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Sample records for canadian city supermarket

  1. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  2. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  3. Buying behavior in Chinese supermarkets: A comparison across four major cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    of imported food products in four major Chinese cities (i.e., Bejing, Shanghai, Gaungzhou, and Chengdu). Knowledge about potential differences in supermarket structure and buying behaviour between regions will be a prerequisite to foreign food suppliers trying to capitalise on increased consumer demands......The purpose of this paper is to report a study of buying behaviour of imported food products in Chinese supermarkets. Imports of food products to China have increased substantially in the past decade. The present study offers the results from an investigation of retailers' buying behaviour...... for their products. In this study we examined retailers' structure and seafood buying behaviour, using data collected from personal interviews in 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu. The comparison across the four cities revealed significant differences with regard to the importance...

  4. A multi-stakeholder evaluation of the Baltimore City virtual supermarket program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Pooja; Flamm, Laura; Rak, Summer; Landgraf, Jessica; Heisler, Michele; Forman, Jane

    2017-10-23

    Increasing access to healthy foods and beverages in disadvantaged communities is a public health priority due to alarmingly high rates of obesity. The Virtual Supermarket Program (VSP) is a Baltimore City Health Department program that uses online grocery ordering to deliver food to low-income neighborhoods. This study evaluates stakeholder preferences and barriers of program implementation. This study assessed the feasibility, sustainability and efficacy of the VSP by surveying 93 customers and interviewing 14 programmatic stakeholders who had recently used the VSP or been involved with program design and implementation. We identified the following themes: The VSP addressed transportation barriers and food availability. The VSP impacted customers and the city by including improving food purchasing behavior, creating a food justice "brand for the city", and fostering a sense of community. Customers appreciated using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to pay for groceries, but policy changes are needed allow online processing of SNAP benefits. This evaluation summarizes lessons learned and serves as a guide to other public health leaders interested in developing similar programs. Provisions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Bill 2014 allow for select grocers to pilot online transactions with SNAP benefits. If these pilots are efficacious, the VSP model could be easily disseminated.

  5. A multi-stakeholder evaluation of the Baltimore City virtual supermarket program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Lagisetty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to healthy foods and beverages in disadvantaged communities is a public health priority due to alarmingly high rates of obesity. The Virtual Supermarket Program (VSP is a Baltimore City Health Department program that uses online grocery ordering to deliver food to low-income neighborhoods. This study evaluates stakeholder preferences and barriers of program implementation. Methods This study assessed the feasibility, sustainability and efficacy of the VSP by surveying 93 customers and interviewing 14 programmatic stakeholders who had recently used the VSP or been involved with program design and implementation. Results We identified the following themes: The VSP addressed transportation barriers and food availability. The VSP impacted customers and the city by including improving food purchasing behavior, creating a food justice “brand for the city”, and fostering a sense of community. Customers appreciated using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP benefits to pay for groceries, but policy changes are needed allow online processing of SNAP benefits. Conclusions This evaluation summarizes lessons learned and serves as a guide to other public health leaders interested in developing similar programs. Provisions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA Farm Bill 2014 allow for select grocers to pilot online transactions with SNAP benefits. If these pilots are efficacious, the VSP model could be easily disseminated.

  6. Profile of establishments in the supermarket sector with respect to good practices in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

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    Carla Cristina Bauermann Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the compliance of the supermarket sector with respect to the Good Practice Program standards of the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Sixty nine establishments were verified using a checklist of good practices for the supermarket sector in Santa Maria, RS (Brazil, from April to July 2011. The data were collected by a food safety and quality professional using this checklist. The results showed that the overall adequacy of the establishments surveyed was 29.07%. The highest percentage of compliance was found for storage at ambient temperature (64.13%. The lowest compliance percentage was also found in different sections and areas in the supermarkets such as bakery and confectionery (14.93%, water supply (18.30%, food handling (21.01%, sausage and cold meat (or deli meat (36.38%, and documentation-related items (4.97%. None of the supermarkets evaluated had the necessary documentation for the implementation of good practices. The results of this study show the importance of effectively implementing a good practice program and quality systems by raising awareness among technicians and professionals of the importance of quality programs used in food companies and the need for more thorough inspection delivered by competent authorities to ensure food safety for consumers.

  7. Detection of antibiotics in chicken eggs obtained from supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Okihashi, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuo; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Uchida, Kotaro; Hoang Ngoc Do, Mai; Thi Bui, Long; Nguyen, Thinh Duc; Phan, Ha Bich; Dang Thien Bui, Huong; Nguyen, Phuc Do; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-06-03

    The residual levels of antibiotics in Vietnamese eggs were monitored from 2014 to 2015. A total of 111 egg packages, distributed by 11 different companies, were collected from supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City and the levels of 28 antibiotics were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method. Sixteen samples tested positive for antibiotics; a total of eight compounds (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, tilmicosin and trimethoprim) were detected. Enrofloxacin was detected in eight samples, with two samples exhibiting concentrations exceeding 1,000 µg kg -1 . Tilmicosin was detected in three samples at a range of 49-568 µg kg -1 . We observed that two of the 11 companies frequently sold antibiotic-contaminated eggs (detection rates of 56 and 60%), suggesting that a number of companies do not regulate the use of antibiotics in egg-laying hens. Our findings indicate that livestock farmers require instruction regarding antibiotic use and that continual antibiotic monitoring is essential in Vietnam.

  8. Front-of-package references to fiber on foods in Canadian supermarkets highlight the need for increased nutrition knowledge among consumers.

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    Sacco, Jocelyn E; Sumanac, Dunja; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    To assess the nature of the guidance on fiber, a nutrient for which many Canadians' intakes are suboptimal, provided by manufacturers' use of front-of-package references on food in Canadian supermarkets. Survey of all prepackaged food sold in 3 large supermarkets in Toronto. Front-of-package references to fiber and other forms of nutrition-related marketing were recorded from all products. For a subsample of breads, Nutrition Facts table information was also collected. Descriptive statistics; t test. Front-of-package references to fiber were found on 6% of all foods, but large proportions of high fiber foods bore no front-of-package references to fiber. Many foods making a reference to fiber (17%) are "foods to limit," according to Canada's Food Guide. Front-of-package references to fiber were declared in at least 30 different ways, and 31% used unregulated language. Among breads, use of regulated language was associated with higher fiber content. Consumers may be faced with challenges in seeking out healthful sources of fiber in the grocery store, given the complexity of existing front-of-package nutrition-related marketing and limited references to fiber in some categories. This work suggests that current nutrition-related marketing cannot function as a substitute for nutrition education. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALYSIS OF NEIGHBORHOOD IMPACTS ARISING FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF SUPERMARKETS IN CITY OF SÃO CARLOS

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    Pedro Silveira Gonçalves Neto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included supermarkets of different sizes (small, medium and large - defined based on the area occupied by the project and volume of activity located in São Carlos (São Paulo state, Brazil to evaluate the influence of the size of the project impacts neighborhood generated by these supermarkets. It was considered the influence of factors like the location of enterprises, size of the building, and areas of influence contribute to the increased population density and change of use of buildings since it was post-deployment analysis. The relationship between the variables of the spatial impacts was made possible by the use of geographic information system. It was noted that the legislation does not have suitable conditions to guide the studies of urban impacts due to the complex integration between the urban and impacting components.

  10. Canadian cities in transition: new sources of urban difference

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    Larry S. Bourne

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities, increasingly, are the principal arenas in which global, national and local forces inter-sect. Canadian cities are no exception. Those cities are currently undergoing a series of profound and irreversible transitions as a result of external forces originating from different sources and operating at different spatial scales. Specifically, this paper argues that Cana-dian cities are being transformed in a markedly uneven fashion through the intersection of changes in national and regional economies, the continued demographic transition, and shifts in government policy on the one hand, and through increased levels and new sources of immigration, and the globalization of capital and trade flows, on the other hand. These shifts, in turn, are producing new patterns of external dependence, a more fragmented urban system, and continued metropolitan concentration. They are also leading to increased socio-cultural differences, with intense cultural diversity in some cities juxtaposed with homoge-neity in other cities, and to new sets of urban winners and losers. In effect, these transitions are creating new sources of difference - new divides - among and within the country=s urban centres, augmenting or replacing the traditional divides based on city-size, location in the heartland or periphery, and local economic base.

  11. Canadian cities in transition: new sources of urban difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry S. Bourne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities, increasingly, are the principal arenas in which global, national and local forces intersect.Canadian cities are no exception. Those cities are currently undergoing a series ofprofound and irreversible transitions as a result of external forces originating from differentsources and operating at different spatial scales. Specifically, this paper argues that Canadiancities are being transformed in a markedly uneven fashion through the intersection ofchanges in national and regional economies, the continued demographic transition, andshifts in government policy on the one hand, and through increased levels and new sourcesof immigration, and the globalization of capital and trade flows, on the other hand. Theseshifts, in turn, are producing new patterns of external dependence, a more fragmented urbansystem, and continued metropolitan concentration. They are also leading to increased socioculturaldifferences, with intense cultural diversity in some cities juxtaposed with homogeneityin other cities, and to new sets of urban winners and losers. In effect, these transitionsare creating new sources of difference - new divides - among and within the country=surban centres, augmenting or replacing the traditional divides based on city-size, location inthe heartland or periphery, and local economic base.

  12. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  13. Supermarket Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  14. Supermarket Botany

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    Burrows, Geoff E.; Harper, John D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Supermarket Botany is a frequently-used teaching resource or strategy. It draws on a student's existing familiarity with plant-based foods to explore plant structure and life cycles. One of its strongest points is that it is adaptable to many age levels--from lower primary school to university and general interest groups. We have designed a unique…

  15. Supermarket Artists

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    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    As soon as they graduate from arm-length viewing in shopping-cart seats, children take off to adventure in aisles, touching just about everything. Kids will pocket fallen signs and lug unusual, empty shelves and packaging materials in hopes of taking them home. Kids recognize and compliment supermarket artists--stock clerks who create container…

  16. Purchasing decision behaviour by Chinese supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study on the relative importance of supplier selection criteria as rated by seafood purchasers for Chinese supermarkets. A sample of 192 supermarkets in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu participated in the study. The purchasers rated product quality as the most ...... differences in the relative importance of supplier criteria were found across supermarkets' buying behaviour, firm demographics and the cities where they are located. This will have managerial implications for suppliers of food products to the fast-growing Chinese supermarket segment....

  17. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County

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    Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (−$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (−$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle’s minimum wage ordinance. PMID:28891937

  18. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  19. Knowledge about genetically modified food: a study with supermarket clients situated in noble area of Fortaleza city - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p72

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    Paola Gondim Calvasina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic foods had appeared as result of the scientific and technological advances of genetic engineering applied to agriculture, configuring themselves in a current quarrel and sufficient controversy, about how much the benefits and curses brought to the consumers and the proper environment. In this intention, this study has as objective to verify the level of knowledge of customers of a supermarket of the noble area of the city of Fortaleza, on the thematic of the transgenic. Questionnaires structuralized with questions on transgenic foods with consumers of a situated supermarket in noble area of the city of Fortaleza in the period of March of 2003 had been applied. Sixty consumers had participated of the study who at the moment were making purchases in the supermarket. It was presented the end of the interview, to each consumer, a list of products, removed of the guide of the transgenic food consumer and not transgenic, available on the Greenpeace. In each list, people would have to recognize or not products of its habitual consumption. It was verified that 50% of the interviewed people had higher level of school knowledge, with 63,3% answering that they knew what transgenic foods are; 53,3% always look at the label during the purchase, being that the majority (76,7% never saw, in the label, mention if the product is or not transgenic. It was evidenced, when interrogating on the possible risks to the health, that 33.3% find that they cause illnesses, however 51.7% would not be imported in consuming them. The opinion of the people regarding the release of these products is major (73,3% in agreeing that the Federal Government must wait more research. From the list of products presented to the interviewed, 60% had told that they consume enter 5 to 9 products. It was evidenced that still a lack knowledge exists on the presence of transgenic in industrialized products, as well as how much to the risks consuming it. It has necessity of

  20. Process evaluation of Baltimore Healthy Stores: a pilot health intervention program with supermarkets and corner stores in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Suratkar, Sonali; Song, Hee-Jung; Sacher, Suzanne; Rajan, Radha; Rasooly, Irit R; Bednarek, Erin; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-09-01

    Reduced access to affordable healthy foods is linked to higher rates of chronic diseases in low-income urban settings. The authors conduct a feasibility study of an environmental intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores) in seven corner stores owned by Korean Americans and two supermarkets in low-income East Baltimore. The goal is to increase the availability of healthy food options and to promote them at the point of purchase. The process evaluation is conducted largely by external evaluators. Participating stores stock promoted foods, and print materials are displayed with moderate to high fidelity. Interactive consumer taste tests are implemented with high reach and dose. Materials developed specifically for Korean American corner store owners are implemented with moderate to high fidelity and dose. Results indicate that small food store-based intervention programs are feasible to implement and are a viable means of increasing healthy food availability and a good location for point-of-purchase promotions in low-income urban settings.

  1. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Canadian Inner-City Shelter

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    Tom A Szakacs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization is increasingly of concern in community settings. However, despite a recent outbreak in Calgary, Alberta, data on the prevalence of MRSA in Canadian communities are lacking. Globally, few studies have been performed in high-risk groups such as inner-city populations.

  2. Within- and between-city contrasts in nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 10 Canadian cities; a subset of the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Dan L; Peters, Paul A; Villeneuve, Paul J; Proux, Marc-Olivier; Shin, Hwashin H; Goldberg, Mark S; Johnson, Markey; Wheeler, Amanda J; Allen, Ryan W; Atari, Dominic Odwa; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Cakmak, Sabit; Burnett, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The independent and joint effects of within- and between-city contrasts in air pollution on mortality have been investigated rarely. To examine the differential effects of between- versus within-city contrasts in pollution exposure, we used both ambient measurements and land use regression models to assess associations with mortality and exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) among ~735,600 adults in 10 of the largest Canadian cities. We estimated exposure contrasts partitioned into within- and between-city contrasts, and the sum of these as overall exposures, for every year from 1984 to 2006. Residential histories allowed us to follow subjects annually during the study period. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for many personal and contextual variables. In fully-adjusted, random-effects models, we found positive associations between overall NO2 exposures and mortality from non-accidental causes (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.07), cardiovascular disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), ischaemic heart disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.08) and respiratory disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99-1.08), but not from cerebrovascular disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06). We found that most of these associations were determined by within-city contrasts, as opposed to by between-city contrasts in NO2. Our results suggest that variation in NO2 concentrations within a city may represent a more toxic mixture of pollution than variation between cities.

  3. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  4. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  5. Serving severely mentally ill people in a major Canadian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, D A; Sladen-Dew, N; Russell, J S

    1994-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, GVMHS has been the single organization taking ultimate responsibility for the seriously mentally ill throughout the city. It uses central coordination coupled with community-based teams and partnership programs with other agencies to strike a useful balance between integration and flexibility. GVMHS's mission throughout that time has been to provide everyday community support, networking, case management, rehabilitation, and counseling services to as many seriously mentally ill persons with concomitant disabilities as possible. To carry out that mission, GVMHS has developed some innovative solutions for the problems of community support--problems such as psychiatric emergencies, crises, community demands for service outside the mandate, and workload management. GVMHS has also developed dual-diagnosis, multicultural, multiagency case coordination for the multiproblem client (Buckley and Bigelow, 1992), specialized family and child programs, and specialized geriatric programs. This has all been possible only because financial support is available on an ongoing basis at a level adequate to provide good, dependable services. GVMHS has been proven an effective service in a number of studies (Bigelow and Beiser, 1978; Beiser, Shore, Peters, and Tatum, 1985). It has also demonstrated good cost-efficiency (Bigelow and McFarland, 1989) and abundant innovation and adaptation to emerging challenges (Bigelow, McFarland, Russell, and Sladen-Dew, 1990). It has proven that dedicated, well-trained professionals working at the community level will work hard and smart and that an agency and its staff will stick to the mandate of serving people with serious mental illnesses and disabilities even under pressure to do otherwise. The intriguing thing is that this productivity is not driven by competition, incentives, or threat: none of these factors presses upon the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Services Society from without and none is built in. The

  6. A Comparative Study of the Sodium Content and Calories from Sugar in Toddler Foods Sold in Low- and High-Income New York City Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey; Samuel, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among “side dishes” and “meals.” The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among “snacks and yogurt blends” in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and “breakfast foods and cereals” in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in “breakfast foods and cereals” sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

  7. Impacts of Bicycle Infrastructure in Mid-Sized Cities (IBIMS): protocol for a natural experiment study in three Canadian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Meghan; Branion-Calles, Michael; Therrien, Suzanne; Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Whitehurst, David G T; Nelson, Trisalyn

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Bicycling is promoted as a transportation and population health strategy globally. Yet bicycling has low uptake in North America (1%–2% of trips) compared with European bicycling cities (15%–40% of trips) and shows marked sex and age trends. Safety concerns due to collisions with motor vehicles are primary barriers. To attract the broader population to bicycling, many cities are making investments in bicycle infrastructure. These interventions hold promise for improving population health given the potential for increased physical activity and improved safety, but such outcomes have been largely unstudied. In 2016, the City of Victoria, Canada, committed to build a connected network of infrastructure that separates bicycles from motor vehicles, designed to attract people of ‘all ages and abilities’ to bicycling. This natural experiment study examines the impacts of the City of Victoria’s investment in a bicycle network on active travel and safety outcomes. The specific objectives are to (1) estimate changes in active travel, perceived safety and bicycle safety incidents; (2) analyse spatial inequities in access to bicycle infrastructure and safety incidents; and (3) assess health-related economic benefits. Methods and analysis The study is in three Canadian cities (intervention: Victoria; comparison: Kelowna, Halifax). We will administer population-based surveys in 2016, 2018 and 2021 (1000 people/city). The primary outcome is the proportion of people reporting bicycling. Secondary outcomes are perceived safety and bicycle safety incidents. Spatial analyses will compare the distribution of bicycle infrastructure and bicycle safety incidents across neighbourhoods and across time. We will also calculate the economic benefits of bicycling using WHO’s Health Economic Assessment Tool. Ethics and dissemination This study received approval from the Simon Fraser University Office of Research Ethics (study no. 2016s0401). Findings will be

  8. Supermarket Competition through Price Promotions: A Cross Category Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study takes an important first step at quantifying the nature of competition between major supermarket chains through price promotions. Using data that covers virtually the entire product menus of supermarkets representing two major chains in 18 cities, I examine both the effect of direct competition on promotional intensity and the nature of promotional competition itself. In a counterintuitive finding, there appears to slightly less promotional activity in cities in which both chains c...

  9. Managing Tree Diversity: A Comparison of Suburban Development in Two Canadian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. Nitoslawski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Is (suburban forest diversity shaped by previous land use? This study was designed to quantitatively assess the impacts of subdivision development on urban tree-species composition in two Canadian cities: Halifax, Nova Scotia, and London, Ontario. The main goal was to determine whether cities with contrasting pre-urbanized or pre-settlement landscapes—woodlands in Halifax and agricultural fields in London—also revealed differences in urban tree diversity losses and/or gains due to urbanization. In each city, four residential neighbourhoods representing two age categories, older and newer (40–50 years, <15 years, were examined and trees on three land types were sampled: public (street, private (residential, and remnant (woodland. All public street trees within the chosen neighbourhoods were inventoried and approximately 10% of the residential property lots were sampled randomly. Plots were examined in remnant forests in or near each city, representing the original forest habitats prior to agricultural and/or urban landscape transformations. Diameter at breast height, species richness and evenness, and proportions of native and non-native trees were measured. In both cities, streetscapes in newer neighbourhoods exhibit greater species richness and evenness, and are characterized by substantially more native trees. Despite this trend, developers and home owners continue to intensively plant non-native species on newer and smaller property lots. Older neighbourhoods in Halifax containing remnant forest stands hold the greatest number of native trees on private property, alluding to the importance of residual forest buffers and patches in promoting naturalness in the private urban forest. These results suggest that identifying and quantifying flows of species between green spaces during and after development is valuable in order to effectively promote native species establishment and enhance overall urban forest diversity.

  10. Defining a Canadian approach to municipal consolidation in major city-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lightbody

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Where there is a central government with an exclusive mandate over municipalities, along with a state executive structure using the Westminster model, then the consolidation of squabbling municipalities within metropolitan boundaries becomes a distinct possibility A general model of municipal restructuring for the Canadian metropolis is more widespread than the superficially unique circumstances of each case might suggest. The thinking here is informed by Clarence Stone’s urban regime model, which helps to clarify what influences constituted the political tipping point for central government action. The paper focuses primarily on the Toronto and Montreal city-regional municipal consolidations at the end of the last century. It is argued that the decisive element in setting the stage for significant change lay in the pervasive influence of corporate Canada in generally shaping provincial political discourse. What has not previously been of much interest for investigators is the matter of direct consequences for the low politics of city-regional governance. As will be seen, they were both tangible and considerable.

  11. The availability of smoking-permitted accommodations from Airbnb in 12 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Douglas, Ornell; Stehouwer, Lindsay; Dawson, Jackie

    2018-01-01

    Airbnb is a web-based peer-to-peer (P2P) service that enables potential hosts and guests to broker accommodations in private homes as an alternative to traditional hotels. The hospitality sector has increasingly gone smoke-free over the last decade. This study identified the availability and cost of smoking-permitted accommodations identified on Airbnb. The study team searched for Airbnb accommodations in 12 Canadian cities across each of Canada's 10 provinces. Searches included availability for a single person for a private room, or double occupancy for an entire home/apartment; searches were for 1-night and 1-week stays. Cities across Canada, including Regina, Fredericton and Charlottetown, had no smoking-permitted accommodations available for the searches conducted. The proportion of private rooms available for one night that permitted smoking ranged from 2% in Calgary, 4% in Winnipeg and St. John's, 10% in Halifax and Victoria, 18% in Toronto, 45% in Vancouver and 69% in Montréal. The average cost for a private room for one night in Vancouver was $128, while the cost for a private room that permits smoking was $62; however, in other markets prices were more similar. Across Canada, there is a wide range of smoking-permitted accommodations available through Airbnb. In some markets, smoking-permitted accommodation may be significantly less expensive than smoke-free options. As hotel chains increasingly go smoke-free, it is possible that the marketplace will respond with offerings to fulfil consumer demand. As policy makers consider how to regulate P2P services like Airbnb, public health considerations should be included. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Intellectual Supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demb, Ada

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how separating undergraduate education into its two primary components--general education and the major--and then applying the perspective of a supermarket analogy leads to startling conclusions about possible transformations of the production and distribution system for higher education at the undergraduate level and for implementing…

  13. Predictors of homelessness among vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. To

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homelessness is a major concern in many urban communities across North America. Since vulnerably housed individuals are at risk of experiencing homelessness, it is important to identify predictive factors linked to subsequent homelessness in this population. The objectives of this study were to determine the probability of experiencing homelessness among vulnerably housed adults over three years and factors associated with higher risk of homelessness. Methods Vulnerably housed adults were recruited in three Canadian cities. Data on demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, and drug use problems were collected through structured interviews. Housing history was obtained at baseline and annual follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations were used to characterize associations between candidate predictors and subsequent experiences of homelessness during each follow-up year. Results Among 561 participants, the prevalence of homelessness was 29.2 % over three years. Male gender (AOR = 1.59, 95 % CI: 1.14–2.21 and severe drug use problems (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI: 1.22–3.20 were independently associated with experiencing homelessness during the follow-up period. Having ≥3 chronic conditions (AOR = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.33–0.94 and reporting higher housing quality (AOR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.97–1.00 were protective against homelessness. Conclusions Vulnerably housed individuals are at high risk for experiencing homelessness. The study has public health implications, highlighting the need for enhanced access to addiction treatment and improved housing quality for this population.

  14. Predictors of homelessness among vulnerably housed adults in 3 Canadian cities: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Palepu, Anita; Aubry, Tim; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Gogosis, Evie; Gadermann, Anne; Cherner, Rebecca; Farrell, Susan; Misir, Vachan; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-10-03

    Homelessness is a major concern in many urban communities across North America. Since vulnerably housed individuals are at risk of experiencing homelessness, it is important to identify predictive factors linked to subsequent homelessness in this population. The objectives of this study were to determine the probability of experiencing homelessness among vulnerably housed adults over three years and factors associated with higher risk of homelessness. Vulnerably housed adults were recruited in three Canadian cities. Data on demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, and drug use problems were collected through structured interviews. Housing history was obtained at baseline and annual follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations were used to characterize associations between candidate predictors and subsequent experiences of homelessness during each follow-up year. Among 561 participants, the prevalence of homelessness was 29.2 % over three years. Male gender (AOR = 1.59, 95 % CI: 1.14-2.21) and severe drug use problems (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI: 1.22-3.20) were independently associated with experiencing homelessness during the follow-up period. Having ≥3 chronic conditions (AOR = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.33-0.94) and reporting higher housing quality (AOR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.97-1.00) were protective against homelessness. Vulnerably housed individuals are at high risk for experiencing homelessness. The study has public health implications, highlighting the need for enhanced access to addiction treatment and improved housing quality for this population.

  15. Analysis and modelling of surface Urban Heat Island in 20 Canadian cities under climate and land-cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Abhishek; Eichenbaum, Markus Kalev; Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2018-01-15

    Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) is an urban climate phenomenon that is expected to respond to future climate and land-use land-cover change. It is important to further our understanding of physical mechanisms that govern SUHI phenomenon to enhance our ability to model future SUHI characteristics under changing geophysical conditions. In this study, SUHI phenomenon is quantified and modelled at 20 cities distributed across Canada. By analyzing MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensed surface temperature at the cities over 2002-2012, it is found that 16 out of 20 selected cities have experienced a positive SUHI phenomenon while 4 cities located in the prairies region and high elevation locations have experienced a negative SUHI phenomenon in the past. A statistically significant relationship between observed SUHI magnitude and city elevation is also recorded over the observational period. A Physical Scaling downscaling model is then validated and used to downscale future surface temperature projections from 3 GCMs and 2 extreme Representative Concentration Pathways in the urban and rural areas of the cities. Future changes in SUHI magnitudes between historical (2006-2015) and future timelines: 2030s (2026-2035), 2050s (2046-2055), and 2090s (2091-2100) are estimated. Analysis of future projected changes indicate that 15 (13) out of 20 cities can be expected to experience increases in SUHI magnitudes in future under RCP 2.6 (RCP 8.5). A statistically significant relationship between projected future SUHI change and current size of the cities is also obtained. The study highlights the role of city properties (i.e. its size, elevation, and surrounding land-cover) towards shaping their current and future SUHI characteristics. The results from this analysis will help decision-makers to manage Canadian cities more efficiently under rapidly changing geophysical and demographical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supermarket Pricing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul B. Ellickson; Sanjog Misra

    2008-01-01

    Most supermarket firms choose to position themselves by offering either everyday low prices (EDLP) across several items or offering temporary price reductions (promotions) on a limited range of items. While this choice has been addressed from a theoretical perspective in both the marketing and economic literature, relatively little is known about how these decisions are made in practice, especially within a competitive environment. This paper exploits a unique store level data set consisting ...

  17. Loyalty in the supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Damacena; Valter Afonso Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Loyalty has been a hot topic in marketing management, not only for academics, but also for managers. In that sense, the main goal of this paper is to identify the variables that discriminate loyalty groups. Therefore, seven hypotheses have been proposed which might have an impact on loyalty groups. Based on discriminant analysis, the paper analyzes and discusses the data, and presents a conclusion that the more important variables on loyalty in the supermarket are affective commitment, satisf...

  18. [WMSDs in supermarket cashiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pede, Cinzia; Manuli, Gianluca; Dini, Fulvia; Pinelli, Marco; Turini, Lucia; Mariani, Maurizio; Taddeo, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    High prevalence of Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) of shoulder and wristle among supermarket cashiers have been reported by several studies. To evaluate CTD prevalence in a group of supermarket cashiers in Pisa area is the aim of this study. Standardized Questionnaire and clinical examination have been performed in 128 female supermarket cashiers. In subjects having Symptoms and Signs, Elettroneurography and Echography have been performed. 54 subjects had Paresthesias and performed elettroneurography: 44 (34,4%) had Median nerve impairment at the wrist and among them 37 cases were bilateral; 15 had Ulnar nerve impairment (11,7%), among them 8 were bilateral. Moreover we have performed the echographies in all the 25 subjects with a positive medical examination of the shoulder and they all (19,5% del totale) showed a rotator cuff tendinosis. 25 subjects with CTD (44,6%) showed a comorbidity. An index called BiCo considering both bilaterality and comorbility has been calculated. The percentage of CTD is much more elevated than in general population and many workers present comorbility and bilaterality: a strategy for primary prevention improving ergonomy and information is needed.

  19. Barriers to Prescription Medication Adherence Among Homeless and Vulnerably Housed Adults in Three Canadian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Charlotte E; Palepu, Anita; Farrell, Susan; Gogosis, Evie; O'Brien, Kristen; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-07-01

    Medication adherence is an important determinant of successful medical treatment. Marginalized populations, such as homeless and vulnerably housed individuals, may face substantial barriers to medication adherence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, reasons for, and factors associated with medication nonadherence among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. Additionally, we examined the association between medication nonadherence and subsequent emergency department utilization during a 1-year follow-up period. Data were collected as part of the Health and Housing in Transition study, a prospective cohort study tracking the health and housing status of 595 homeless and 596 vulnerably housed individuals in 3 Canadian cities. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with medication nonadherence, as well as the association between medication nonadherence at baseline and subsequent emergency department utilization. Among 716 participants who had been prescribed a medication, 189 (26%) reported nonadherence. Being ≥40 years old was associated with decreased likelihood of nonadherence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41-0.84), as was having a primary care provider (AOR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.34-0.71). Having a positive screen on the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; an indication of harmful or hazardous drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of nonadherence (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.31-2.63). Common reasons for nonadherence included side effects, cost, and lack of access to a physician. Self-reported nonadherence at baseline was significantly associated with frequent emergency department use (≥3 visits) over the follow-up period at the bivariate level (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.02-2.35) but was not significant in a multivariate model (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI = 0.96-2.32). Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals face significant barriers to medication adherence. Health care

  20. Synoptic weather typing applied to air pollution mortality among the elderly in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Cakmak, Sabit; Bristow, Corben; Brion, Vladislav; Tremblay, Neil; Martin, Sara L; Sheridan, Scott S

    2013-10-01

    Synoptic circulation patterns (large-scale weather systems) affect ambient levels of air pollution, as well as the relationship between air pollution and human health. To investigate the air pollution-mortality relationship within weather types and seasons, and to determine which combination of atmospheric conditions may pose increased health threats in the elderly age categories. The relative risk of mortality (RR) due to air pollution was examined using Poisson generalized linear models (GLMs) within specific weather types. Analysis was completed by weather type and age group (all ages, ≤64, 65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years) in ten Canadian cities from 1981 to 1999. There was significant modification of RR by weather type and age. When examining the entire population, weather type was shown to have the greatest modifying effect on the risk of dying due to ozone (O3). This effect was highest on average for the dry tropical (DT) weather type, with the all-age RR of mortality at a population weighted mean (PWM) found to be 1.055 (95% CI 1.026-1.085). All-weather type risk estimates increased with age due to exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2). On average, RR increased by 2.6, 3.8 and 1.5% for the respective pollutants between the ≤64 and ≥85 age categories. Conversely, mean ozone estimates remained relatively consistent with age. Elevated levels of air pollution were found to be detrimental to the health of elderly individuals for all weather types. However, the entire population was negatively effected by air pollution on the hot dry (DT) and hot humid (MT) days. We identified a significant modification of RR for mortality due to air pollution by age, which is enhanced under specific weather types. Efforts should be targeted at minimizing pollutant exposure to the elderly and/or all age groups with respect to weather type in question. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen.......To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen....

  2. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Usage of food and beverage labels by supermarket shoppers in Brasilia, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Renata Alves; Coutinho, Janine Giuberti; Recine, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether adults who shop in supermarkets in one part of Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil, use the information contained in food and beverage labels, as well as to characterize this usage...

  4. Spatial Supermarket Redlining and Neighborhood Vulnerability: A Case Study of Hartford, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengyao; Debarchana, Ghosh

    2016-02-01

    The disinclination of chain supermarkets to locate or pull out existing stores from impoverished neighborhoods is termed as "supermarket redlining". This paper attempts to map and understand the spatial effects of potential supermarket redlining on food vulnerability in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods of Hartford, Connecticut. Using a combination of statistical and spatial analysis functions, we first, built a Supermarket Redlining Index (SuRI) from five indicators such as sales volume, employee count, accepts food coupons from federally assisted programs, and size and population density of the service area to rank supermarkets in the order of their importance. Second, to understand the effect of redlining, a Supermarket Redlining Impact Model (SuRIM) was built with eleven indicators describing both the socioeconomic and food access vulnerabilities. The interaction of these vulnerabilities would identify the final outcome: neighborhoods where the impact of supermarket redlining would be critical. Results mapped critical areas in the inner-city of Hartford where if a nearby supermarket closes or relocates to a suburb with limited mitigation efforts to gill the grocery gap, a large number of minority, poor, and disadvantaged residents will experience difficulties to access healthy food leading to food insecurity or perhaps a food desert. We also suggest mitigation efforts to reduce the impact of large supermarket closures.

  5. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  6. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... be represented in a manner that is sufficiently simple to communicate to a market operator in the form of a bid for the provision of regulating power....

  7. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Auais, M.; Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara, A.; Mayo, N.; Charise, A.; Islam, A.; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C.C.; Papaioannou, A.; Ioannidis, G.; Giangregorio, L.M.; Adachi, J.D.; Thabane, L.

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  8. Spatial Variability and Application of Ratios between BTEX in Two Canadian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds were carried out in two similarly sized urban industrial cities, Windsor and Sarnia, ON, Canada. For Windsor, data were obtained for all four seasons at approximately 50 sites in each season (winter, spring, summer, and fall over a three-year period (2004, 2005, and 2006 for a total of 12 sampling sessions. Sampling in Sarnia took place at 37 monitoring sites in fall 2005. In both cities, passive sampling was done using 3M 3500 organic vapor samplers. This paper characterizes benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o, and (m + p-xylene (BTEX concentrations and relationships among BTEX species in the two cities during the fall sampling periods. BTEX concentration levels and rank order among the species were similar between the two cities. In Sarnia, the relationships between the BTEX species varied depending on location. Correlation analysis between land use and concentration ratios showed a strong influence from local industries. Use one of the ratios between the BTEX species to diagnose photochemical age may be biased due to point source emissions, for example, 53 tonnes of benzene and 86 tonnes of toluene in Sarnia. However, considering multiple ratios leads to better conclusions regarding photochemical aging. Ratios obtained in the sampling campaigns showed significant deviation from those obtained at central monitoring stations, with less difference in the (m + p/E ratio but better overall agreement in Windsor than in Sarnia.

  9. Costs of services for homeless people with mental illness in 5 Canadian cities: a large prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Eric A; Rabouin, Daniel; Cao, Zhirong; Ly, Angela; Powell, Guido; Aubry, Tim; Distasio, Jino; Hwang, Stephen W; Somers, Julian M; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Veldhuizen, Scott; Moodie, Erica E M; Lesage, Alain; Goering, Paula N

    2017-07-18

    Limited evidence on the costs of homelessness in Canada is available. We estimated the average annual costs, in total and by cost category, that homeless people with mental illness engender from the perspective of society. We also identified individual characteristics associated with higher costs. As part of the At Home/Chez Soi trial of Housing First for homeless people with mental illness, 990 participants were assigned to the usual-treatment (control) group in 5 Canadian cities (Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montréal and Moncton) between October 2009 and June 2011. They were followed for up to 2 years. Questionnaires ascertained service use and income, and city-specific unit costs were estimated. We adjusted costs for site differences in sample characteristics. We used generalized linear models to identify individual-level characteristics associated with higher costs. Usable data were available for 937 participants (94.6%). Average annual costs (excluding medications) per person in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montréal and Moncton were $53 144 (95% confidence interval [CI] $46 297-$60 095), $45 565 (95% CI $41 039-$50 412), $58 972 (95% CI $52 237-$66 085), $56 406 (95% CI $50 654-$62 456) and $29 610 (95% CI $24 995-$34 480), respectively. Net costs ranged from $15 530 to $341 535. Distributions of costs across categories varied significantly across cities. Lower functioning and a history of psychiatric hospital stays were the most important predictors of higher costs. Homeless people with mental illness generate very high costs for society. Programs are needed to reorient this spending toward more effectively preventing homelessness and toward meeting the health, housing and social service needs of homeless people. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  10. Association of supermarket characteristics with the body mass index of their shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Scott A; Gasevic, Danijela; Schuurman, Nadine

    2013-08-13

    Research on the built food environment and weight status has mostly focused on the presence/absence of food outlets while ignoring their internal features or where residents actually shop. We explored associations of distance travelled to supermarkets and supermarket characteristics with shoppers' body mass index (BMI). Shoppers (n=555) of five supermarkets situated in different income areas in the city were surveyed for food shopping habits, demographics, home postal code, height and weight. Associations of minimum distance to a supermarket (along road network, objectively measured using ArcGIS), its size, food variety and food basket price with shoppers' BMI were investigated. The 'food basket' was defined as the mixture of several food items commonly consumed by residents and available in all supermarkets. Supermarkets ranged in total floor space (7500-135,000 square feet) and had similar varieties of fruits, vegetables and cereals. The majority of participants shopped at the surveyed supermarket more than once per week (mean range 1.2 ± 0.8 to 2.3 ± 2.1 times per week across the five supermarkets, p supermarkets ranged from 23.7 ± 4.3 kg/m² to 27.1 ± 4.3 kg/m² (p supermarket they shopped at ranged from 0.96 (0.57, 2.31) km to 4.30 (2.83, 5.75) km (p supermarket, or other supermarket characteristics. After adjusting for age, sex, dissemination area median individual income and car ownership, BMI of individuals who shopped at Store 1 and Store 2, the supermarkets with lowest price of the 'food basket', was 3.66 kg/m² and 3.73 kg/m² higher compared to their counterparts who shopped at the supermarket where the 'food basket' price was highest (p supermarkets was inversely associated with BMI of their shoppers. Our results suggest that careful manipulation of food prices may be used as an intervention for decreasing BMI.

  11. THE 2003 SUPERMARKET PANEL ANNUAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.; Jacobson, Elaine M.; Behl, Ajay S.; Seltzer, Jonathan M.

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary The Food Industry Center established the Supermarket Panel in 1998 as the basis for an ongoing study of the supermarket industry. Since 2000 the core of the Panel has been a random sample of stores drawn from the approximately 32,000 supermarkets in the U.S. that accept food stamps. The purpose of collecting data on supermarket operations and performance is to: Provide timely, useful information for the industry through benchmark reports and annual summaries, trends on key i...

  12. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  13. Dynamics of Citizenship and Identity: Obstacles to Sustainable Immigration in a Small Canadian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritendra TAMANG

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the challenges confronting immigrants in Prince George, a small city in the province of British Columbia, Canada, and evaluates the responses of local agencies to the diverse needs of newcomers. Specifically, it will explore the effects of the current economic restructuring and the lack of coordination among public employment, housing, education, and health agencies and private agencies such as churches. Shortfalls in the quality and effectiveness of the delivery of essential services to immigrants, particularly those who do not speak English or French, have affected immigrants’ sense of belonging, patterns of settlement, and negotiation of new identities in the community.

  14. The case of Montréal's missing food deserts: Evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Marie-Soleil

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology based on three measures of accessibility to supermarkets calculated using geographic information systems (GIS, and on exploratory multivariate statistical analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis, which we use to identify food deserts in Montréal. Results First, the use of three measures of accessibility to supermarkets is very helpful in identifying food deserts according to several dimensions: proximity (distance to the nearest supermarket, diversity (number of supermarkets within a distance of less than 1000 metres and variety in terms of food and prices (average distance to the three closest different chain-name supermarkets. Next, the cluster analysis applied to the three measures of accessibility to supermarkets and to a social deprivation index demonstrates that there are very few problematic food deserts in Montréal. In fact, census tracts classified as socially deprived and with low accessibility to supermarkets are, on average, 816 metres away from the nearest supermarket and within 1.34 kilometres of three different chain-name supermarkets. Conclusion We conclude that food deserts do not represent a major problem in Montréal. Since geographic accessibility to healthy food is not a major issue in Montréal, prevention efforts should be directed toward the understanding of other mechanisms leading to an unhealthy diet, rather than attempting to promote an even spatial distribution of supermarkets.

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula...

  16. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2015-09-01

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in three Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, R; Reid-Smith, R; Ribble, C; Popa, M; Vandermeer, M; Aramini, J

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in Canada. A total of 166 commercial frozen raw food diet samples were purchased from randomly selected local pet stores in three Canadian cities for a period of 8 months. All samples were evaluated for the presence of Salmonella, serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. There was an overall Salmonella prevalence of 21%; chicken was an ingredient for 67% of the Salmonella-positive diets. Eighteen different Salmonella serotypes were recovered, and resistance was observed to 12 of the 16 antimicrobials tested, with the majority of Ontario isolates exhibiting resistance to ampicillin and Calgary isolates to tetracycline. This study demonstrates the potential risk of raw food diets, especially for immunocompromised individuals, and stresses the need for implementing regulatory guidelines for the production of these diets in order to help control and ideally eliminate the bacterial risks associated with their use and consumption.

  18. Employment goals, expectations, and migration intentions of nursing graduates in a Canadian border city: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michelle; Baumann, Andrea; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Blythe, Jennifer; Fisher, Anita

    2012-12-01

    Internationally, nurse migration in border cities has received little attention. Nurses who graduate from nursing programs in Canadian border communities have the option of working in Canada or the United States. They are able to cross the international border each day as commuter migrants returning to their home country after work. Despite recent investment by Canada to increase the number of nursing students, the migration intentions of graduating nurses and the factors influencing their decision making has not been explored. The objective of this study is to explore the migration intentions of a graduating class of baccalaureate nursing students in a Canadian border community and the factors influencing their decision making. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used. In the first quantitative phase, data was collected by a web-based self-report survey. In the qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data collection took place between February and July 2011. The response rate to the survey was 40.9% (n=115). Eighty-six percent of graduates preferred to work in Canada although two thirds identified that they were considering migrating for work outside of Canada. Knowing a nurse who worked in the US (Michigan) influenced intention to migrate and living in a border community was a strong predictor of migration. Migrants had significantly higher expectations that their economic, professional development, healthy work environment, adventure and autonomy values would be met in another country than Canada. Evidence from the interviews revealed that clinical instructors and clinical experiences played a significant role in framing students' perceptions of the work environment, influencing their choice of specialty, and where they secured their first job. The value-expectancy framework offered a novel approach to identifying job factors driving migration intentions. The study offered a snapshot of the graduates' perception of the work

  19. Educators of the Information Society: Information Literacy Instruction in Canadian Informational Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henkel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As information literacy is a key competence of the information society, information literacy instruction in public as well as academic libraries is crucial. Today, librarians do not only act as providers of information but also as educators of the information society's citizens. The rapid development of information and communications technologies is constantly changing the way we interact with information, making it difficult to keep up to date with instructional trends. This study aims to assess the perceived quality of information literacy instruction in libraries of Canada's informational cities: Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Therefore, librarians were interviewed by means of a questionnaire inspired by the SERVQUAL diagnostic tool. The questionnaire comprises of two parts: The first part consists of questions regarding information literacy instruction, in the second part the focus is on the seven competence areas of information literacy. Based on the difference between the librarians' "Expectation" and "Experience", gap scores for all questionnaire items were calculated and are now being presented and discussed.

  20. Entrepreneurialism and health-promoting retail food environments in Canadian city-regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Hasdell, Rebecca; Minaker, Leia M; Soo, Stephanie D; Cook, Brian; Demaio, Alessandro R

    2017-09-02

    The retail sector is a dynamic and challenging component of contemporary food systems with an important influence on population health and nutrition. Global consensus is clear that policy and environmental changes in retail food environments are essential to promote healthier diets and reduce the burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases. In this article, we explore entrepreneurialism as a form of social change-making within retail food environments, focusing on small food businesses. Small businesses face structural barriers within food systems. However, conceptual work in multiple disciplines and evidence from promising health interventions tested in small stores suggest that these retail places may have a dual role in health promotion: settings to strengthen regional economies and social networks, and consumer environments to support healthier diets. We will discuss empirical examples of health-promoting entrepreneurialism based on two sets of in-depth interviews we conducted with public health intervention actors in Toronto, Canada, and food entrepreneurs and city-region policy actors in St. John's, Canada. We will explore the practices of entrepreneurialism in the retail food environment and examine the implications for population health interventions. We contend that entrepreneurialism is important to understand on its own and also as a dimension of population health intervention context. A growing social scientific literature offers a multifaceted lens through which we might consider entrepreneurialism not only as a set of personal characteristics but also as a practice in networked and intersectoral cooperation for public and population health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic

  2. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...... methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...

  3. Carbon Dioxide in Supermarket Refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, Samer

    2008-01-01

    This thesis theoretically and experimentally investigates different aspects of the application of CO2 in supermarket refrigeration. Theoretical analysis has been performed using computer simulation models developed to simulate CO2 indirect, NH3/CO2 cascade, CO2 trans-critical and direct expansion (DX) R404A systems. The models supported the selection of the CO2 system solutions to be tested experimentally and facilitated the design of NH3/CO2 cascade and trans-critical systems test rigs. Perf...

  4. Supermarket Promotions and Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, H.; Lloyd, T. A.; Morgan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample comprising nearly a quarter of a million weekly prices from the largest seven supermarket chains in the UK, we present statistical evidence on two pricing practices that have attracted public interest. Analysing price dynamics before and after periods of promotional discounting the investigation finds first, no evidence of a general tendency for sales to disguise rises in the regular price, and second, some evidence for prices to rise prior to sales in a manner that is consiste...

  5. Pricing strategies of the supermarket sector

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Joana Lobato da Fonseca Sáragga

    2014-01-01

    The food retail industry is a very competitive market. Supermarkets use a combination of price, quality of products and service to lure consumers and increase their profit. This work project draws upon both empirical and theoretical literatures to understand the different pricing strategies that the supermarket sector uses. Everyday Low Price, Promotional, Zone Pricing and Loyalty Programs are the most common pricing strategies in this industry. By using data from the Portuguese supermarket l...

  6. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  7. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio......-economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure...

  8. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...

  9. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  10. Healthy Checkout Lines: A Study in Urban Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Willingham, Craig; Brathwaite, Chantelle; Franklin, Sharraine

    2017-09-01

    To understand the impact of healthy checkouts in Bronx, New York City supermarkets. Consumer purchasing behavior was observed for 2 weeks in 2015. Three supermarkets in the South Bronx. A total of 2,131 adult shoppers (aged ≥18 years) who paid for their groceries at 1 of the selected study checkout lines. Two checkout lines were selected per store; 1 was converted to a healthy checkout and the other remained as it was (standard checkout). Data collectors observed consumer behavior at each line and recorded items purchased from checkout areas. Percentage of customers who purchase items from the checkout area; quantity and price of healthy and unhealthy items purchased from the healthy and standard checkout lines. Measures were analyzed by study condition using chi-square and t tests; significance was determined at α = .05. Only 4.0% of customers bought anything from the checkout area. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy vs standard checkout line bought healthy items (56.5% vs 20.5%; P healthy purchases increased. Findings contribute to limited research on effectiveness of healthy checkouts in supermarkets. Similar interventions should expect an increase in healthy purchases from the checkout area, but limited overall impact. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Avaliação higiênico-sanitária e físico-estrutural dos supermercados de uma cidade do Sudeste do Brasil Assessment of hygiene, sanitary, physical and structural aspects of supermarkets in a Southeastern city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Valente

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Embora os supermercados sejam o principal local de venda de alimentos no Brasil, são pouco estudados em relação aos aspectos sanitários. Em Ribeirão Preto, representam o principal local de venda de alimentos para todas as classes sociais, ao mesmo tempo que vêm sendo causa de número crescente do total de reclamações feitas à Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária (Visa do município. Esta investigação, conduzida durante as inspeções de rotina da Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária, avaliou as condições higiênico-sanitárias e físico-estruturais de todos os supermercados (58 de Ribeirão Preto, utilizando-se a Ficha de Inspeção de Estabelecimentos da Área de Alimentos (FIEAA como instrumento padronizador. Os seguintes itens foram classificados como deficientes: edificações, equipamentos, utensílios, matérias-primas, produtos prontos e fluxo de produção. O item relativo ao pessoal de produção, manipulação e venda foi classificado como regular. Na classificação final, 46 estabelecimentos (79,3% foram considerados deficientes, 11(19,0% regulares, e 1(1,7% bom. Recomendam-se algumas alterações na legislação, tais como a obrigatoriedade de contratação de profissional capacitado na área de alimentos e a mudança dos critérios de classificação sanitária dos estabelecimentos de alimentos.Although they are the main food sales sites in Brazil, supermarkets remain understudied, especially in relation to hygiene and sanitary aspects. In the city of Ribeirão Preto, supermarkets are the main food sales outlets for all social classes, although they have been generating an increasing number of complaints to the city's Division of Sanitary Surveillance (DSS. This investigation, conducted during DSS's routine inspections, evaluated the hygiene, sanitary, physical and structural aspects of all the 58 supermarkets in Ribeirão Preto, using a standard tool. Construction, equipment, utensils, raw materials, ready-made products

  12. Meltsiveski Konsumist saab korteritega supermarket / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Meltsiveski Konsumi kõrvale ehitatakse uus hoone, kus saab olema 30 korterit ja supermarket ning viimase katusel mängu- ja puhkeala. Juurdeehituse projekteeris arhitektuuribüroo Pluss arhitekt Indrek Allmann

  13. Sustainability in the supermarket; Nachhaltigkeit im Supermarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Robert

    2010-11-15

    The food retailing discovered the sustainable construction. The prototypes of energy-saving supermarkets already are established and partly certified or decorated with prices. However, it will take time until the concepts are recognized.

  14. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  15. Store Image Attributes and Customer Satisfaction in Supermarkets in Campo Grande-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluiza Alberto de Morais Watanabe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between image attributes and consumer satisfaction in supermarkets. Specifically, we sought to: a identify the variables which make up the image attributes of supermarkets and group them into factors, and b assess the impact of image attributes on consumer satisfaction. We conducted a quantitative study, which met quotas by region and city income class, among 400 individuals from Campo Grande, MS, southwest Brazil, who were responsible for purchasing supermarket products for their families. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Structural Equation Modeling were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that the attributes are grouped into five factors. The constructs “environment” and “promotions” were not considered significant in determining satisfaction, while the attributes “ personell”, “product” and “price” had a positive effect on satisfaction, with the latter having the greatest impact.  

  16. Social Capital and Health Among Older Chinese Immigrants: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Sample in a Canadian Prairie City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai; Menec, Verena

    2018-01-05

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and health among Chinese immigrants. The sample included 101 older Chinese immigrants aged 60 to 96 who were recruited in 2013 in a city on the Canadian prairies. Participant completed a questionnaire assessing their structural and cognitive social capital (views on community, trust and reciprocity, civic participation, social networks and support, and social participation), physical and mental health status (SF-36), and sociodemographic characteristics. Findings indicate that Chinese seniors overall obtained low levels of social capital on all social capital dimensions. Social networks and support (a structural social capital indicator) was significantly positively associated with mental health (β = .31, p social capital is potentially more promising than ensuring cognitive social capital in terms of providing physical and mental health benefits to older adults from Chinese background.

  17. The Introduction of a Supermarket via Tax-Credits in a Low-Income Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dixon, L Beth

    2017-01-01

    Interest and funding continue to grow for bringing supermarkets to underserved areas, yet little is known about their impact. A quasi-experimental study was used to determine the impact of a new supermarket opening as a result of tax and zoning incentives. The study took place in the South Bronx, New York City, New York. Studied were residents of two South Bronx neighborhoods deemed high need. Food purchasing and consumption were examined via surveys and 24-hour dietary recalls before and at two points after the supermarket opened (1-5, 13-17 months). Data were analyzed using difference-in-difference models controlling for gender, race and ethnicity, age, education, marital status, and self-reported income. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models were estimated for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. At baseline, 94% to 97% of consumers shopped at a supermarket. There was a 2% increase in this behavior in the intervention community ( p supermarket did not result in substantial or broad changes in purchasing patterns or nutritional quality of food consumed, though smaller, positive changes were observed over a 1-year period. Future work should examine different contexts and a broader set of outcomes, including economic development.

  18. Biochemistry: from supermarket to laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Freitas-Rego

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available After new campi as Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde (IMS/UFBA startedworking, it was necessary to develop practical classes using domestic reagents atBiochemistry to Pharmacy (IMS078. Firstly, students visited a supermarket to readnutritional information at label and select possible products to be used in class. Moreover,chemical processes and fermentation were discussed as different foods and drinks wereanalysed. Some food were token to laboratories so that biomole cules qualitative analysiswere carried on. Domestic use reagents as pharmaceutical iodine solutions, commercialNaOH and vegetable pigments were used. The substances identified were reductant glycid,starch, fatty acid, triacylglycerol and protein. Reactions allowed to identify fungi andvegetable tissues. Moreover, invertase and alfa-amilase activities were determined. Afterdiscussions in class, students could improve biochemical knowledge as well as distinguishbetween milk or lactic drink, animal fat or vegetable hydrogenated fat, honey or glucose.After that, students produced kits and wrote laboratorial notes for use in classes with therest of the group.

  19. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal

    2017-11-13

    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  20. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Emma L; Kähkönen, Laila A; Sacks, Gary; Cameron, Adrian J

    2015-12-01

    Supermarket marketing activities have a major influence on consumer food purchases. This study aimed to assess and compare the contents of supermarket marketing circulars from a range of countries worldwide from an obesity prevention perspective. The contents of supermarket circulars from major supermarket chains in 12 non-random countries were collected and analysed over an eight week period from July to September 2014 (n=89 circulars with 12,563 food products). Circulars were largely English language and from countries representing most continents. Food products in 25 sub-categories were categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary (core) food or drinks based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The total number of products in each subcategory in the whole circular, and on front covers only, was calculated. Circulars from most countries advertised a high proportion of discretionary foods. The only exceptions were circulars from the Philippines (no discretionary foods) and India (11% discretionary food). Circulars from six countries advertised more discretionary foods than core foods. Front covers tended to include a much greater proportion of healthy products than the circulars overall. Supermarket circulars in most of the countries examined include a high percentage of discretionary foods, and therefore promote unhealthy eating behaviours that contribute to the global obesity epidemic. A clear opportunity exists for supermarket circulars to promote rather than undermine healthy eating behaviours of populations. Governments need to ensure that supermarket marketing is included as part of broader efforts to restrict unhealthy food marketing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  2. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  3. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one...

  5. Price and promotion effects of supermarket mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, David E.

    2009-01-01

    I use a unique data set of retail food prices to analyze mergers between supermarket chains. The data allow for an examination of the effects of mergers on prices, the frequency of promotions, and the depth of promotions. I find that increases in a chain’s share of the total US food sales are associated with price decreases, suggesting that supermarkets enjoy economies of scale and/or benefit from an improved bargaining position relative to their suppliers after a merger. I also find that mer...

  6. Access to Supermarkets and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea J.; Jiao, Junfeng; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether supermarket choice, conceptualized as a proxy for underlying personal factors, would better predict access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption than mere physical proximity. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study geocoded respondents’ home addresses and locations of their primary supermarkets. Primary supermarkets were stratified into low, medium, and high cost according to the market basket cost of 100 foods. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained during telephone surveys. Linear regressions examined associations between physical proximity to primary supermarkets, supermarket choice, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Descriptive analyses examined whether supermarket choice outweighed physical proximity among lower-income and vulnerable groups. Results. Only one third of the respondents shopped at their nearest supermarket for their primary food supply. Those who shopped at low-cost supermarkets were more likely to travel beyond their nearest supermarket. Fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with physical distance but, with supermarket choice, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions. Mere physical distance may not be the most salient variable to reflect access to supermarkets, particularly among those who shop by car. Studies on food environments need to focus beyond neighborhood geographic boundaries to capture actual food shopping behaviors. PMID:24625173

  7. Recruitment and retention of blood donors in four Canadian cities: an analysis of the role of community and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; Matthews, Ralph; Fiddler, Jay

    2013-12-01

    This study approaches the decision to donate blood as a dynamic process involving interplay between blood donors' personal motives, donors' social contexts, and the donor recruitment and retention activities of blood collection agencies. Data were gathered from four blood donation clinics using in-depth interviews with Canadian Blood Services employees, donors, and nondonors in 25 organizations participating in Life Link, a donor recruitment program that supports organizations to educate employees about the benefits of blood donation. Further data were obtained from ethnographic observations of blood collection and donor recruitment activities. Thematic analysis resulted in three umbrella themes: leveraging social networks, embedding the clinic in the community, and donating blood and social reciprocity. Donor recruitment activities at all four clinics enhanced awareness of blood donation in the workplace by using experienced donors to motivate their coworkers in making a first-time donation. Clinic employees reported varying success in improving awareness of blood donation in the broader community, in part because of varying employee engagement in community-wide activities and celebrations. Altruistic motives were mentioned by experienced donors, who also identified a desire to reciprocate to their community as another strong motive. This study contextualizes donor recruitment and retention as involving activities that tie blood donation to meaningful aspects of donors' social networks and community. The findings point to the need for further analyses of the institutional dimensions of blood donation to develop effective strategies beyond appeals to altruism. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  9. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics.Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC.Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC.A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  10. A study on the correlation between soil radon potential and average indoor radon potential in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ford, Ken L

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon is identified as the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population. Since radon in homes originates mainly from soil gas radon, it is of public interest to study the correlation between radon in soil and radon indoors in different geographic locations. From 2007 to 2010, a total of 1070 sites were surveyed for soil gas radon and soil permeability. Among the sites surveyed, 430 sites were in 14 cities where indoor radon information is available from residential radon and thoron surveys conducted in recent years. It is observed that indoor radon potential (percentage of homes above 200 Bq m(-3); range from 1.5% to 42%) correlates reasonably well with soil radon potential (SRP: an index proportional to soil gas radon concentration and soil permeability; average SRP ranged from 8 to 26). In five cities where in-situ soil permeability was measured at more than 20 sites, a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.68 for linear regression and R(2) = 0.81 for non-linear regression) was observed between indoor radon potential and soil radon potential. This summary report shows that soil gas radon measurement is a practical and useful predictor of indoor radon potential in a geographic area, and may be useful for making decisions around prioritizing activities to manage population exposure and future land-use planning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  12. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-02-07

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  13. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  14. Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S; Maroko, Andrew R; Schechter, Clyde B; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Maantay, Juliana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction. Consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities.

  15. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges ('healthier', luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of 'healthier' meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available - particularly amongst meals specifically marked as 'healthier'. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as 'healthier'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. Methods: We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges (‘healthier’, luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. Results: 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of ‘healthier’ meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Conclusions: Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available – particularly amongst meals specifically marked as ‘healthier’. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as ‘healthier’. PMID:25963106

  17. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...... systems and therefore the experience with its application is limited. In the future, the energy test method may be used for evaluation of the efficiency of a new system or the improvement in efficiency when optimising an existing system....

  18. Neighborhood walkability: Differential associations with self-reported transport walking and leisure-time physical activity in Canadian towns and cities of all sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Justin; Rosella, Laura; Copes, Ray; Lebenbaum, Michael; Manson, Heather

    2015-08-01

    To estimate associations between walkability and physical activity during transportation and leisure in a national-level population. Walkability was measured by Walk Score® (2012-2014) and physical activity by the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007-2012) for urban participants who worked or attended school. Multiple linear regression was done on the total study population, four age subgroups (12-17, 18-29, 30-64, 65+) and three population center subgroups (1000-29,999, 30,000-99,999, 100,000+). 151,318 respondents were examined. Comparing highest to lowest Walk Score® quintiles, covariate-adjusted energy expenditure on transport walking [95% confidence interval] was 0.17 [0.15, 0.18] kcal/kg/day higher in the total study population, and significantly higher in all age and population center subgroups. Leisure physical activity was lower in the age 18-29 subgroup (-0.28 [-0.43, -0.12]) and population centers 100,000+ subgroup (-0.10 [-0.18, -0.03]), but higher in the population centers 1000-29,999 subgroup (0.30 [0.12, 0.48]). Total physical activity was higher in the following subgroups: age 30-64 (0.19 [0.12, 0.26]), population centers 100,000+ (0.12 [0.04, 0.19]) and population centers 1000-29,999 (0.40 [0.20, 0.59]). Walkability is associated with transport walking in all age groups and towns and cities of all sizes. Walkability's inverse associations with leisure physical activity among young adults and in large population centers may offset energy expenditure gains, while positive associations with leisure physical activity in small centers may add to energy expenditure. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  20. A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Accordingly, the interest in using natural refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and new refrigerant blends with low GWP in such systems is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of three supermarket refrigeration systems. These systems include a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, and a baseline R-404A multiplex direct expansion system. The study is performed for cities representing different climates within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, a parametric analysis is performed to study the impact of annual leak rate on the systems' LCCP.

  1. PEMETAAN PREFERENSI KONSUMEN SUPERMARKET DENGAN METODE KANO BERDASARKAN DIMENSI SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto Widiawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of supermarket usually has some assumptions about the customers' expectation. Sometimes these assumtions do not reflect the nature of customers' expectations. Because of this miss perception, the supermarket looses its profit and becomes inefficient. This research was carried out in order to find out the customers' expectation on facilities and services of the supermarkets according to the servqual dimensions. The outcomes will be mapped into Kano categorizations. The researcher asked the customer dan manager of four supermarkets to fill the prepared questionnaires. Based on the result of customers' questionnaires, tangible, reliability and assurance dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. While responsiveness and emphaty dimensions were categorized as indifferent. Based on the result of managers' questionnaires, all servqual dimensions were categorized as one dimensional. After comparing the results of customers' and managers' questionnaires, there are three of four supermarkets which are match each other. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen supermarket pada umumnya memiliki asumsi-asumsi mengenai harapan konsumen yang belum tentu sama dengan harapan konsumen sesungguhnya. Akibat ketidaktahuan informasi penting tersebut, tidak sedikit supermarket yang mengalami kerugian atau kinerjanya tidak efisien. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui harapan konsumen tentang fasilitas dan layanan supermarket menurut dimensi servqual yang dipetakan ke dalam kategori Kano. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap konsumen dan manajer dengan cara memberikan kuesioner. Menurut responden konsumen supermarket, dimensi servqual yang tergolong kategori one dimensional adalah tangible, reliability dan assurance. Sedangkan dimensi responsiveness dan emphaty termasuk kategori indifferent. Sementara itu, responden manajer supermarket berpendapat semua dimensi servqual termasuk kategori one dimensional. Dari empat supermarket yang diteliti, diketahui

  2. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Academics in the aisles: Establishing a university-supermarket partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy-Joe Milliron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US is a serious public health problem. Supermarkets in the US are responding to the obesity epidemic by providing the unique asset of food, pharmacy and registered dietitians in one location to help grocery shoppers manage diseases and improve nutrition. Recent studies report that supermarket point-of-purchase interventions focusing on improving healthy food purchasing behaviours are feasible and potentially efficacious. We describe our experiences and lessons learned while developing a university-supermarket partnership and pilot testing a supermarket POP intervention (Healthstyles-Eat Smart© prior to its dissemination throughout the region. Barriers to and facilitators of developing university-supermarket partnerships and strategies to increase the feasibility of supermarket POP research are discussed. We conclude that strong university-supermarket partnerships are essential to conducting supermarket intervention research and are worth the time and effort it takes to build them. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable purchases, point-of-purchase intervention, supermarket partnership, shopping behaviour

  4. What foods are US supermarkets promoting? A content analysis of supermarket sales circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Yorkin, Meredith; Aljallad, Carena; Ciecierski, Caroline; Akhabue, Ivbaria; McKinley, Jessica; Hernandez, Katherine; Yablonsky, Courtney; Jackson, Rachel; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the types of foods advertised in supermarket newspaper circulars across geographic region (US Census regions: northeast [n=9], midwest [n=15], south [n=14], and west [n=13]), obesity-rate region (i.e., states with CDC adult obesity rates of supermarket sales circulars was devoted to protein foods and grains; fruits, vegetables, and dairy, combined, were allocated only about 25% of the front page. The southern geographic region and the highest obesity-rate region both devoted significantly more advertising space to sweets, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages. The lowest obesity-rate region and western geographic region allocated the most space to fruits. Vegetables were allocated the least space in the western geographic region. Grains were the only food group represented in ads in proportions approximately equal to amounts depicted in the MyPlate icon. Protein foods exceeded and fruits, dairy, and vegetables fell below comparable MyPlate proportional areas. Findings suggest supermarket ads do not consistently emphasize foods that support healthy weight and MyPlate recommendations. More research is needed to determine how supermarket newspaper circulars can be used to promote healthy dietary patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  6. Effects of Information Technology on Reducing Perishable Waste in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkulei, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Leaders within retail supermarkets struggle to manage perishable waste that has been at least partly attributed to shoppers' desire to buy fresh food; however, supermarket managers do not always exhaust the stock of fresh food as scheduled. Based on disruptive innovation theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore employee use of an…

  7. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  8. Economic analysis of a herpes zoster vaccination program in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Megan A; Kuehl, Peggy G; Liu, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the economic impact of providing herpes zoster vaccine (ZOS) in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in a midwestern metropolitan area from the perspective of the pharmacy and to identify factors associated with greater rates of vaccine delivery and profitability. 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Immunizations with ZOS were expanded from 2 pharmacies to all 19 affiliated pharmacies. Various methods to promote the vaccine were used, including personal selling, store signage, and circular ads. In addition to a broad perspective pharmacoeconomic model, a localized perspective model is proposed to determine profitability for the service. Factors associated with greater success in vaccine delivery and profitability were identified. Net financial gains or losses were calculated for each vaccine administered for each of the 19 pharmacies and for the entire supermarket chain. 662 vaccines were given during the study period, accounting for 6.7% of all eligible patients. The profit per vaccine averaged $9.60 (5.7%) and $28.37 (18.9%) using the broad and localized perspective models, respectively. Success of the ZOS program was demonstrated using both models. Certain factors correlated with greater profits when using the localized perspective model.

  9. STRATEGY, COMPETENCES AND LEARNING: A SUPERMARKET CASE IN THE CITY OF SOROCABA ESTRATEGIA, COMPETENCIAS Y APRENDIZAJE: EL CASO DE UN SUPERMERCADO EN LA CIUDAD DE SOROCABA ESTRATÉGIA, COMPETÊNCIAS E APRENDIZAGEM: O CASO DE UM SUPERMERCADO NA CIDADE DE SOROCABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz Marietto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link among strategy, skills and learning, based on a supermarket case in the city of Sorocaba. The paper takes learning as beliefs changes that has impact over strategies and argue how the competences are based on customers’ value perceptions, the Critical Success Factors (FCS. To take the FCS in this case it using the trade-off matrix to set the preferences for a number of people in a set of variables. The experiment involved the preferences investigation of two hundred customers of a supermarket with relation to seven attributes related to services provision. The research revealed the misalignment between what the company considered competence and what the customers really valorized. The finding starts a learning process with beliefs replace, strategic reorientation and investment in new business competences. Another point to be noted is the use of Trade-off matrix as research technique appropriate to Micro and Small Enterprises due a low cost and also  not requires hard procedures of technological knowledge for use the tool enabling reliable results and capable of changing the Micro and Small Enterprises learning structure.Este trabajo examina la relación entre estrategia, competencias y aprendizaje, teniendo como base el caso de un supermercado en la ciudad de Sorocaba, en el Estado de São Paulo. El artículo considera el aprendizaje como un cambio de creencias que tiene impacto en las  estrategias, y  discurre sobre la forma por la cual las competencias derivan de las percepciones de valor de los clientes, en los factores críticos de éxito (FCE. Para aprehender los FCE, en el caso en cuestión, se utilizó la Matriz  Trade-off, con el objetivo de definir preferencias de un grupo de personas en relación con un conjunto de variables. El experimento incluyó la investigación de las preferencias de doscientos clientes de un supermercado relativas a siete atributos relacionados a la prestaci

  10. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets (p stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  11. Education moderates the association between supermarket environment and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christina; Ntani, Georgia; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, Mary; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Supermarkets are a major source of food for many families. Knowledge of how educational attainment affects the relationship between the in-store environments of supermarkets and diet is needed. This study examined the relationship between maternal dietary quality and overall in-store supermarket environment, and assessed the effect modification of educational attainment. Methods Dietary quality z-scores were calculated for 829 mothers with young children using cross-sectional data collected in 2010-2011 from a 20-item food frequency questionnaire. Information about nine in-store factors (variety, price, quality, promotion, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) on 12 foods known to discriminate between better and poorer dietary quality were collected from supermarkets and used to create a standardised ‘healthfulness’ z-score for each supermarket where mothers shopped. Results Multi-level unadjusted linear regression analysis completed in 2014-2015 showed that shopping at more healthful supermarkets was associated with better dietary quality (β=0.39 SD/SD; p=0.01; 95%CI: 0.10, 0.68). However, the relationship differed according to level of educational attainment (interaction p=0.006). Among mothers who left school at 16 years of age, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had poorer dietary quality (β=0.31 SD/SD; 95%CI: 0.07, 0.55). Among mothers with degrees, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had better dietary quality (β=-0.59 SD/SD; 95%CI: −1.19, 0.00). Conclusions Mothers with low educational attainment showed greater susceptibility to less healthful in-store environments than mothers with higher educational attainment who may be protected by greater psychological and financial resources. Policy initiatives to improve supermarket environments may be necessary to address dietary inequalities. PMID:27067035

  12. Synchronization Analysis of the Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Chen, Liang; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2009-01-01

    The supermarket refrigeration system typically has a distributed control structure, which neglects interactions between its subsystems. These interactions from time to time lead to a synchronization operation of the display-cases which causes an inferior control performance and increased energy...... consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewiseaffine switched system. Stability analysis is performed bygluing the subsystems and polyhedra together to form a single dynamical system defined on a coherent state space. Then, system behavior...... is analyzed using the bifurcation and chaos theory. It is demonstrated that the system can have a complex chaotic behavior, which is far from the synchronization. This shows that making the system chaotic is a good choice for a de-synchronization strategy. The positive maximum Lyapunov exponent is usually...

  13. Improving demand response potential of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    through tests on a full scale supermarket refrigeration system made available by Danfoss A/S. The conducted application test shows that feedback based on food temperature can increase the demand flexibility during a step by approx. 60 % the first 70 minutes and up to 100%over the first 150 minutes...... a method for estimating food temperature based on measurements of evaporator expansion valve opening degree. This method requires no additional hardware or system modeling. We demonstrate the estimation method on a real supermarket display case and the applicability of knowing food temperature is shown...... - thereby strengthening the demand response potential of supermarket refrigeration systems....

  14. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  15. Introduction of an "energy goodness" number for supermarket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Munter, Preben; Holm, Henning V.

    1999-01-01

    A test method for determining the efficiency of supermarket refrigeration systems has been developed. The test method is based on a combination of measurements of air temperatures and energy consumption on an actual system and calculations of the energy consumption for a reference refrigeration...... between the calculated energy consumption of the reference system and the measured energy consumption for the actual system. Four different Danish supermarkets have been tested using this method. The results show that supermarkets in Denmark can be expected to have “Goodness numbers” ranging from 0...

  16. Analysis of synchronization in a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2014-01-01

    increases both the energy consumption and the wear of components. Besides this practical importance, from the theoretical point of view, synchronization, likewise stability, Zeno phenomenon, and chaos, is an interesting dynamical phenomenon. The study of synchronization in the supermarket refrigeration...

  17. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  18. CONSUMERS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL SUPERMARKET PRIVATE BRAND PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, May Chen; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Lai, Kim Piew

    2011-01-01

    In recent year, we observed the rapid growth of international supermarkets chains like Tesco, Carrefour, Jusco, and Giant in Malaysia. These international supermarkets are capitalizing on local manufacturers to produce products of their own brand. No doubt this private brand product price could be as low as other local produce but pricing is not the only factor influencing local consumers purchase intention. In this paper, we set to investigate consumers’ perceptions on perceived price,...

  19. Education and the Relationship Between Supermarket Environment and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christina; Ntani, Georgia; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, Mary; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2016-08-01

    Supermarkets are a major source of food for many families. Knowledge of how educational attainment affects the relationship between in-store environments of supermarkets and diet is needed. This study examined the relationship between maternal dietary quality and overall in-store supermarket environment, and assessed the effect modification of educational attainment. Dietary quality z-scores were calculated for 829 mothers with young children using cross-sectional data collected in 2010-2011 from a 20-item food frequency questionnaire. Information about nine in-store factors (variety, price, quality, promotion, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives, and single fruit sale) on 12 foods known to discriminate between better and poorer dietary quality were collected to create a standardized "healthfulness" z-score for each supermarket where mothers shopped. Multilevel unadjusted linear regression analysis completed in 2014-2015 showed that shopping at more-healthful supermarkets was associated with better dietary quality (β=0.39 SD/SD, p=0.01, 95% CI=0.10, 0.68). However, the relationship differed according to educational attainment (interaction, p=0.006). Among mothers who left school at age 16 years, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had poorer dietary quality (β=0.31 SD/SD, 95% CI=0.07, 0.55). Among mothers with degrees, those who shopped at less healthful supermarkets had better dietary quality (β=-0.59 SD/SD, 95% CI=-1.19, 0.00). Mothers with low educational attainment show greater susceptibility to less healthful in-store environments than mothers with higher educational attainment who may be protected by greater psychological and financial resources. Policy initiatives to improve supermarket environments may be necessary to address dietary inequalities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So...... regarding their power/energy consumptions in the future smart grids. Moreover, the developed model is validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The utilization of the produced model is also illustrated by a simple simulation example....

  1. Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2004 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (28th, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 28-Jun 1, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Universite Laval in Quebec City, Quebec. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  2. Diet And Perceptions Change With Supermarket Introduction In A Food Desert, But Not Because Of Supermarket Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Gerald P; Flórez, Karen R; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A; Sloan, Jennifer C; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-11-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts--areas with limited access to healthy food--has been promoted as a way to reduce inequalities in access to healthy food, improve diet, and reduce the risk of obesity. However, previous studies provide scant evidence of such impacts. We surveyed households in two Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods in 2011 and 2014, one of which received a new supermarket in 2013. Comparing trends in the two neighborhoods, we obtained evidence of multiple positive impacts from new supermarket placement. In the new supermarket neighborhood we found net positive changes in overall dietary quality; average daily intakes of kilocalories and added sugars; and percentage of kilocalories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol. However, the only positive outcome in the recipient neighborhood specifically associated with regular use of the new supermarket was improved perceived access to healthy food. We did not observe differential improvement between the neighborhoods in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption, or body mass index. Incentivizing supermarkets to locate in food deserts is appropriate. However, efforts should proceed with caution, until the mechanisms by which the stores affect diet and their ability to influence weight status are better understood. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-01-01

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting...

  5. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  6. Evaluasi Customer Relationship Management pada Supermarket Hero di Jakarta Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liawatimena

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing of many big retailer make Hero Supermarket must obtaining it’s existance in retail business. Therefore, Hero Supermarket must form CRM (Customer Relationship Management in order to increase a new customer, increase profit and maintaining customer, and pay attention to valuable customer. Data analysis done by searching procentage from many questions and cartesius diagram. The conclusion, the highest suitable level there are 98,27%  of quality product and the lowest is the price of merchandise, which is 45,35%. Some atribute are over the customers hope, that is good shopping place image, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and safetyness. There are five most important atribut, that is the price, quality, completeness, the comfortable and easyness in shopping, and parking space. Those atribute will determine wether the customer of Hero Supermarket will be loyal or not.

  7. Nutrition education in supermarkets: the Lifestyle 2000 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J A; Begley, A M; Miller, M R; Binns, C W

    1991-03-01

    A 15-week supermarket-based nutrition education program was conducted as part of a larger multiple-strategy community-wide health promotion project. The program consisted of point-of-purchase materials displayed in the supermarkets and was supported by a mass media campaign and promotional activities such as competitions, taste testing and cooking demonstrations. The objective of the program was to promote the selection and purchase of low-fat foods, specifically low-fat dairy products, fresh fruit and vegetables, bread and cereal products. Awareness of the promotion was high, with some self-reported behaviour change. Supermarkets are potential sites for public health nutrition education and recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of point-of-purchase promotions.

  8. Measuring Micro-Level Effects of a New Supermarket: Do Residents Within 0.5 Mile Have Improved Dietary Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus, Stephanie; Athens, Jessica; Cantor, Jonathan; Elbel, Brian

    2017-08-08

    Local and national policies to encourage supermarket opening or expansion are popular strategies for improving access to healthy food for residents in neighborhoods lacking these types of stores, yet few evaluations of such initiatives exist. Our aim was to test whether a newly opened supermarket in the Bronx, NY, changed household availability of healthy and unhealthy food items and reported daily consumption of these items among respondents residing in close proximity (≤0.5 mile) to the new supermarket. This quasi-experimental study evaluated changes in purchasing and consumption habits of residents within 0.5 mile of the new supermarket as compared to residents living more than 0.5 mile from the supermarket. Data were collected through street intercept surveys at three different times: once before the store opened (March to August 2011) and in two follow-up periods (1 to 5 months and 13 to 17 months after the store opened). This study analyzed a subset of successfully geocoded resident intersections from the larger study. We surveyed 3,998 residents older than the age of 18 years in two Bronx neighborhoods about their food-purchasing behaviors before the store opened and in two follow-up periods. Responses from residents whose intersections were successfully geocoded (N=3,378) were analyzed to examine the consumption and purchasing behaviors of those in close proximity to the new store. A new supermarket opened in a low-access neighborhood in the Bronx with the help of financial incentives through New York City's Food Retail Expansion to Support Health (FRESH) program. The primary outcome evaluated was the change in percent of respondents reporting that the following food items were "always available" in the home: milk, fruit juice, soda, pastries, packaged snacks, fruits, and vegetables. As a secondary outcome, we explored changes in self-reported daily servings of these items. A difference-in-difference analysis was performed, controlling for age, education

  9. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  10. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  11. Bridging the gap between farmers and supermarkets in Nicaragua ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Eric Smith. Where are they now? Sara Elder received graduate field support to explore how smallholder farmers are affected by selling to modern supermarkets rather than traditional markets. Many smallholder farmers are food insecure, despite growing food for local and international markets. Sara Elder's ...

  12. Finding Hidden Location Patterns of Two Competitive Supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jinattaporn; Fujihara, Akihiro

    There are two famous supermarkets in Thailand: Big C and Lotus. They are the highest competitive supermarkets whose hold the most market share by lots of promotions and also gather all convenience services including banking, restaurant, and others. In recent years, they gradually expand their stores and they take a similar strategy to determine where to locate a store. It is important for them to consider store allocation to obtain new customers efficiently. To consider this, we gather geographical locations of these supermarkets from Twitter using Twitter API. We gathered tweets having these supermarket names and geotags for seven months. To extract hidden location patterns from gathered data, we introduce location motif which is a directed subgraph whose edges are linked to every pair of the shortest-distance opponent node. We investigate every possible configuration of location motif when they have a small number of nodes and find that the configuration increases exponentially. We also visualize location motifs generated from gathered data on the map of Thailand and count the frequency of observed location motifs. As a result, we find that even if the possible location motifs exponentially increase as the number of nodes grows, limited location motifs can be observed. Using location motif, we successfully find an evidence of biased store allocation in reality.

  13. Investment, awareness, supermarkets, and profits: heterogeneous chili farmers in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.H.; van Marrewijk, C.; Stringer, R.; Umberger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the distribution channels for food production in developing countries raises the demand for high quality products sold through supermarkets at higher prices. We model the willingness of farmers to invest in high quality production, taking the role of traders into consideration. We test

  14. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  15. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Batemane, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  16. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Lopata, A.L.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bateman, E.D.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Robins, T.G.; Jeebhay, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of

  17. Why not a supermarket navy? | Little | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1981) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Why not a supermarket navy? IC Little. Abstract.

  18. The correlation between supermarket size and national obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Waterlander, Wilma E; Svastisalee, Chalida M

    2014-01-01

    Supermarkets provide healthy and affordable food options while simultaneously heavily promoting energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and drinks. Store size may impact body weight via multiple mechanisms. Large stores encourage purchasing of more food in a single visit, and in larger packages. In addition they provide greater product choice (usually at lower prices) and allow greater exposure to foods of all types. These characteristics may promote purchasing and consumption. Our objective was to assess the relationship between supermarket size and obesity, which has rarely been assessed. Data on supermarket size (measured as total aisle length in metres) was from 170 stores in eight developed countries with Western-style diets. Data for national obesity prevalence was obtained from the UK National Obesity Observatory. We found a strong correlation between average store size and national obesity prevalence (r = 0.96). Explanations for the association between store size and national obesity prevalence may include larger and less frequent shopping trips and greater choice and exposure to foods in countries with larger stores. Large supermarkets may represent a food system that focuses on quantity ahead of quality and therefore may be an important and novel environmental indicator of a pattern of behaviour that encourages obesity.

  19. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  20. An evaluation of the customer service in supermarkets in Pretoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the customer service in supermarkets in Pretoria East, Tshwane Metropolis, South Africa. NJMM Marx, AC Erasmus. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfecs.v34i1.52891.

  1. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in a plug & play fashion. The strategy is outlined by means of procedural steps as well as a flow chart that also illustrates the process of automatic tuning of the maximum slope-seeking controller. Test results are furthermore presented for a display case in a full scale CO2 supermarket refrigeration...

  2. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2010-10-08

    Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility

  3. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  4. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Richardson, Chris G; Henderson, Earl W; Pooyak, Sherri D; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-10-29

    Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use drugs. This study explored risk and protective factors associated with resilience among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort study involving young Indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. We utilized the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure childhood maltreatment, and the Symptom-Checklist 90-Revised to measure psychological distress among study participants. Multivariate linear mixed effects models (LME) estimated the effect of study variables on mean change in resilience scores between 2011-2012. Among 191 participants, 92 % had experienced any form of childhood maltreatment, 48 % had a parent who attended residential school, and 71 % had been in foster care. The overall mean resilience score was 62.04, with no differences between the young men and women (p = 0.871). Adjusted factors associated with higher mean resilience scores included having grown up in a family that often/always lived by traditional culture (B = 7.70, p = 0.004) and had often/always spoken their traditional language at home (B = 10.52, p people in this study have faced multiple complex challenges to their strength. However, cultural foundations continue to function as buffers that protect young Indigenous people from severe health outcomes, including vulnerability to HIV and HCV infection.

  5. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  6. Inequities in ambulatory care and the relationship between socioeconomic status and respiratory hospitalizations: a population-based study of a canadian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Aaron J; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals of lower socioeconomic status have higher rates of hospitalization due to ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. We examined whether differences in patient demographics, ambulatory care use, or physician characteristics could explain this disparity in avoidable hospitalizations. Using administrative data from the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, we identified all adults aged 18 to 70 years with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, grouped together as obstructive airway disease. We divided patients into census-derived income quintiles using average household income. We performed a series of multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine how the association of socioeconomic status with the risk of obstructive airway disease-related hospitalizations changed after controlling for blocks of covariates related to patient demographics (socioeconomic status, age, sex, and comorbidity), ambulatory care use (continuity influenza vaccination and specialist referral), and characteristics of the patient's usual physician (eg, payment mechanism, sex, years in practice). We included 34,741 patients with obstructive airway disease, 729 (2.1%) of whom were hospitalized with a related diagnosis during a 2-year period. Patients having a lower income were more likely to be hospitalized than peers having the highest income, and this effect of socioeconomic status remained virtually unchanged after controlling for every other variable studied. In a fully adjusted model, patients in the lowest income quintile had approximately 3 times the odds of hospitalization relative to counterparts in the highest income quintile (odds ratio = 2.93; 95% confidence limits: 2.19, 3.93). In the setting of universal health care, the income-based disparity in hospitalizations for respiratory ambulatory care-sensitive conditions cannot be explained by factors directly related to the use of ambulatory services

  7. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  8. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.......Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while...... estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high...

  9. [Quality service in supermarkets: a proposal of measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Soler, Marcos; Pascual Llobel, Juan; Frías Navarro, María Dolores; Rosel Remírez, Jesús

    2006-08-01

    This assignment has the aim of going deeply into the study of service quality perception in supermarkets. The research tries to find the criterion used when rating the services received in a supermarket and also to elaborate an instrument to measure the service quality in this context. From the review of the existing bibliography, four theoretical factors and a thirteen items scale have been composed. These four factors are: price, product, service and image and fresh product. In order to check the psychometrical properties of the questionnaire we carried out a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) with a sample of 300 interviews. The results obtained allow us to show a scale with a factorial structure of 4 dimensions that throws up optimal indexes of reliability and validity. At the same time we conclude that the variable called establishment global rate is an important variable in the perceptive structure of the consumers.

  10. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  11. Exploring Supermarket Loyalty Card Analysis to Identify Who Buys Fairtrade

    OpenAIRE

    Fred A. Yamoah; Fearne, Andrew; Duffy, Rachel; Petrovici, Dan Alex

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how supermarket loyalty card data from a panel of over 1.7 million \\ud shoppers can be analysed to provide behavioural segmentation insights to profile the fairtrade shopper \\ud in order to enhance making targeted marketing decisions. The paper demonstrates the huge marketing \\ud potential that loyalty card based shopper segmentation can bring to objectively describe who buys \\ud fairtrade products, compared to profiling shoppers with claimed/reported behaviou...

  12. Identifying and characterising price leadership in British supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Jonathan S.; Waterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Price leadership is a concept that lacks precision. We propose a deliberately narrow, falsifiable, definition then develop it, illustrate its feasibility and test it using the two leading British supermarket chains. We find both firms engaging in leading prices upward over a range of products, with the larger being initially more dominant but the smaller increasing leadership activity to take overall leadership over time. However, more price leadership events are price reductions than price i...

  13. Marketing environment and marketing communication analysis for supermarket O

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Xi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop an marketing environment and markeitng communication analysis for Supermarket O., which is an Asian food supplier with a grocery store located in Hakaniemi, Helsinki. The company deals with both business customers and consumers by supplying Asian products and offering related services in this market. Yet this analysis was only focused on regular customers rather than its business customers. Research objectives were: to analyze marketing environment, i...

  14. THE MODEL OF UNIVERSAL BANKING SUPERMARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Manolievna GORDITSA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author's conceptual approach to the multiple scientific concepts of both traditional and universal banking service moreover it shows the level of transformation of the latter to the model of the finance supermarket – the top of the modern retail banking, a structure that was formed due to globalization of the finance-credit industry. The article analyses the category of “finance supermarket” and brings out a common idea considering the main features of the mentioned organization model of banking service. The main features include: 1. Complex banking service satisfying the customers` needs; 2. The Bundling of banking and financial products (services; 3. Product line extension, standardization and large scale character of sale; 4. Remote banking. Bundling of the products (services introduced in this model allows the maximal integration of the finance services, operations and products including banking, consulting, insurance, investment services at the same office. Analysis of the scientific literature shows that the organization structure of the servicing in a Ukrainian universal bank mostly associates the model of a finance supermarket. However, current restrictions of the Ukrainian legal system and the existence of the certain transition level, caused by gradual application of the innovations of both financial and technological origin (evolutionary-innovative development are not taken into account. Looking from this angle, the author describes a transition model – from a universal bank to a financial supermarket, a universal banking supermarket. The model`s distinctive feature is the application of the improved technological service, that induced the transformation of modern banking operations, services and products in Ukraine from simplest to complex.

  15. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Supervisory Control in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik,; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A modular modeling approach of supermarket refrigeration systems (SRS) which is appropriate for smart grid control purposes is presented in this paper. Modeling and identification are performed by just knowing the system configuration and measured data disregarding the physical details. So, this approach is extendable to different configurations with different modules. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the display case temperatures as ...

  16. Epidemiological profile of workers with musculoskeletal disorders of a supermarket company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Benites da Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The epidemiological profile is considered a sensitive indicator of living conditions and the disease process. The musculoskeletal disorders are the most common causes of pain and can lead to disability or restriction of daily activities. These disorders take the name of RCT/OWRD when they are associated with work activities and may be associated with risk conditions at work.Objectives To describe the epidemiological profile of supermarket workers with musculoskeletal disorders under treatment at a physiotherapy clinic in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil.Methods This was a cross-sectional, observational study which used retrospective data collected from 360 records of patients treated from January 2010 to December 2011 in a physiotherapy clinic that provides health services for a supermarket chain.Results There was a predominance of females (73.9%, aged 30–39 years (35.1%; 63.0% reported being single and 73.4% lived in Porto Alegre. The most commonly reported occupation was cashier (31.2%. The main reasons for referral to physiotherapy treatment were low back pain (21.4%, neck pain (19.7%, pain (16.1%, subacromial bursitis (13.9% and back pain (12.2%. Among the signs and symptoms 95.8% of the sample reported pain in chronic phase.Conclusion The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high in this group. The presence of pain can disable the worker for daily activities and physiotherapy becomes the therapeutic procedure of choice for their rehabilitation.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  18. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatjies, R; Lopata, A L; Sander, I; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Bateman, E D; Meijster, T; Heederik, D; Robins, T G; Jeebhay, M F

    2009-10-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of 517 supermarket bakery workers in 31 bakeries used a questionnaire, skin prick tests, and specific immunoglobulin E to wheat, rye and fungal alpha-amylase and methacholine challenge testing. The prevalence of probable occupational asthma (OA, 13%) was higher than atopic (6%), nonatopic (6%) and work-aggravated asthma (WAA, 3%) phenotypes. Previous episodes of high exposure to dusts, fumes and vapours causing asthma symptoms were more strongly associated with WAA (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.7-19.2) than OA (2.8, 1.4-5.5). Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms were significantly associated with WAA (4.3, 1.3-13.8) and OA (3.1, 1.8-5.5). Bakers with OA had an increased odds ratio of reporting adverse reactions to ingested grain products (6.4, 2.0-19.8). OA is the most common phenotype among supermarket bakery workers. Analysis of risk factors contributes to defining clinical phenotypes, which will guide ongoing medical surveillance and clinical management of bakery workers.

  19. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  20. Qualidade de produtos minimamente processados e comercializados em gôndolas de supermercados nas cidades de Lavras - MG, Brasília - DF e São Paulo - SP Quality of fresh-cut produce commercialized on supermarket shelves in the cities of Lavras-MG, Brasília-DF, and São Paulo-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula

    2009-02-01

    quality of fresh-cut produce collected from shelves of supermarkets in Lavras, Brasília and São Paulo as so to guide their suppliers and consumers for the need for an increased quality control due to the risks of contamination of raw material by pathogenic and decay-causing microorganisms. 144 samples were submitted to pH, titratable acidity, soluble solid analyses and microbiological analyses (coliforms at 45ºC, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. The results showed significant alterations in pH values. A decrease in acidity and soluble solids during storage was found. Contamination by coliforms at 45ºC during manufacture was verified in 50% of the presence verified. We have isolated Escherichia coli, which evidences contamination coming from inadequately cleaned raw material or by their presence on the handlers. However, no contamination by Salmonella sp. was detected. Our results indicate the need of the implementation of the Good Handling Practices for the quality control of these produce.

  1. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  2. Food and nutrient availability in New Zealand: an analysis of supermarket sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sally; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Priest, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    To examine food and nutrient availability in New Zealand using supermarket sales data in conjunction with a brand-specific supermarket food composition database (SFD). The SFD was developed by selecting the top-selling supermarket food products and linking them to food composition data from a variety of sources, before merging with individualised sales data. Supermarket food and nutrient data were then compared with data from national nutrition and household budget/economic surveys. A supermarket in Wellington, New Zealand. Eight hundred and eighty-two customers (73% female; mean age 38 years) who shopped regularly at the participating supermarket store and for whom electronic sales data were available for the period February 2004-January 2005. Top-selling supermarket food products included full-fat milk, white bread, sugary soft drinks and butter. Key food sources of macronutrients were similar between the supermarket sales database and national nutrition surveys. For example, bread was the major source of energy and contributed 12-13% of energy in all three data sources. Proportional expenditure on fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, farm products and oils, and cereal products recorded in the Household Economic Survey and supermarket sales data were within 2% of each other. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to evaluate a number of important aspects of food and nutrient availability. Many of our findings were broadly comparable with national nutrition and food expenditure survey data, and supermarket sales have the advantage of being an objective, convenient, up-to-date and cost-effective measure of household food purchases.

  3. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Demmler

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD, typically associated with high body mass index (BMI, is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now.This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG, blood pressure (BP, and the metabolic syndrome.This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality.Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2 (P<0.01 and an increased probability (+ 20 percentage points of being overweight or obese (P<0.01. Purchasing food in supermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L (P<0.01 and a higher likelihood (+ 16 percentage points of suffering from pre-diabetes (P<0.01 and the metabolic syndrome (+ 7 percentage points (P<0.01. Effects on BP could not be observed.Supermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  4. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  5. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  6. Sustainable Cities: Canadian Reality or Urban Myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stoney

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is now over two decades since the Brundtland Commission report (1987 put sustainable development on the political map, concern continues in Canada that the federal government is failing to adequately implement its own commitments to tackling the ecological challenges posed by rapid urban expansion. Our analysis identifies a number of road blocks, missed opportunities and mistakes that have limited progress and many of these are traced back to the failure of national government to empower local municipal governments, as advocated by Brundtland and subsequent international initiatives, in particular ‘Agenda 21’ which we revisit in some detail as a basis for analysis. As well as reviewing the federal government’s role in Canada, the paper explores the potential for more sustainable urban growth in the context of broader reforms.

  7. Determinants of Food Label Use among Supermarket Shoppers: A Singaporean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lwin, May O.; Chao, Jiang; Au, Cyndy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examining factors influencing food label use among Singapore's supermarket shoppers using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A point-of-purchase survey among general shoppers in 2 supermarkets. Setting: Singapore, a country whose population is exposed to a wide range of food labeling formats because of the import-dependent nature…

  8. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Haskelberg, Hila; Wu, Jason H Y

    2015-08-21

    Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011-2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1) all products in 2013; (2) products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3) products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%-32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%-23%) lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001). For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%-3%) mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73). New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02). Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  9. Aggregation and Control of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Schwensen, John; Biegel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, control strategies for aggregation of a portfolio of supermarkets towards the electricity balancing market, is investigated. The supermarkets are able to shift the power consumption in time by pre-cooling the contained foodstuff. It is shown how the flexibility of an individual...

  10. Supermarket Special Departments. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn; Summerall, Mary

    This document on food marketing for supermarket special departments contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 11 assignments: (1) supermarkets of today; (2) merchandising; (3) pharmacy and cosmetics department; (4) housewares and home hardware; (5) video/camera/electronics…

  11. A Comparison of the Sodium Content of Supermarket Private-Label and Branded Foods in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supermarket private-label products are perceived to be lower quality than their branded counterparts. Excess dietary sodium in foods contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Sodium concentrations in products are an important indicator of quality. We compared the sodium content of 15,680 supermarket private-label and branded products, available in four Australian supermarkets between 2011–2013, overall and for 15 food categories. Mean sodium values were compared for: (1 all products in 2013; (2 products in both 2011 and 2013; and (3 products only in 2013. Comparisons were made using paired and unpaired t tests. In each year the proportion of supermarket private-label products was 31%–32%, with overall mean sodium content 17% (12%–23% lower than branded products in 2013 (p ≤ 0.001. For products available in both 2011 and 2013 there was a ≤2% (1%–3% mean sodium reduction overall with no difference in reformulation between supermarket private-label and branded products (p = 0.73. New supermarket private-label products in 2013 were 11% lower in sodium than their branded counterparts (p = 0.02. Supermarket private-label products performed generally better than branded in terms of their sodium content. Lower sodium intake translates into lower blood pressure; some supermarket private-label products may be a good option for Australians needing to limit their sodium intake.

  12. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  13. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  14. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimberly Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan versus rural (nonmetropolitan areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical

  15. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  16. "But Pasta Is Pasta, It Is All the Same": The Language, Literacy and Numeracy Challenges of Supermarket Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Kim; Strauss, Pat; Kell, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographically based study of entry level supermarket work. The study, carried out in a large suburban supermarket in Auckland, New Zealand, focused on the literacy and numeracy practices of supermarket assistants, all who had English as an additional language. It found that skills such as oral communication, personal…

  17. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  18. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regular users of supermarkets in Greater Tunis have a slightly improved diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Maire, Bernard; Bricas, Nicolas; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2008-04-01

    Despite the recent and rapid expansion of supermarkets in developing countries, their association with diet quality has been hardly studied. The study took place in Tunisia, where incidences of obesity and nutrition-related diseases are rising. The target population was households of the Greater Tunis area where supermarkets are mostly located. Households (n = 724) were selected by a 2-stage clustered random sampling. A purposely developed quantitative questionnaire assessed food retail habits. Socioeconomic data were collected at individual and household levels. The diet quality index-international (DQI-I) derived from a FFQ specific for Tunisia measured diet quality. Data analysis by regression or logistic regression models adjusted for energy intake and socioeconomic confounders when relevant. Overall, 60% of the households used supermarkets. Most households still used the nearby grocer; only 26% shopped at the market. Characteristics associated with supermarket use were urban milieu, small-sized households, greater educational attainment, higher economic level, steady income, or easy access. Associations between these variables and using supermarkets as a first shopping place (20% of households) were even stronger. After adjustment for energy intake and socioeconomic and access data, using supermarkets chosen as first food shopping place vs. other retail resulted in a slightly higher DQI-I (63.2 vs. 59.6; P = 0.0004). Despite the long-standing presence of supermarkets in Tunis, shopping at supermarkets has not yet spread to the whole population. Supermarkets do not yet markedly modify food consumption in the Greater Tunis. However, a slight improvement of diet quality can be observed among those people who use supermarkets regularly.

  20. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  1. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  2. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  3. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Karter, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last supermarket. Exposure was defined as a reduction (yes/no) in travel distance to the nearest supermarket as a result of a new supermarket opening. First difference regression models were used to estimate the impact of reduced supermarket distance on BMI, adjusting for longitudinal changes in patient and neighborhood characteristics. Among patients in the exposed group, new supermarket openings reduced travel distance to the nearest supermarket by 0.7 miles on average. However, reduced distance to nearest supermarket was not associated with BMI changes. Overall, we found no evidence that reduced supermarket distance was associated with reduced levels of obesity for residents with type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-Markets in Ghana: Early Warning Signals and Preventive Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etornam Kosi Anku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The source of conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-markets arise from the use of market power and economies of scale by one group against the other. This study explores the tensions that exist between modern retailers and their traditional counterparts as a result of the influx of supermarkets in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to compare attributes related to the control of access to consumers by the Supermarket and the Wet-market. In this study, the dot-survey approach of Rapid Market Assessment Technique was used to elicit information from 438 respondents at the Madina market (wet-market and Melcom (supermarket over a period of two weeks and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW comparison test and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis. The results revealed that consumers patronise the supermarkets for convenience and the wet-market for freshness of product. Their purchasing decisions were affected by their level of education and product selections of the retailer. The highly educated preferred to shop at the Supermarket instead of the Wet-market; however, over 50% of respondents preferred the wet-market for fresh food products and the supermarket for non-food items. Each retailer receives its fair share of purchases from its loyal customers, therefore the revolution arising from the supermarket influx in Ghana has not yet resulted into conflict between supermarkets and their traditional counterparts, though it is inevitable if nothing is done to prevent it from happening. To avoid the conflict, it is recommended that policies should be instituted to (i improve the market infrastructures and shopping environment in the Wet-markets, (ii give tax concession to modern retailers who source products from local farmers and small-scale processors, (iii enable traditional retailers position themselves on the fringe and co-exist with modern retailers and (iv enforce public standards with regards to food safety laws in the traditional

  5. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.

  6. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Kathrin M; Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Psupermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L) (PSupermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  7. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  8. Anti-synchronizing control for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers...... to operate the valves leads to synchronization, meaning that the opening and closing actions of the valves coincide. Consequently, the compressor periodically has to work hard resulting in low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. In this paper we propose two control...... schemes of low complexity for desynchronizing the valve operations while improving performance. Simulation results indicate the potential increase in efficiency and reduction in wear comparing with traditional control schemes....

  9. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate...... the valves leads to synchronization, meaning that the opening and closing actions of the valves coincide. Consequently, the compressor periodically has to work hard resulting in low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. In this paper we propose two control schemes of low...... complexity for desynchronizing the valve operations while improving performance. Simulation results indicate the potential increase in efficiency and reduction in wear comparing with traditional control schemes....

  10. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  11. Children's exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets: An objective analysis using GPS technology and wearable cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wet Markets, Supermarkets and the "Big Middle" for Food Retailing in Developing Countries: Evidence from Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Supatpongkul, Pajaree; Sauer, Johannes; Gorton, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Summary Drawing on the Big Middle theory of retail evolution, an analysis of secondary and primary survey data on Thai shopping behavior seeks to understand the shift away from wet markets to supermarket...

  13. Plant-wide dynamic and static optimisation of supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the operation of a supermarket refrigeration system under dynamic as well as steadystate conditions is addressedin thispaper. For thispurpose anappropriateperformance function that encompasses food quality, system efficiency, and also component reliability is established. The choice...

  14. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jahns, Lisa; Payne, Collin R; Whigham, Leah D; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela J; Hoverson, Bonita S; Kranz, Sibylle

    2014-01-01

    .... To examine and describe the relative proportions of advertised foods aggregated into the MyPlate food grouping system, a content analysis of 9 209 foods advertised in 52 weekly supermarket newspaper...

  15. Estimated Fresh Produce Shrink and Food Loss in U.S. Supermarkets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean C Buzby; Jeanine T Bentley; Beth Padera; Cara Ammon; Jennifer Campuzano

    2015-01-01

    ...; and (2) retail-level food loss. For each covered commodity, supplier shipment data was aggregated from a sample of 2900 stores from one national and four regional supermarket retailers in the United States, and this sum...

  16. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathrin M Demmler; Stephan Klasen; Jonathan M Nzuma; Matin Qaim

    2017-01-01

    ...), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries...

  17. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  18. Using a 3D virtual supermarket to measure food purchase behavior: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-04-28

    There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of "presence" (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real: 12.6%), and meat and fish (virtual: 16

  19. Isolated Sub-Dehumidification Strategies in Large Supermarkets and Grocery Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with reducing the relative humidity in the vicinity of refrigerated display cases in supermarkets, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of maintaining a relatively higher and uniform humidity level throughout the entire supermarket. Existing and new strategies for maintaining lower relative humidity levels near the vicinity of refrigerated display cases were analyzed to determine their effectiveness and limits of application.

  20. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioecono...

  1. Application of ammonia and CO2 in supermarkets; Toepassing van ammoniak en CO2 in supermarkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecker, W.F.; Hrnjak, P.J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Infante Ferreiria, C.A. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    The application of microchannel condensers in ammonia installations makes it possible to go down as far as 18 g NH3 per kW refrigeration. The use of ammonia in combination with CO2 contributes to economic effective and energy efficient solutions for supermarket applications. In this article also the experiences in Sweden, Denmark and Italy with indirect, cascade and transcritical supermarket refrigeration systems with carbon dioxide are described. 8 refs.

  2. Association Between Neighborhood Supermarket Presence and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Laraia, Barbara A; Warton, E Margaret; Blanchard, Samuel D; Moffet, Howard H; Downing, Janelle; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-06-15

    We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (≥9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N. D.; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20?% price reductions), and combined (skill-building?+?20?% price reductions) interventions on women?s purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This proce...

  4. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument...... promotion intensities are socially excessive. Moreover, the welfare implications are determined by the two opposite effects of price advertising: (1) the informing and therefore welfare-improving effect, and (2) the welfare-harming effect that higher transportation costs incur when promotions are used...

  5. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  6. Use of food label information by urban consumers in India - a study among supermarket shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sudershan R; Gavaravarapu, SubbaRao M; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Mathur, Pulkit; Avula, Laxmaiah

    2014-09-01

    To study consumer knowledge and use of food labels. A cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods. Intercept interviews were conducted with 1832 consumers at supermarket sites selected using a stratified random sampling procedure. This information was triangulated with twenty-one focus group discussions. New Delhi and Hyderabad, two metro-cities from north and south India. Adolescent (10-19 years), adult (20-59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) consumers. While the national urban literacy rate is 84 %, about 99 % of the study participants were educated. About 45 % reported that they buy pre-packaged foods once weekly and about a fifth buy them every day. Taste, quality, convenience and ease of use are the main reasons for buying pre-packaged foods. Although 90 % of consumers across the age groups read food labels, the majority (81 %) looked only for the manufacturing date or expiry/best before date. Of those who read labels, only a third checked nutrition information and ingredients. Nutrient information on labels was not often read because most consumers either lacked nutrition knowledge or found the information too technical to understand. About 60 % read quality symbols. A positive association was found between education level and checking various aspects of food labels. Women and girls concerned about 'fat' and 'sugar' intake read the nutrition facts panel. The intention of promoting healthy food choices through use of food labels is not being completely met. Since a majority of people found it difficult to comprehend nutrition information, there is a need to take up educational activities and/or introduce new forms of labelling.

  7. Proximity to Fast-Food Outlets and Supermarkets as Predictors of Fast-Food Dining Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Jessica K; Duncan, Dustin T; Elbel, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study used cross-sectional data to test the independent relationship of proximity to chain fast-food outlets and proximity to full-service supermarkets on the frequency of mealtime dining at fast-food outlets in two major urban areas, using three approaches to define access. Interactions between presence of a supermarket and presence of fast-food outlets as predictors of fast-food dining were also tested. Residential intersections for respondents in point-of-purchase and random-digit-dial telephone surveys of adults in Philadelphia, PA, and Baltimore, MD, were geocoded. The count of fast-food outlets and supermarkets within quarter-mile, half-mile, and 1-mile street network buffers around each respondent's intersection was calculated, as well as distance to the nearest fast-food outlet and supermarket. These variables were regressed on weekly fast-food dining frequency to determine whether proximity to fast food and supermarkets had independent and joint effects on fast-food dining. The effect of access to supermarkets and chain fast-food outlets varied by study population. Among telephone survey respondents, supermarket access was the only significant predictor of fast-food dining frequency. Point-of-purchase respondents were generally unaffected by proximity to either supermarkets or fast-food outlets. However, ≥1 fast-food outlet within a 1-mile buffer was an independent predictor of consuming more fast-food meals among point-of-purchase respondents. At the quarter-mile distance, ≥1 supermarket was predictive of fewer fast-food meals. Supermarket access was associated with less fast-food dining among telephone respondents, whereas access to fast-food outlets were associated with more fast-food visits among survey respondents identified at point-of-purchase. This study adds to the existing literature on geographic determinants of fast-food dining behavior among urban adults in the general population and those who regularly consume fast food. Copyright

  8. Epiphanies at the Supermarket: An Interview with Brigitte Kronauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ittner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brigitte Kronauer has been called "the greatest German [female] fiction writer of our time" (Marcel Reich-Ranicki. Her stories, novels, and criticism have established her as a uniquely sophisticated literary voice and won her many literary prizes. Kronauer's trademarks are her laser-sharp vision, her luminous prose, and the intricate structures of her uncannily realistic literary universes. Finding the mystical in the mundane and exposing human foibles with subtle irony, Kronauer creates, in the words of one critic, epiphanies at the supermarket. Beneath its everyday surface her fiction deals with the eternal human questions of life, death, and love. At a still deeper level it circles around philosophical issues such as our futile attempts to find truth in our own constructs of reality. In her interview with Jutta Ittner the author reflects on her individual path to writing. She describes the role of literature in creating a semblance of order in a multifaceted reality, and she discusses the structure of her literary universes, her characters and their aspirations, and the importance of animals for man's quest for a meaningful life. Finally, Kronauer explains how she sees herself in terms of women's literature and indicates where her writing is headed.

  9. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  10. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? -a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdulfatah Adam; Jorgen D Jensen

    2016-01-01

    .... Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarket...

  11. Using research to change policy and practice: A Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Canadian CSOs also maximize their use of research to influence change in part through strategic alliances and partnerships. Women in Cities International, for example, partners with the Women and Habitat Network in Argentina to collect data and engage directly with local officials. The study concludes ...

  12. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. Objective The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of “presence” (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Methods Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Results A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real

  13. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  14. Market control through eco-efficiency and eco-consumption: an analysis based on supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Guivant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a discussion of the changing role of supermarkets in the food system. According to some authors, the system itself has now entered its third stage. Among the numerous transformations that are a part of this process, we give particular salience to two: a the role of supermarkets in turning consumers into consumers of organic foods and produce and b the strategies of the supermarket sector in sustainable management and construction. Sustainability has become an increasingly central motif in the supermarket sector’s strategies, something that has evidently become possible due to the imprecise nature of the concept. Our analysis is fundamentally based on the theory of ecological modernization and secondarily on the new economic sociology of market objects. Through this theoretical framework, we are able to illustrate retail sector tendencies in global market flux, as well as the influence of non-governmental organization and consumer group action. Lastly, we reveal the complex mosaic of the sector’s tendencies. A non-dichotomous and non-essentialist perspective is required in order to understand how environmental dynamics and demands come to form part not only of the discourse but of influential practices of these powerful economic actors which may have unintended consequences on relationships between production and consumption within the new rules of the globalization of markets. Keywords: sustainable consumption, supermarkets, theory of ecological modernization.

  15. Socioeconomic status, energy cost, and nutrient content of supermarket food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Ventrelle, Jennifer C

    2012-04-01

    The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants' purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010-2011. Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stocking the genetic supermarket: reproductive genetic technologies and collective action problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyngell, Chris; Douglas, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view. © 2014 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Importancia de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en la alimentación del lactante: cuantificación de éstos en algunas fórmulas lácteas para bebés de 0 a 6 meses, comercializadas en la ciudad de Medellín, 2012/Importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding: quantification of these acids in some of the milk formulas for babies aged 0 to 6 months marketed in the city of Medellin, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatriz E M López; Diana L S Cárdenas; Julieth N Quintero-Laverde

    2014-01-01

      The objective of this study was to compare the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids appearing in the nutrition facts labels of infant milk formulas sold in supermarkets of Medellin city against an...

  18. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this paper we propose a method for identifying and validating a model of the heat dynamics of a supermarket refrigeration display case for the purpose of advanced control. The model is established to facilitate the development of novel model-based control techniques for individual display units...... in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method......, and the performance of candidate models is evaluated through cross-validation.The model developed in this work uses operational data from a small Danish supermarket. A three-state model is determined to be most appropriate for describing the dynamics of this system. Advanced local control employing the identified...

  19. Does opening a supermarket in a food desert change the food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald; Collins, Rebecca L; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Beckman, Robin; Nugroho, Alvin K; Sloan, Jennifer C; Wagner, La'Vette; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket. We found positive and negative changes in food availability, and an even greater influence on food prices in neighborhood stores. The supermarket opening in a 'food desert' caused little improvement in net availability of healthy foods, challenging the underpinnings of policies such as the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Moderating Influence of Supermarket Satisfaction on Out-of-Stock Store Switching Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    Consumer store switching behaviour – going to another store to buy an item that is out-of-stock is often considered to be associated with high brand loyalty in combination with low store loyalty, making a study of the causes for such behaviour highly important to both store and brand managers....... Based on a survey of 631 grocery consumers, this study investigates the moderating influence of preferred supermarket satisfaction on relations between quality consciousness, price consciousness, pre-planning propensity and out-of-stock store switching, and also examines the direct influence...... of these variables on out-of-stock store switching. The results indicate that whereas preferred supermarket satisfaction negatively moderates the relation between quality consciousness and out-of-stock store switching, preferred supermarket satisfaction positively moderates the relation between price consciousness...

  1. The Moderating Influence of Supermarket Satisfaction on Out-of-stock Store Switching Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    Consumer store switching behaviour – going to another store to buy an item that is out-of-stock – is often considered to be associated with high brand loyalty in combination with low store loyalty, making a study of the causes for such behaviour highly important to both store and brand managers....... Based on a survey of 631 grocery consumers, this study investigates the moderating influence of preferred supermarket satisfaction on relations between quality consciousness, price consciousness, pre-planning propensity and out-of-stock store switching, and also examines the direct influence...... of these variables on out-of-stock store switching. The results indicate that whereas preferred supermarket satisfaction negatively moderates the relation between quality consciousness and out-of-stock store switching, preferred supermarket satisfaction positively moderates the relation between price consciousness...

  2. Field Testing and Modeling of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems as a Demand Response Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, Michael; Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Anthony, Jamie

    2016-08-26

    Supermarkets offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns; however, refrigeration as the largest load has been challenging to access. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; lighting; and anti-sweat heaters. This project evaluated and quantified the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory. DR events were carried out and results measured in an operational 45,590-ft2 supermarket located in Hillsboro, Oregon. Key results from the project include the rate of temperature increase in freezer reach-in cases and walk-ins when refrigeration is suspended, the load shed amount for DR tests, and the development of calibrated models to quantify available DR resources. Simulations showed that demand savings of 15 to 20 kilowatts (kW) are available for 1.5 hours for a typical store without precooling and for about 2.5 hours with precooling using only the low-temperature, non-ice cream cases. This represents an aggregated potential of 20 megawatts within BPA's service territory. Inability to shed loads for medium-temperature (MT) products because of the tighter temperature requirements is a significant barrier to realizing larger DR for supermarkets. Store owners are reluctant to allow MT case set point changes, and laboratory tests of MT case DR strategies are needed so that owners become comfortable testing, and implementing, MT case DR. The next-largest barrier is the lack of proper controls in most supermarket displays over ancillary equipment, such as anti-sweat heaters, lights, and fans.

  3. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David A

    2012-03-15

    Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular) at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38%) and back (median 33%) of store), and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres). Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  4. Relationship between mode choice and the location of supermarkets – empirical analysis in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of the study work is to gain data about shopping and mobility behaviour at small local supermarkets with sales floor space less than 1.000 m2. Four location types have been defined and discussed; rural  peripheral location, rural  central location, urban – central location and urban – peripheral location. 200 shoppers each location were interviewed at the exit of the supermarket, which means a total of 800 interviews were carried out during all day times and working days of the supermarket. As expected, the mode choice is strongly dependent on the location of the supermarket. In car oriented settlements, which can be found at rural peripheral locations, nearly all shoppers accessed the supermarket with their cars. If weighting the expenditure per visit with the frequency of visits, the average expenditure per month and mode can be derived. The average purchase per month between the modes is more or less balanced. A difference in behaviour lies in the fact that cyclists and pedestrians go shopping more frequently but are spending less per visit. Additionally, the results of this study are indicating the existence of a potential mode shift, especially if there is better land use planning for supermarket locations. Furthermore, considering the given situation and a given threshold of less than 5 kilograms of weight of the goods purchased, more than fifty percent of all shoppers could use non motorised modes with insignificant loss of travel quality. Combined with short travel distances to the next shop (the average distance is 4.9 km, a change to alternative means of transport would be relatively easy for a significant number of shoppers.

  5. Bisphenol A in supermarket receipts and its exposure to human in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Chang, Wen-Jing; Sojinu, Samuel O; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2013-08-01

    Paper receipt has been documented as one major source of bisphenol A (BPA) for human exposure but little has been done by researchers to elaborate the potential health risk caused by handling paper receipt up to date. In the present study, BPA was analyzed in 42 supermarket receipts collected from Shenzhen, China. BPA was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 2.58 to 14.7mgg(-1). In most cases, the total amount of BPA on the receipt was at least one thousand times the amount found in the epoxy lining of a food can, another controversial use of the chemical. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of BPA via handling of supermarket receipt ranged from 2 to 347μgday(-1) (mean, 40.4μgday(-1)) for a supermarket cashier and from 0.24 to 3.98μgday(-1) (mean, 0.69μgday(-1)) for general population. Based on the cumulative probability distribution of the calculated daily exposure to BPA via handling supermarket receipt, the EDI at the 0.1th and 1th percentile for supermarket cashier and general population, were already larger than 100ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1), while at the 0.2th and 71th percentile, the EDI for both populations reached 1000ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1). Considering the adverse endocrine disruptive effects of BPA and the dosage exposure level (from tens to hundreds ng (kgbw)(-1)day(-1)), human exposure to BPA in Shenzhen deserves more attention. Sensitivity analysis result showed that the handling time and frequency of supermarket receipts are the most important variables that contributed to most of the total variance of exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular) at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38%) and back (median 33%) of store), and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres). Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets. PMID:22420759

  7. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  8. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Winkler, L. L.; Mikkelsen, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A space...... management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data...

  9. Using Relative Utility Pricing to Explain Multibuy Prices in Supermarkets and on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P; Chrystal, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Relative Utility Pricing (RUP) model is used to explain the prices for commodities being sold in supermarkets and on the internet. Grocery prices offered by the supermarkets, Tesco, Sainsbury and Waitrose in December 2009 and August 2013, are considered, as well as the prices of electronic items offered by Amazon on the internet at the same dates. The observed price for a pack can be given an explanation in terms of its size relative to the smallest pack considered by the customer (the ba...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION IN RETAIL BRAZILIAN SUPERMARKET BETWEEN 1998 AND 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to measure and to analyze the evolution of the Brazilian supermarket sector market concentration in the period between 1998 and 2013. This was made possible by the analysis of the main indicators of concentration calculated namely: concentration ratio (CR, Herfindahl-Hirschman index (H and the Theil entropy index (ET. It was found that there was increased concentration in the supermarket sector, driven by the entry of foreign networks and the expressive movement of mergers and acquisitions recorded from the 1990s.

  11. The use of supermarket till receipts to determine the fat and energy intake in a UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransley, J K; Donnelly, J K; Khara, T N; Botham, H; Arnot, H; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2001-12-01

    To validate the use of supermarket receipts as an index of fat and energy intake in a population that buys most of its food from supermarkets. Cross-sectional, prospective dietary survey - feasibility study. Households situated within a 20-mile radius of a large (Tesco) supermarket in Leeds. Two hundred and fourteen households who spend >or=60% of their food purse in (Tesco and other) supermarkets. Mean daily household purchase of fat, energy and percentage energy from fat contained in food from supermarkets were 185 g, 19.2 MJ and 35.9%. Mean daily household intakes of fat and energy were 190 g and 20.7 MJ, and 35% of energy was derived from fat. Mean household size was 2.4 persons. The association between the amount of fat and energy purchased from supermarkets and the amount of fat and energy consumed by households was strong. 0.90 MJ (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.0) of energy were consumed for every 1 MJ purchased from supermarkets and 0.76 g (95% CI: 0.64-0.87) of fat were consumed for every 1 g of fat purchased. The results show a strong association between estimates of the intakes of fat and energy and percentage energy from fat using 4-day food diaries and 28 days of receipts, in populations who buy most of their food from supermarkets. They also show that the fat content of total food purchases from supermarkets is 35.9% energy from fat compared with 33% energy from fat recommended by the Department of Health. This preliminary research indicates the feasibility of and potential for utilising large quantities of readily available data generated from supermarket checkouts in dietary surveys.

  12. Price and convenience: The influence of supermarkets on consumption of ultra-processed foods and beverages in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Priscila Pereira; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Canella, Daniela Silva; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of convenience and price of ultra-processed foods and beverages on purchases at supermarkets. The study used data on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, performed in a random sample of 55,970 households between 2008 and 2009. Foods and beverages were categorized into four groups, according to characteristics of food processing. Retail stores were grouped into supermarkets and other food stores. Proportion of calories from foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets and other food stores, and respective mean prices (R$/1000 kcal), were calculated according to households' geographical and socioeconomic characteristics. Effect of convenience in household purchases at retail stores was expressed by the acquisition of several food items at the same store. The influence of convenience and prices of ultra-processed products on purchases at supermarkets was analyzed using log-log regression model with estimation of elasticity coefficients. The mean prices of foods and beverages purchased at supermarkets were 37% lower in comparison to other food stores. The share of ultra-processed foods and beverages in purchases made at supermarkets was 25% higher than at other food stores. An increase of 1% in prices of ultra-processed food items led to a 0.59% reduction in calorie acquisition at supermarkets (R2 = 0.75; p food items purchased at supermarkets resulted in 1.83% increase in calorie acquisition of ultra-processed foods and beverages (p food items purchased at supermarkets, in comparison to other food stores, are relevant to explain higher share of purchases of ultra-processed foods and beverages at supermarkets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  14. Learning Behaviors Scale and Canadian Youths: Factorial Validity Generalization and Comparisons to the U.S. Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) was examined with a sample of 393 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. An identical four-factor structure was observed for the Canadian sample as was obtained in the standardization sample of U.S. youths and with another American sample. Principal axis exploratory…

  15. Preventing refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets from being discarded on hot days by mpc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems. It deals with one special condition when the extremely high outdoor temperature causes the compressor to saturate, and work at its maximum capacity. In a traditional control, refrigerated foodstuffs inside display...

  16. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  17. Food taxes and calories purchased in the virtual supermarket : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338093125; Kroeze, willemieke; Waterlander, Wilma; de Boer, Michiel; Steenhuis, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of three food taxation schemes on energy (kcal), saturated fat (gram) and sugar (gram) purchased in the virtual supermarket. Design/methodology/approach Based on the literature, three food taxation schemes were developed (sugar tax,

  18. SUPERMARKET PRICING AND GAME THEORY: THE PRESENCE OF WAL-MART

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    Wal-Mart is a giant in the grocery industry and its influence is growing at a rapid pace. Despite Wal-Mart's success with Everyday Low Pricing (EDLP), there is little to no evidence to suggest that other supermarket chains wish to follow a similar path. Why? This research addresses this question.

  19. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SEBAGAI PERTIMBANGAN KONSUMEN DALAM MELAKUKAN PEMBELIAN DI SUPERMARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2009-06-01

    the economies of scale. Supermarkets adopt a number of pricing and non-pricing strategies to attract customers such as price limits, predatory pricing, and intertemporal price discrimination, for example, discounts at the end of the week and at certain other times. Their non-pricing strategies include advertising, longer opening hours (especially on weekends, bundling or tying (combined purchases, and free parking.

  20. Strengthening environmental and educational nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, I H; Van Assema, P; Glanz, K

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess conditions for the adoption and continued implementation of different healthy nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, i.e. an educational programme and two environmental programmes (a food labelling programme and a food supply programme). Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of worksite cafeterias and supermarkets. Concepts of theories of diffusion were used as a framework for the study. Questions were formulated about the attributes of the innovation, and organizational and personal characteristics that might influence programme adoption and implementation. Results indicated that educational and environmental programmes in both worksite cafeterias and supermarkets should meet specific requirements regarding programme design, methods and materials in order to be adopted and implemented. Besides, some important implementation strategies of the educational and environmental programmes were identified. It is concluded that it seems feasible to conduct educational and environmental intervention programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, but that certain conditions for adoption and continued implementation have to be met. Based on the implications of this study, the development of an educational programme, a labelling programme and a food supply programme was completed.

  1. Comparative study on the microorganisms present in ground meat in supermarkets and local markets in Ecatepec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosales-Garnica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat is one of the most perishable foods due to that are high in the water and nutrients that promotes the growth of microorganisms. Ground meat tends to have more contamination than fresh meat because of the milling process where the microorganisms that were polluting the inside surface. Five stores were sampled from a supermarket chain and five markets in the municipality of Ecatepec. Ground beef was used for analysis of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, Staphylococcos, fungi and yeasts. The results show that aerobic mesophilic count is within the limits of the Standard (NOM-092-SSA1-1994, the amount of Staphylococcos exceeds the Standard in the markets but within the limits of the Standard in supermarkets, coliforms and molds and yeasts are present in markets and supermarkets but are not considered in the Standard. We conclude that ground beef is sold in markets and supermarkets in the municipality of Ecatepec has lots of coliforms and Staphylococcos, which are responsible for many toxic infections. It is necessary to update the regulations in force, to be given greater monitoring.

  2. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is

  3. Spatial monopoly of multi-establishment firms : An empirical study for supermarkets in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelder, T.M.

    Multi-establishment firms can create local spatial monopolies in the form of clusters of own establishments without competition. This paper examines the existence of spatial monopolies for Dutch supermarkets in 2009. It is found that 23 percent of consumers can be qualified as being locked-in in a

  4. Understanding interactions with the food environment: an exploration of supermarket food shopping routines in deprived neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Cummins, Steven; Brown, Tim; Kyle, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Despite a sustained academic interest in the environmental determinants of diet, relatively little is known about the ways in which individuals interact with their neighbourhood food environment and the use of its most important element, the supermarket. This qualitative study explores how residents of deprived neighbourhoods shop for food and how the supermarket environment influences their choices. Go-along interviews were conducted with 26 residents of Sandwell, a uniformly deprived metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, UK. Routine approaches to food shopping are characterised in terms of planning and reliance on the supermarket environment. Four distinct routines are identified: chaotic and reactive; working around the store; item-by-item; and restricted and budgeted. This suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods do not have uniform responses to food environments. Responses to supermarket environments appear to be mediated by levels of individual autonomy. A better understanding of how residents of deprived neighbourhoods interact with their food environment may help optimise environmental interventions aimed at improving physical access to food in these places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Classification of 'healthier' and 'less healthy' supermarket foods by two Australasian nutrient profiling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Gorton, Delvina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-09-10

    To determine whether a modified version of the Heart Foundation Tick (MHFT) nutrient profiling model appropriately classifies supermarket foods to endorse its use for identifying 'healthier' products eligible for promotion in a supermarket intervention trial. Top-selling products (n=550) were selected from an existing supermarket nutrient composition database. Percentage of products classified as 'healthier' by the MHFT and a modified comparator model (Food Standards Australia New Zealand; MFSANZ) were calculated. Percentage agreement, consistency (kappa statistic), and average nutrient values were assessed overall, and across seven food groups. The MHFT model categorised 16% fewer products as 'healthier' than the MFSANZ model. Agreement and consistency between models were 72% and kappa=0.46 (P=0.00), respectively. For both models, 'healthier' products were on average lower in energy, protein, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium than their 'less healthy' counterparts. The MHFT nutrient profiling model categorised regularly purchased supermarket foods similarly to the MFSANZ model, and both appear to distinguish appropriately between 'healthier' and 'less healthy' options. Therefore, both models have the potential to appropriately identify 'healthier' foods for promotion and positively influence food choices.

  6. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  7. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  8. Nutritional Informatics: Mining Supermarket Sales Data as a Nutritional Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Many nutritional assessment techniques, including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls have innate limitations such as expensive protocols, high respondent burden, and self-reporting biases. Supermarket sales data have shown promise as a new, indirect, inexpensive nutritional assessment method in recent studies. The…

  9. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  10. Diet quality of supermarket sales circulars measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the contents of weekly supermarket sales circulars conform to current dietary guidance and how closely the diet quality of those foods compare to that of the U.S. population’s intakes. Food and beverage items (n = 9,151) in 52 weekly circulars ...

  11. Process Evaluation of a Comprehensive Supermarket Intervention in a Low-Income Baltimore Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan M; Rothstein, Jessica D; Gergen, Jessica; Zachary, Drew A; Smith, Joyce C; Palmer, Anne M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Supermarket-based interventions are one approach to improving the local food environment and reducing obesity and chronic disease in low-income populations. We implemented a multicomponent intervention that aimed to reduce environmental barriers to healthy food purchasing in a supermarket in Southwest Baltimore. The intervention, Eat Right-Live Well! used: shelf labels and in-store displays promoting healthy foods, sales and promotions on healthy foods, in-store taste tests, increasing healthy food products, community outreach events to promote the intervention, and employee training. We evaluated program implementation through store environment, taste test session, and community event evaluation forms as well as an Employee Impact Questionnaire. The stocking, labeling, and advertising of promoted foods were implemented with high and moderate fidelity. Taste test sessions were implemented with moderate reach and low dose. Community outreach events were implemented with high reach and dose. Supermarket employee training had no significant impact on employees' knowledge, self-efficacy, or behavioral intention for helping customers with healthy purchasing or related topics of nutrition and food safety. In summary, components of this intervention to promote healthy eating were implemented with varying success within a large supermarket. Greater participation from management and employees could improve implementation. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Association between distance to nearest supermarket and provision of fruits and vegetables in English nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Gallis, John A; L Penney, Tarra; Monsivais, Pablo; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-07-01

    With 796,500 places available for children in England, pre-school nurseries could serve as an important setting for population-wide dietary intervention. It is critical to understand the determinants of healthy food provision in this setting, which may include access to food stores. This study examined the association between objective, GIS-derived supermarket proximity and fruit and vegetable serving frequency, using data from 623 English nurseries. Overall, 116 (18%) nurseries served fruits and vegetables infrequently (supermarket proximity. In adjusted multivariable regression models, nurseries farthest from their nearest supermarket (Q5, 1.7-19.8km) had 2.38 (95% CI 1.01-5.63) greater odds of infrequent provision. Our results suggest that supermarket access may be important for nurseries in meeting fruit and vegetable provision guidelines. We advance a growing body of international literature, for the first time linking the food practices of institutions to their neighbourhood food retail context. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.

    2011-01-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario...

  14. Mystery shopping and alcohol sales: do supermarkets and liquor stores sell alcohol to underage customers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A

  15. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterlander, W.E.; Jiang, Y.N.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Mhurchu, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized

  16. The Effectiveness of Supermarket Posters in Helping to Find Missing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Arnal, Jack; Hicks, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    One approach used to help find missing children is to place posters of them at the exits of supermarkets. The present research addresses the question of how effective that approach is likely to be. Posters of 8 missing children were displayed on a bulletin board at a cooperating grocery store. Customers leaving the store completed a survey and…

  17. The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Liu, Peggy J; Roberto, Christina A; Sarda, Vishnu; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-04-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing profile. This was a descriptive study. Every product featuring sports references on the packaging was purchased in two major supermarkets during 2010. A content analysis was conducted and nutritional evaluations were made based on the Nutrient Profile Model, a validated nutrition model. Marketing data were obtained from The Nielsen Company. Two major supermarkets in Connecticut, USA. Food and beverage products (n 102) were selected from two supermarkets. The 102 products (fifty-three foods and forty-nine beverages) had sports references as part of their packaging: 72·5 % featured a character exercising, 42·2 % were endorsed by a professional sports entity and 34·0 % were child-targeted. The median nutrition score for food products was 36 (1 = unhealthiest and 100 = healthiest; scores of ≥63 are considered healthy according to this model). More than two-thirds of beverages (69·4 %) were 100 % sugar-sweetened. Children saw significantly more commercials for these products than adults. Companies place sports figures on food and beverage products that are child-targeted and unhealthy.

  18. Shop 'til you hear it drop - Influence of Interactive Auditory Feedback in a Virtual Reality Supermarket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Mangano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment aiming to investigate the impact of auditory feedback in a virtual reality supermarket scenario. The participants were asked to read a shopping list and collect items one by one and place them into a shopping cart. Three conditions were presented randomly...

  19. Estimated Fresh Produce Shrink and Food Loss in U.S. Supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Buzby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data on fresh fruit and vegetable shrink in supermarkets is important to help understand where and how much shrink could potentially be reduced by supermarkets to increase their profitability. This study provides: (1 shrink estimates for 24 fresh fruits and 31 fresh vegetables in U.S. supermarkets in 2011 and 2012; and (2 retail-level food loss. For each covered commodity, supplier shipment data was aggregated from a sample of 2900 stores from one national and four regional supermarket retailers in the United States, and this sum was then compared with aggregated point-of-sale data from the same stores to estimate the amount of shrink by weight and shrink rates. The 2011–2012 average annual shrink rates for individual fresh vegetables varied from 2.2 percent for sweet corn to 62.9 percent for turnip greens and for individual fresh fruit ranged from 4.1 percent for bananas to 43.1 percent for papayas. When these shrink estimates were used in the Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series, annual food loss for these commodities totaled 5.9 billion pounds of fresh fruit and 6.1 billion pounds of fresh vegetables. This study extends the literature by providing important information on where and how much shrink could potentially be reduced. Precise comparisons across studies are difficult. This information, combined with information on available and cost-effective technologies and practices, may help supermarkets target food loss reduction efforts though food loss will never be zero.

  20. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  1. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Cohen, Deborah A.; Beckman, Robin; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hunter, Gerald P.; Flórez, Karen R.; Huang, Christina; Vaughan, Christine A.; Sloan, Jennifer C.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Cummins, Steven; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Placing full-service supermarkets in food deserts (areas with limited access to healthy foods) has been proposed as an important policy strategy to confront inequalities in healthy food access. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we enrolled n=1,372 randomly selected households from two comparable neighborhoods, one of which received a full-service supermarket in 2013. We looked at the impact on residents’ diet, perceived access to healthy foods and satisfaction with one’s neighborhood as a place to live. Baseline data was collected in 2011, and follow-up in 2014. Relative to the comparison neighborhood, we found a net positive change in the intervention neighborhood in overall dietary quality, total kilocalories, added sugars, and solid fats, alcohol and added sugars (SoFAAS). However, we did not observe differential improvement in fruit and vegetable intake, whole grain consumption or body mass index (BMI). Regular users of the new supermarket had significantly improved perceived access to healthy foods compared to others, but use of the new supermarket was not related to dietary changes or to improvements with neighborhood satisfaction. Our study is the first to our knowledge to have found significant improvements in multiple dietary outcomes and neighborhood satisfaction among residents of a food desert, following the opening of a supermarket. Our study supports the Healthy Food Financing Initiative and other policies that incentivize food retail venues to locate in food deserts, but we recommend further efforts proceed with caution until research has clarified the mechanisms through which diet is improved and associations with weight status/obesity have been observed. PMID:26526243

  2. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  4. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  5. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  6. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  7. Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Perko, Matevž

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this graduation thesis, is to present the term »the idea of smart city« and to define, why a city is labeled as smart city. I explained the different areas in which new ideas for the advancement of cities are developed and explained, how new technologies and ideas are implemented in different areas of the city. Described are two approaches to the modernization of the city. I also showed different inovations and technologies, that have helped the cities become smarter and so tha...

  8. Neighborhoods and obesity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Macinko, James; Dixon, L Beth; Fryer, George E

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies reveal disparities in neighborhood access to food and fitness facilities, particularly in US cities; but few studies assess the effects of multiple neighborhood factors on obesity. This study measured the multilevel relations between neighborhood food availability, opportunities and barriers for physical activity, income and racial composition with obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in New York City, controlling for individual-level factors. Obesity rates varied widely between neighborhoods, ranging from 6.8% to 31.7%. Obesity was significantly (p<0.01) associated with neighborhood-level factors, particularly the availability of supermarkets and food stores, fitness facilities, percent of commercial land use and area income. These findings are consistent with the growing literature showing that area income and availability of food and physical activity resources are related to obesity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Scarpa, Michael; Lentz, Daisy; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2011-07-25

    Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL

  10. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66 revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food

  11. The Cedar Project: Negative health outcomes associated with involvement in the child welfare system among young Indigenous people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Adam F; Christian, Wayne M; Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Caron, Nadine R; Teegee, Mary P; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-05-07

    Indigenous leaders and child and family advocates are deeply concerned about the health impacts of the child welfare system, including HIV vulnerability. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of having been apprehended into the child welfare system and associated HIV vulnerabilities among young Indigenous people who use drugs. The Cedar Project is a cohort of young Indigenous people ages 14-30 years who use illicit drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia. Multivariable logistic regression modeling determined associations between a history of involvement in the child welfare system and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of 605 participants, 65% had been taken from their biological parents. Median age of first apprehension was 4 years old. Having been sexually abused, having a parent who attended residential school and being HIV-positive were all independently associated with having been involved in the child welfare system. Participants who had been involved in the child welfare system were also more likely to have been homeless, paid for sex, diagnosed and hospitalized with mental illness, self-harmed, thought about suicide, and attempted suicide. Among participants who used injection drugs, those who had been involved in child welfare were more likely to have shared needles and overdosed. This study has found compelling evidence that young Indigenous people who use drugs in two cities in BC are experiencing several distressing health outcomes associated with child welfare involvement, including HIV infection. Jurisdictional reforms and trauma-informed programs that use culture as intervention are urgently needed.

  12. Online food nutrition labelling in the UK: how consistent are supermarkets in their presentation of nutrition labels online?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stones, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate consistency levels of nutrition labelling on supermarket websites. This is a comparative, quantitative study examining page position, content and design of nutrition labels on own-brand and branded products...

  13. The impact of financial incentives on participants' food purchasing patterns in a supermarket-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Crawford, David A; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha Nd; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Ball, Kylie

    2017-08-25

    The impacts of supermarket-based nutrition promotion interventions might be overestimated if participants shift their proportionate food purchasing away from their usual stores. This study quantified whether participants who received price discounts on fruits and vegetables (FV) in the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial (RCT) shifted their FV purchasing into study supermarkets during the intervention period. Participants were 642 females randomly assigned to a 1) skill-building (n = 160), 2) price reduction (n = 161), 3) combined skill-building and price reduction (n = 160), or 4) control (n = 161) group. Participants self-reported the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at baseline, 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests assessed differences among groups in the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at each time point. Multinomial logistic regression assessed differences among groups in the change in proportionate FV purchasing over time. Post-intervention, 49% of participants purchased ≥50% of their FV in study supermarkets. Compared to all other groups, the price reduction group was approximately twice as likely (RRR: 1.8-2.2) to have increased proportionate purchasing of FV in study supermarkets from baseline to post-intervention (ppurchasing from other stores into study supermarkets during the intervention period. Unless food purchasing data are available for all sources, differential changes in purchasing patterns can make it difficult to discern the true impacts of nutrition interventions. The SHELf trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials Registration ISRCTN39432901, Registered 30 June 2010, Retrospectively registered ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN39432901 ).

  14. Internal organization and management of fresh produce marketing in retail supermarket chains :implications for marketing specialty produce

    OpenAIRE

    Beamer, Bobby G

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the management of the fresh produce marketing system in retail supermarket chains and to assess the marketing opportunities for specialty produce therein. Results provide new growers with knowledge of the retail industry necessary to establish good relationships with retailers. A selective sample of 17 retail supermarket chains in the Virginia area were identified for inclusion in the study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the person ...

  15. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.

  16. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  17. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Communication Network Performance on Supervisory Supermarket Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Minko, Tomasz; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    scenarios of variable electricity prices. Based on the structure of the message exchanges between supervisory and local controllers, first the impact of deterministic delays on the information age that is used by the controller to calculate set-points is analyzed. Subsequently we investigate the impact......This paper addresses the evaluation of the impact of non-ideal communication networks on system performance of hierarchical control systems. It develops a stepwise evaluation approach that is applied to the example scenario of a supervisory controller for supermarket temperature control, addressing...... of communication network performance on the supermarket refrigeration control and resulting energy costs using simulation models. The results show that the controller is resilient to downstream information delays, however upstream delays or up- and downstream information loss can cause significant performance...

  19. Proximity to Supermarkets Associated with Higher Body Mass Index among Overweight and Obese Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Melly, Steven J.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine associations of proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI) among preschool-age children. Methods We used baseline data from 438 children ages 2–6.9 years with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile participating in a RCT in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2009. We used a geographic information system to determine proximity to six types of food establishments: 1) convenience stores, 2) bakeries, coffee shops, candy stores, 3) full service restaurants, 4) large supermarkets, 5) small supermarkets, and 6) fast-food restaurants. The main outcome was child’s BMI. Results Children’s mean (SD) BMI was 19.2 (2.4) kg/m2; 35% lived ≤ 1 mile from a large supermarket, 42% lived >1 to 2 miles, and 22% lived >2 miles. Compared to children living >2 miles from a large supermarket, those who lived within 1 mile had a BMI 1.06 kg/m2 higher. Adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics and distance to fast-food restaurants attenuated this estimate to 0.77 kg/m2. Living in any other distance category from a large supermarket and proximity to other food establishments were not associated with child BMI. Conclusions Living closer to a large supermarket was associated with higher BMI among preschool-age children who were overweight or obese. PMID:23219681

  20. Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Supermarket Distance Is Associated with Excess Obesity Risk: A UK Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Burgoine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m2, overweight (25 ≥ BMI < 30 and obesity (≥30, across participants’ highest educational attainment (three groups and tertiles of street network distance (km from home location to nearest supermarket. Jointly-classified models estimated combined associations of education and supermarket distance, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI. Participants farthest away from their nearest supermarket had higher odds of obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58, relative to those living closest. Lower education was also associated with higher odds of obesity. Those least-educated and living farthest away had 3.39 (2.46–4.65 times the odds of being obese, compared to those highest-educated and living closest, with an excess obesity risk (RERI = 0.09; results were similar for overweight. Our results suggest that public health can be improved through planning better access to supermarkets, in combination with interventions to address socioeconomic barriers.

  1. Patterns of fruit and vegetable availability and price competitiveness across four seasons are different in local food outlets and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpiani, Natalie; Wilde, Parke; Rogers, Beatrice; Stewart, Hayden

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effect of seasonality on fruit and vegetable availability and prices across three outlet types (farmers' markets, roadside stands and conventional supermarkets). Cross-sectional survey of geographically clustered supermarkets, farmers' markets and roadside stands. Enumerators recorded the availability and lowest price for eleven fruits and eighteen vegetables in each season of 2011. Price data were collected at retail outlets located in central and eastern North Carolina. The sample consisted of thirty-three supermarkets, thirty-four farmers' markets and twenty-three roadside stands. Outside the local harvest season, the availability of many fruits and vegetables was substantially lower at farmers' markets and roadside stands compared with supermarkets. Given sufficient availability, some items were significantly cheaper (Pmarkets than supermarkets). Although small samples limited statistical power in many non-peak comparisons, these results also showed some differences by item: two-thirds of fruits were cheaper at one or both direct outlets in the spring and autumn, whereas five of eighteen vegetables cost more at direct retail year-round. Commonly consumed fruits and vegetables were more widely available at supermarkets in central and eastern North Carolina than at direct retail outlets, in each season. Contingent on item availability, price competitiveness of the direct retail outlets varied by fruit and vegetable. For many items, the outlets compete on price in more than one season.

  2. Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Supermarket Distance Is Associated with Excess Obesity Risk: A UK Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-10-25

    U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m²), overweight (25 ≥ BMI supermarket. Jointly-classified models estimated combined associations of education and supermarket distance, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Participants farthest away from their nearest supermarket had higher odds of obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), relative to those living closest. Lower education was also associated with higher odds of obesity. Those least-educated and living farthest away had 3.39 (2.46-4.65) times the odds of being obese, compared to those highest-educated and living closest, with an excess obesity risk (RERI = 0.09); results were similar for overweight. Our results suggest that public health can be improved through planning better access to supermarkets, in combination with interventions to address socioeconomic barriers.

  3. Field Measurements and Evaluation of CO2 Refrigeration Systems for Supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Kullheim, Johan

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, three supermarket refrigeration systems are evaluated; two trans-critical DX CO2 systems and one R404A/CO2 cascade system. Field measurements of energy consumption, temperatures, pressures, and compressor motor frequency are made using the computer programs IWMAC and LDS. Calculations are performed using the program Refprop and performance data from the compressor manufacturer. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) are calculated and the analysis is made fo...

  4. SUPERMARKET CUSTOMER OBSERVATION AND ELECTRONIC DATA ANALYSIS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MARKETING PLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Krueckeberg, Harry F.

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on research initiated to determine the potential role of observation methodology in market plan development. This report is based on 100 observations conduced in a supermarket dairy department. The findings have implications for market planning, merchandising and communication strategies. As a pilot project, the results are not based entirely on randomly selected customers. This reports represents efforts to apply and refine the observation technique and not necessarily t...

  5. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part 2: beef retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Naudé, R T; Holzapfel, W H; Grimbeek, R J

    1989-01-01

    An assessment was made of the microbiological quality of the final product (different retail cuts), produced by two different retail supermarket groups (A & B). The influence of sanitary conditions on the microbiological quality of the final product was evaluated, and the possible influences on shelf life were determined. Supermarket group A (Sup group A) received carcasses with significantly lower surface counts of micro-organisms than supermarket group B (Sup group B), while the latter had a more efficient overall sanitation programme than supermarket group A. Five cuts were monitored for the presence of total aerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and numbers of Pseudomonadaceae present. A shelf life study was also executed by repeating these enumerations on the same meat samples after refrigerated storage at 5°C for 2 and 4 days, respectively. It is generally accepted that a good refrigeration or chilling regime will preserve the inherent meat quality, but in this study it was found that neither served as a guarantee of quality. The more stringent hygiene at retail level of Sup group B yielded consistently lower mean counts of the different bacterial groups for all the meat cuts monitored and, thus meat with an extended shelf life. The total count (at 30°C) on meat cuts was the highest, followed by the psychrotrophs, the Pseudomonadaceae the Enterobacteriaeae and the lactobacilli. Minced meat generally had the highest mean aerobic total microbial counts. This count on minced meat might be a suitable indicator for monitoring the overall sanitary condition of a retail premises. The results re-emphasized the multi-factorial complexity of fresh meat quality and shelf life. The microbial quality of the raw material (carcasses), the maintenance of the cold chain, sanitary condition of premises, equipment and personnel surfaces and general management practices are factors that collectively determine the microbiological quality of the

  6. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Sweeney, Matthew J; Sobal, Jeffery; Just, David R; Kaiser, Harry M; Schulze, William D; Wethington, Elaine; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of a nutrition rating system on consumers' food purchases in supermarkets. Aggregate sales data for 102 categories of food (over 60 000 brands) on a weekly basis for 2005-2007 from a supermarket chain of over 150 stores are analysed. Change in weekly sales of nutritious and less nutritious foods, after the introduction of a nutrition rating system on store shelves, is calculated, controlling for seasonality and time trends in sales. One hundred and sixty-eight supermarket stores in the north-east USA, from January 2005 to December 2007. Consumers purchasing goods at the supermarket chain during the study period. After the introduction of the nutrition ratings, overall weekly food sales declined by an average of 3637 units per category (95 % CI -5961, -1313; P<0·01). Sales of less nutritious foods fell by 8·31 % (95 % CI -13·50, -2·80 %; P=0·004), while sales of nutritious foods did not change significantly (P=0·21); as a result, the percentage of food purchases rated as nutritious rose by 1·39 % (95 % CI 0·58, 2·20 %; P<0·01). The decrease in sales of less nutritious foods was greatest in the categories of canned meat and fish, soda pop, bakery and canned vegetables. The introduction of the nutrition ratings led shoppers to buy a more nutritious mix of products. Interestingly, it did so by reducing purchases of less nutritious foods rather than by increasing purchases of nutritious foods. In evaluating nutrition information systems, researchers should focus on the entire market basket, not just sales of nutritious foods.

  7. Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.

  8. Comparative study on the microorganisms present in ground meat in supermarkets and local markets in Ecatepec

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Rosales-Garnica; Adriana Galván-Bautista; Juan Díaz-Vela

    2011-01-01

    Meat is one of the most perishable foods due to that are high in the water and nutrients that promotes the growth of microorganisms. Ground meat tends to have more contamination than fresh meat because of the milling process where the microorganisms that were polluting the inside surface. Five stores were sampled from a supermarket chain and five markets in the municipality of Ecatepec. Ground beef was used for analysis of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, Staphylococcos, fungi and yeast...

  9. The extent and nature of food promotion directed to children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Nicholas, Penny; Banovic, Debbie; Supramaniam, Rajah

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the nature and amount of sales promotion use on food packaging in selected Australian supermarkets, specifically those directed at children through the use of premium offers, such as giveaways and competitions, and cartoon and movie character promotions. The study also examined the promotion of healthy versus unhealthy foods. Nine supermarkets located across the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia were surveyed to assess the extent and nature of food promotion directed at children. The number and types of promotions were measured within seven food categories: sweet biscuits, snack foods, confectionery, chips/savoury snacks, cereals, dairy snacks and ice cream. Any foods that utilized promotional tactics were categorized as either healthy or unhealthy, according to set criteria. The study found that within the seven food categories between 9 and 35% of food products used promotional tactics. The use of television, movie celebrities and cartoon characters for promotion was most common, making up 75% of all promotions. Giveaways accounted for 13% of all promotions. When used, giveaways were commonly used in conjunction with another promotional method. Data from this study also confirmed that 82% of all food promotions were for unhealthy foods and only 18% were used to promote healthy foods. However, for dairy snacks and ice cream the majority of promotions, 99 and 65%, respectively, were healthier choices. This was the first study to describe the extent and nature of food promotions used in supermarkets. The promotion of unhealthy foods in supermarkets is common and is one of the many factors contributing to today's obesity promoting environment. Further research is required to determine the impact of food promotions on children's dietary intake, and to determine the most effective ways to restrict the promotion of unhealthy foods.

  10. Association between distance to nearest supermarket and provision of fruits and vegetables in English nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    Burgoine, Thomas; Gallis, John A.; L. Penney, Tarra; Monsivais, Pablo; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    With 796,500 places available for children in England, pre-school nurseries could serve as an important setting for population-wide dietary intervention. It is critical to understand the determinants of healthy food provision in this setting, which may include access to food stores. This study examined the association between objective, GIS-derived supermarket proximity and fruit and vegetable serving frequency, using data from 623 English nurseries. Overall, 116 (18%) nurseries served fruits...

  11. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  12. A multilevel analysis to explain self-reported adverse health effects and adaptation to urban heat: a cross-sectional survey in the deprived areas of 9 Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bélanger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies the characteristics and perceptions related to the individual, the dwelling and the neighbourhood of residence associated with the prevalence of self-reported adverse health impacts and an adaptation index when it is very hot and humid in summer in the most disadvantaged sectors of the nine most populous cities of Québec, Canada, in 2011. Methods The study uses a cross-sectional design and a stratified representative sample; 3485 people (individual-level were interviewed in their residence. They lived in 1647 buildings (building-level in 87 most materially and socially disadvantaged census dissemination areas (DA-level. Multilevel analysis was used to perform 3-level models nested one in the other to examine individual impacts as well as the adaptation index. Results For the prevalence of impacts, which is 46 %, the logistic model includes 13 individual-level indicators (including air conditioning and the adaptation index and 1 building-level indicator. For the adaptation index, with values ranging from -3 to +3, the linear model has 10 individual-level indicators, 1 building-level indicator and 2 DA-level indicators. Of all these indicators, 9 were associated to the prevalence of impacts only and 8 to the adaptation index only. Conclusion This 3-level analysis shows the differential importance of the characteristics of residents, buildings and their surroundings on self-reported adverse health impacts and on adaptation (other than air conditioning under hot and humid summer conditions. It also identifies indicators specific to impacts or adaptation. People with negative health impacts from heat rely more on adaptation strategies while low physical activity and good dwelling/building insulation lead to lower adaptation. Better neighbourhood walkability favors adaptations other than air conditioning. Thus, adaptation to heat in these neighbourhoods seems reactive rather than preventive. These first multi

  13. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  14. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Giménez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children’s eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children’s attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products’ sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study’s findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  15. Customer Perception of a Supermarket Nutrition Centre Staffed by a Registered Dietitian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, KATE; Taper, JANETTE; Quintal, DEBORAH

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' attitudes toward a supermarket nutrition centre staffed full time by a registered dietitian. A questionnaire was administered over three consecutive days in that store and in a control store that was similar to the experimental site in every way, except for the absence of a nutrition centre. Participants were chosen randomly at timed intervals in specific areas of the store. Of 428 customers approached, 232 agreed to participate in the survey. At the experimental site, 75% of the participants were extremely satisfied with the registered dietitian's services and 69% ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in any store as extremely important, compared to 31% at the control site (p < 0.05). In ranking the importance of 13 required and optional services offered by the supermarkets, 15% of participants at the experimental site ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in the top five, compared with 4% at the control site (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that participants at the experimental site view the nutrition centre as a valuable service. There may therefore be an expanded role for registered dietitians in the supermarket setting.

  16. Clonal distribution of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus on handles of handheld shopping baskets in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumachi, E; Kato, F; Hisatsune, J; Tsuruda, K; Uehara, Y; Seo, H; Sugai, M

    2011-02-01

    Shopping carts and handheld shopping baskets in supermarkets are subject to accidental bacterial contamination through contacts with a variety of food. We investigated the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on the handles of handheld shopping baskets in four supermarkets distantly located in Osaka district, Japan. Fifty two strains of Staph. aureus were isolated from 760 basket handles. Among these, six strains were positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) production, representing 12% of total. This SEB producer ratio is considerably higher than among Staph. aureus isolated from nasal swabs of the supermarket workers (2%) and from independently collected clinical specimens (4%). These SEB-producing Staph. aureus strains from the basket handles are clonal and belong to ST12. Coagulase typing showed that they are in group VII, which is the most common cause of food poisoning in Japan. Biofilm assays indicated that SEB gene (seb)-positive strains including this clone produced a significantly higher amount of biofilm than seb-negative strains. The frequent isolation of seb-positive Staph. aureus on shopping basket handles raises the possibility that they could be a hidden reservoir for Staph. aureus with a potential to cause food poisoning and draws attention to the importance of shopping basket sanitation. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Saldamando, Luis de; Curutchet, María Rosa; Ares, Gastón

    2017-06-12

    Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children's eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children's attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products' sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study's findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  18. Accuracy of Canadian Food Labels for Sodium Content of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fitzpatrick

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories. Results were requested for products with ≥1 of the following nutrients tested: sodium, calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sugar. Differences between the label and laboratory values were calculated for each product. Overall, 16.7% (n = 169 of products were “unsatisfactory” with laboratory values exceeding ±20% of the NFt value. Sodium had the highest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 49, 18.4% and trans fat had the lowest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 16, 4.3%. The proportion of unsatisfactory products for saturated fat, calories, and sugar was 15.8%, 14.2%, and 12.9%, respectively. All of the unsatisfactory products had excess nutrient content relative to the NFt. Sodium and calories were consistently underreported (p < 0.05, while NFt values for the other nutrients were not statistically different than laboratory values. Increased monitoring of NFt sodium values is recommended in order to increase consumer confidence in this nutrition tool, to encourage industry to accurately report nutrient content and to continue using the NFt to guide research, education, and policy development.

  19. Field measurements of supermarket refrigeration systems. Part II: Analysis of HFC refrigeration systems and comparison to CO2 trans-critical

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, Samer; Piscopiello, Salvatore; Karampour, Mazyar; Manickam, Louis; Rogstam, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    This part of the study investigates the performance of HFC refrigeration systems for supermarkets and compares the performance with alternative CO2 trans-critical solutions. The investigated HFC system solutions are typical in supermarkets in Sweden. The analysis in this study is based on field measurements which were carried out in three supermarkets in Sweden. The results are compared to the findings from Part I of this study where five CO2 trans-critical systems were analyzed. Using the fi...

  20. Healthy or Unhealthy on Sale? A cross-sectional study on the proportion of healthy and unhealthy foods promoted through flyer advertising by supermarkets in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ravensbergen, Eva AH; Waterlander, Wilma E; Kroeze, Willemieke; Steenhuis, Ingrid HM

    2015-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proportions of healthy and unhealthy foods on promotion in Dutch supermarket flyers. Methods Supermarket food promotions were assessed using the weekly promotional flyers of four maj...

  1. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  2. A postura no trabalho dos operadores de checkout de supermercados: uma necessidade constante de análises Supermarket checkout operators posture at work: The continuous need for analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Concepción Batiz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As condições de trabalho nas quais os operadores de checkout de supermercados realizam suas atividades têm sido uma preocupação dos especialistas nos últimos tempos. Essa pesquisa foi realizada em oito supermercados de duas cidades do Brasil com o objetivo de conhecer as condições em que os operadores realizam suas atividades, detectando os fatores de risco para propor medidas que eliminem ou minimizem o aparecimento de efeitos adversos nos trabalhadores. Foi aplicado um questionário e o método RULA a uma amostra de 80 trabalhadores. O estudo mostrou que o mobiliário não está adaptado às características antropométricas da população, a maioria das posturas analisadas é inadequada, não existem revezamento nem pausas que poderiam ajudar a minimizar a situação, existência de sobrecarga, mental e física, entre outras. Conclui-se que a atividade pode representar riscos à saúde dos operadores de caixa de supermercados.The work conditions in which supermarket checkout operators perform activities have been a recent concern to specialists. This research was carried out in eight supermarkets of two cities in Brazil with the aim of knowing the conditions under which operators work, in order to detect risk factors and to propose procedures that could eliminate or minimize their adverse effects on workers. Structured questionnaire and the RULA method was applied to a sample of 80 workers. Major findings of the study as follows: furniture was not adapted to anthropometric characteristics of the workers, most of analyzed positions are not adequate, there was no rotation or pauses that could reduce the risk, there was a significant amount of mental and physical work overload. We conclude that, under current conditions, checkout operations at supermarkets poses health risk to operators.

  3. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    -Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of metals and environmental contaminants were quantified in pregnant women from six Canadian Cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant differences between cities were documented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of several metals and contaminants were higher in foreign-born vs. Canadian women.

  4. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  5. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  6. Natural history of Canadian mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Donna; Banfield, A. W. F

    2012-01-01

    .... A complete revision of A.W.F. Banfield's classic text Mammals of Canada, it features brand-new, full-colour images of each species, as well as stunning photographs from Canadian Geographic magazine's national photography...

  7. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  8. Can the introduction of a full-service supermarket in a food desert improve residents' economic status and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Beckman, Robin; Flórez, Karen R; DeSantis, Amy; Collins, Rebecca L; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health. We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses. We observed declines in food insecurity (-11.8%, P supermarket relative to residents of the comparison neighborhood. We also found suggestive evidence that residents' incomes increased more ($1550, P = .09) and prevalence of diabetes increased less in the neighborhood with the supermarket than in the comparison neighborhood (-3.6%, P = .10). Locating a new supermarket in a low-income neighborhood may improve residents' economic well-being and health. Policymakers should consider broad impacts of neighborhood investment that could translate into improved health for residents of underserved neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detailed analysis of the supermarket task included on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    The supermarket task, which is included in the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, requires the quick (1 min) generation of words for things that can be bought in a supermarket. Cluster size and switches are investigated during this task. We investigated how the severity of dementia related to cluster size and switches on the supermarket task in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We administered the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test to 250 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and to 49 healthy volunteers. Patients had Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 12 to 26 and Clinical Dementia Rating scale scores from 0.5 to 3. Patients were divided into four groups based on their Clinical Dementia Rating score (0.5, 1, 2, 3). We performed statistical analyses between the four groups and control subjects based on cluster size and switch scores on the supermarket task. The score for cluster size and switches deteriorated according to the severity of dementia. Moreover, for subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5, cluster size was impaired, but switches were intact. Our findings indicate that the scores for cluster size and switches on the supermarket task may be useful for detecting the severity of symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Relations between occupational, psychosocial and individual factors and three different categories of back disorder among supermarket workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Francesco S; Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Curti, Stefania; Mattioli, Stefano

    2005-09-01

    Up-to-date store-wide studies regarding low back pain (LBP) among supermarket/hypermarket workers are lacking. We investigated 12-month store-wide prevalence of different categories of LBP and possible associated biomechanical, individual/psychosocial risk factors across a large supermarket/hypermarket chain. We performed a cross-sectional study of 3,702 subjects working in a group of small/medium-sized supermarkets (n=100) and large hypermarkets (n=7) belonging to a single chain in central-northern Italy applying established ergonomics/job-satisfaction policies. Data regarding the various departments were collected by a medical check-list, physical examination and questionnaire-all conducted by qualified physicians--and were analyzed in relation to a comprehensive biomechanical risk analysis. The overall 12-month prevalence of LBP in our sample (with a 82% response rate) was 34.5% (36.6% for females and 30.7% for males), with few differences being found between supermarkets and hypermarkets. Different types of LBP showed significant associations with stress-related psychosomatic symptoms, but not with job satisfaction (which was high). These encouraging data provide relevant information regarding workers operating in supermarkets/hypermarkets with an active commitment to ergonomic and job-satisfaction policies.

  11. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  12. Homonymous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration: A Supermarket Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Sippel, Katrin; Heister, Martin; Aehling, Katrin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) may critically interfere with quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVFDs on a supermarket search task and to investigate the influence of visual search on task performance. Ten patients with HVFDs (four with a right-sided [HR] and six with a left-sided defect [HL]), and 10 healthy-sighted, sex-, and age-matched control subjects were asked to collect 20 products placed on two supermarket shelves as quickly as possible. Task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item (TC -failed = 4.84 seconds based on the performance of healthy subjects). Eye movements were analyzed regarding the horizontal gaze activity, glance frequency, and glance proportion for different VF areas. Seven of 10 HVFD patients (three HR, four HL) passed the supermarket search task. Patients who passed needed significantly less time per correctly collected item and looked more frequently toward the VFD area than patients who failed. HL patients who passed the test showed a higher percentage of glances beyond the 60° VF (P < 0.05). A considerable number of HVFD patients performed successfully and could compensate for the HVFD by shifting the gaze toward the peripheral VF and the VFD area. These findings provide new insights on gaze adaptations in patients with HVFDs during activities of daily living and will enhance the design and development of realistic examination tools for use in the clinical setting to improve daily functioning. (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01372319, NCT01372332).

  13. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...... is demonstrated. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow dynamics of the food temperature, compared with the air temperature, we are able to further lower both the energy consumption and the peak value of power requirement. The Pareto optimal curve is found by off-line optimization....

  14. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part Two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.

    2011-01-01

    The Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Unknown Input Observer (UIO) for a supermarket refrigeration system is investigated. The original system's state $T_{goods}$ (temp. of the goods) is regarded as a system unknown input in this study, so that the FDI decision is not disturbed...... by the system uncertainties relevant to this state dynamic and the original system disturbance $Q_{airload}$ (the thermal feature of the air). It has been observed that a single UIO has a very good detection capability for concerned sensor and parametric faults. However, only the parametric fault can...... and successful FDI capability regarding to concerned fault scenarios....

  15. Energy and environmental performance assessment of R744 booster supermarket refrigeration systems operating in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical comparison among different commercial refrigeration systems in terms of annual energy consumption and environmental impact. Eight configurations were studied: a R744/R134a cascade refrigeration system (baseline), a conventional and an improved R744 booster system...... as on the running modes of a conventional European supermarket. A transition zone, which occurred between sub critical and transcritical operations, was adopted.The results showed that all the enhanced configurations may achieve a comparable energy saving to the one of the baseline in both the selected locations...

  16. Recruitment and selection for the packer position in a supermarket network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of personnel recruitment and selection is a common practice to hire people in organizations. The goal of this study is to report and to reflect about this process in a supermarket chain, which operates in food and non-food retail in the state of Sao Paulo. The purpose of the present intervention was to facilitate the recruitment and selection process for the packer position. After the intervention, we noticed an improvement on the hiring process, on the working conditions and a turnover reduction in this position.

  17. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  18. EFEK PELAYANAN SENYUM, SALAM, SAPA PETUGAS KASIR TERHADAP KEPUASAN KONSUMEN SUPERMARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riza Febrianto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was experimental research aimed at knowing the effect of smiling, greeting, and addressing of cashier toward the satisfaction of supermarket’s customers. This research used posttest only control group design. The subject were 62 customers of supermarket X.4. They were randomly divided into two groups, experiment group and control group. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to analyze the costumer statisfaction. The result show there is significant difference between experimental group and control group after receive service with smiling, greeting and addressing from cashier. The research result show that smiling, greeting and addressing of cashier influences the satisfaction of supermarket’s customers effectively.

  19. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Specialization in services: a Canadian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Simmons

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern urban systems the economic growth of cities is largely driven by services. In many regions employment growth in primary and secondary activities is close to zero, or even negative. Growth depends on the ability to attract jobs in the services. This study explores the pattern of specialization in various service activities for 159 Canadian urban areas in 1996, as the basis for a series of maps for the Atlas of Canada. The hierarchical specialization is evaluated for each service sector by computing a regression model of ser-vice employment as a function of urban population and income per capita. The rapidly growing business and financial services are the most strongly oriented to larger cities. The horizontal specialization is measured as residuals from the regressions. Strong regional differences contrast the central place roles of agricultural communities with the more loca-lized markets of resource and manufacturing centres. Public sector decisions about the loca-tion of major health and education facilities complement the choices of the private sector.

  1. Customer Service Quality in Large Supermarkets in Ibagué, Colombia: Analysis through the SERVQUAL Multidimensional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rubio Guerrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is affecting all economies and their organizations seeking to maximize their profits through customer satisfaction. Within this context, large supermarkets have had significant growth; hence, it is important to know the quality of the service customers are receiving in these stores. Currently, service quality measures in these stores in the global market are scarce. This article presents the results of the measurement of the quality of service customers receive from large supermarkets in Ibagué - Colombia, by using the SERVQUAL multi-item scale, which is a tool applied to service quality, comprising five dimensions in 22 items and evaluating characteristics related to tangible aspects, reliability, responsibility, guaranty, security, and empathy. The population studied are customers who visit these supermarkets with mixed research approach (qualitative and quantitative; the results showed customer satisfaction with personnel kindness, customer attention services, agility in attention, customer care, behavior of security personnel, product promoters, merchandisers, cashiers, packers, and supervisors

  2. Buying food on sale: a mixed methods study with shoppers at an urban supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Stites, Shana D; Singletary, S Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-09-04

    The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF.

  3. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several...... interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  4. Academic Dishonesty in the Canadian Classroom: Behaviours of a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Hage, H. Sam; Chow, Henry P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a persistent problem in institutions of higher education, with numerous short- and long-term implications. This study examines undergraduate students' self-reported engagement in acts of academic dishonesty using data from a sample of 321 participants attending a public university in a western Canadian city during the fall…

  5. 77 FR 35113 - Canadian National Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Canadian National Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County... milepost 0.20 to approximately milepost 0.35 in the City of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, N.Y., a distance... track in Niagara Falls, extending between the eastern end of the Bridge and the beginning of the Niagara...

  6. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket

  7. Food shopping transition: socio-economic characteristics and motivations associated with use of supermarkets in a North African urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.

  8. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st...

  9. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  10. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  11. The Stockouts Study: an Examination of the Extent and the Causes in the São Paulo Supermarket Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Rigato Vasconcellos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Stockouts remain a significant retail problem. Progress has been limited, as estimates of stockout rates in the past forty years have consistently averaged above 8 percent. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance and extent of the stockout problem in the supermarket sector in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from the perspective of the supermarket managers themselves. Results suggest that the level of stockouts is high. Generally, the suppliers are mentioned as being the ones mainly responsible for stockouts. These results suggest that managers have significant opportunities to reduce retail stockouts by taking preventative actions.

  12. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  13. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG DI DAERAH PARKIR BASEMENT DAN PARKIR UPPERGROUND (STUDI KASUS DI SUPERMARKET SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing building growth in urban areas is limited by land availability. Lack of space in this area lead to build high rise building rather landed building. In this type of building, parking area is built in the basement and or upperground inside the building. Within this enclosed space, indoor air quality might a problem. This study focus to compare emerged pollutants between basement parking area and upperground parking area in supermarket building. The dust sampler, the impinger and the CO monitor were used to measure TSP, NO2 and CO concentrations respectively in these areas during supermarket operations. In the basement area, in particular, the TSP concentrations tend to exceeds 300 µg/m3 mainly at weekend period. While for NO2 and CO concentrations still meet the air quality standard. Based on these findings it seems the main source of pollutants was derived from dust resuspension. Thus, the mitigation measures to reduce this dust resuspension should be emphasized in order to prevent air quality deterioration in the basement parking area.

  14. Emotion Work and Musculoskeletal Pain in Supermarket Cashiers: A Test of a Sleep-Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria U. Kottwitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive movement and a lack of postural change are known risk factors for musculoskeletal pain in cashiers. This study tests emotional dissonance – the demand to keep being polite to impolite customers – as an additional risk factor. Furthermore, sleep problems are expected to mediate the link between emotion work and musculoskeletal pain. Data contains 103 female supermarket cashiers from three supermarkets of a large retailer responded to a questionnaire (participation rate 60.6%. An open question asked for the most negative job facets in daily work. Standardized questionnaire were used to assess emotional dissonance, sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain. Responses to the open question showed experience of unkind customers as the most prevalent negative experience at work reported by 47.6% of cashiers, followed by prolonged sitting (8.7%. Emotional dissonance was a significant predictor of neck and back pain when BMI, age, part-time work, and change of hand function during their shift (work rotation were controlled (β = .30, p < .01. Moreover, sleep problems were confirmed as a mediator with respect to neck and back pain (B = .21, SE = .10, CI = 02–.22. No mediation was found in prediction of pain in arms and shoulders or hips, legs, and feet. Emotional dissonance in work of cashiers appeared as a unique risk factor of neck and back pain. Work design should pay more attention to the social demands of cashier work.

  15. Where do food desert residents buy most of their junk food? Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald P; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    To examine where residents in an area with limited access to healthy foods (an urban food desert) purchased healthier and less healthy foods. Food shopping receipts were collected over a one-week period in 2013. These were analysed to describe where residents shopped for food and what types of food they bought. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy foods in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Two hundred and ninety-three households in which the primary food shoppers were predominantly female (77·8 %) and non-Hispanic black (91·1 %) adults. Full-service supermarkets were by far the most common food retail outlet from which food receipts were returned and accounted for a much larger proportion (57·4 %) of food and beverage expenditures, both healthy and unhealthy, than other food retail outlets. Although patronized less frequently, convenience stores were notable purveyors of unhealthy foods. Findings highlight the need to implement policies that can help to decrease unhealthy food purchases in full-service supermarkets and convenience stores and increase healthy food purchases in convenience stores.

  16. A comparison of the cost of generic and branded food products in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Innes-Hughes, Christine; Goldsbury, David; Kelly, Bridget; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2013-05-01

    Food cost is an important factor influencing the consumption of nutritious foods and subsequent chronic disease risk. The present study compared the cost of branded food products with their generic equivalents across a range of food categories. The survey was conducted within two major supermarket chains across six locations in Sydney, Australia (n 12). Price differences were calculated for 'core' (nutrient dense and low in energy) and 'extra' (high in undesirable nutrients and/or energy) packaged foods (n 22) between generic and branded items. A cost saving of 44 % was found by purchasing generic over branded products across all food categories. The most significant savings were for core foods, such as bread and cereals, and the smallest cost savings were seen for fruit products. There was little variation in cost saving between branded and generic products by socio-economic status of the supermarket location. The large price differential between branded and generic food products implies that consumers, particularly those on lower incomes, could benefit financially from purchasing generic items. The promotion of core generic products may be an effective strategy to assist people on lower incomes to meet dietary guidelines.

  17. Effects of sales promotions, weight status, and impulsivity on purchases in a supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Several environmental factors contribute to increased food consumption and play a role in the prevalence of obesity, like portion size, accessibility and relative price of high caloric foods, food commercials, and sales promotions. However, not everyone seems equally sensitive to these environmental cues and both obesity and impulsivity appears to play a role. In this study, food purchases in an internet supermarket are tested in 118 participants, with or without sales promotions for snack foods. Both weight status and response inhibition, an index of impulsivity, are measured. Participants with less inhibitory control purchased in total more calories from the internet supermarket then participants with more inhibitory control. In addition, sales promotion, weight status, and inhibitory control appeared to interact in their effect on snack food purchases: participants with less inhibitory control and overweight bought more calories of snacks in the sales promotions condition, but not in the control condition. For the other participants, with normal weight and/or high inhibitory control, sales promotions had no effect on their purchases of calories of snacks. It seems that especially the combination of low inhibitory control and overweight makes participants vulnerable for environmental cues. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transactions at a Northeastern Supermarket Chain: Differences by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Moran, Alyssa; Hou, Tao; Blue, Dan; Greene, Julie; Thorndike, Anne N; Polacsek, Michele; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-10-01

    Although one in seven Americans receives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, little is known about how these benefits for food are spent because individual-level sales data are not publicly available. The purpose of this study is to compare transactions made with and without SNAP benefits at a large regional supermarket chain. Sales data were obtained from a large supermarket chain in the Northeastern U.S. for a period of 2 years (April 2012-April 2014). Multivariate multiple regression models were used to quantify relative differences in dollars spent on 31 predefined SNAP-eligible food categories. Analyses were completed in 2016. Transactions with SNAP benefit use included higher spending on less healthful food categories, including sugar-sweetened beverages ($1.08), red meat ($1.55), and convenience foods ($1.34), and lower spending on more healthful food categories, such as fruits (-$1.51), vegetables (-$1.35), and poultry (-$1.25) compared to transactions without SNAP benefit use. These findings provide objective data to compare purchases made with and without SNAP benefits. Next steps should be to test proposed SNAP modifications to determine whether they would have the intended effect of promoting healthier purchasing patterns among SNAP beneficiaries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial Influences on Fruit and Vegetable Intake Following a NYC Supermarket Discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernales-Korins, Maria; Ang, Ian Yi Han; Khan, Shamima; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of a 50% discount on fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the purchase and intake of F&V and on psychosocial determinants of F&V intake: self-efficacy (SE), stages of change (SOC), and perceived barriers (PB). This randomized controlled trial was conducted in local supermarkets over 16 weeks, including a 4-week baseline, 8-week discount intervention, and 4-week follow-up. Shoppers with overweight or obesity (BMI > 25) were randomized to receive a discount or no discount via their reward scan card after the baseline. Twenty-four-hour recalls and psychosocial measures were obtained for each study period. Purchases (P supermarket discount intervention led to increases in purchases and intakes of F&V and increases in the psychosocial factors SE and SOC and did not decrease PB. The discount intervention prompted participants to move from the preparation to action stage of SOC, which acted as a mediator for increased F&V intake. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. [Biomechanical risk assessment of manual material handling in vegetables and fruit departments of supermarkets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Vinci, F

    2007-01-01

    There is little in the literature about the risks of manual handling of material in supermarkets and what there is refers solely to storehouse work. This contrasts with the substantial number of studies of the risk of repeated arm movements among supermarket cash-desk staff. The scarcity of information is partly due to the difficulties of applying widely employed, standardized evaluation methods in this sector. One of the conditions limiting the application of the NIOSH protocol in this retail sector is that lifting tasks are so often closely tied to transport. The biomechanical analysis method we used brought to light considerable risks in many of the steps investigated: unpacking the pallet, unloading the crates from the pallet to the ground, lifting them from the floor onto display stands, and filling the boxes on the stands with goods before the shop opens. Images acquired on site were analyzed in the laboratory. We selected the most indicative images, which were then studied as regards posture and biomechanics using Apalys 3.0 software (ILMCAD GmbH, Ilmenau, Germany). Biomechemical analysis was done on the following movements: unloading crates from the pallet, positioning them on fruit and vegetable department display stands, and filling the boxes on the stands. We obtained a prediction of 2720 to 5472 N for the load at the lumbosacral junction (L5-S1). Simulation of the NIOSH index gave a value of 2.69 in the only case where the Waters protocol could be applied.

  2. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce from Open Air Markets and Supermarkets in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangeli G. Vital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first in the Philippines to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and somatic phages in retailed fresh produce used in salad preparation, namely, bell pepper, cabbage, carrot, lettuce, and tomato, using culture and molecular methods. Out of 300 samples from open air and supermarkets, 16.7% tested positive for thermotolerant Escherichia coli, 24.7% for Salmonella spp., and 47% for somatic phages. Results show that counts range from 0.30 to 4.03 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, 0.66 to ≥2.34 log10 MPN/g for Salmonella spp., and 1.30 to ≥3.00 log10 PFU/g for somatic phages. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference in the microbial counts between open air and supermarkets (α=0.05. TaqMan and AccuPower Plus DualStar real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to confirm the presence of these organisms. The relatively high prevalence of microorganisms observed in produce surveyed signifies reduction in shelf-life and a potential hazard to food safety. This information may benefit farmers, consumers, merchants, and policy makers for foodborne disease detection and prevention.

  3. Engaging the Canadian Diaspora: Youth Social Identities in a Canadian Border City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, S. Nombuso; Wolfe, Barat; Anucha, Uzo; Yan, Miu Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative interviews undertaken with immigrant youth of African descent in Windsor, Ontario; it describes their sojourner lives across geographic borders and their final settlement in Windsor. The paper also offers narrations of the activities that enabled them to formulate friendships and the barriers and facilitators to…

  4. Supermarket market-channel participation and technology decisions of horticultural producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Y. Mainville

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationships between growers’ choice of market channel (emphasizing the supermarket market-channel versus others, technology use, and grower characteristics such as human capital and farm size. Three key findings emerged. First, both tomato and lettuce growers selling to the supermarket market-channel had more human capital than those not participating. Second, while farm size was important in whether lettuce growers sell to supermarkets, it was not important for tomato growers. Third, technology use was significantly more capital-intensive among lettuce growers selling to the supermarket channels, however, that was generally not the case for tomato growers. These results are important to agribusiness researchers and policymakers interested in technology design and research and extension to enable producers to adapt to the needs of changing agrifood markets, with new requirements of attributes of products and transactions, which in turn have implications for technology adoption and human capital investment among growers. This is particularly pressing in places like Brazil where the market for horticultural products is changing quickly, conditioned by the rapid rise of supermarkets.Este artigo analisa as relações entre a escolha dos canais de distribuição dos produtores (enfatizando distribuição por meio de supermercados versus outros canais, o uso da tecnologia e as características dos produtores como capital humano e tamanho da propriedade. Foram identificados três resultados principais. O primeiro revela que produtores de tomate e alface que distribuem por meio de supermercados apresentaram maior capital humano que aqueles que não utilizam esse canal. O segundo resultado indica que enquanto o tamanho da propriedade foi importante para produtores de alface decidirem distribuir por meio de supermercados, essa variável não foi importante para produtores de tomate. O terceiro resultado sugere que o uso da

  5. Association of a Community Campaign for Better Beverage Choices With Beverage Purchases From Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Schneider, Glenn E; Choi, Yoon-Young; Li, Xun; Harris, Jennifer; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Hyary, Maia; Highsmith Vernick, Nicolette; Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose. To compare beverage sales in Howard County, Maryland (HC), with sales in comparison stores in a contiguous state before and during a 3-year campaign to reduce consumption of sugary beverages. This observational experiment with a control group included 15 HC supermarkets and 17 comparison supermarkets. Weekly beverage sales data at baseline (January 1 to December 31, 2012) and from campaign years 1 to 3 (January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015) were analyzed. A difference-in-differences (DID) regression compared the volume sales per product per week in the HC and comparison stores, controlling for mean product price, competitor's product price, product size, weekly local temperature, and manufacturer. The campaign message was to reduce consumption of all sugary drinks. Television advertising, digital marketing, direct mail, outdoor advertising, social media, and earned media during the 3-year period created 17 million impressions. Community partners successfully advocated for public policies to encourage healthy beverage consumption in schools, child care, health care, and government settings. Sales were tracked of sugary drinks highlighted in the campaign, including regular soda, sports drinks, and fruit drinks. Sales of diet soda and 100% juice were also tracked. Sales data are expressed as mean fluid ounces sold per product, per store, per week. Regular soda sales in the 15 HC supermarkets decreased (-19.7%) from 2012 through 2015, whereas sales remained stable (0.8%) in the 17 comparison supermarkets (DID adjusted mean, -369 fl oz; 95% CI, -469 to -269 fl oz; P < .01). Fruit drink sales decreased (-15.3%) in HC stores and remained stable (-0.6%) in comparison stores (DID adjusted mean, -342 fl oz; 95% CI, -466 to -220 fl oz; P < .001). Sales of 100% juice decreased more in HC (-15.0%) than comparison (-2

  6. Gathering in the city: an annotated bibliography and review of the literature about human-plant interactions in urban ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. McLain; K. MacFarland; L. Brody; J. Hebert; P. Hurley; M. Poe; L.P. Buttolph; N. Gabriel; M. Dzuna; M.R. Emery; S. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen resurgence in interest in gathering wild plants and fungi in cities. In addition to gathering by individuals, dozens of groups have emerged in U.S., Canadian, and European cities to facilitate access to nontimber forest products (NTFPs), particularly fruits and nuts, in public and private spaces. Recent efforts within cities to encourage public...

  7. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  8. Carbon footprint and energy use of food waste management options for fresh fruit and vegetables from supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Spångberg, Johanna

    2017-02-01

    Food waste is a problem with economic, environmental and social implications, making it both important and complex. Previous studies have addressed food waste management options at the less prioritised end of the waste hierarchy, but information on more prioritised levels is also needed when selecting the best available waste management options. Investigating the global warming potential and primary energy use of different waste management options offers a limited perspective, but is still important for validating impacts from the waste hierarchy in a local context. This study compared the effect on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use of different food waste management scenarios in the city of Växjö, Sweden. A life cycle assessment was performed for four waste management scenarios (incineration, anaerobic digestion, conversion and donation), using five food products (bananas, tomatoes, apples, oranges and sweet peppers) from the fresh fruit and vegetables department in two supermarkets as examples when treated as individual waste streams. For all five waste streams, the established waste hierarchy was a useful tool for prioritising the various options, since the re-use options (conversion and donation) reduced the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use to a significantly higher degree than the energy recovery options (incineration and anaerobic digestion). The substitution of other products and services had a major impact on the results in all scenarios. Re-use scenarios where food was replaced therefore had much higher potential to reduce environmental impact than the energy recovery scenarios where fossil fuel was replaced. This is due to the high level of resources needed to produce food compared with production of fossil fuels, but also to fresh fruit and vegetables having a high water content, making them inefficient as energy carriers. Waste valorisation measures should therefore focus on directing each type of food to the waste

  9. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  10. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  11. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  12. Moral and Ethical Decision Making in Canadian Forces Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    said, “Well drive by and take out whatever you need but leave it in (CANADIAN CITY 2).” And I said, “ Fuck you.” You know, that’s the sort of treatment...is the way they write up the loyalty part of it, where it’s loyalty to “the system”. What that’s saying is, “Shut the fuck up and tow the party...I just said, “ Fuck it”…So, that was an ethical decision for me in the first instance. I am a professional, I eat, sleep and breathe the profession

  13. Healthy food choices and physical activity opportunities in two contrasting Alabama cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell-Benjamin, A C; Hathorn, C S; Ibrahim, S; Gichuhi, P N; Bromfield, E M

    2009-06-01

    Food and physical activity access and availability in two contrasting cities in Alabama were investigated. An in-outlet, observational, cross-sectional design was utilized to assess the opportunities for healthy food choices and physical activity. Thirty retail food outlets and 29 physical activity outlets were inventoried. None of the convenience stores carried frozen, low-sodium or dark-green, yellow vegetables, low-fat milk or yogurt, low-sodium and low-fat cheese, while none of the supermarkets in Tuskegee stocked low-sodium vegetables. In Tuskegee, the single public recreational area, which offered activities such as basketball, fees ranged from $25 to $35/month. Tuskegee has a shortage of "chain" supermarkets and a dominance of convenience stores which stocked few healthy foods. Overall, there are limited opportunities for healthy food and physical activity choices, which could be a barrier for chronic disease prevention efforts.

  14. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Tindale, Kathryn [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Li, Hongxia, E-mail: lihongxia@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Rodayan, Angela [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yargeau, Viviane, E-mail: viviane.yargeau@mcgill.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  15. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  16. Use of supermarket receipts to estimate energy and fat content of food purchased by lean and overweight families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransley, J K; Donnelly, J K; Botham, H; Khara, T N; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy and fat content of food purchased for home consumption by households comprising mainly overweight individuals (OH), with those comprising mainly lean individuals (LH). 214 supermarket shoppers and their household were recruited from a Tesco supermarket in Leeds (UK). Households collected supermarket receipts and completed a shopping diary for 28-days, and each member of the household completed a 4-day food record. OH purchased food higher in fat (38% total energy from fat) than LH, (34.9%: p=0.001) and they purchased more energy and fat per adult equivalent, per day than LH (10.05 MJ compared to 9.15 MJ: p=0.01 and 103 g compared to 86 g:p=0.001). Households were 15% more likely to be classified as OH for each additional MJ of energy purchased per person, per day, after adjusting for number of children, household size, age, sex and social class. It was concluded that food purchasing behaviour may be linked to the prevalence of obesity in households who shop at supermarkets.

  17. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children: Parent-Child Communication in Supermarket Breakfast Cereal Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    In this study, naturalistic patterns of parent-child interaction were unobtrusively observed in supermarkets to describe characteristics of breakfast cereal selection by 516 family units. The interaction sequence was summarized into five dimensions: initiating party, tone of initial message, type of response, type of consequence, and references to…

  18. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the

  19. Change of behaviour when selecting food products in a supermarket environment after reminding consumers about weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Anna-Maria

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to explore how the behaviour of consumers changed while they selected food in a supermarket environment after they were reminded about weight management. This investigation was carried out from the perspective of selection criteria, reading of package labels, nutritional quality of the products selected and time taken to select a product. The subjects, who were actively watching their weight, participated in two consecutive tasks in a supermarket. They were given a shopping list of eleven food categories and asked to think aloud while selecting from each category a product they usually buy and a product they would use for weight management. The data (n 792 selections) were collected through interviews and a verbal analysis protocol combined with wireless audio-visual observation. Thirty-six consumers were recruited from a sample of 367 supermarket customers. Kuopio, Finland. The subjects' behaviour changed radically after they were reminded about weight management. In the first selection, taste and familiarity were the main food selection criteria while in the latter selection the energy/fat content predominated. Consequently, the nutritional quality of products improved greatly because subjects read package labels twice as much in the latter selection. The time taken to select a product increased significantly, on average, from 23 (sd 10) to 60 (sd 51) s/product (P = 0·000). Only by reminding consumers about weight management was there a significant impact on their food selection behaviour. Marketing communication should be developed which quickly and easily promotes consumers' awareness of healthy food in supermarkets.

  20. Real-life memory and spatial navigation in patients with focal epilepsy: ecological validity of a virtual reality supermarket task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, P; Lahr, D; Kohsik, A; Dyck, E; Markowitsch, H J; Bien, C G; Botsch, M; Piefke, M

    2014-02-01

    Ecological assessment and training of real-life cognitive functions such as visual-spatial abilities in patients with epilepsy remain challenging. Some studies have applied virtual reality (VR) paradigms, but external validity of VR programs has not sufficiently been proven. Patients with focal epilepsy (EG, n=14) accomplished an 8-day program in a VR supermarket, which consisted of learning and buying items on a shopping list. Performance of the EG was compared with that of healthy controls (HCG, n=19). A comprehensive neuropsychological examination was administered. Real-life performance was investigated in a real supermarket. Learning in the VR supermarket was significantly impaired in the EG on different VR measures. Delayed free recall of products did not differ between the EG and the HCG. Virtual reality scores were correlated with neuropsychological measures of visual-spatial cognition, subjective estimates of memory, and performance in the real supermarket. The data indicate that our VR approach allows for the assessment of real-life visual-spatial memory and cognition in patients with focal epilepsy. The multimodal, active, and complex VR paradigm may particularly enhance visual-spatial cognitive resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS FOR SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS. Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-95/028)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that provided information regarding the merits of using ammonia with a secondary brine loop for supermarket refrigeration systems. The ammonia systems were compared with an equivalent R-22 system. The models used in the study are provided with...

  2. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: Modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  3. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  4. Cooling of chiller condensers by district cooling in supermarkets; Kylning av kylmaskiners kondensorer med fjaerrkyla i livsmedelsbutiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Cooling of the chiller condensers in supermarkets can be performed in different ways. To start with, the condensers can be cooled by use of outdoor air in dry coolers, but the ventilation air can also perform the cooling, totally or partially. In such a way the total or a part of the heating demand of the supermarket might be covered. A third alternative for condenser cooling is use of district cooling. However, in such a case the possibility to heat the supermarket by heat recovery is lost. The purpose of this study is to outline when district cooling offers the most advantageous alternative for condenser cooling in comparison to the other alternatives. This assessment is to be performed taking costs, electricity use and environmental impact into consideration separately. The results from calculations for a case supermarket show that the price for district cooling is generally to high for making it profitable for a supermarket to cool the condensers by district cooling. However, cooling the condensers by district cooling might lead to savings for the supermarket, both in terms of investments and use of electricity. This leads to the fact that cooling the condensers by district cooling could offer a profitable alternative for the supermarket, if the prices are adapted to this type of costumer. Hopefully, such a business could be profitable for the producers of district cooling as well. In addition, there are other advantages associated with condenser cooling by district cooling, which are hard to evaluate in economic terms. When it comes to the comparison of electricity use, it is shown that condenser cooling by district cooling is the alternative that uses least electricity in a national point of view, if the district cooling is produced by a deep-water source. In this comparison, the electricity used for production of district cooling and district heating is included as well. If district cooling is co-produced with district heating in heat pumps, the result is

  5. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Y Scully

    Full Text Available To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1 GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2 the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3 the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2, 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9, 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  6. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jason Y; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1) GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2) the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3) the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2), 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9), 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  7. Phonological Variability in Canadian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Gaelan Dodds

    A study compared salient variables of Canadian English from two concurrent sociodialectal surveys, one for Ottawa, Ontario and one for Vancouver, British Columbia. Using the Labovian model of phonological variation in association with sociological parameters and other linguistic variables within each specific area, the analysis investigated four…

  8. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  9. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  10. Influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the inhabitants of a small town on Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Nobuyuki; Yogi, Hiroyuki; Takara, Masaki; Higa, Moritake; Kouki, Tsuyoshi; Ohshiro, Yuzuru; Mimura, Goro; Komiya, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Motorization and supermarket-proliferation affect lifestyles. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to several shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The influences of these changes on the prevalence of diabetes are uncertain. OBJECTIVE AND MEASUREMENTS: The influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of diabetes was studied in the inhabitants of a town on Okinawa, Japan. Measurements were composed of anthropometry and blood chemistry. Participants were asked where they buy food and daily necessities (several shops or a supermarket) and how they get there (by car or on foot). Serial cross-sectional. Inhabitants of the island of Okinawa were studied. In 1991, 24% went to several shops and 20% to a supermarket. However, in 2004, only 3.1% went to several shops and 83% to a supermarket. In 1991, 55% went to shopping places on foot and 38% by car. However, in 2004, only 14% went on foot and 76% by car. The prevalence of diabetes in Okinawa increased from 4.7% in 1991 to 8.4% in 2004. The prevalence of diabetes correlated positively with the percent of inhabitants going to supermarkets, and those going there by car. In 1991, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 4.7% in men and 4.6% in women; no difference was noted between men and women. In 2004, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased to 9.2% in men and to 7.5% in women. The increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes from 1991 to 2004 was higher in men than in women. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Motorization and supermarket-proliferation are associated with the increases of the prevalence of diabetes. The increase in diabetes prevalence was higher in men than in women.

  11. Shelf-life extension of convenience meat products sold in Indian supermarkets by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Shobita Rao, M. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P., E-mail: spchawla@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A variety of ready-to-cook meat products available in Indian supermarkets (mutton mince, chicken mince, chicken chunks, and chicken legs) were studied. The samples were irradiated (2.5 kGy), or left untreated as control, and stored at 0-3 {sup o}C for up to 21 days. The effect of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties was evaluated at intervals during the storage period. Irradiated samples had a longer shelf-life at 0-3 {sup o}C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated samples. Fecal coliforms were eliminated by irradiation treatment. Radiation processed samples had lower counts of Staphylococcus spp. There were no significant organoleptic changes in irradiated samples stored at chilled temperatures.

  12. Influence of information systems on stock management in little and middle sized supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Luis Pick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a multiple case study in which was analyzed the influence of information systems usage on the stock management processes in medium and little-sized retailers. We assessed four supermarkets from the inner land of Rio Grande do Sul, with different status in information systems development. The performance in stock management was appraised with the aid of five numerical indicators, defined in focus group sections with experts, led by researcher. The main observed influences were: average inventory, stock cycle, percentage of shortages and GM-ROI. WE observed high negative correlations between these variables and the level of usage of information systems: the more the company uses it, the less the variables grew, what is a desirable behavior. We do not found influence of the information system on sales volumes.

  13. Armazenagem de chás no setor supermercadista Tea storage in the supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Carneiro Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de pesquisa exploratória-descritiva realizada no setor supermercadista visando avaliar a qualidade e adequabilidade do acondicionamento (embalagem e local de armazenagem de chás frente à legislação vigente. Além de proporcionar um panorama geral da situação de armazenagem de chás, também se buscou gerar um instrumento-base para incrementar a inspeção sanitária neste setor de comercialização. A coleta de dados foi efetuada a partir de visitas a 6 supermercados selecionados, no período de 2 a 30 de abril de 2001, observando-se a seção de mercearia seca no interior da loja e depósito anexo, quando permitido. Adicionalmente, efetuaram-se entrevistas com técnicos responsáveis pelos citados setores, para esclarecimentos e conferência de práticas de armazenagem. De modo geral, a maioria das lojas analisadas foi categorizada como portadora de boa (quatro lojas à excelente (duas lojas qualidade de armazenagem de chás. Os depósitos visitados apresentavam-se com qualidade boa (3 à regular (1. A avaliação detalhada do formulário básico de coleta de dados permitiu evidenciar que o problema mais freqüentemente registrado, tanto nas lojas quanto nos depósitos, refere-se à falta de controle de temperatura e umidade adequada (ausentes na totalidade dos estabelecimentos visitados. Um outro problema, que igualmente foi registrado com relativa freqüência, refere-se ao espaçamento mínimo requerido. Com menor freqüência, foram evidenciadas inadequações quanto à limpeza do local de armazenagem e luminárias, proximidade de produtos tóxicos além de forma e qualidade do empilhamento.This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in the supermarket sector to evaluate the quality and adequacy of tea packaging and storage areas, considering the current legislation. In addition to providing a general view of tea storage practices, this survey aimed to generate a basic instrument to develop

  14. Model-Based Predictive Control Scheme for Cost Optimization and Balancing Services for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerts, Hermanus H. M.; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation of model predictive control for supermarket refrigeration systems is proposed to facilitate the regulatory power services as well as energy cost optimization of such systems in the smart grid. Nonlinear dynamics existed in large-scale refrigeration plants challenges the predictive...... control design. It is however shown that taking into account the knowledge of different time scales in the dynamical subsystems makes possible a linear formulation of a centralized predictive controller. A realistic scenario of regulatory power services in the smart grid is considered and formulated...... in the same objective as of cost optimization one. A simulation benchmark validated against real data and including significant dynamics of the system are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme....

  15. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  16. Antimicrobial residues and resistance against critically important antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella from meat sold at wet markets and supermarkets in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Van, Nguyen Thi Bich; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Duong, Truong Thi Quy; Nhat, Tran Thi; Hang, Tran Thi Thu; Nhi, Nguyen Thi Hong; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Hien, Vo Be; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Campbell, James; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2018-02-02

    Excessive antimicrobial usage and deficiencies in hygiene in meat production systems may result in undesirable human health hazards, such as the presence of antimicrobial drug residues and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), including antimicrobial resistant (AMR) NTS. Recently, Vietnam has witnessed the emergence of integrated intensive animal production systems, coexisting with more traditional, locally-sourced wet markets. To date no systematic studies have been carried out to compare health hazards in beef, pork and chicken in different production systems. We aimed to: (1) estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in beef, pork and chicken meat; (2) investigate the prevalence and levels of NTS contamination; and (3) investigate serovar distribution and AMR against critically important antimicrobials by animal species and type of retail (wet market vs. supermarket) in Vietnam. Fresh pork, beef and chicken meat samples (N=357) sourced from wet markets and supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Hanoi and Dong Thap were screened for antimicrobial residues by PremiTest, and were further investigated by Charm II. Samples from HCMC (N=113) were cultured using ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1:2007. NTS bacteria were quantified using a minimum probable number (MPN) technique. NTS isolates were assigned to serovar by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), and were investigated for their phenotypic susceptibility against 32 antimicrobials. A total of 26 (7.3%) samples tested positive by PremiTest (9.5% beef, 4.1% pork and 8.4% chicken meat). Sulfonamides, tetracyclines and macrolides were detected by Charm in 3.1%, 2.8% and 2.0% samples, respectively. Overall, meat samples from wet markets had a higher prevalence of residues than those from supermarkets (9.6% vs. 2.6%) (p=0.016). NTS were isolated from 68.4% samples from HCMC. Chicken samples from wet markets had by far the highest NTS counts (median 3.2 logMPN/g). NTS isolates displayed high levels of resistance against quinolones

  17. Effects of price discounts and tailored nutrition education on supermarket purchases: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Blakely, Tony; Jiang, Yannan; Eyles, Helen C; Rodgers, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Traditional methods to improve population diets have largely relied on individual responsibility, but there is growing interest in structural interventions such as pricing policies. The aim was to evaluate the effect of price discounts and tailored nutrition education on supermarket food and nutrient purchases. A 2 x 2 factorial randomized controlled trial was conducted in 8 New Zealand supermarkets. A total of 1104 shoppers were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 4 interventions that were delivered over 6 mo: price discounts (12.5%) on healthier foods, tailored nutrition education, discounts plus education, or control (no intervention). The primary outcome was change in saturated fat purchased at 6 mo. Secondary outcomes were changes in other nutrients and foods purchased at 6 and 12 mo. Outcomes were assessed by using electronic scanner sales data. At 6 mo, the difference in saturated fat purchased for price discounts on healthier foods compared with that purchased for no discount on healthier foods was -0.02% (95% CI: -0.40%, 0.36%; P = 0.91). The corresponding difference for tailored nutrition education compared with that for no education was -0.09% (95% CI: -0.47%, 0.30%; P = 0.66). However, those subjects who were randomly assigned to receive price discounts bought significantly more predefined healthier foods at 6 mo (11% more; mean difference: 0.79 kg/wk; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.16; P discounts nor tailored nutrition education had a significant effect on nutrients purchased. However, the significant and sustained effect of discounts on food purchases suggests that pricing strategies hold promise as a means to improve population diets.

  18. [Symptoms and upper limb work-related musculo-skeletal disorders among 173 supermarket cashiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P G; Pizzoni, Tiziana; Scolari, Luisa; Lucchini, R

    2013-01-01

    Cashiers in supermarket chains have long been considered at risk for the development of work related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs (UL-WMSDs). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of UL-WMSDs among workers operating supermarket cash tills and, after clinical tests, their frequency. A standardized questionnaire was given to a random group of 173 workers in order to collect information regarding symptoms in the upper limbs (pain and parasthesia). Among the 111 workers who reached a "positive clinical history threshold" we selected a random sample of subjects to undergo clinical tests (professional medical care, ultrasound examination, electro-neurographic examination). 64% of the workers had a positive clinical history for UL-WMSDs. The most frequently reported disorder was pain, especially in the shoulder, while 37% of workers suffered from one or more disorders of the upper limbs. Clinical tests were performed on 51 workers (47 women) whose average length of service was 20 years and 2/3 were part-time workers; a total of 43 UL-WMSDs (59%) were diagnosed in 30 workers, including 13 (30.2%) cases of compressive neuropathies, 13 cases of hand/elbow tendinitis (30.2%) and 17 cases of shoulder tendinitis (39.5%). The average age of these 30 subjects was 47 years, with a length of service of 23 years, mostly part-time workers. We found a high prevalence of general disorders and cases of UL-WMSDs among the workers investigated, including part-time workers and workers who were not working exclusively as cashiers. The study also revealed a poor health surveillance programme to identify/ UL-WMSDs that should be the responsibility of the occupational physician and a consequent underestimation of risk and lack of the information needed to adopt preventive measures.

  19. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F

    2014-12-01

    A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different control measures to reduce airborne flour dust exposure using a randomised design. A group-randomised study design was used to assign 30 bakeries of a large supermarket chain store to two intervention groups and a control group, of which 15 bakeries were studied. Full-shift environmental personal samples were used to characterise exposure to flour dust and wheat and rye allergens levels pre-intervention (n=176) and post-intervention (n=208). The overall intervention effect revealed a 50% decrease in mean flour dust, wheat and rye allergen exposure. The reduction in exposure was highest for managers (67%) and bakers (47%), and lowest for counterhands (23%). For bakers, the greatest reduction in flour dust was associated with control measures such as the use of the mixer lid (67%), divider oil (63%) or focused training (54%). However, the greatest reduction (80%) was observed when using a combination of all control measures. A specially designed intervention strategy reduced both flour dust and allergen levels. Best results were observed when combining both engineering controls and training. Further studies will investigate the long-term health impact of these interventions on reducing the disease burden among this group of bakers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors......Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance...

  2. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".......Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...

  3. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  4. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  5. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  6. The Canadian safeguards support program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeffe, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Canadian Safeguards Support Program, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  7. Canadian safeguards - an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, A.M. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Smith, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes safeguards activities and programs undertaken in Canada. In 1970, Canada, in collaboration with the IAEA, began a study of procedures and equipment required for the application of safeguards to on-line-fueled reactors. In 1977, this assistance was substantially increased and formalized into the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). To date, Canada has spent in excess of $35 million Canadian on this program. The CSSP provides support to the IAEA safeguards effort for areas in which Canada has expertise and has been primarily engaged in developing safeguards procedures and equipment for the CANDU power reactors in Canada and throughout the world. Work, projects, and equipment development undertaken by CANDU CSSP are highlighted.

  8. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  9. Women performing repetitive work: Is there a difference in the prevalence of shoulder pain and pathology in supermarket cashiers compared to the general female population?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sansone, Valerio; Bonora, Cristina; Boria, Paola; Meroni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, we decided to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported shoulder pain in a group of female supermarket cashiers and in the general female population using a standardized questionnaire...

  10. Process evaluation of two environmental nutrition programmes and an educational nutrition programme conducted at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); A. Reubsaet; G.J. Kok (Gerjo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programs and a educational nutrition program, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programs had no effect on consumers’ eating behavior. Consequently, the more

  11. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  12. Nutritional risk among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Garriguet, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional risk screening is typically done in clinical settings to identify individuals at risk of malnourishment. This article presents the first population-level assessment of nutritional risk based on a large national sample representative of Canadian householders aged 65 or older. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk by selected characteristics. Factors associated with nutritional risk were examined with restricted and full logistic models. The distribution of responses on the SCREEN II-AB nutritional risk instrument is reported. Based on the results of the 2008/2009 survey, 34% of Canadians aged 65 or older were at nutritional risk. Women were more likely than men to be at risk. Among people with depression, 62% were at nutritional risk, compared with 33% of people without depression. Level of disability, poor oral health, and medication use were associated with nutritional risk, as were living alone, low social support, infrequent social participation, and not driving on a regular basis. Lower income and education were also associated with nutritional risk. Nutritional risk is common among seniors living in private households in Canada. The characteristics of people most likely to be at nutritional risk provide evidence for targeted screening and assessment.

  13. Albanian and UK Consumers’ Perceptions of Farmers’ Markets and Supermarkets as Outlets for Organic Food: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina-Evera Qendro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elicit UK and Albanian consumers’ perceptions of food outlets in order to understand their views on supermarkets and farmers’ markets as outlets for organic food. A qualitative research methodology was chosen as the best way to get an in-depth understanding of how consumers of these two different countries understand and evaluate buying organic food from two different food outlets. This exploratory research is a first step to find out how and why organic food is being bought in supermarkets and farmers’ markets. The results show that respondents associated organic with vegetables and fruit, that taste good, are healthy, and are free of pesticides and hormones. The importance of motives varies between the outlets they prefer for buying organic food. An interesting finding is the fact that Albanian respondents refer to the farmers’ markets as the villagers’ market.

  14. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  16. Scale effects in food environment research: Implications from assessing socioeconomic dimensions of supermarket accessibility in an eight-county region of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hibbert, James D; Porter, Dwayne E; Lawson, Andrew B; Liese, Angela D

    2016-03-01

    Choice of neighborhood scale affects associations between environmental attributes and health-related outcomes. This phenomenon, a part of the modifiable areal unit problem, has been described fully in geography but not as it relates to food environment research. Using two administrative-based geographic boundaries (census tracts and block groups), supermarket geographic measures (density, cumulative opportunity and distance to nearest) were created to examine differences by scale and associations between three common U.S. Census-based socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics (median household income, percentage of population living below poverty and percentage of population with at least a high school education) and a summary neighborhood SES z-score in an eight-county region of South Carolina. General linear mixed-models were used. Overall, both supermarket density and cumulative opportunity were higher when using census tract boundaries compared to block groups. In analytic models, higher median household income was significantly associated with lower neighborhood supermarket density and lower cumulative opportunity using either the census tract or block group boundaries, and neighborhood poverty was positively associated with supermarket density and cumulative opportunity. Both median household income and percent high school education were positively associated with distance to nearest supermarket using either boundary definition, whereas neighborhood poverty had an inverse association. Findings from this study support the premise that supermarket measures can differ by choice of geographic scale and can influence associations between measures. Researchers should consider the most appropriate geographic scale carefully when conducting food environment studies.

  17. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  18. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  19. Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaghan, Diane

    A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

  20. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  1. Supermarket and Grocery Store?Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Escaron, Anne L.; Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Met...

  2. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van, M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the prices of organic products have been reduced below current price levels. The report shows that consumer demand for organic food is sensitive to changes in consumer prices. However, for five out of ei...

  3. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-24

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20% price reductions), and combined (skill-building + 20% price reductions) interventions on women's purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This process evaluation investigated the reach, effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance of the SHELf interventions. RE-AIM provided a conceptual framework to examine the processes underlying the impact of the interventions using data from participant surveys and objective sales data collected at baseline, post-intervention (3 months) and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact, χ (2) and t-tests assessed differences in quantitative survey responses among groups. Adjusted linear regression examined the impact of self-reported intervention dose on food purchasing and consumption outcomes. Thematic analysis identified key themes within qualitative survey responses. Reach of the SHELf interventions to disadvantaged groups, and beyond study participants themselves, was moderate. Just over one-third of intervention participants indicated that the interventions were effective in changing the way they bought, cooked or consumed food (p < 0.001 compared to control), with no differences among intervention groups. Improvements in purchasing and consumption outcomes were greatest among those who received a higher intervention dose. Most notably, participants who said they accessed price reductions on fruits and vegetables purchased (519 g/week) and consumed (0.5 servings/day) more vegetables. The majority of participants said they accessed (82%) and appreciated discounts on fruits and vegetables, while there was limited use (40%) and appreciation of discounts on low-calorie carbonated

  4. 'Economy' line foods from four supermarkets and brand name equivalents: a comparison of their nutrient contents and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S; Nelson, M

    2003-10-01

    Achieving healthy eating targets for low income households can be difficult because of economic barriers. Several UK supermarkets have introduced 'value line' or 'economy line' foods to improve their attractiveness to low income consumers. The costs and nutrient contents of five 'economy' line products of four major English supermarkets - Asda, KwikSave, Sainsbury and Tesco - were compared with branded (but not 'own label') equivalents. Single samples of tinned tomatoes, long-life orange juice, potatoes, sausages and white bread were purchased in each supermarket. They represented items of potential importance in relation to 'healthy' choices in the shopping baskets of low income households. Nutrients analysed were fat, sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and energy. Economy line foods had a nutrient composition similar to and often better than the branded goods. The economy line products frequently had nutrient contents more in line with the Balance of Good Health (e.g. lower fat and sodium) compared with the branded goods. In terms of nutrients per pence, the economy line products were far better value for money compared with the branded lines. Economy line foods represent excellent value for money and are not nutritionally inferior to the branded products. They have a potentially important role to play in the promotion of healthy eating, especially amongst low income households.

  5. Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Poultry at a Slaughterhouse and Supermarkets in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Chiaki; Kishimoto, Michiru; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Fifty strains of Campylobacter jejuni/coli were detected in 108 specimens of chicken meat and organs sampled at six supermarkets and one poultry slaughterhouse (large scale) between April and October 2013 (isolation rates: 84.8% from the slaughterhouse, 29.3% from the supermarkets). 46/50 strains were successfully recovered and subjected to the E-test to examine their susceptibility to three fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents authorized for use in poultry in Japan: enrofloxacin (ERFX), ofloxacin (OFLX), and norfloxacin (NLFX). 29 isolates (63%) were resistant to all three agents and 2 isolates (4.3%) were resistant to two agents (ERFX and OFLX). The resistance rates of strains isolated fom the supermarkets and slaughterhouse were 61.9% and 72.0%, respectively. Because the chickens processed at the slaughterhouse were raised without the use of fluoroquinolone, the results did not suggest a positive relationship between the use of these agents and the distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin [EM]) was also tested in 42 strains, and one strain (2.4%), C. coli from a retailer sample, showed resistance. Previous studies have detected high rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, suggesting an expanding distribution of resistant bacteria. The detection of EM-resistant bacteria downstream in the food distribution chain (i.e., closer to consumers) is a concern for human health.

  6. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at www.asm.org. The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  8. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A; Maaskant, Anna J; Polet, Ilse A; Holthuysen, Nancy T E; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers' purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices.

  9. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a New Supermarket in a Food Desert: Contributions to Everyday Life and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Initiatives to build supermarkets in low-income areas with relatively poor access to large food retailers ("food deserts") have been implemented at all levels of government, although evaluative studies have not found these projects to improve diet or weight status for shoppers. Though known to be influential, existing evaluations have neglected in-store social dynamics and shopper behaviors. Surveys and walking interviews were used with shoppers (n = 32) at a supermarket developed through the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative in Philadelphia, PA. Key informant interviews with stakeholders in the supermarket's development and operations provided additional context to these shopper experiences. Data were collected in July and September 2014 and qualitatively analyzed in NVivo 10.0. Participants described how the retailer helped them adapt or cope with difficult shopping routines and how it presented a reliable high-quality option (in terms of cleanliness, orderliness, and social atmosphere) in contrast to other neighborhood retailers. Health concerns were also identified, especially among those managing chronic disease for themselves or a family member. These issues underscored multiple points of challenge required to adjust shopping and eating behavior. In-store supports that reflect these challenges are warranted to more fully address food deserts and reduce health disparities.

  10. Use of household supermarket sales data to estimate nutrient intakes: a comparison with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-01-01

    Electronic supermarket sales data provide a promising, novel way of estimating nutrient intakes. However, little is known about how these data reflect the nutrients consumed by an individual household member. A cross-sectional survey of 49 primary household shoppers (age [mean+/-standard deviation age]=48+/-14 years; 84% female) from Wellington, New Zealand, was undertaken. Three months of baseline electronic supermarket sales data were compared with individual dietary intakes estimated from four random 24-hour dietary recalls collected during the same 3-month period. Spearman rank correlations between household purchases and individual intakes ranged from 0.54 for percentage of energy from saturated fat (Psupermarket sales data may be a useful surrogate measure of some nutrient intakes of individuals, particularly percentage of energy from saturated and total fat. In the case of a supermarket intervention, an effect on household sales of percentage energy from saturated and total fat is also likely to impact the saturated and total fat intake of individual household members. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Buying Food on Sale: A Mixed Methods Study With Shoppers at an Urban Supermarket, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Stites, Shana D.; Singletary, S. Brook; Cooblall, Clarissa; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The obesity epidemic has drawn attention to food marketing practices that may increase the likelihood of caloric overconsumption and weight gain. We explored the associations of discounted prices on supermarket purchases of selected high-calorie foods (HCF) and more healthful, low-calorie foods (LCF) by a demographic group at high risk of obesity. Methods Our mixed methods design used electronic supermarket purchase data from 82 low-income (primarily African American female) shoppers for households with children and qualitative data from focus groups with demographically similar shoppers. Results In analyses of 6,493 food purchase transactions over 65 weeks, the odds of buying foods on sale versus at full price were higher for grain-based snacks, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratios: 6.6, 5.9, and 2.6, respectively; all P supermarket sales promotions from price reductions for HCF to price reductions for LCF might help prevent obesity by decreasing purchases of HCF. PMID:25188276

  12. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination in Salad Vegetables Collected from Supermarkets and Street Vendors in Amman and Baqa’a - Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  13. A Review of the Passiv Haus Concept and an Examination of How This Was Applied to a Supermarket in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to garner a full understanding of low energy construction across a variety of sectors in countries throughout the world, and then investigate how the Passiv Haus concept was applied to a Supermarket in Ireland. In order to carry out this investigation, a case study was performed on the energy efficiency and performance of a Tesco store in Tramore. It was found that its electrical cosumption was 24% lower than equivalent stores which were not built to the high specification of the Passiv Haus Standard. As this supermarket is the first of its kind in the world, and with both the SEAl and the European Parliament pushing for this method of construction to be adopted,i11 this standard will most likely in some shape or form become a new building standard in Ireland. This supermarket offers a unique insight into what can be expected in bui lding design and const ruction in this sector if it is undertaken.

  14. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijk, René A.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Polet, Ilse A.; Holthuysen, Nancy T. E.; van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Even though whole grain foods have various health benefits, consumers have been found not to eat enough of them. Nudging interventions are built on the premise that food purchases and consumption are strongly influenced by the environment in which decisions are made. Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of a small and inexpensive nudging intervention on bread choices in a real-life supermarket context. An in-store experiment was conducted in two six-week periods in two supermarkets to investigate the effects of accessibility on consumers’ purchase of healthier whole grain and other types of bread. In the high accessibility condition, healthier bread was placed in a more convenient location for the shopper on the left side of the shelves where it was encountered first. In the low accessibility condition, it was placed on the right side. There were consistent significant differences in sales between supermarkets, types of bread, day of the week, but not between low and high accessibility. Additional research is needed to better understand the effects of convenience and accessibility on bread choices. PMID:27010704

  15. A Supermarket Cashier System Based on RFID%一种基于RFID的超市收银系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静文; 李宏伟; 赵发

    2016-01-01

    In order to save customers’ time of queuing to pay and reduce the cost on supermarket cashier system,we design a supermarket cashier system based on RFID. Consumers choose and buy goods embedded with RFID tags in the shopping basket. The RFID reader connected to the supermarket terminal can scan all the goods in the shopping basket one⁃time by using RFID technology when checkout.Consumers realize self⁃help and settlement.It can facilitate the consumer shopping,lessen the pressure balance,and greatly improve the efficiency of life.%为了节省消费者排队等候人工结算的时间和减少超市对收银系统的投入成本,设计了一种基于 RFID 的超市收银系统。将RFID标签嵌在超市商品上,被消费者选购到购物筐中。结账时,利用RFID技术使与超市结算终端相连接的RFID阅读器一次性扫描购物筐中所有商品,实现消费者自助结算,可以方便消费者购物并且能减轻超市结算压力,很大程度上提高了生活效率。

  16. Professional Legitimation for Education in Canadian Universities: "The Canadian Journal of Education", 1976-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, Donald Fisher reports on the history of the "The Canadian Journal of Education" as part of this 40th anniversary issue. Fisher states that the history of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) has been profoundly influenced by changes in the role of the Canadian State. The 1960s and 1970s were a time…

  17. The Interior City. Infinity and Concavity in the No-Stop City(1970-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez Capdevila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the late 60s it had become clear how the environment technification had allowed some typologies (supermarkets, car parks, factories to reach potentially unlimited built depths becoming, therefore, independent from the outside. The No-Stop City is born from a very simple idea: to extend this technification to the totality of built reality encompassing, not only almost all functions, but ultimately, the whole city. This operation has paradoxical effects: as architecture grows, it loses most of the features that have traditionally defined it. A dissolution by hypertrophy that gives rise to an homogeneous, concave and potentially infinite space.But beyond the pure technical feasibility, there are two key influences, seemingly contradictory, that explain this endeavor for an interior and endless city: Marxism and Pop Art. The project is, in many senses, a built manifesto reflecting the militancy of the group members within the Italian Marxism. But it is also the embodiment of the group's declared interest in Pop Art, popular culture and mass society. The cross-influence of communism and consumerism explains this "quantitative utopia" in which the society and the factory, the production and consumption, would match. A city based on the centrality of consumer products and the subsequent loss of prominence of architecture, in which the urban phenomenon, while spreading endlessly over territory, ignoring its rural exteriority, dissolves the home as a sphere of privacy, ignoring its domestic interiority.A project, also in the wake of Marshall McLuhan, that illustrates like few others the conversion of the urbane into a virtually omnipresent "condition" and that still interrogates us with questions that are, on the other hand, eternal: What is a building? What is a city?Key wordsBranzi, dissolution, pop, Marxism, neo-avant-garde

  18. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  19. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  20. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in a few central provinces of Thailand

  1. Healthy or Unhealthy on Sale? A cross-sectional study on the proportion of healthy and unhealthy foods promoted through flyer advertising by supermarkets in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Eva A H; Waterlander, Wilma E; Kroeze, Willemieke; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-05-06

    It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the proportions of healthy and unhealthy foods on promotion in Dutch supermarket flyers. Supermarket food promotions were assessed using the weekly promotional flyers of four major Dutch supermarkets over a period of eight weeks. All promotions were evaluated for healthiness, price discount, minimum purchase amount, product category and promotion type. The level of healthiness consists of a 'healthy' group; products which have a positive effect on preventing chronic diseases and can be eaten every day. The 'unhealthy' group contain products which have adverse effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. Data were analysed using ANOVA, independent t-tests and chi-square tests. A total of 1,495 promotions were included in this study. There were more promotions in the unhealthy category; 70% of promotions were categorised as unhealthy. The price discount was greater for the healthy promotions (mean 29.5%, SD 12.1) than for the two categories of unhealthy promotions (23.7%, SD 10.8; 25.4%, SD 10.5, respectively), a tendency which was mainly due to discounts in the fruit and vegetables category. To obtain the advertised discount, a significantly higher number of products had to be purchased in the unhealthy category than in the healthier categories. Promotions in the category meat, poultry and fish category occurred frequently. Compared to traditional supermarkets, discounter supermarkets had higher percentages of unhealthy food discounts, lower discount levels and lower minimum purchase amounts. This research confirmed that unhealthy foods are more frequently advertised than healthier foods in Dutch supermarket flyers. Moreover, consumers had to buy more products to

  2. Treatment of supermarket vegetable wastes to be used as alternative substrates in bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ana Isabel; Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Fruits and vegetables have the highest wastage rates at retail and consumer levels. These wastes have promising potential for being used as substrates in bioprocesses. However, an effective hydrolysis of carbohydrates that form these residues has to be developed before the biotransformation. In this work, vegetable wastes from supermarket (tomatoes, green peppers and potatoes) have been separately treated by acid, thermal and enzymatic hydrolysis processes in order to maximise the concentration of fermentable sugars in the final broth. For all substrates, thermal and enzymatic processes have shown to be the most effective. A new combined hydrolysis procedure including these both treatments was also assayed and the enzymatic step was successfully modelled. With this combined hydrolysis, the percentage of reducing sugars extracted was increased, in comparison with the amount extracted from non-hydrolysed samples, approximately by 30% in the case of tomato and green peeper wastes. For potato wastes this percentage increased from values lower than 1% to 77%. In addition, very low values of fermentation inhibitors were found in the final broth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Implementation of ANP Method in Determining Supplier to Improve Service towards Supermarket Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, A.; Amalia, T. H.; Novian, D.; Kaluku, M. R. A.

    2017-03-01

    Performance assessment on the supplier by the supermarket manager is relatively difficult to conduct and implies subjectivity, because there is no measureable and objective performance indicator. This study aims to assist in the decision making process and to look for alternative solutions in assessing the performance of each supplier, so that the service towards the customers will improve as well. ANP method is used to find the weight of each sub-criteria that will be used to measure the supplier performance. The weight result of each sub-criteria derived from the ANP method is used again in measuring the performance and to rank the performance of each supplier by using TOPSIS method. Performance measuring by using the ANP and TOPSIS that generates the highest value of the supplier is 0.71666 while the lowest value is 0.24825. The result of this study shows that the ANP and TOPSIS methods can be used to measure the supplier performance therefore it can assist the selection of supplier which can increase service towards the mart’s consumers.

  4. Aflatoxin B1and sterigmatocystin in wheat and wheat products from supermarkets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Wang, Qiongshan; Huang, Jianxiang; Ma, Liyan; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Fuhua

    2018-03-01

    Wheat is an important cereal but it is often contaminated with mycotoxins. The natural occurrence of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and sterigmatocystin (STC) was determined in 178 food samples (32 wheat samples and 146 wheat products) purchased from Chinese supermarkets. The methodology was validated, the wheat and wheat products samples were treated with a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From these samples 18.8% of wheat and 8.2% of cracker samples were contaminated with AFB 1 . Mean levels were 0.06 µg/kg and 0.05µg/kg, respectively. There was no AFB 1 contamination in white bread or whole meal bread. Meanwhile 53.1% of wheat, 59.2% of crackers, 20.8% of white bread and 16% of whole meal bread samples were contaminated with STC. The mean levels were 0.07, 0.79, 0.12 and 0.12 µg/kg respectively. Although the levels were low, this demonstrates the need for more comprehensive surveys for these two mycotoxins in wheat and wheat products from China.

  5. Numerical investigation of an R744 liquid ejector for supermarket refrigeration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haida Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical investigation of an R744 liquid ejector applied to a supermarket refrigeration system. The use of the liquid ejector enables the operation of the evaporator in a flooded mode and recirculates the R744 liquid phase, which improves the energy efficiency of the refrigeration system. The investigation was performed using two ejectors of different sizes installed in a multi-ejector block. The numerical model was formulated based on the homogenous equilibrium model and validated with the experimental results. The influence of the pre-mixer, mixer and diffuser dimensions on the ejector performance measured using the mass entrainment ratio is presented. The results show that the best liquid ejector performance was obtained for the short lengths of the pre-mixer and mixer compared to the broadly investigated two-phase ejectors connected to the evaporator port. In addition, wide diffuser angles improved the mass entrainment ratio of both liquid ejectors, which may lead to a reduction in the diffuser length.

  6. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  7. Implications of supermarket access, neighbourhood walkability and poverty rates for diabetes risk in an employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Cynthia J; Yount, Byron W; Eyler, Amy A

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health problem, and the environment in which people live and work may affect diabetes risk. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between multiple aspects of environment and diabetes risk in an employee population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Home environment variables were derived using employees' zip code. Descriptive statistics were run on all individual- and zip-code-level variables, stratified by diabetes risk and worksite. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then conducted to determine the strongest associations with diabetes risk. Data were collected from employee health fairs in a Midwestern health system, 2009-2012. The data set contains 25 227 unique individuals across four years of data. From this group, using an individual's first entry into the database, 15 522 individuals had complete data for analysis. The prevalence of high diabetes risk in this population was 2·3 %. There was significant variability in individual- and zip-code-level variables across worksites. From the multivariable analysis, living in a zip code with higher percentage of poverty and higher walk score was positively associated with high diabetes risk, while living in a zip code with higher supermarket density was associated with a reduction in high diabetes risk. Our study underscores the important relationship between poverty, home neighbourhood environment and diabetes risk, even in a relatively healthy employed population, and suggests a role for the employer in promoting health.

  8. Selective Cooperation in the Supermarket : Field Experimental Evidence for Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments suggest that mechanisms of indirect reciprocity might account for human cooperation. However, conclusive field data supporting the predictions of indirect reciprocity in everyday life situations is still scarce. Here, we attempt to compensate for this lack by examining the determinants of cooperative behavior in a German supermarket. Our methods were as follows: Confederates of the experimenter lined up at the checkout, apparently to buy a single item. As an act of cooperation, the waiting person in front (the potential helper) could allow the confederate to go ahead. By this means, the potential helper could take a cost (additional waiting time) by providing the confederate with a benefit (saved waiting time). We recorded the potential helpers' behavior and the number of items they purchased as a quantitative measure proportional to the confederate's benefit. Moreover, in a field experimental design, we varied the confederates' image by manipulating the item they purchased (beer vs. water). As predicted, the more waiting time they could save, the more likely the confederates were to receive cooperation. This relationship was moderated by the confederates' image. Cost-to-benefit ratios were required to be more favorable for beer-purchasing individuals to receive cooperation. Our results demonstrate that everyday human cooperation can be studied unobtrusively in the field and that cooperation among strangers is selective in a way that is consistent with current models of indirect reciprocity.

  9. ASSESSING SUPERMARKET FOOD SHOPPER REACTION TO HORSEMEAT SCANDAL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer reaction to food scares has been given considerable research attention but insights into specific shopper segments’ reactions to food scares, especially those that do not pose direct health risk to the public is limited. This paper examines how different life-stage shopper segments reacted to the horsemeat scandal in the UK. This paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million beef burger shoppers to establish the effect of the horsemeat scandal on retail sales value and volume as well as the rate of withdrawal of life-stage shopper segments from the affected products. The results show consistent weekly decline in retail sales value and volume across all life-stage segments over six consecutive weeks after the first horsemeat scandal announcement. Young families, pensioners and young adults segments withdrew from affected products in accordance with their typical perception and attitudes to risk. Contrary to expectation older adults withdrew faster than young families from the affected products. The findings of the study offer useful insights and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that food scares are managed to the benefit of the public and the food industry.

  10. Foods advertised in US weekly supermarket sales circulars over one year: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Lisa; Payne, Collin R; Whigham, Leah D; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela J; Hoverson, Bonita S; Kranz, Sibylle

    2014-09-23

    The nutritional content of Americans' shopping carts is suboptimal despite federal dietary guidance, in this case, the MyPlate consumer icon which displays desired proportions of vegetables, fruits, dairy, grains and protein foods for consumption. Consumers mention print advertising-such as weekly sales circulars-frequently as influencing their grocery shopping decisions. To examine and describe the relative proportions of advertised foods aggregated into the MyPlate food grouping system, a content analysis of 9 209 foods advertised in 52 weekly supermarket newspaper sales inserts in 2009 from a local grocery chain was conducted in a Midwestern community. Overall, the protein foods group was most often represented in sales circulars (25% of total items), followed by grains (18%); dairy (10%); vegetables (8%) and fruits (7%). Less than 3% of sales advertisements were for dark green and red & orange vegetables. Over twice as much whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice was advertised (70% vs. 30%, respectively; P retail profits (considering these groups' higher profit margin) while promoting adherence to federal dietary guidance.

  11. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  12. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  13. The Canadian mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertenyi, Elemer

    1992-07-01

    Plans to upgrade Canadian mobile data services by introducing a full, two way mobile voice and data service, using a large geostationary satellite which is scheduled to be launched in 1994, are reported. This Mobile Satellite (MSAT) will offer customers the ability to communicate, using mobile or transportable terminals, from the most remote parts of the continent, to any other point within North America, and indeed the whole world. Currently planned MSAT services are reviewed, the main features of the overall system are outlined, and the configuration and key performance parameters of the MSAT satellite are presented. The communications subsystem is detailed, and a summary of the spacecraft service module is given.

  14. Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Thoracic Society Position Statement on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Langleben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society requested a position statement on pulmonary arterial hypertension from leading Canadian experts. The present document is intended to act as an update for the clinician, to provide a template for the initial evaluation of patients, to enable the understanding of current therapeutic paradigms based on approved indications for Canada, to highlight new therapies on the horizon, and to state the positions of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society on resource management for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Canada.

  15. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...

  16. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies : Organizational Strengthening 2007-2010. The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) is a national, bilingual, multidisciplinary and pluralistic association devoted to the study of international development in all parts of the world.

  17. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    fabrication, PWC assembly & test, automatic backplane wiring, computerized wire History : AEI, an established Canadian company for over 55...production of Automatic Number Identification (ANI) systems and 911 Emergency History : Aeo Machining Ltd is a small machining company Reporting Systems for...Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil

  18. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall be...

  19. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  20. [Teenage tobacco consumption in five Colombian cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Constanza; Piñeros, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of tobacco is a public health problem around the world. In Colombia, each year approximately 17,000 deaths are attributed to smoking. The monitoring of tobacco consumption is necessary to estimate population risk for chronic diseases and cancer. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and factors assessed that influence the use of tobacco among youths. The survey was implemented by the Colombian National Cancer Institute in 2007, in public and private schools located in 5 cities in Colombia. The survey was anonymous, voluntary and self-processed by students 13 to 15 years of age and the participants selected by a multi-stage sampling process. Statistical analysis was performed with SUDAAN software. Differences in proportions were considered statistically significant at the pcities was 11.9 years. The prevalence of cigarette smoking varied between 7.4% and 34.1% among the cities and susceptibility to initiate smoking among non smokers was between 12.3% to 32.0%. Between 40% and 60% of students were exposed to secondhand smoke in public places. Approximately 70% were exposed to indirect tobacco advertising. Between 40% and 69% of students who currently smoke cigarettes reported that they wanted to stop smoking. Approximately 80% of students who currently smoke cigarettes were not refused when they purchased cigarettes in a store or supermarket. Finally, 34% to 54% of students reported having been taught in school about the harmful effects of smoking. The high prevalence of consumption in four of the five cities suggested interventions that aim primarily at prevention components, smoke-free spaces and advertising control.

  1. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  2. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  3. PENGGUNAAN METODE FUZZY c-COVERING UNTUK ANALISA MARKET BASKET PADA SUPERMARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining application with fuzzy c-covering method for market basket analysis on supermarket. As one of data mining applications, market basket analysis is generally performed using apriori method. However this method tends to searh the association degree of items by only counting how many times the items appears on the overall transaction without considering the items quantity on each transaction. Therefore, we propose a new method which is based on perception that the more items bought in a transaction, the weaker the relation between items on that transaction. For the experimental purpose of the realization the concept, we collect a month sales transaction data from a supermarket. The data are transformed to another form that can be used by the software. Then, an algorithm is created to process the data in order to generate association rule of items in transaction. The rules can be previewed in a table or graphic. Borland Ceplhi 7 and MS Access 2003 is used to build this experiment software. By using the output of this software, which are the association rules, association degree of items, can be obtained which is useful to help the decision maker to make market policies. Based on the testing result, it can concluded that the smaller minimum support and confidence, the more rule to be generated and the more processing time needed. Also, the higher the combination count to be searched, the less processing time needed. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sebagai salah satu aplikasi data mining, market basket analysis umumnya dilakukan dengan memakai metode Apriori. Metode ini mencari asosiasi antar item dengan hanya menghitung berapa kali item-item tersebut muncul dalam keseluruhan transaksi tanpa memperhatikan quantitas item dalam transaksi. Oleh karena itu, peneliti mengusulkan metode Fuzzy c-Covering. Metode ini didasarkan pada persepsi bahwa semakin banyak item yang dibeli dalam suatu transaksi, maka hubungan antar item dalam transaksi

  4. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  5. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  6. Supermarket discounts of low-energy density foods: effects on purchasing, food intake, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Ang, Ian Yi Han; Bernales-Korins, Maria; Hernandez, Dominica; Ochner, Christopher N; Ungredda, Tatiana; Miller, Rachel; Kolbe, Laura

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effects of a 50% discount on low-energy density (ED) fruits and vegetables (F&V), bottled water, and diet sodas on shoppers' purchasing, food intake, and body weight. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at two Manhattan supermarkets, in which a 4-week baseline period (no discounts) preceded an 8-week intervention period (50% discount), and a 4-week follow-up period (no discounts). Twenty-four hour dietary recall, as well as body weight and body composition measures were obtained every 4 weeks. Participants (n = 47, 33f; 14m) were overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25) shoppers. Purchasing of F&V during intervention was greater in the discount group than in the control group (P discount group relative to the control group during follow-up was reduced from intervention (P = 0.002), but still remained higher than during baseline (P = 0.01), indicating a partially sustained effect. Intake of F&V increased from baseline to intervention in the discount group relative to the control group (P = 0.037) and was sustained during follow-up. Body weight change did not differ significantly between groups, although post hoc analysis indicated a change within the discount group (-1.1 kg, P = 0.006) but not within the control group. Discounts of low-ED F&V led to increased purchasing and intake of those foods. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P < 0.01), indicating that if the consumer has a job or has had access to information on functional foods, the probability increased of knowledge of what these mean. There was thus majority acceptance of yoghurt enriched with fibre and with added sweetener.

  8. Eat Right-Live Well! Supermarket Intervention Impact on Sales of Healthy Foods in a Low-Income Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Lee, Ryan M; Palmer, Anne M; Frick, Kevin D

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate a multifaceted supermarket intervention promoting healthier alternatives to commonly purchased foods. Sales of 385 foods promoted between July and October, 2012 in the Eat Right-Live Well! intervention supermarket were compared with sales in a control supermarket. Two supermarkets in geographically separate, low-income, urban neighborhoods. One control and 1 intervention supermarket. Product labeling, employee training, community outreach, and in-store promotions, including taste tests. Number of items sold; absolute and percent differences in sales. Difference-in-difference analyses compared absolute and percent changes between stores and over time within stores. Sub-analyses examined taste-tested items and specific food categories, and promoted items labeled with high fidelity. Comparing pre- and postintervention periods, within-store difference-in-differences for promoted products in the intervention store (25,776 items; 23.1%) was more favorable than the control (9,429 items; 6.6%). The decrease in taste-tested items' sales was smaller in the intervention store (946 items; 5.5%) than the control store (14,666 items; 26.6%). Increased sales of foods labeled with high fidelity were greater in the intervention store (25,414 items; 28.0%) than the control store (7,306 items; 6.3%). Store-based interventions, particularly high-fidelity labeling, can increase promoted food sales. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  10. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  11. Gambling and Problem Gambling among Canadian Urban Aboriginals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Belanger, Yale D; Prusak, S Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in urban Aboriginals in the Canadian Prairie provinces and to determine the predictors of problem gambling. In total, 1114 Aboriginals living in 15 cities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were recruited via posters and direct solicitation at Native Friendship Centres, shopping malls, and other locations where Aboriginals congregated. They each completed a self-administered 5- to 10-minute survey. Urban Aboriginals in the present sample were found to have a much higher level of gambling participation than the general Canadian public, especially for electronic gambling machines, instant lotteries, and bingo. Their intensity of participation in terms of number of formats, frequency of play, and gambling expenditure was also very high. This, in turn, is an important contributing factor to their very high rate of problem gambling, which was found to be 27.2%. Problem gambling was higher in males, unemployed people, and cities having the highest proportion of their population consisting of urban Aboriginals. Urban Aboriginal people appear to have some of the highest known rates of problem gambling of any group in Canada. This is attributable to having many more risk factors for problem gambling, such as a greater level of participation in gambling, greater participation in continuous forms of gambling (e.g., electronic gambling machines), younger average age, higher rates of substance abuse and mental health problems, and a range of disadvantageous social conditions (e.g., poverty, unemployment, poor education, cultural stress) that are conducive to the development of addictive behaviour. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, John A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-04-15

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function.

  13. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  14. Canadian orthodontist Internet user profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal G; Yacyshyn, James R; Northcott, Herbert C; Nebbe, Brian; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Major, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    An anonymous, self-administered, mail-out survey of Canadian Orthodontists was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of orthodontic Internet use. The response rate was 45.6% (304 of 667). A total of 76.6% of orthodontists reported having Internet access at work, and an additional 12.4% reported having Internet access from a different location. Statistically significant associations between Internet usage and office staff size (P < .001) and years of practice (P = .046) were observed. Offices with larger staffs had greater Internet access. Number of staffs and number of case starts were positively correlated (P < .001, r = 0.498). The odds ratio for having Internet access on the basis of increased case starts from the less than 100 to 300-399 categories was 5.67. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for greater Internet access by younger practitioners.

  15. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  16. Detection of Mycobacteria by Culture and DNA-Based Methods in Animal-Derived Food Products Purchased at Spanish Supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker A. Sevilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing. The situation at market level is poorly known. Most studies analyzing commercially available foods are limited to a small or local scale and mainly focused on a particular mycobacterial species. There is a need to investigate if animal products that have passed the established controls to be for sale at main supermarkets could represent a route of contact with any mycobacteria. Thus, our goal was to study the prevalence of mycobacteria in these foods to assess if this could represent a source of human exposure. Five stores from the main supermarket chains in Spain were selected. 138 dairy and 119 meat products were purchased. All were processed using culture and multiplex real-time PCR methods. Additional molecular methods were used to specifically identify any positive result. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (2, M. avium subsp. avium (1, and M. fortuitum (1 were isolated from powdered infant formula and ground beef, chicken sausage, and mortadella cold cut, respectively. Mycobacterial DNA (M. avium, M. tuberculosis complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria was detected in 15% of dairy products and 2% of meat products. These results show that the prevalence of viable mycobacteria in foods of animal origin obtained at the supermarket was not substantial although a considerable proportion of them contained mycobacterial DNA. Contact with mycobacteria through this

  17. Looking is buying. How visual attention and choice are affected by consumer preferences and properties of the supermarket shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlöf, Kerstin; Anikin, Andrey; Lingonblad, Martin; Wallin, Annika

    2017-09-01

    There is a battle in the supermarket isle, a battle between what the consumer wants and what the retailer and others want her to see, and subsequently to buy. Product packages and displays contain a number of features and attributes tailored to catch consumers' attention. These are what we call external factors comprising the visual saliency, the number of facings, and the placement of each product. But a consumer also brings with her a number of goals and interests related to the products and their attributes. These are important internal factors, including brand preferences, price sensitivity, and dietary inclinations. We fit mobile eye trackers to consumers visiting real-life supermarkets in order to investigate to what extent external and internal factors affect consumers' visual attention and purchases. Both external and internal factors influenced what products consumers looked at, with a strong positive interaction between visual saliency and consumer preferences. Consumers appear to take advantage of visual saliency in their decision making, using their knowledge about products' appearance to guide their visual attention towards those that fit their preferences. When it comes to actual purchases, however, visual attention was by far the most important predictor, even after controlling for all other internal and external factors. In other words, the very act of looking longer or repeatedly at a package, for any reason, makes it more likely that this product will be bought. Visual attention is thus crucial for understanding consumer behaviour, even in the cluttered supermarket environment, but it cannot be captured by measurements of visual saliency alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The FLQ: A Canadian Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    settled Canada before falling under Bntish dominion after the Bntish military victory over French forces in Quebec City in 1759. The francophones were...French-speaking wor’cers." Cited in Fournier, Louis, ’LO: Histoire d’un Mouvemenz Clandestin, :Montreal: Quebec/Amerique, 1982: pp. 14. An FLQ

  19. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. The Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) receives core funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This grant will provide ...

  20. Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; de Boer, Michiel R; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2013-04-01

    Reducing fruit and vegetable (F&V) prices is a frequently considered policy to improve dietary habits in the context of health promotion. However, evidence on the effectiveness of this intervention is limited. The objective was to examine the effects of a 50% price discount on F&Vs or nutrition education or a combination of both on supermarket purchases. A 6-mo randomized controlled trial within Dutch supermarkets was conducted. Regular supermarket shoppers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: 50% price discounts on F&Vs, nutrition education, 50% price discounts plus nutrition education, or no intervention. A total of 199 participants provided baseline data; 151 (76%) were included in the final analysis. F&V purchases were measured by using supermarket register receipts at baseline, at 1 mo after the start of the intervention, at 3 mo, at 6 mo (end of the intervention period), and 3 mo after the intervention ended (9 mo). Adjusted multilevel models showed significantly higher F&V purchases (per household/2 wk) as a result of the price discount (+3.9 kg; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.3 kg) and the discount plus education intervention (+5.6 kg; 95% CI: 3.2, 7.9 kg) at 6 mo compared with control. Moreover, the percentage of participants who consumed recommended amounts of F&Vs (≥400 g/d) increased from 42.5% at baseline to 61.3% at 6 mo in both discount groups (P = 0.03). Education alone had no significant effect. Discounting F&Vs is a promising intervention strategy because it resulted in substantially higher F&V purchases, and no adverse effects were observed. Therefore, pricing strategies form an important focus for future interventions or policy. However, the long-term effects and the ultimate health outcomes require further investigation. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Trial Register as number ISRCTN56596945 and at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp) as number NL22568.029.08.

  1. On-line Auto-Tuning of PI Control of the Superheat for a Supermarket Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Andersen, Casper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2011-01-01

    An online PI auto-tuning method is proposed for superheat control for a type of supermarket refrigeration systems. The proposed procedure consists of three serial steps: Step-One uses one of the two proposed empirical methods, namely multi-step method and relay method, for modeling initialization....... The objective is to guide the initial (superheat) operation into a neighborhood of the predefined set-point and keep the operation inside afterwards. Step-Two identifies a FOPDT model for the concerned local dynamic either through a Modified Area Method (MAM) or a Least-Square Prediction (LSP) method. A PI...

  2. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  3. Human mobility patterns predict divergent epidemic dynamics among cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Benjamin D; Pourbohloul, Babak; Ellner, Stephen P

    2013-09-07

    The epidemic dynamics of infectious diseases vary among cities, but it is unclear how this is caused by patterns of infectious contact among individuals. Here, we ask whether systematic differences in human mobility patterns are sufficient to cause inter-city variation in epidemic dynamics for infectious diseases spread by casual contact between hosts. We analyse census data on the mobility patterns of every full-time worker in 48 Canadian cities, finding a power-law relationship between population size and the level of organization in mobility patterns, where in larger cities, a greater fraction of workers travel to work in a few focal locations. Similarly sized cities also vary in the level of organization in their mobility patterns, equivalent on average to the variation expected from a 2.64-fold change in population size. Systematic variation in mobility patterns is sufficient to cause significant differences among cities in infectious disease dynamics-even among cities of the same size-according to an individual-based model of airborne pathogen transmission parametrized with the mobility data. This suggests that differences among cities in host contact patterns are sufficient to drive differences in infectious disease dynamics and provides a framework for testing the effects of host mobility patterns in city-level disease data.

  4. Skin-Color Preferences and Body Satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Sarita; Piran, Niva

    1997-01-01

    Examines skin-color preferences and body satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian female university students. Hypothesizes that South Asian-Canadians would display a greater wish to be lighter in skin color than would European-Canadians and that the discrepancy would be greater the darker their skin color. Reports that the…

  5. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiten, Claire M; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Waterlander, Wilma E

    2016-02-01

    To examine the availability of packaged food products in New Zealand supermarkets by level of industrial processing, nutrient profiling score (NPSC), price (energy, unit and serving costs) and brand variety. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on packaged supermarket food and non-alcoholic beverages. Products were classified according to level of industrial processing (minimally, culinary and ultra-processed) and their NPSC. Packaged foods available in four major supermarkets in Auckland, New Zealand. Packaged supermarket food products for the years 2011 and 2013. The majority (84% in 2011 and 83% in 2013) of packaged foods were classified as ultra-processed. A significant positive association was found between the level of industrial processing and NPSC, i.e., ultra-processed foods had a worse nutrient profile (NPSC=11.63) than culinary processed foods (NPSC=7.95), which in turn had a worse nutrient profile than minimally processed foods (NPSC=3.27), Pprocessing. The study observed many variations of virtually the same product. The ten largest food manufacturers produced 35% of all packaged foods available. In New Zealand supermarkets, ultra-processed foods comprise the largest proportion of packaged foods and are less healthy than less processed foods. The lack of significant price difference between ultra- and less processed foods suggests ultra-processed foods might provide time-poor consumers with more value for money. These findings highlight the need to improve the supermarket food supply by reducing numbers of ultra-processed foods and by reformulating products to improve their nutritional profile.

  6. Dysplastic Nevus: Management by Canadian Dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Priya; Rosen, Cheryl; Siddha, Sanjay; Lynde, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The management of dysplastic nevi is controversial. No studies have collected data regarding management of the lesion amongst Canadian dermatologists. To provide a comprehensive review of what the prevailing opinions are, regarding treatment and terminology of dysplastic nevi, amongst Canadian dermatologists. An online survey of 25 questions was e-mailed to 613 members of the Canadian Dermatology Association, in French and English. A total of 179 responses were received. Varying numbers of participants completed each question. The majority of participants think that the term dysplastic nevus should not be abandoned, and they indicated that they never reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. The majority of Canadian dermatologists retain the use of the term dysplastic nevus and do not reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Freezing at sea: a Canadian opportunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bollivar, D.R; Cadegan, E; Demone, E.H; Matthew, P; Nicholson, P.J; Shannon, C.P; Stirling, R.C

    This report was prepared for the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association in an effort to set out as clearly as possible the issues relating to introduction of freezing at sea technology to the Canadian...

  8. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  9. Canadian shellfish sanitation program: manual of operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This manual outlines the authorities (acts and regulations), policies and procedures which apply to the Canadian program and which will be used to evaluate regional activities associated with the shellfish Sanitation Program...

  10. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  11. Providing for the sexual health needs of Canadian immigrants: the experience of immigrants from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Shirpak, Khosro Refaie; Chinichian, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Sexual health is increasingly understood as an integral part of health. In Canada, education for sexual health is delivered predominantly in middle and secondary school. What of adults who immigrate to Canada from countries where sex education is not delivered to youth? This paper explores the needs and experiences of one such group of Canadian immigrants: those from Iran. Ten married male and 10 married female immigrants from Iran living in a mid-sized Canadian city were recruited using snowball sampling and participated in qualitative interviews. The sample varied in age, education level, duration of marriage, and stay in Canada. Participants addressed three themes: experiences accessing information and health services, necessary content of information, and preferred ways of providing sexual health information and services. Key barriers to accessing and using sexual health services, experienced by all interviewees, regardless of the length of time they were in Canada, included language, cultural misunderstandings, embarrassment, long waits, and limited time that physicians spent with patients. Examples were provided of misunderstandings and inappropriate or even offensive questions or suggestions made by health practitioners who were unfamiliar with patients' cultural norms related to sexuality. Participants believed their needs and questions were different from their Canadian counterparts and wanted a confidential, linguistically and culturally friendly source of information such as a website in the Farsi language. More attention needs to be paid to developing public health and medical services related to sexual health that take account of the cultural diversities represented in the Canadian population.

  12. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  13. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-01-01

    After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portr...

  14. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Liao

    Full Text Available The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization.The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1 an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2 an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models.Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas.The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China.

  15. Actual use of a front-of-pack nutrition logo in the supermarket: consumers' motives in food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Vlot, Jessica A; Wulp, Anouk; Hogenes, Meefa G; Looije, Danielle H; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-11-01

    A front-of-pack nutrition logo on products with relatively favourable product compositions might help consumers to make more healthful choices. Studies investigating actual nutrition label use in point-of-purchase settings are scarce. The present study investigates the use of the 'Choices' nutrition logo in Dutch supermarkets. Adults were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about motivation for food choice and their purchased products were scored for the Choices logo after they had done their shopping. Nine supermarkets in The Netherlands. A total of 404 respondents participated. Of the respondents, 62 % reported familiarity with the logo. The motivations for food choice that were positively associated with actually purchasing products with the logo were attention to 'weight control' and 'product information'. The food choice motive 'hedonism' was negatively associated with purchasing products with the logo. This is the first study to investigate actual use of the Choices logo. In order to stimulate consumers to purchase more products with a favourable product composition, extra attention should be paid to hedonistic aspects such as the tastefulness and the image of healthy products.

  16. A comparative analysis of mycotoxin contamination of supermarket and premium brand pelleted dog food in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanil D. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs] and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]. For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20. These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA] using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes. Irrespective of the brand or marketing channel, all foods were contaminated with fungi (mainly Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus and mycotoxins (most prevalent being aflatoxins and fumonisins. This was observed in all 20 samples irrespective of the marketing channel or perceived quality. Also, many samples within each marketing channel failed the 10 ppb limit for aflatoxin set by regulations in South Africa. Although fumonisin was detected in all samples, a single sample failed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA limit of 100 ppb. Both OTA and ZEA were found at low concentrations and were absent in some samples. This study suggested that higher priced dog food does not ensure superior quality or that it is free from contamination with fungi or mycotoxins. However, analysis of the more expensive PBs did reveal contamination concentrations lower than those of the SBs.

  17. Examining the effect of retail service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty: The case of the supermarket shopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beneke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Post Apartheid, the South African supermarket industry has rapidly increased in size and stature, yet customer satisfaction and fostering goodwill don't appear to have kept pace with growth. This research considers which aspects of retail service quality impact upon customer satisfaction and, ultimately, pay dividends in terms of generating store loyalty amongst urban shoppers in the middle to upper market segments. Design/methodology/approach: A survey approach was used to collect data from 307 respondents within a major metro pole area, as well as through an online interface. This was used to test our path model using Partial Least Squares (PLS analysis. Findings: The results from the analysis concluded that two constructs, namely Physical Aspects and Personal Interaction, had a direct relationship with Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction was also confirmed to be positively linked to customer loyalty. Originality/Value: This research uncovers which aspects of service are most coveted by consumers in an emerging market context, as well as their effect on generating repeat business. If supermarket chains are to move beyond mere profit generation and build meaningful relationships with customers, they would best be advised to focus on the attributes of service that have a direct bearing on customer satisfaction and, in turn, long-term repeat patronage.

  18. A comparative analysis of mycotoxin contamination of supermarket and premium brand pelleted dog food in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanil D; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2017-10-06

    Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes. Irrespective of the brand or marketing channel, all foods were contaminated with fungi (mainly Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus) and mycotoxins (most prevalent being aflatoxins and fumonisins). This was observed in all 20 samples irrespective of the marketing channel or perceived quality. Also, many samples within each marketing channel failed the 10 ppb limit for aflatoxin set by regulations in South Africa. Although fumonisin was detected in all samples, a single sample failed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limit of 100 ppb. Both OTA and ZEA were found at low concentrations and were absent in some samples. This study suggested that higher priced dog food does not ensure superior quality or that it is free from contamination with fungi or mycotoxins. However, analysis of the more expensive PBs did reveal contamination concentrations lower than those of the SBs.

  19. Grocery Store (or Supermarket) Tours as an Effective Nutrition Education Medium: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Cassandra J; Muzaffar, Henna; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate evidence regarding grocery store tours as an effective nutrition education medium for improving nutrition knowledge and food-related behaviors. A systematic literature review of studies published from 1984 to 2015 concerning grocery store (or supermarket) tours and impact on nutrition knowledge and behaviors. Three investigators independently reviewed articles, extracted details, and assessed the quality of each study. Of 307 citations identified, 8 were reviewed and 6 were of neutral quality. Increases in nutrition knowledge were reported in 4 studies, as evaluated by investigator-designed quizzes, with short intervals between tours and assessments. Six programs assessed behavior change using subjective reports or objective purchasing behavior measures; 2 studies did not perform statistical analyses. The 6 studies that reported positive health-related outcomes had varying topics, tour lengths, and target audiences. Grocery store tours are increasingly used as an avenue for nutrition education to improve knowledge and/or alter food selection behaviors and may result in positive outcomes, but it is unknown whether these outcomes persist for longer than 3 months after the tour and whether there are common attributes of effective grocery store tours. More rigorous studies with uniform methodology in study design and outcome measures are needed to confirm the effectiveness of supermarket tours. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.

  1. A Regular City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sharavina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  2. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  3. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  4. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  5. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  6. Has New York City fallen into the local trap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    Municipal policies aiming to improve equity in food access and health often rely on the assumption that neighborhoods with limited healthy food availability and high levels of diet-related illness should be the subject of targeted policy-driven change. This study explored this assumption in the context of recent food policy developments in New York City with the objective of empirically examining the geography of everyday food behavior in high- and low-income neighborhoods. This research used a multi method comparative design. Areas at the poles of income inequality in New York City were identified using census data and geographic information systems. Qualitative and geographic data were collected from individual eaters living and/or working in those areas. A review of food policies in New York City from 2005 to 2012. Qualitative and geographic data were collected using space-time food diaries and mental mapping interviews. People living in the low-income study area had more localized food geographies than residents of the high-income study area. Individual-level qualitative data revealed that eaters with the least financial resources, those with physical disabilities, and those who were unemployed reported all or nearly all of their food events taking place within their neighborhoods. Eaters from the low-income area suggested that the barriers to healthy food that policy incentives should address were the high price of food and the consumer environment within stores, not the number of supermarkets in their area. Residents of the high-income area also expressed dissatisfaction with food prices and the in-store environment of their local supermarkets. These eaters leveraged their financial, technological, and transportation resources to overcome those barriers to fresh food. The policy review found that New York City's recent nutrition and food policies are to a great extent geographically targeted to low-income areas. As such, they miss opportunities for citywide

  7. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  8. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  9. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Hulou, M Maher; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Das, Sunit; Gormley, William B; Rutka, James T; Laws, Edward R; Heary, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden. CONCLUSIONS Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.

  10. "Supermarket Column Chromatography of Leaf Pigments" Revisited: Simple and Ecofriendly Separation of Plant Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Flavonoids from Green and Red Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alice M.; Ferreira, Maria La Salete

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ecofriendly procedure was developed in order to prepare extracts from red and green leaves. This procedure enables the separation of yellow, green, and red band pigments and optimizes the previously reported baking soda "supermarket column". The same extract also led to a novel and colorful potato starch column, which can…

  11. Healthy or Unhealthy on Sale? A cross-sectional study on the proportion of healthy and unhealthy foods promoted through flyer advertising by supermarkets in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, E.A.H.; Waterlander, W.E.; Kroeze, W.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is generally assumed that supermarkets promote unhealthy foods more heavily than healthy foods. Promotional flyers could be an effective tool for encouraging healthier food choices; however, there is a lack of good-quality evidence on this topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was

  12. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854 (United States)

    2006-08-31

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 {mu}g/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): 'gourmet tuna' had the least amount of mercury, and white

  13. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: are there regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2006-08-31

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 microg/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): "gourmet tuna" had the least amount of mercury, and white tuna had

  14. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? -a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen D

    2016-12-28

    The Prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review's key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD). The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling, promotions, campaigns, etc.) and increasing availability of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Few used price interventions. The average quality score for all papers is 65.0%, or an overall medium methodological quality. Apart from few studies, most studies reported that store interventions were effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological quality for some papers, we find efficacy of in-store healthy food

  15. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? —a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatah Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years, and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD. Results The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling, promotions, campaigns, etc. and increasing availability of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Few used price interventions. The average quality score for all papers is 65.0%, or an overall medium methodological quality. Apart from few studies, most studies reported that store interventions were effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Conclusion Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological

  16. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  17. Portrayal of youth suicide in canadian news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008-2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords "youth" and "suicide." The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth.

  18. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52) and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63). The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03) after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. Conclusion A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to higher expenditures in

  19. The shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in urban, urban-fringe and rural/non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J

    2018-02-01

    Supermarkets are a key influence on eating behaviours, but it is unknown if the promotion of food within stores varies on a geographic gradient from urban, to urban-fringe and non-metropolitan areas. The present study aimed to assess the shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in each of urban, urban-fringe and non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets. Design/Setting In-store audits were conducted in stores from one of the two major Australian supermarket chains in urban (n 19), urban-fringe (n 20) and non-metropolitan (n 26) areas of Victoria. These audits examined selected food items (crisps/chips, chocolate, confectionery, soft drinks/sodas, fruits and vegetables) and measured the shelf space and the proportion of end-of-aisle and cash register displays containing these products. Store size was measured as the sum of aisle length. Differences in the supermarket food environment with respect to location were assessed, before and after adjustment for neighbourhood socio-economic position. The strategic placement of discretionary foods was commonly observed in all supermarkets. Adjusting for store size (larger in urban-fringe and rural areas), urban stores had greater shelf space devoted to fruits and vegetables, and less checkouts with soft drinks, than urban-fringe and rural/non-metropolitan areas. Differences remained following adjustment for neighbourhood socio-economic position. No clear pattern was observed for end-of-aisle displays, or the placement of chocolate and confectionery at checkouts. The shelf space of healthy and discretionary foods in urban-fringe and rural stores parallels the prevalence of overweight and obesity in these areas. Interventions in urban-fringe and rural stores targeting the shelf space of healthy foods and the placement of soft drinks at key displays may be useful obesity prevention initiatives.

  20. Using a UK Virtual Supermarket to Examine Purchasing Behavior Across Different Income Groups in the United Kingdom: Development and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizdrak, Anja; Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-10-09

    The majority of food in the United Kingdom is purchased in supermarkets, and therefore, supermarket interventions provide an opportunity to improve diets. Randomized controlled trials are costly, time-consuming, and difficult to conduct in real stores. Alternative approaches of assessing the impact of supermarket interventions on food purchases are needed, especially with respect to assessing differential impacts on population subgroups. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the United Kingdom Virtual Supermarket (UKVS), a three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation of a supermarket, to measure food purchasing behavior across income groups. Participants (primary household shoppers in the United Kingdom with computer access) were asked to conduct two shopping tasks using the UKVS and complete questionnaires on demographics, food purchasing habits, and feedback on the UKVS software. Data on recruitment method and rate, completion of study procedure, purchases, and feedback on usability were collected to inform future trial protocols. A total of 98 participants were recruited, and 46 (47%) fully completed the study procedure. Low-income participants were less likely to complete the study (P=.02). Most participants found the UKVS easy to use (38/46, 83%) and reported that UKVS purchases resembled their usual purchases (41/46, 89%). The UKVS is likely to be a useful tool to examine the effects of nutrition interventions using randomized controlled designs. Feedback was positive from participants who completed the study and did not differ by income group. However, retention was low and needs to be addressed in future studies. This study provides purchasing data to establish sample size requirements for full trials using the UKVS.