程序的发明者,控制理论。为了保证正常的经营活动,超市需要一定的库存。因此,库存管理,成为超市配送中心的一个至关重要的问题。和合理的库存,确保供应和需求的超市管理。以加快资本的考虑,减少资本占用的库存,尽一切努力,以保持库存形式之间关系的合理比例,从而进一步使库存最小的成本。然而,所有的货物存储的库存策略需要大量的时间和金钱,这显然是不实际的经济建议。研究财务管理上,选择几个典型的文

  5. Survey of aflatoxins in maize tortillas from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Urueta, Pável; Carvajal, Magda; Méndez, Ignacio; Meza, Florencia; Gálvez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, maize tortillas are consumed on a daily basis, leading to possible aflatoxin exposure. In a survey of 396 2-kg samples, taken over four sampling days in 2006 and 2007 from tortilla shops and supermarkets in Mexico City, aflatoxin levels were quantified by HPLC. In Mexico, the regulatory limit is 12 µg kg⁻¹ total aflatoxins for maize tortillas. In this survey, 17% of tortillas contained aflatoxins at levels of 3-385 µg kg⁻¹ or values below the limit of quantification (12 µg kg⁻¹ and 87% were below the regulatory limit. Average aflatoxin concentrations in 56 contaminated samples were: AFB1 (12.1 µg kg⁻¹); AFB2 (2.7 µg kg⁻¹); AFG1 (64.1 µg kg⁻¹) and AFG2 (3.7 µg kg⁻¹), and total AF (20.3 µg kg⁻¹). PMID:24779661

  6. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  7. Non-cancer mortality in workers in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets (1950-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S; Chedjieu, I P; Faramawi, M F; Ndetan, H; Fischbach, L; Thapa, S; Johnson, E S

    2015-10-01

    We studied non-cancer mortality in 10,701 workers in the meat and delicatessen departments of supermarkets because they have increased exposure to a variety of microorganisms that infect and cause disease in food animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry, to which subjects in the general population are also exposed, albeit to a lesser degree. These workers were also exposed to fumes from the wrapping machine. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated in the cohort as a whole and in race/sex subgroups, using the US population for comparison. Study subjects were followed up from January 1950 to December 2006. Significantly increased deaths from diabetes, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism, chronic bronchitis, peritonitis, intracranial and intraspinal abscess, other bacterial diseases, and significantly decreased deaths from diffuse diseases of connective tissue, functional diseases of the heart, intracerebral hemorrhage, occlusion/stenosis of the precerebral and cerebral arteries, and various types of accidents were observed in certain race/sex subgroups or in the cohort as a whole. The observed increased risks of several infectious conditions suggest that the increased occupational exposure to microorganisms may be responsible for at least some of the observed excess deaths, while exposure to fumes may also contribute to the excess of chronic bronchitis. The findings are important not only for supermarket workers and other workers in the meat and poultry industries, but also because the general population is exposed to these microorganisms found in food animals and their products. Nested case-control studies within cohorts that include both workers in supermarkets and other sectors of the meat and poultry industries, are now needed to examine specific risks from occupational exposures while adequately controlling for confounding factors, so that the role of these infectious agents in the occurrence of these diseases in workers and in general

  8. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  9. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  10. The Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the Canadian nuclear power program is presented. Domestically developed CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors account for all of Canada's nuclear electric capacity (5000 MWe in operation and 10,000 MWe under construction or in commissioning) and have also been exported. CANDU reactors are reliable, efficient, and consistently register in the world's top ten in performance. The safety record is excellent. Canada has excess capability in heavy water and uranium production and can easily service export demands. The economic activity generated in the nuclear sector is high and supports a large number of jobs. The growth in nuclear commitments has slowed somewhat as a result of the worldwide recession; however, the nuclear share of expected electricity demand is likely to continue to rise in the next decade. Priorities in the future direction of the program lie in the areas of maintaining high response capability to in-service problems, improving technology, high-level waste management, and advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  11. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  12. 'Safety Crime' in Neoliberal Post-communist Society: The collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Juska, Arunas; Woolfson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The causes of disaster, both immediate and underlying, that resulted in 54 fatalities in Riga in November 2013 are analyzed in this paper. The collapse of the Maxima supermarket is seen as a safety failure resulting from longer-term deregulation in Latvia encouraged by external advisors such as the World Bank and the EU, and the specific crisis-induced drive to minimize regulation by local political actors, especially in the aftermath of ongoing austerity. The paper raises the issue of what i...

  13. Trends in Trans Fatty Acids Reformulations of US Supermarket and Brand-Name Foods From 2007 Through 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Otite, Fadar O.; Jacobson, Michael F.; Dahmubed, Aspan; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although some US food manufacturers have reduced trans fatty acids (TFA) in their products, it is unknown how much TFA is being reduced, whether pace of reformulation has changed over time, or whether reformulations vary by food type or manufacturer. Methods: In 2007, we identified 360 brand-name products in major US supermarkets that contained 0.5 g TFA or more per serving. In 2008, 2010, and 2011, product labels were re-examined to determine TFA content; ingredients lists were...

  14. Modelling and Assessment of the Capabilities of a Supermarket Refrigeration System for the Provision of Regulating Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre;

    is found to have time constants at 10 and 0.12 hours, indicating the potential for the system to provide exibility in both the long- and short-term. Direct- and indirect-control architectures are employed to simulate the demand response attainable from the refrigeration system. A number of complexities......This report presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability of this resource for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of the system is identified from experimental data, and the model...

  15. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  16. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  17. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  18. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  20. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  1. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Liao

    Full Text Available The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization.The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1 an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2 an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models.Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas.The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  2. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  3. Examining the effect of retail service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty: The case of the supermarket shopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beneke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Post Apartheid, the South African supermarket industry has rapidly increased in size and stature, yet customer satisfaction and fostering goodwill don't appear to have kept pace with growth. This research considers which aspects of retail service quality impact upon customer satisfaction and, ultimately, pay dividends in terms of generating store loyalty amongst urban shoppers in the middle to upper market segments. Design/methodology/approach: A survey approach was used to collect data from 307 respondents within a major metro pole area, as well as through an online interface. This was used to test our path model using Partial Least Squares (PLS analysis. Findings: The results from the analysis concluded that two constructs, namely Physical Aspects and Personal Interaction, had a direct relationship with Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction was also confirmed to be positively linked to customer loyalty. Originality/Value: This research uncovers which aspects of service are most coveted by consumers in an emerging market context, as well as their effect on generating repeat business. If supermarket chains are to move beyond mere profit generation and build meaningful relationships with customers, they would best be advised to focus on the attributes of service that have a direct bearing on customer satisfaction and, in turn, long-term repeat patronage.

  4. Field measurements of supermarket refrigeration systems. Part I: Analysis of CO2 trans-critical refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the refrigeration performance of three CO2 trans-critical solutions based on field measurements. The measurements are carried out in five supermarkets in Sweden. Using the field measurements, low and medium temperature level cooling capacities and COP's are calculated for ten-minute intervals, filtered and averaged to monthly values. The results indicate that the systems using trans-critical booster system with gas removal from the intermediate vessel have relatively the highest total COP. The reasons are higher evaporation temperatures, lower internal and external superheat and higher total efficiency of booster compressors. Another important factor is gas removal from the intermediate vessel which leads to higher COP of low temperature level. Comparing the older and newer installed systems, a trend in energy efficiency improvement has been seen. The study shows this improvement originates from both changes in the system design (e.g. two stage expansion) and components efficiency improvement (e.g. higher total efficiency of compressors - lower internal superheat and higher evaporation temperatures of cabinets). - Highlights: • Five Swedish supermarkets using three CO2 refrigeration solutions are analyzed. • A trend of improvement in energy efficiency has been observed. • Parallel CO2 system with indirect heat rejection offers the lowest energy efficiency. • CO2 trans-critical booster with gas removal achieves up to 35% COP improvement

  5. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (Pgluten intolerance. PMID:26119206

  6. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  7. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  8. Introducing Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue of OSCAR introduced the newly created Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd. (WCSS). The organizations known as PROSCARAC and the oil spill co-ops WCOC have been dissolved and their operations have merged into the WCSS. The history of PROSCARAC and the WCOC, the process leading to their merger, and the new organization's plans to increase the petroleum industry's spill response capabilities were described. WCSS is run by a board of directors representing the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada, the Canadian Petroleum Products Association, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., and Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. Organizations with similar objectives in Manitoba and Saskatchewan have been invited to join

  9. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  10. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  11. The Canadian oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is provided of the global oil and gas market, industry, reserves, and factors affecting the market's instability. The Canadian oil and gas sector is then profiled. Research and technology strategies in the global oil and gas sector are reviewed in the areas of increasing supplies, improving energy efficiency, developing alternative energy sources, mitigating environmental impacts, and developing new products and services. Finally, research, development, and technology strategies in the Canadian oil and gas sector are evaluated, including private sector research and development (R ampersand D) government support programs, and technology opportunities for the industry in refining, in-situ oil sands production, ultrasour gas production, and downstream gas processing. Total R ampersand D spending by the Canadian oil and gas industry is only ca $300 million/y, with most small to medium-size companies doing little R ampersand D. Since 64% of the Canadian petroleum sector is foreign owned, decisions to increase R ampersand D investment must involve foreign decision makers. The focus of Canadian R ampersand D tends to be upstream-oriented and on the exploitation of unconventional resources, notably the oil sands. Opportunities also exist in downstream R ampersand D such as alternative fuels and energy systems management. Since upstream R ampersand D is a risky long-term proposition, the roles of resource companies, refiners, research institutions, and Canadian and overseas governments must be defined to ensure that research efforts are coordinated and costs are shared equitably. This will likely require a concerted action plan specifying technology goals, memoranda of understanding between all the players, and reasonable accountability levels. 19 refs., 10 tabs

  12. The Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the primary responsibility for achieving a high standard of safety resides with the licensee. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. The Canadian licensing process is described along with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  13. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  14. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  15. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fernandez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publishing landscape. This paper will be especially relevant to Canadian academic libraries that are exploring options for funding open access publications.

  16. A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date career and demographic profile of Canadian research university librarians by comparing newly derived data from the 8Rs Study: The "Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries", with corresponding information from the author's 2006 survey: "The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians", and other…

  17. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  18. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  19. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  20. A survey of the quality of six retail brands of boneless skinless chicken breast fillets obtained from retail supermarkets in the northeast georgia area

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the variation in quality of chicken breast fillets available from retail supermarkets, six brands of boneless skinless fillets without additives were obtained from the fresh counter at grocery stores Athens, GA and the surrounding area during fall of 2005. The samples were stored at -20oC...

  1. A survey of the quality of six retail brands of boneless skinless chicken breast fillets obtained from retail supermarkets in Athens, Georgia area

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the variation in quality of chicken breast fillets available from retail supermarkets, six brands of boneless skinless fillets without additives were obtained from the fresh counter at grocery stores in Athens, Georgia and the surrounding area during fall of 2005. The samples were stored ...

  2. Diet quality of items advertised in supermarket sales circulars compared to diets of the US population, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Supermarkets use sales circulars to highlight specific foods, usually at reduced prices. Resulting purchases help form the set of available foods within households from which individuals and families make choices about what to eat. Objective: The purposes of this study were to determin...

  3. "Supermarket Column Chromatography of Leaf Pigments" Revisited: Simple and Ecofriendly Separation of Plant Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Flavonoids from Green and Red Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alice M.; Ferreira, Maria La Salete

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ecofriendly procedure was developed in order to prepare extracts from red and green leaves. This procedure enables the separation of yellow, green, and red band pigments and optimizes the previously reported baking soda "supermarket column". The same extract also led to a novel and colorful potato starch column, which can…

  4. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  5. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  6. Human security and Canadian foreign policy: the new face of Canadian internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Melissa Joy

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s, human security was promoted as a new idea to guide the formation of Canadian foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. However, a review of the ideas which have influenced foreign policymaking in Canada since the end of the Second World War demonstrates that human security is rooted in internationalism, the dominant Canadian foreign policy tendency. Internationalism prescribes that cooperation, multilateralism, responsibility, international law and a consideration of the v...

  7. Bidi and Hookah Use Among Canadian Youth: Findings From the 2010 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Czoli, Christine D; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although cigarette use among Canadian youth has decreased significantly in recent years, alternative forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly popular. Surveillance of youth tobacco use can help inform prevention programs by monitoring trends in risk behaviors. We examined the prevalence of bidi and hookah use and factors associated with their use among Canadian youth by using data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Methods We analyzed YSS data from 28,416 studen...

  8. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  9. The Canadian nuclear scene - a 1983 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the previous year's performance and future prospects for the Canadian nuclear industry. Continued economic difficulties have meant continued streamlining of the industry. Basic strength is still the year-after-year record performance of the Ontario Hydro CANDU units. Given this performance, flexibility in the structure of the industry, and strong government support commercial success can be achieved eventually

  10. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  11. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  12. Canadian export potential for EMF 9 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board staff study of Canadian export potential for EMF-9 considers conventionally producible gas from western Canada, northern Canada and eastern offshore regions. The supply is limited only by the size and physical characteristics of the resource base, economic factors, and the ability of the industry to drill and equip the required number of wells. A potential for additional supply from the very low permeability reservoirs of west-central Alberta and the adjacent sector of northeastern British Columbia is recognized, but because there has been very little experience in producing this gas we do not feel we have enough information to estimate with confidence either the size of the resource base or future levels of production. To the extent that supply from this source does prove to be available, our projections will be understated. Canadian Hunter Exploration, Ltd., in its submission to the EMF-9 study estimates that under the price assumptions of the study production in excess of 1 Tcf/year could be achieved by about the year 2000 from the better quality low permeability sands, those having in situ permeabilities between 0.006 and 0.05 millidarcies. The Canadian Energy Research Institute in a report made public recently includes about 300 Bcf/year of tight sand production by 2005 in its projection of Canadian supply

  13. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  14. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  15. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices. PMID:20623643

  16. An Overview of Canadian Education. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayfer, Margaret

    An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…

  17. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  18. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity programs such…

  19. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  20. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  1. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  2. Heroes and Canadian History. Current Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Penney

    1999-01-01

    Believes that social studies teachers should encourage young people to learn about Canadian heroes but simultaneously assist them in developing skepticism as opposed to only idealizing heroes. Explains that when students understand the qualities of heroes they will be able to cope when someone they hold as a hero falters. (CMK)

  3. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  4. DESIGNING TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR SUPERMARKET FREEZERS%超市冷柜温度监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 李强

    2014-01-01

    针对大中型超市冷柜中的食品温度需要进行实时监测,进而保证食品质量的问题,提出基于 Lab VIEW 的超市冷柜温度监测系统。采用 ZigBee 无线通信技术,通过星形网络实现主从节点之间数据采集与传输。子节点温度传感器将所采集到的信息传送给协调器,协调器负责接收子节点传来的温度信息。在监控机房,协调器与 PC 机利用串口连接,通过监测界面实时监测各冷柜的温度,同时完成对采集数据的保存。既实现了采集监测和超值报警的功能,又可以实现本机历史查询和远程登录数据库查询,节省人力和资源的同时,方便上级对各连锁超市的考核工作。%We propose a Lab VIEW-based supermarket freezer temperature monitoring system in light of the problem that the food temperatures in freezers at the large and medium-sized supermarkets need to be monitored and thus to ensure the qualities of the foods.ZigBee wireless communication technology is used,and the data collection and transmission between the master and slave nodes are realised through the star networks.The temperature sensor of the child node transmits the collected information to coordinator,and the coordinator is responsible for receiving the temperature information from the child node.In monitor room,the coordinator and the PC monitor the temperatures of each freezer timely using the serial port connection and through the monitoring interface,and complete the preservation of the collected data at the same time.This system realises the functions of collection and monitoring as well as over-temperature alarming,besides,it also realises the local machine history query and the telnet logon database query.While saving the manpower and resources,the system is also convenient for the higher-ups to examine the works of every chained supermarket.

  5. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  6. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 μg/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): 'gourmet tuna' had the least amount of mercury, and white tuna had the

  7. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854 (United States)

    2006-08-31

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 {mu}g/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): 'gourmet tuna' had the least amount of mercury, and white

  8. As transações entre varejistas e fornecedores de frutas, legumes e verduras na cidade de São Paulo The transactions between supermarkets and fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV suppliers in the Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é caracterizar as estratégias usadas por três diferentes formatos de varejo (grande rede, associações de pequenos e médios supermercados e supermercados independentes em suas compras de frutas, legumes e verduras (FLV com foco na questão dos padrões de qualidade exigidos. A abordagem teórica utilizada é de economia dos custos de transação. Para a pesquisa empírica é utilizado o método de casos múltiplos viabilizado por meio de entrevistas presenciais com representantes dos distintos formatos de varejo na cidade de São Paulo. Os resultados indicam que há diferenças nas estratégias dos variados formatos de varejo com seus fornecedores de FLV. No caso de pequenos e médios supermercados é bastante representativo o fornecimento proveniente da Ceagesp (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo, mesmo para o grande varejista entrevistado; cerca de 25% do suprimento de FLV é da Ceagesp, o que caracteriza uma relação de mercado. O restante é fornecido pelos chamados distribuidores de origem. Por fim, os resultados do artigo têm implicações gerenciais para os produtores de FLV, indicando que há alternativas de inserção nas cadeias produtivas de FLV tendo em vista os diferentes formatos de varejo e suas estratégias distintas de relacionamento com fornecedores.The objective of this article is to characterize the strategies used by three different retail formats (large retail chains, associations of small and mid-size supermarkets and independent supermarkets in their purchase of fruit and vegetables, focused on the issue of quality standard requirements of the different retail formats in the city of São Paulo. The conceptual approach uses the economic theory of transaction costs. The empirical part of the project uses the method of multiple case studies, which was made viable by face-to-face interviews with representatives from the different kinds of retail businesses in Sao

  9. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial outlook for the Canadian natural gas industry is discussed in terms of the price of Canadian gas and its production and transportation costs. Demand growth for natural gas is fairly steady, reflecting economic growth and technological advances. Supply growth is more volatile, overshooting demand growth in an up market and undershooting in a down market. In the past year and a half, gas prices have improved as the supply deliverability surplus has eroded. It is predicted that supply will again exceed demand and prices will decline, the length of this price cycle being a few years. Production costs for western Canadian gas had been declining during the mid-1980s to 1991, and current replacement costs average ca $1.87/GJ. It is doubtful that fieldgate costs will increase to overtake fieldgate market prices and the Canadian gas industry will remain in a healthy state. The availability and cost of gas transport, however, is critically important. The major costs of pipeline transport are fixed demand charges and the value of transport services out of western Canada is determined by the demand and the supply (the location and size of the pipeline infrastructure, which is essentially fixed over short to medium time frames). This value can vary significantly as the demand for pipeline space varies both daily and seasonally. Excess pipeline capacity is generally good for the Canadian producing industry since it lowers transport costs, but excess capacity also plays a role in linking producing-basin and market area prices to one another. This is illustrated for the case of Alberta and Texas gas prices, which show higher correlation with falling load factors on ex-Alberta pipeline capacity. 5 figs

  10. M|M|c| Queuing Model and Its Application in the Supermarket Management%M|M|c|∞排队模型及其在超市管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丙参; 李玉玲; 魏艳华

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the supermarket queuing system by using Random dynamic theory, establishes queuing mode and obtains the supermarket queue indexes by testing Poisson distribution with spss software which can provide reference for the supermarket management.%文章采用随机动态理论对超市排队系统进行研究,建立了M|M|c|∞模型,用spss软件对客流量进行泊松检验,得到了超市的一些排队指标,对超市的人员管理具有一定的参考价值.

  11. Averaging over fast variables in the fluid limit for Markov chains: application to the supermarket model with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Luczak, M J

    2010-01-01

    We set out a general procedure which allows the approximation of certain Markov chains by the solutions of differential equations. The chains considered have some components which oscillate rapidly and randomly, while others are close to deterministic. The limiting dynamics are obtained by averaging the drift of the latter with respect to a local equilibrium distribution of the former. Some general estimates are proved under a uniform mixing condition on the fast variable which give explicit error probabilities for the fluid approximation. Mitzenmacher, Prabhakar and Shah \\cite{MPS} introduced a variant with memory of the `join the shortest queue' or `supermarket' model, and obtained a limit picture for the case of a stable system in which the number of queues and the total arrival rate are large. In this limit, the empirical distribution of queue sizes satisfies a differential equation, while the memory of the system oscillates rapidly and randomly. We illustrate our general fluid limit estimate in giving a ...

  12. Significance of Training and Post Training Evaluation for Employee Effectiveness: An Empirical Study on Sainsbury’s Supermarket Ltd, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rejaul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, Skills and attitudes are the most essential ingredient for efficient conduct of business through thehuman resources of an organization. But the impact of these valuable ingredients is often reduced by lack ofeffective training program. The research paper tries to highlight the necessity of effective training and aftertraining evaluation in designing and implementing training programs for the employees in the retail sectorspecifically for Sainsbury’s supermarket Ltd, UK. The main purpose of this study is to find the answer of howtraining refers to the acquisitions of knowledge, skill and attitudes. The paper also facilitates the organization tobetter understand the necessity of post training evaluation leading to effective employee engagement indesigning improved training programs to seize the present and future training opportunities.

  13. Living in a simulacrum: how TV and the supermarket redefines reality in Don DeLillo’s White Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghashmari, Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of simulation, hyperreality, and consumerism on Don Delillo's novel "White Noise". It discusses how the novel pictures technology and mass media as an empire of signs and codes that erase or implode meaning. TV, radio reports and tidbits, and medical imaging devices are intertwined with many aspects of people's lives in this late capitalist culture. Futhermore, the paper will shed some light on the issue of hyperreality which is generated by simulations. We will see how this new type of reality becomes more real than reality itself. Then, the influence of the supermarket and the emergence of consumer culture will be discussed. We will see how production and consumption have gained a new different meaning in this new "superficial" society and how it reshapes people's undestanding and interaction with reality.

  14. Honoring Identity Through Mealtimes in Chinese Canadian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ivy T Y; Keller, Heather H

    2015-11-01

    Mealtimes are opportunities for social interactions and expressions of individual and family identity, and serve as a microcosm of the broader lives of families living with dementia. The Eating Together study and its resulting Life Nourishment Theory (LNT) explicated the importance of mealtimes for honouring individual and family identities in the context of dementia. This sub-study examined a specific ethnocultural group with cultural food-ways and caring expectations, to determine if the concept of honouring identity needed to be modified or extended. Using active interview techniques, two Cantonese speaking researchers completed dyad/triad family and individual interviews with six Chinese Canadian immigrant families, recruited from two service providers in a large, urban, multicultural city. This sub-study provided insight into the challenges and rewards of mealtimes for Chinese immigrant families with dementia in the community and specifically provided further insights into the honouring identity concept. Although LNT and specifically the honouring identity concept was generally confirmed in this group, some culturally-specific themes were also identified. This work serves as a basis for future studies examining the meaning and experience of mealtimes in specific cultural groups living with dementia. Such work would confirm if the LNT can be applied to specific ethnocultural groups as well as the general population living with dementia. PMID:22696531

  15. A Regular City

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sharavina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  16. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  17. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  18. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  19. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  20. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  1. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  2. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  4. Canadian gas surplus to linger through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Canada's natural gas surplus will persist at least through 1995, although the gap between production and deliverability will narrow. Meantime, prices will slowly rise, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) predicts. The Calgary firm says surplus productive capacity will fall to 426 bcf in 1992 from 874 bcf in 1990. Those volumes amount to 12% and 25%, respectively, of deliverability. Prices for a processing plant's outlet stream, pegged at $1.38 (Canadian)/Mcf in 1991, will inch up to $1.53 in 1994, then climb to $1.69 in 1995, all in current dollars. Prices will firm as a reduced surplus reduces sales competition among producers. Increasing sales as a result of expanded export pipeline capacity will be a major factor in reducing surplus capacity. The study says after 1995 increased drilling will raise productive capacity and create some downward pressure on prices

  5. Hepatitis E in a Canadian Traveller

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis E is clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis A and is caused by an enterically transmitted rna virus that is endemic in developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and North America. This report describes a Canadian traveller to Nepal, Thailand and India with one of the first confirmed cases of hepatitis E reported in Canada. Although this disease is usually self-limited with no known sequelae, it may produce fulminant hepatitis with a high case fatality rate in pregna...

  6. Electronic fetal monitoring: a Canadian survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, B L; Niday, P A; Nimrod, C A; Drake, E R; Sprague, A E; Trépanier, M J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the current status of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in Canadian teaching and nonteaching hospitals, to review the medical and nursing standards of practice for EFM and to determine the availability of EFM educational programs. DESIGN: National survey in 1989. PARTICIPANTS: The directors of nursing at the 737 hospitals providing obstetric care were sent a questionnaire and asked to have it completed by the most appropriate staff member. The response rate was 80.5% ...

  7. The Development of the Canadian Veterinary Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, J F

    1985-01-01

    A proposal for the development of Canadian veterinary education and of the organization of the profession is described. There should be one veterinary school with four branches (the current colleges). A student would train at any college in comparative medicine for two and one-half years and then train for 12 months or more in a specialty taught at one or more colleges. These specialties are general veterinary practice, poultry practice, public health and regulatory medicine, ruminant practic...

  8. Development options for Canadian natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughey, D.J.; Varangu, K.

    1982-01-01

    This work provides a methodology for, and preliminary economic examination of, alternative development options for Western Canadian natural gas. Four development options are addressed: pipeline exports to the U.S., domestic pipeline expansion to the Maritimes, liquefied natural gas exports to Japan, and methanol manufacturing in Alberta. Each option was evaluated in terms of the costs and benefits which accrue as producer returns, project sponsor returns, and government returns.

  9. Canadians trying to join US transmission groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various competition problems faced by Canadian utilities and attempts to solve them, were described. E.g. B.C. Hydro and its electricity trade subsidiary Powerex have moved to become members of the Western Regional Transmission Association (WRTA), an association of about 40 utilities which serve part of the western United States. Through the WRTA, Powerex seeks fair terms to ensure its access to the U.S. market. Membership allows fast dispute resolution and enhances sales to California and other western states. Concern was expressed by the U.S Dept.of Energy about the lack of reciprocity.In the year ending March 1994, Powerex exported 2,600 gigawatt-hours of electricity, over 90% to the U.S. This was a low water year for hydroelectric-based BC Hydro, in which surplus energy available for export was only about half of what is usually available. Ontario Hydro and other provincially owned utilities were said to be challenged by U.S. industry deregulation and open transmission policies. If Canadian utilities fail to initiate structural changes leading to open access policies, their economic competitiveness may well decline. If on the other hand Canadian utilities decided to adopt open access policies, they would need to shed their monopolistic practices and accelerate restructuring in the face of wholesale competition. They could face direct retail competition in their currently captive provincial markets from U.S. and alternative Canadian suppliers. In an open competition scenario up to 20% of Ontario Hydro's domestic sales were said to be in danger of being displaced by imports from New York and Michigan

  10. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  11. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  12. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  13. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  14. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of rec...

  15. Competition in the Canadian Mortgage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a brief examination of the Canadian mortgage market, focusing on the market’s evolution following changes to the Bank Act in 1992, which allowed chartered banks to enter the trust business, and the subsequent entrance of virtual banks and mortgage brokers. It then summarizes key research currently being undertaken by the Bank of Canada. This research suggests that the mortgage rates paid by borrowers depend on their observable characteristics, their local market, and ...

  16. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Linda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001 and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001 were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population.

  17. Immunization policies in Canadian medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, M S; Carter, A O; Walker, V J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the policies of Canadian medical schools concerning immunization of students and the methods used to promote these policies. DESIGN: Mail survey with the use of a 12-item, self-administered questionnaire; telephone follow-up to ensure response. SETTING: All 16 medical schools in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Deans of Canada's 16 medical schools or their designates. All of them responded to the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies on vaccination of students against di...

  18. Fatal falciparum malaria in Canadian travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, A.; Sharma, S.; Zoutman, D; Kain, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of severe falciparum malaria in Canadians that had fatal outcomes. In the first case a man presented to a local hospital shortly after returning from Africa, but a diagnosis of malaria was not considered. He was transferred to a secondary and then to a tertiary care facility, where he subsequently died. Intravenous quinidine therapy, the treatment of choice, was unavailable at all 3 hospitals. In the second case, a woman taking chloroquine prophylaxis while visiting...

  19. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  20. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy CS; Guglietti C; Gibson JL; Wilson Kumanan; Ritvo Paul; Nie JX; Jadad AR; Upshur REG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additi...