WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadian animal health

  1. Attitudes and concerns of Canadian animal health technologists toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-two Canadian animal health technologists (AHTs) were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward postoperative pain management in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, their concerns regarding the use of opioid analgesics, and their role within veterinary practices with respect to postoperative pain control. Two hundred and sixty-four (82%) returned the questionnaire. Pain perception was defined as the average of pain rankings for dogs and cats (on a scale o...

  2. Laboratory animal medicine — Needs and opportunities for Canadian veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V; Baar, Michael; Olfert, Ernest D.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animal medicine is a growing field of veterinary practice that emphasizes animal welfare and refinement of research animal care. The Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L’association canadienne de la medecine des animaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) provide a framework within which laboratory animal veterinarians practise. Numerous continuing education and post-graduate training opportunities exist in Canada for veterin...

  3. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  4. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  5. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009.

  6. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  7. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  8. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  9. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  10. Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Telfer, Angela C; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Milton, Megan A; Pedersen, Stephanie; Jannetta, Paul; deWaard, Jeremy R

    2016-09-01

    Recent estimates suggest that the global insect fauna includes fewer than six million species, but this projection is very uncertain because taxonomic work has been limited on some highly diverse groups. Validation of current estimates minimally requires the investigation of all lineages that are diverse enough to have a substantial impact on the final species count. This study represents a first step in this direction; it employs DNA barcoding to evaluate patterns of species richness in 27 orders of Canadian insects. The analysis of over one million specimens revealed species counts congruent with earlier results for most orders. However, Diptera and Hymenoptera were unexpectedly diverse, representing two-thirds of the 46 937 barcode index numbers (=species) detected. Correspondence checks between known species and barcoded taxa showed that sampling was incomplete, a result confirmed by extrapolations from the barcode results which suggest the occurrence of at least 94 000 species of insects in Canada, a near doubling from the prior estimate of 54 000 species. One dipteran family, the Cecidomyiidae, was extraordinarily diverse with an estimated 16 000 species, a 10-fold increase from its predicted diversity. If Canada possesses about 1% of the global fauna, as it does for known taxa, the results of this study suggest the presence of 10 million insect species with about 1.8 million of these taxa in the Cecidomyiidae. If so, the global species count for this fly family may exceed the combined total for all 142 beetle families. If extended to more geographical regions and to all hyperdiverse groups, DNA barcoding can rapidly resolve the current uncertainty surrounding a species count for the animal kingdom. A newly detailed understanding of species diversity may illuminate processes important in speciation, as suggested by the discovery that the most diverse insect lineages in Canada employ an unusual mode of reproduction, haplodiploidy.This article is part of the

  11. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  12. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  13. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  14. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area. PMID:24607012

  15. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  16. Immigration and the economic health of Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Laura A Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research explores relationships between diversity of local populations and economic well-being: specifically, the connections between foreign-born populations, other measures of community diversity, and local economic health. Using data from the population of mid-sized Canadian cities, I conclude that there is a significant relationship between immigration and health. Several other aspects of diversity—language, visible minority status, and religion—are also related to economic health, b...

  17. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  18. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  19. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun;

    2008-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries such as...

  20. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  1. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition. PMID:2069607

  2. Why do Chinese Canadians not consult mental health services: health status, language or culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.

  3. Genomic Tools and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  4. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  5. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  7. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  8. Canadian health expenditures: Where do we really stand internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deber, R; Swan, B

    1999-01-01

    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9% of its GDP on health care (rank 3 of 29), and $1999 PPPs per capita (rank 3). However, actual spending was only US$1824 per capita (rank 14). In the same year Japan spent 7% of GDP on health care (rank 22), $1478 in PPPs per capita (rank 16), but actually spent US$2614 per capita (rank 3). Although each measure is suitable for some policy purposes, Canadian spending remains modest by international standards. PMID:10410638

  9. Lessons Learned from the Canadian Cattle Industry: National Animal Identification and The Mad Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, John D.; Daryl Strohbehn; Daniel D. Loy; Reginald J. Clause

    2003-01-01

    Canada implemented a national cattle identification system, led and developed by the industry. Initially a voluntary program beginning in July 2001, it became mandatory in July 2002 and achieved 92-95 percent compliance by that fall. The costs to develop and initiate the system were low; animals are tagged before leaving the farm of origin and the tags are read when the animal dies or is exported. The national identification system did not protect Canadian cattle from a sole case of bovine sp...

  10. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  11. Past, Present and Future of Respiratory Research: A Survey of Canadian Health Care Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Laura Nonoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Canadian Respiratory Health Professionals (CRHP is the multidisciplinary health care professional group of the Canadian Lung Association. Although the CRHP has a growing number of highly qualified researchers, the landscape of their research in Canada has not been described.

  12. Comparing the Canadian and US systems of health care in an era of health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPierre, Tracey A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an informed comparison of health care in the United States and Canada along multiple dimensions. Specifically this article looks at coverage, access, cost, health outcomes, satisfaction, and underlying ideology. Canada fares better than the United States with regard to coverage, cost, and health outcomes. While overall access is better in Canada, patients are sometimes required to endure longer wait times than in the United States. Reports of satisfaction levels vary across studies, but most evidence points toward comparable levels of satisfaction in Canada and the United States. Strong ideological differences underlie the Canadian and American systems, making the acceptance and implementation of certain reforms difficult. The potential impact of the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as recent Canadian health care reforms on coverage, access, cost, and health outcomes are also discussed. PMID:22894018

  13. The Canadian celiac health survey – the Ottawa chapter pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may manifest with a variety of symptoms which can result in delays in diagnosis. Celiac disease is associated with a number of other medical conditions. The last national survey of members of the Canadian Celiac Association (CCA was in 1989. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of surveying over 5,000 members of the CCA, in addition to obtaining more health related information about celiac disease. Methods The Professional Advisory Board of the CCA in collaboration with the University of Ottawa developed a comprehensive questionnaire on celiac disease. The questionnaire was pre-tested and then a pilot survey was conducted on members of the Ottawa Chapter of the CCA using a Modified Dillmans' Total Design method for mail surveys. Results We had a 76% response to the first mailout of the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 55.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 45 years. The majority of respondents presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue or weight loss. Prior to diagnosis, 30% of respondents consulted four or more family doctors. Thirty seven percent of individuals were told they had either osteoporosis or osteopenia. Regarding the impact of the gluten-free diet (GFD, 45% of individuals reported that they found following a GFD was very or moderately difficult. The quality of life of individuals with celiac disease was comparable to the mean quality of life of Canadians. Conclusion On the basis of our results, we concluded that a nationwide survey is feasible and this is in progress. Important concerns included delays in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the awareness of associated medical conditions. Other issues include awareness of celiac disease by health professionals and the impact of the GFD on quality of life. These issues will be addressed further in the national survey.

  14. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    OpenAIRE

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing p...

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  16. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. PMID:4076081

  17. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2006-01-01

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the An...

  18. MDS Nordion - a Canadian Radioisotope success story Science advancing health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At MDS Nordion we use nuclear science and technology to advance human life and health through a wide range of applications. We could not do this without the strong partnerships we have formed with the Canadian nuclear power industry. Together, we have developed and applied radioisotope technology in ways that have saved millions of lives around the world. This is a success story of which we all can be proud. It is a success story that we should share with others. As an industry, we are often challenged by activists , who fear and attack anything nuclear and who do not care to understand how vital nuclear energy and nuclear science are to an environmentally sound, economically healthy future. MDS Nordion has not escaped this kind of public scrutiny, but much of this criticism is muted by the tremendous contributions we have made to medicine and health care generally. That is why it is so important for you to see MDS Nordion's story as a success story that everyone in the industry has contributed to, in the support they have provided, and in the products or services they supply

  19. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  20. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  1. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan A; Boden, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor). Lack of time and insufficient training were the most frequently reported barriers to participating in SRs. The findings provide a benchmark for tracking changes in Canadian university health sciences librarians' participation in SRs. PMID:25918485

  2. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  3. Educating physicians about women's health. Survey of Canadian family medicine residency programs.

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, M. A.; Sorbie, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which women's health issues are taught in the 2-year core curriculum of Canadian family medicine residency programs and whether educators think their current teaching of women's health is adequate. DESIGN: Mailed survey using a questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: All program and unit directors of the 16 Canadian family medicine residency training programs were surveyed. Replies were received from 63% (10 of 16) of program directors and 79% (55 of 70) of unit directors. MAIN OU...

  4. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  5. Measuring information technology investment among Canadian academic health sciences centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Lorraine; Leonard, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Many recent studies have attempted to accurately measure the expenditure by hospitals in the area of new information technology (IT), for example see Leonard 1998 and Pink et al. 2001. This is usually done as an exercise to compare the healthcare sector with other industries that have had much more success in implementing and leveraging their IT investment (Willcocks 1992; Chan 2000). It is normally hoped that such investigation would help explain some of the differences among the various industries and provide insight into where (and how much) future IT spending should occur in healthcare (Leonard 2004). Herein, we present the results from a study of eight Canadian academic health sciences centres that contributed data in order to analyze the amount of information technology spending in their organizations. Specifically, we focus on one specific indicator: the IT spend ratio. This ratio is defined as the percentage of total IT net costs to total hospital net operating costs, and aims to provide a "relative (or percentage) measure of spending" so as to make the comparisons meaningful. One such comparison shows that hospitals spend only 55% of the amount the financial services sector spends.

  6. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  7. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. Pets can also make you sick. Reptiles pose a particular risk. Turtles, snakes and iguanas can transmit Salmonella bacteria to their owners. You can get rabies from an infected dog or toxoplasmosis from handling ...

  8. Charter rights & health care funding: a typology of Canadian health rights litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Chen, Y Y Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Canadian health consumers have increasingly relied on the Charter of Rights and Freedoms to demand certain therapies and reasonably timely access to care. Organizing these cases into a 5-part typology, we examine how a rights-based discourse affects allocation of health care resources. First, successful Charter challenges can, in theory, lead to courts granting and enforcing positive rights to therapies or to timely care. Second, courts may grant a right to certain health services; however, subsequently government fails to deliver on this right. Third, successful litigation may create negative rights, i.e. rights to access care or private health insurance without government interference. Fourth, consumers can fail in their legal pursuit of a right but galvanize public support in the process, ultimately effecting the desired policy changes. Lastly, a failed lawsuit can stifle an entire advocacy campaign for the sought-after therapies. The typology illustrates the need to examine both legal and policy outcomes of health right litigation. This broader analysis reveals that the pursuit of health rights seems to have caused largely a regressive rather than progressive impact on Canadian Medicare. PMID:21456397

  9. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Wan C; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from health...

  10. Health-related quality of life of Canadian children and youth prenatally exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Ungar Wendy J; Stevens Bonnie; Stade Brenda C; Beyene Joseph; Koren Gideon

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In Canada, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) has been estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. Caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, FASD is the leading cause of neuro-developmental disabilities among Canadian children, and youth. Objective: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of Canadian children and youth diagnosed with FASD. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study design was used. One-hundred and twenty-six (126) children and yo...

  11. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Susan A.; Boden, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor)....

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  14. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  15. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-01-01

    Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a ...

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  17. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. PMID:26868238

  18. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relatio...

  19. Rural and Urban Canadians with Dementia: Use of Health Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Dorothy A.; Morgan, Debra; Janzen, Bonnie L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the characteristics of older Canadians with dementia (compared to those without dementia), their use of health care services, and the impact of place (rural/urban) on use of services. Andersen and Newman's Behavioural Model of Health Services Use (1973) guided the study. A cross-sectional design used…

  20. Management and Evaluation of a Pan-Canadian Graduate Training Program in Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Marilynne; Lau, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Eight Canadian universities partnered to establish a Collaborative Health Informatics PhD/Postdoc Strategic Training Program (CHPSTP). The 6-year goal was to increase research capacity in health informatics in Canada. Three cohorts of 20 trainees participated in the training, which included online Research Learning Experiences, annual face-to-face…

  1. The ethics of animal research: a survey of pediatric health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ari R. Joffe; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR). We aim to determine whether HCW consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of AR convincing. Design After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, su...

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  4. When Does an Immigrant with HIV Represent an Excessive Demand on Canadian Health or Social Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEDNAPA THAVORN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act of 2001 outlines conditions under which individuals may be granted or denied admission to Canada. The Act stipulates that applications for residence will be rejected if their health is expected to generate excessive demand on Canadian health or social services. The purpose of this paper is to derive a statistical definition of excessive demand and to apply that threshold to persons with HIV who are seeking admission to Canada. The paper demonstrates that the current threshold used by Citizenship and Immigration Canada is much lower than the thresholds that may be derived statistically.

  5. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics. PMID:27344143

  6. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy. PMID:25005028

  7. Situation of animal health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The animal healthy service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall government, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economical and public support, animal health service attempt to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country aiming at improving standards of living of its inhabitants. One of this approaches is through a practical way of reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing productivity in animal population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring human treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for an uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control of the country. The vision of National Animal Health Program (NAHP) is to improve the health and welfare of animals, which meets the needs of stakeholders, enables safe production of food, improves health of the public, sustains the rural society, and support the rural economy. The concept and requirements for this vision - The current veterinary services section in the country, including the veterinary diagnostic institution, is very weak. The few resources in place are fragmented and reflect a historic paradigm of previous regimen with incomplete transition to market economy. The veterinary services on the 12 districts/regions appear to have been connected from administrable aspect but their field operations are not connected with the national interest and the above mission. - There is a need to link food safety and zoonotic aspect to public health sectors so that public interest and funding resources can be increased. - The livestock sector is undeveloped and consumers do not have much influence or organization. The veterinary service should take this opportunity to present a comprehensive plan of

  8. Ecosystem and population health: the role of Canadian physicians at home and abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Woollard, R F

    1995-01-01

    Seemingly intractable problems of overpopulation, ecologic degradation, diminishing resources and regional warfare are having a profound effect on global population health. Canadian physicians can assist in ameliorating these problems by helping to modify the overconsumption of natural resources at home and by participating in international health projects focused at the community level, where the health of individuals and that of their environment intersect. The author describes the work of ...

  9. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  13. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  14. Animal health and welfare--pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeenoja, P

    2001-01-01

    Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  16. Health-related quality of life of Canadian children and youth prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungar Wendy J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD has been estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. Caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, FASD is the leading cause of neuro-developmental disabilities among Canadian children, and youth. Objective: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQL of Canadian children and youth diagnosed with FASD. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study design was used. One-hundred and twenty-six (126 children and youth diagnosed with FASD, aged 8 to 21 years, living in urban and rural communities throughout Canada participated in the study. Participants completed the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3. HUI3 measures eight health attributes: vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition, and pain. Utilities were used to measure a single cardinal value between 0 and 1.0 (0 = all-worst health state; 1 = perfect health to reflect the global HRQL for that child. Mean HRQL scores and range of scores of children and youth with FASD were calculated. A one-sample t-test was used to compare mean HRQL scores of children and youth with FASD to those from the Canadian population. Results Mean HRQL score of children and youth with FASD was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.52 as compared to a mean score of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.94 in those from the general Canadian population (p Conclusion Children and youth with FASD have significantly lower HRQL than children and youth from the general Canadian population. This finding has significant implications for practice, policy development, and research.

  17. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  18. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad

  19. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  20. The Role of Canadian Public Librarians in Promoting Health Literacy: Potential Programs and Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Arding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore health literacies with a focus on public libraries and their patrons. The authors’ aim is to extract major themes, challenges, and recommendations for further research and collaboration between health professionals and information professionals in promoting health literacy skills to the public. Major issues will be discussed on the subjects of public service, education, and collaboration between health specialists and information specialists. A major focus of the paper is Canadian health literacy issues, as well as Canadian health information dissemination. Time constraints and budget cuts in the health care system have caused a major strain on health professionals. Within the system, there is a shortage of doctors, nurses, and time devoted to health literacy. As a result, patients often seek answers to their health concerns on their own and supplement their understanding of individual health issues by searching for information via the Internet. While consumers often seek answers to their health questions online, the lack of quality control on the Internet is problematic. Public librarians should therefore turn their attention to promoting and providing reliable online information. Meeting the needs of any group can be a challenge for information professionals in public libraries, especially when it comes to health literacy. Public libraries tend to be one of the first places of contact for general public inquiries on infectious diseases and emerging illnesses. Public librarians play an important role in their communities in all aspects of information research and therefore should be advocates for promoting proper health information.

  1. Comprehensive determinants of health service utilisation for mental health reasons in a canadian catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury Marie-Josée

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study sought to identify factors associated with health service utilisation by individuals with mental disorders in a Canadian catchment area. Methods To be included in the study, participants had to be aged between 15 and 65 and reside in the study location. Data was collected randomly from June to December 2009 by specially trained interviewers. A comprehensive set of variables (including geospatial factors was studied using the Andersen's behavioural health service model. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results Among 406 individuals diagnosed with mental disorders, 212 reported using a mental health service at least once in the 12 months preceding the interviews. Emotional problems and a history of violence victimisation were most strongly associated with such utilisation. Participants who were middle-aged or deemed their mental health to be poor were also more likely to seek mental healthcare. Individuals living in neighbourhoods where rental accommodations were the norm used significantly fewer health services than individuals residing in neighbourhoods where homeownership was preponderant; males were also less likely to use services than females. Conclusions Our study broke new ground by uncovering the impact of longstanding violence victimisation, and the proportion of homeownership on mental health service utilisation among this population. It also confirmed the prominence of some variables (gender, age, emotional problems and self-perceived mental health as key enabling variables of health-seeking. There should be better promotion of strategies designed to change the attitudes of males and youths and to deal with violence victimisation. There is also a need for initiatives that are targeted to neighbourhoods where there is more rental housing.

  2. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  3. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North: Revisiting cultural safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness. I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health. PMID:27206162

  4. Servant leadership: a case study of a Canadian health care innovator

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderpyl TH

    2012-01-01

    Tim H VanderpylSchool of Global Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, USAAbstract: Both servant leadership and innovation are easier to theorize than to actually implement in practice. This article presents a case study of a Canadian health care executive who led a remarkable turnaround of St Michael's Health Centre, a floundering and almost bankrupt nursing home. In less than 7 years, Kevin Cowan turned around the finances and changed numerous broken relationships into s...

  5. The Canadian survey of health, lifestyle and ageing with multiple sclerosis: methodology and initial results

    OpenAIRE

    Ploughman, Michelle; Beaulieu, Serge; Harris, Chelsea; Hogan, Stephen; Manning, Olivia J; Alderdice, Penelope W; Fisk, John D.; Sadovnick, A Dessa; O'Connor, Paul; Morrow, Sarah A; Metz, Luanne M.; Smyth, Penelope; Mayo, Nancy; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Knox, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are living longer so strategies to enhance long-term health are garnering more interest. We aimed to create a profile of ageing with MS in Canada by recruiting 1250 (5% of the Canadian population above 55 years with MS) participants and focusing data collection on health and lifestyle factors, disability, participation and quality of life to determine factors associated with healthy ageing. Design National multicentre postal survey. Setting Recrui...

  6. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP regulations: industry perceptions and compliance factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natural health products, such as vitamins, minerals, and herbs, by Canadians has been increasing with time. As a result of consumer concern about the quality of these products, the Canadian Department of Health created the Natural Health Products (NHP Regulations. The new Canadian regulations raise questions about whether and how the NHP industry will be able to comply and what impact they will have on market structure. The objectives of this study were to explore who in the interview sample is complying with Canada's new NHP Regulations (i.e., submitted product licensing applications on time; and explore the factors that affect regulatory compliance. Methods Twenty key informant interviews were conducted with employees of the NHP industry. The structured interviews focused on the level of satisfaction with the Regulations and perceptions of compliance and non-compliance. Interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were independently coded, using qualitative content analysis. Team meetings were held after every three to four interviews to discuss emerging themes. Results The major finding of this study is that most (17 out of 20 companies interviewed were beginning to comply with the new regulatory regime. The factors that contribute to likelihood of regulatory compliance were: perceptions and knowledge of the regulations and business size. Conclusion The Canadian case can be instructive for other countries seeking to implement regulatory standards for natural health products. An unintended consequence of the Canadian NHP regulations may be the exit of smaller firms, leading to industry consolidation.

  7. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Daniel J; Lelewski, Roxana; Weese, J Scott; Mcgill-Worsley, Jamie; Shankel, Catharine; Mendonca, Sonia; Sager, Tara; Smith, Michael; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of respiratory pathogens and development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. In total, 86 dogs were tested using a commercial PCR respiratory panel; 64 dogs were considered as cases and 22 were control dogs matched by veterinary clinic. No control animals (0/22) were positive for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), whereas 27/64 (42%) CIRDC cases were positive. Furthermore, 81% of case dogs tested positive for Mycoplasma cynos, compared with 73% of control dogs. Canine respiratory corona virus (CRCoV) was detected in no control dogs compared with 9.4% of clinical dogs. No animals were positive for any influenza virus type A present in the diagnostic panel. Presence of CPIV was associated (P < 0.01) with the occurrence of CIRDC after adjustment for demographic factors and presence of CRCoV (P = 0.09).

  8. Cooperative Marketing of Animal Health Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    This report uses eight case studies to identify elements of successful cooperative programs for retailing over-the-counter animal health products (AHP). It provides practical information on AHP marketing strategies and methods for cooperative retailers, planners, and researchers. All participating cooperatives except one provided information for fiscal years ending during calendar year 1986. The exception was for 1987. Information. about five AHP suppliers and their marketing programs is incl...

  9. New perspective on the health of Canadians: 28 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Marc

    2002-09-01

    As part of its 100th-anniversary celebration, the Pan American Health Organization has named 12 persons as "Public Health Heroes of the Americas" in recognition of their noteworthy contributions to#10; public health in the Region of the Americas. Over the course of this year, the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health will be carrying pieces written by or about these heroes.

  10. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  11. Health behaviour changes after diagnosis of chronic illness among Canadians aged 50 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; McCarthy, Michael J; Bernier, Julie; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2012-12-01

    Changes in health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behaviour. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups except those with respiratory disease, at least 75% of smokers did not quit. No significant changes emerged in the percentage meeting physical activity recommendations, except those with diabetes, or in excessive alcohol consumption, except those with diabetes and respiratory disease. The percentage reporting the recommended minimum fruit and vegetable intake did not increase significantly among any group.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  13. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  14. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. McIntosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions.

  15. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions.

  16. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions. PMID:27445556

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  18. Navigating maternity health care: a survey of the Canadian prairie newcomer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaz, Zubia; O’Brien, Beverley; Higginbottom, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigration to Canada has significantly increased in recent years, particularly in the Prairie Provinces. There is evidence that pregnant newcomer women often encounter challenges when attempting to navigate the health system. Our aim was to explore newcomer women’s experiences in Canada regarding pregnancy, delivery and postpartum care and to assess the degree to which Canada provides equitable access to pregnancy and delivery services. Methods Data were obtained from the Canadian...

  19. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  20. Increasing blood pressure and its associated factors in Canadian children and adolescents from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yipu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is facing a childhood obesity epidemic. Elevated blood pressure (BP is a major complication of obesity. Reports on the impact of excess adiposity on BP in children and adolescents have varied significantly across studies. We evaluated the independent effects of obesity, physical activity, family history of hypertension, and socioeconomic status on BP in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data for 1850 children aged 6 to 17 years who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey, Cycle 1, 2007–2009. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were age-, sex-, and height-adjusted to z-scores (SBPZ and DBPZ. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were calculated based on World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the independent effects of relevant variables on SBPZ and DBPZ. Results For most age/sex groups, obesity was positively associated with SBP. Being obese was associated with higher DBP in adolescent boys only. The BP effect of obesity showed earlier in young girls than boys. Obese adolescents were estimated to have an average 7.6 mmHg higher SBP than normal weight adolescents. BMI had the strongest effect on BP among obese children and adolescents. Moderately active adolescent boys had higher SBP (3.9 mmHg and DBP (4.9 mmHg than physically active boys. Family history of hypertension showed effects on SBP and DBP in younger girls and adolescent boys. Both family income and parent education demonstrated independent associations with BP in young children. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the early impact of excess adiposity, insufficient physical activity, family history of hypertension, and socioeconomic inequalities on BP. Early interventions to reduce childhood obesity can, among other things, reduce exposure to prolonged BP elevation and the future risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Commentary on the new sex and gender editorial policy of the Canadian Journal of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-08-15

    While the concepts of both "sex" and "gender" are widely recognized as important considerations in health research, the presence of these and other key determinants of health in research findings remains quite variable in the published literature. In an effort to close this knowledge gap in relation to the implications of both sex and gender in the public health research evidence base, the Canadian Journal of Public Health (CJPH) has recently adopted an editorial policy requiring authors to ensure that their manuscripts speak to these concepts, where applicable. In keeping with the international trend in sex and gender reporting in health research, the aim of this policy shift is for CJPH to continue to advance excellence in the field of public health research, policy and practice in Canada and internationally.

  2. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  3. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  4. Mycotoxin: Its Effect on Animal Health and its Residues in Animal Products and its Control

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaella Widiastuti

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are the toxic metabolites of certain fungi which is able to influence animal health . Five types of the most important mycotoxins are aflatox ns, ochratoksin A . zearalenone, trichotecenes and fumonisin . The effect of mycotoxin on animal health depends on the type and amount of the mycotoxins consumed . The occurrence of mycotoxin causes animal health problem and also leads to the arise of mycotoxin residues in food derived from animal products such as meat, eggs and milk which ca...

  5. Human health considerations in the assessment of Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, AECL was mandated by the government of Ontario and the federal government to find a permanent disposal solution for spent nuclear fuels. Canada opted for disposal in plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield. The Canadian concept calls for disposal in crystalline rocks at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface. The spent fuel would be contained in a canister, the canister would be emplaced in a vault containing clay-based buffer materials, and the cavity would be backfilled and sealed with natural materials. A Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel was formed in 1992 to assess the concept for disposal of the spent fuel. In this paper a brief discussion of the human health impacts of the proposed concept is presented. Our assessment is based on the information provided by AECL, namely, the main EIS document, a summary and nine other supporting documents

  6. Strengthening health claim dossiers with animal research : Strengthening health claim dossiers with animal research

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2013-01-01

    Rapid assessment of potential health benefits of diets can be performed in a number of animal models operated at TNO. Experience is present with a broad spectrum of study designs and a wealth of read-out possibilities and physiologicdynamic measurements.

  7. Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term.

  8. Human and Animal Sentinels for Shared Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH; Matthew Scotch, PhD, MPH; Lisa Conti, DVM, MPH

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions, and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal...

  9. Health of plants, animals and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the Dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the elaboration of subproject 2 'Health of plants, animals and ecosystems'. The study had been based upon the following questions: Does the application of the radiation-protection principes, intended to the protection of man, offer sufficient protection for populations of plants and animals?; If that sufficient protection does exsist, are there situations imagible which are exceptions therefore?; Which studies should be made if the forementioned questions cannot be answered sufficiently? The gravity of radiation effects turns out to depend on the radiation dose an on the part of the population which is exposed. On the base of literature it is concluded that effects upon aquatic and terristric populations are excluded below radiation levels of 1 mGy/day. From the application of the generic models it appears that the radiation burden of organisms will remain below 1 mGy/day. Since the radiation burden of man in actual practice will be nearly always lower certainly no effects upon plants, animals and ecosystems are to be expected. An exception is possible for situations in which the distribution does not take place in the living environment of man; in that case protection of man is no need for limiting the radiation levels. Such locations do not exsist in the Netherlands. For the Dutch situation, in view of the actual and expected radiation levels, the in the report derived upper limits for the radiation levels will certainly be reached. It is recommended to make for the Netherlands, starting from concrete source terms, estimations which are based upon concrete situations, with the help of the generic models. In view of the foregoing the necessity therefore is small. Next it is recommeded to keep following the international developments in this area. (H.W.). 60 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter

  12. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and mental…

  13. The Canadian approach to science-based regulation of the long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Doonan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Government regulators face numerous challenges when considering economic necessities (real and perceived, societal expectations on how animals should be treated, scientific research into the needs of various animal species and daily transport practices in the 'real world'. Do we regulate to promote economic competitiveness, to appease animal welfare interest groups and satisfy industry lobbying organisations, or to meet the needs of the animals? In Canada, a recipe to blend regulatory intervention with voluntary, industry-derived standards is the approach of choice.

  14. Influenza immunization among Canadian health care personnel: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Sarah A.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation. Using bootstrapped survey weights, we examined immunization coverage by occupation and by presence of vaccinate-or-mask policies, and reasons for not being immunized. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of influenza immunization for health care occupations compared with the general working population. Results: For all survey cycles combined, 50% of 18 446 health care personnel reported receiving seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 12 months, although this varied by occupation type (range 4%-72%). Compared with the general working population, family physicians and general practitioners were most likely to be immunized (PR 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76-3.59), whereas chiropractors, midwives and practitioners of natural healing were least likely (PR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Among those who were not immunized, the most frequently cited reason was the belief that influenza immunization is unnecessary. Introduction of vaccinate-or-mask policies was associated with increased influenza immunization among health care personnel. Interpretation: Health care personnel are more likely to be immunized against influenza than the general working population, but coverage remains suboptimal overall, and we observed wide variation by occupation type. More efforts

  15. Trends in suicidal behaviour and use of mental health services in Canadian military and civilian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O.; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Erickson, Julie; Stein, Murray B.; Fikretoglu, Deniz; Zamorski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the context of the Canadian mission in Afghanistan, substantial media attention has been placed on mental health and lack of access to treatment among Canadian Forces personnel. We compared trends in the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the use of mental health services between Canadian military personnel and the general population from 2002 to 2012/13. Methods: We obtained data for respondents aged 18–60 years who participated in 4 nationally representative surveys by Statistics Canada designed to permit comparisons between populations and trends over time. Surveys of the general population were conducted in 2002 (n = 25 643) and 2012 (n = 15 981); those of military personnel were conducted in 2002 (n = 5153) and 2013 (n = 6700). We assessed the lifetime and past-year prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, as well as use of mental health services. Results: In 2012/13, but not in 2002, military personnel had significantly higher odds of both lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation than the civilian population (lifetime: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.50; past year: adjusted OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.66). The same was true for suicidal plans (lifetime: adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.35–1.99; past year: adjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18–2.33). Among respondents who reported past-year suicidal ideation, those in the military had a significantly higher past-year utilization rate of mental health services than those in the civilian population in both 2002 (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.31–3.13) and 2012/13 (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.86–5.28). Interpretation: Canadian Forces personnel had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans in 2012/13 and a higher use of mental health services in 2002 and 2012/13 than the civilian population. PMID:27221270

  16. Identifying At-Risk Subpopulations of Canadians with Limited Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamashita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health literacy, the set of skills for locating, understanding, and using health-related information, is associated with various health outcomes through health behaviors and health care service use. While health literacy has great potential for addressing health disparities stemming from the differing educational attainment in diverse populations, knowledge about subpopulations that share the same risk factors is useful. Objective. This study employed a logistic regression tree algorithm to identify subpopulations at risk of limited health literacy in Canadian adults. Design. The nationally representative data were derived from the International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (n = 20,059. The logistic regression tree algorithm splits the samples into subgroups and fits logistic regressions. Results. Results showed that the subpopulation comprised of individuals 56 years and older, with household income less than $50,000, no participation in adult education programs, and lack of reading activities (i.e., newspaper, books was at the greatest risk (82% of limited health literacy. Other identified subgroups were displayed in an easily interpreted tree diagram. Conclusions. Identified subpopulations organized in tree diagrams according to the risk of limited health literacy inform not only intervention programs targeting unique subpopulations but also future health literacy research.

  17. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  18. Strategic plan of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism, and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Philip M; Makarchuk, Mary-Jo; Belanger, Paul; Roberts, Eve A

    2011-01-01

    The present document provides the new and updated strategic plan for the Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism, and Diabetes (INMD) of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This plan provides an overarching map for the strategic activities of the INMD during the five years from 2010 to 2014. These strategic priorities will guide the way that the INMD uses its resources over this period of time, and will provide opportunities to build new partnerships and strategic alliances that enhance and leverage the capacity to fund targeted research initiatives. PMID:22059161

  19. Strategic Plan of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism, and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Sherman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present document provides the new and updated strategic plan for the Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism, and Diabetes (INMD of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This plan provides an overarching map for the strategic activities of the INMD during the five years from 2010 to 2014. These strategic priorities will guide the way that the INMD uses its resources over this period of time, and will provide opportunities to build new partnerships and strategic alliances that enhance and leverage the capacity to fund targeted research initiatives.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project reviews and research coordination meetings on milk production, rinderpest diagnosis, animal vaccinations, quality assurance in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and evaluation of animal feeds are the major highlights of this issue of the Newsletter

  1. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these h...

  2. "BE"ing a Certain Way: Seeking "Body Image" in Canadian Health and Physical Education Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Body image is an individual's emotional response to one's appearance including size and shape; this response may not be helpful in the pursuit of overall health and well-being. This policy analysis examines the treatment of body image in Canadian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum policies using a body image analysis framework…

  3. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs...

  4. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System...-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study....

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  6. Nanotechnology developments: opportunities for animal health and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Manuja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up new vistas for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology and almost all the disciplines of veterinary and animal sciences. Excellence in animal health and production can be achieved by translation of this newer technology to create effective services and products for animals. The ability to manufacture and manipulate matter on the nanoscale has offered opportunities for application in diverse areas of animal sciences. Nanosensors, nanovaccines, adjuvants, gene delivery and smart drug delivery methods have the potential to revolutionize animal health and production. There can be numerous applications of the nanomaterials for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction, tissue engineering and value addition to animal products. This paper reviews the recent developments in nanotechnology research and opportunities for application in animal sciences.

  7. Drug residues in animal tissues and their regulatory significance--the Canadian point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J

    1978-09-01

    Today it is almost impossible to produce food of animal origin which is free from traces of drugs or chemicals. In Canada the problem of drug residues is controlled by a method of assessment of human safety which involves many factors. The toxicity of the drug in laboratory animals or, if possible, in man, is established and a no-effect dose is then estimated. These studies require oral administration of the drug and include acute, subacute, and teratogenicity studies. Depending on these results, chronic reproductive or carcinogenicity studies may be required before a no-effect dose can be estimated. Residue studies must encompass data on metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and depletion studies in edible tissues and for products such as milk and eggs. For veterinary drug residues, we must consider the target food animal with its particular metabolism, tissue disposition, and excretion patterns. The analytical method for residue detection must be acceptable and its sensitivity limits suitable for the drug and its major metabolites.

  8. [Exotic animals in the animal business and husbandry: poultry in view of welfare and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinke, C M; Spruijt, B M

    1999-09-01

    The market for exotic animals is very diverse. Because it is often not known what happens to the animals during their capture, transport, and storage, in 1997 we carried out a study on the health and welfare of these animals. During the course of this study we controlled the transport of exotic animals and visited several dealers and owners. Many of the health problems of these animals can be related to the accumulation of stressors that the animals experience during the trade process. Examples of these stressors are physical injury, overcrowding, dehydration, and long journeys. Transport in itself is an important emotional stressor. Health problems caused by stress, which can lead to premature death, often become apparent only after the animal has been sold as pet.

  9. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  11. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  12. Student activism, mental health, and English-Canadian universities in the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Student mental health services were created at many American universities during the interwar years in association with the mental hygiene movement of that era. In Canada, psychologists and psychiatrists became focused on the well-being of schoolchildren during this period, but services for university students were minimal or non-existent at most institutions until well after the Second World War. Influenced by American trends and in tune with rising public concern over the problems students were experiencing on Canada's burgeoning campuses, student organizations, in co-operation with the Canadian Mental Health Association, began a concerted campaign for improved services in the early 1960s. Through conferences, seminars, and surveys, they revealed the extent of student distress, and by 1965 their efforts were attracting increasing media attention and having a direct impact on university student health policies. Their campaign then entered a new phase, transformed by the same radicalization that infused the wider student movement in the wake of the Berkeley free speech protests. Dissatisfied with the institutional response and distrustful of the motives behind the services now provided, activists questioned the very meaning of 'mental health' in the context of their deeper critique of the university and society. By the end of the decade, the student mental health movement had run its course, but it left a lasting legacy in the ongoing reform of university health services and in attitudes towards student mental health. PMID:22145174

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents: Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007-2009) and Cycle 2 (2009-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, M.; de Groh, M.; Loukine, L.; Prud’homme, D.; Dubois, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors, and the influence of socioeconomic status, in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009) and cycle 2 (2009–2011) respondents aged 10 to 18 years who provided fasting blood samples were included (n  =  1228). The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) consensus definition for children and adolescents (10–15 years) and worldwide adult definition (≥ 16 years) were used to diagnose MetS. Prevalence of MetS and its risk factors were calculated and differences by socioeconomic status were examined using χ2 tests. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 2.1%. One-third (37.7%) of participants had at least one risk factor, with the most prevalent being abdominal obesity (21.6%), low HDL-C (19.1%) and elevated triglyceride levels (7.9%). This combination of abdominal obesity, low HDL-C and elevated triglyceride levels accounted for 61.5% of MetS cases. Participants from households with the highest income adequacy and educational attainment levels had the lowest prevalence of one or more MetS risk factors, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C. Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS (2.1%) was lower than previously reported in Canada (3.5%) and the USA (4.2%–9.2%), potentially due to the strict application of the IDF criteria for studying MetS. One-third of Canadian children and adolescents have at least one risk factor for MetS. Given that the risk for MetS increases with age, these prevalence estimates, coupled with a national obesity prevalence of almost 10% among youth, point to a growing risk of MetS and other chronic diseases for Canadian youth. PMID:26878492

  14. Unlocking the doors to Canadian older inmate mental health data: Rates and potential legal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftene, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a quantitative study investigating the quality of life of older Canadian prisoners. For this study, social science methodology was used to answer certain legal questions, such as: what are the mental health issues of older male offenders and how are these needs influencing the exercise of their legal rights? Are institutions prepared to deal with the increased needs of older offenders? If no, is this an infringement of this group's rights? In this article, the mental health problems of older offenders are first outlined. Second, the legal, policy, and institutional limitations in responding to these problems are described. Based on these findings, it is maintained that a change in the treatment of older offenders is needed. Third, statutory and constitutional challenges are explored. If change does not come voluntarily, it is the duty of the courts to have a flexible and open-minded approach toward different actions that challenge the current prison regime. PMID:27037162

  15. The costs of uncertainty: regulating health and safety in the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federalism, and particularly federal/provincial jurisdictional relationships, have led to considerable uncertainty in the regulation of occupational health and safety and of environmental protection in the Canadian uranium mining industry. The two principal uranium producing provinces in Canada are Saskatchewan and Ontario. Since 1978, in an attempt to avoid constitutional issues, both these provinces and the federal government as well have proceeded unilaterally with health and safety reforms for the industry. In Saskatchewan this has resulted in areas of overlapping jurisdiction, which have led to uncertainty over the legal enforceability of the provincial regulations. In Ontario, the province has left significant gaps in the protection of both workers and the environment. Little progress can be expected in eliminating these gaps and overlaps until the current administrative and jurisdictional arrangements are understood

  16. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  17. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  18. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  19. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Runnels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered

  2. Nanotechnology developments: opportunities for animal health and production

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Manuja; Balvinder Kumar; Raj Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened up new vistas for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology and almost all the disciplines of veterinary and animal sciences. Excellence in animal health and production can be achieved by translation of this newer technology to create effective services and products for animals. The ability to manufacture and manipulate matter on the nanoscale has offered opportunities for application in diverse areas of animal sciences. Nanosensors, nanovaccines, adjuvants, g...

  3. Canadian health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of nutritional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Mark; Morin, Karine; Ries, Nola; Castle, David

    2010-10-01

    Nutritional genomics has reached the public through applications of the Human Genome Project offered direct to consumers (DTC). The ability to pursue nutrigenetic testing without the involvement of a health care professional has received considerable attention from academic and policy commentators. To better understand the knowledge and attitudes of Canadian health care professionals regarding nutritional genomics and nutrigenetic testing, qualitative research in the form of focus group discussions was undertaken. Four key themes emerged: (1) concerns over DTC testing; (2) lack of health care professional competency; (3) genetic scepticism and inevitability; (4) expectation of regulation. Together, they indicate that health care professionals have little knowledge about nutritional genomics and hold contradictory attitudes towards genomics in general, and to nutritional genomics in particular. Respondents argue in favour of a delivery model where health care professionals act as intermediaries. They are also aware of their lack of competency to provide such services. To ensure greater public protection, respondents cite the importance of more stringent regulatory oversight of DTC genetic testing. Whether such an approach is necessary to address the various ethical and social issues raised by nutrigenetic testing remains an open debate.

  4. Servant leadership: a case study of a Canadian health care innovator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderpyl TH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tim H VanderpylSchool of Global Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, USAAbstract: Both servant leadership and innovation are easier to theorize than to actually implement in practice. This article presents a case study of a Canadian health care executive who led a remarkable turnaround of St Michael's Health Centre, a floundering and almost bankrupt nursing home. In less than 7 years, Kevin Cowan turned around the finances and changed numerous broken relationships into strategic alliances. Under his leadership, St Michael's Health Centre went from being one of the most underperforming health care organizations in Canada, to one of the most innovative. This article describes some of Cowan's strategies and argues that a servant leadership approach has a direct impact on an organization's ability to innovate. As far as the author is aware, this is the first published article on this specific change effort, which presents a unique perspective on the topics of servant leadership and innovation.Keywords: servant leadership, innovation, Canada, health care, case study

  5. Barriers to addressing the social determinants of health: insights from the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis; Curry-Stevens, Ann; Bryant, Toba

    2008-12-01

    Despite Canada's reputation as a leader in health promotion and population health, implementation of public policies in support of the social determinants of health has been woefully inadequate. The continuing presence of income, housing, and food insecurity has led to Canada being the subject of a series of rebukes from the United Nations for failing to address child and family poverty, discrimination against women and Aboriginal groups, and most recently the crisis of homelessness and housing insecurity. In this article we consider some of the reasons why this might be the case. These include the epistemological dominance of positivist approaches to the health sciences, the ideology of individualism prevalent in North America, and the increasing influence on public policy of the marketplace. Various models of public policy provide pathways by which these barriers can be surmounted. Considering that the International Commission on the Social Determinants of Health will soon be releasing its findings and recommendations, such an analysis seems especially timely for understanding both the Canadian scene and developments in other nations.

  6. Development and Introduction of a Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policy in a Canadian Regional Health Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Kunyk, RN, MN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTobacco control policies in health care settings are necessary to protect patients, employees, physicians, visitors, and volunteers from the dangers of secondhand smoke. This report documents the process of developing and introducing a comprehensive tobacco control policy in one Canadian regional health authority.ContextCapital Health (CH, a health authority that has 30,000 employees and serves 1.6 million people, is responsible for 18 hospitals and primary care facilities, 33 continuing care facilities, 29 public health locations, and 9 community care facilities. CH recently determined that it needed to revise its tobacco control policy because its facilities had different directives regarding tobacco use, some of which did not reflect the best current knowledge about the health risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke. MethodsThe new smoke-free policy needed to be developed and executed within a narrow time frame, which required careful planning as well as the support of patients and CH staff members. An essential part of the new policy was the prevention of nicotine withdrawal among people required to undergo involuntary tobacco abstinence. The plan also included an integrated screening, intervention, and referral process designed to optimize health benefits for patients and staff members who smoked, as well as for those who did not. ConsequencesCH decided to close all smoking rooms (including those in psychiatry, palliative care, geriatrics, eating disorder, and tuberculosis units, to ban smoking in outdoor areas, to stop all sales of tobacco products in CH facilities, to require smoke-free environments during home visitations, and to reject funding from the tobacco industry.InterpretationBy implementing a consistent ban on indoor and outdoor smoking, CH is contributing to a comprehensive tobacco control policy that is arguably a regional health authority’s most profound opportunity for health promotion.

  7. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains

  8. Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada: Incidence, Prevalence, and Direct and Indirect Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Fedorak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada in 2009. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning inflammatory bowel diseases – specifically, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

  9. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study AGENCY: Animal and... information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study. OMB Number:...

  10. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  11. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional workshops, research coordination meetings and training courses on use isotope application in the diagnosis of animal diseases. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2002–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for heart disease (heart attack, angina, and heart failure, stroke, and hypertension, which shorten the average life expectancy. The main objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of heart disease, hypertension, and stroke among Canadians with diabetes compared to those without diabetes in the Canadian general population aged 12 years and over. It also estimated the strength of association between diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and other factors such as age, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, education status, body mass index (BMI, and other socioeconomic factors. Descriptive statistics were used initially to estimate the prevalence of related comorbidities by age and gender. Logistic regression was then employed to determine the potential strength of association between various effects. Data included 127,610 individuals who participated in the 2.1 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS in 2002—2003. The prevalence of self-reported hypertension, heart disease, and stroke among individuals with diabetes were 51.9, 21.7, and 4.8%, respectively. By comparison, prevalence among those without diabetes was 12.7, 4.2, and 0.9%. Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR were 4.15, 5.04, and 6.75 for males’, and 4.10, 5.29, and 4.56 for females’ hypertension, heart disease, and stroke, respectively. Lower income (OR from 1.27—1.94 and lower education (OR from 1.23—1.86 were independently associated with a high prevalence of hypertension, heart disease, and stroke among diabetics. Alcohol consumption (OR from 1.06—1.38, high BMI (OR from 1.17—1.40, physical inactivity (OR from 1.21—2.45, ethnicity, and immigration status were also strongly associated with hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. The adjusted prevalence of hypertension, heart disease, and stroke in the CCHS-2003 health survey in Canada was significantly higher among those with diabetes compared to those

  6. Organizational and professional characteristics predicting external communications in Canadian public health units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, L; Kishchuk, N; Potvin, L; Denis, J L

    2001-01-01

    This study is a survey of administrative divisions involved in tobacco programs in Canadian public health units. It aims to identify correlates of public health units' contacts and collaborations with external agencies, as predisposing factors in their capacity to innovate. Heads of 124 divisions involved in tobacco control completed a questionnaire about their budgets, staff, and management practices. In each of these divisions, professionals involved in tobacco programs also completed a questionnaire about their characteristics and experience. Results showed a high level of contacts and collaborations with external agencies. Four variables emerged as correlates of external communications: professionals' degree of access to public health information sources, the diversity of disciplines within the administrative division, the decentralization of authority, and the level of professionals' participation in decision-making. Because of the potential relationship between innovation and external communication, public health units should consider fostering external communication by management practices and policies, such as favouring professional diversity, increasing access to sources of information, and adopting more decentralized, participatory management. PMID:11702497

  7. Increased Health Service Utilization Costs in the Year Prior to Institutionalization: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A.; Sauter, Agnes H.; Gutman, Gloria; Beattie, B. Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of formal health service utilization costs during older adults’ transition from community to institutional care. Methods Participants were 127 adults (age ≥ 65) from the British Columbia sample (N = 2,057) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who transitioned from community to institutional care between 1991 and 2001. Health service utilization costs were measured using Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk at five time points: > 12 months, 6–12 months, and ≤ 6 months preinstitutionalization, and ≤ 6 months and 6–12 months postinstitutionalization. Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk was measured for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs by calculating total health service use over time, divided by the number of days the participant was alive. Results Significant differences in Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk were observed for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs over time. All health service utilization costs increased significantly during the 6–12 months and ≤ 6 months prior to institutionalization. Postinstitutionalization Continuing Care costs continued to increase at ≤ 6 months before decreasing at 6–12 months, while decreases occurred for Medical Services Plan and PharmaCare costs relative to preinstitutionalization costs. Conclusions The increases in costs observed during the year prior to institutionalization, characterized by a flurry of health service utilization, provide evidence of distinct cost patterns over the transition period. PMID:24883162

  8. 研究、教学和试验中的动物保护和使用--加拿大监督系统%Animal Care and Use in Research, Teaching and Testing -- the Canadian System of Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴纳·本

    2003-01-01

    In the 1960s, while there was a dramatic increase in animals used in research and teaching in most of the Canadian research institutions, Canada did not have a federal system pertaining specifically to the humane use of animals in science. There was a national organization, the Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS/ACSAL),established by veterinarians, technicians and animal care givers who recognized the need to ensure that all people caring for, or performing procedures on the animals were properly educated. However, recognition and support of this organization by institutions who employed these people, was needed to effect the changes identified.

  9. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... or scratch from a bat anywhere in the world should be considered a risk, and the traveler ...

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter contains reports on the meetings and training courses held between January and April 1992, including a detailed summary of the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques'', held in Vienna from 30 March to 3 April. Status reports are presented for the existing nine coordinated research programs, and developments at the Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf are described

  12. Health care burden and cost associated with fetal alcohol syndrome: based on official Canadian data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Popova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10. This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008-2009. METHODS: Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI. Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. RESULTS: The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008-2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient's length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00-F99. It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing -1.6 times greater in 2008-2009, compared to 2002-2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000-2008, may be underreported, and are likely invalid. DISCUSSION: The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD.

  13. What can the Canadians and Americans learn from each other's health care systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Numerous papers have been written comparing the Canadian and US healthcare systems, and a number of health policy experts have recommended that the Americans implement their single-payer system to save 12-20% of its healthcare expenditures. This paper is different in that it assumes that neither country will undertake a significant philosophic or structural change in their healthcare system, but there are lessons to be learned that are inherent in one that could be a major breakthrough for the other. Following the model in Canada and in Western Europe, the USA could implement universal health insurance so that the 32.0 million (2015) Americans still uninsured would have at least minimal coverage when incurring medical expenditures. Also, the USA could use smart cards to evaluate eligibility and to process health insurance claims; these changes resulting in an estimated 15% reduction in US health expenditures without adversely effecting access or quality of care. Such a strategy would result in the eventual loss of 2.5 million white-collar jobs at hospitals, physician offices and insurance companies, a long-term economic gain. Only a few would agree with the statement that Canada already functions with a multi-payer reimbursement system as evidenced by (1) a federal-provincial, tax-supported plan, administered by each of the provinces, providing universal coverage for hospital and physician services and (2) roughly 60% of its residents receiving employer-paid health insurance benefits, underwritten primarily by investor-owned plans, that are less than effective to reimburse for pharmaceuticals, dental and other healthcare services. What could be learned from the USA and particularly from Western European countries is possibly implementing an approach, whereby at least upper-income Canadians could opt out of their federal-provincial plan and purchase private insurance coverage - being eligible for far more comprehensive "private" benefits for hospital, physician

  14. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  15. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Cirulli; Marta Borgi; Alessandra Berry; Nadia Francia; Enrico Alleva

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enri...

  16. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  17. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  18. Health Care "as Usual": The Insertion of Positive Psychology in Canadian Mental Health Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhangiani, Surita Jassal; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The recent shift to a "positive psychological" approach that emphasizes a "health model," rather than a "disease model," in mental health discourses is intended both to reduce the stigma around mental health issues and to enable people to play a role in monitoring their own mental health. As a component of a larger study on access to and…

  19. Poor self-reported health and its association with biomarkers among Canadian Inuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Saudny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the extent to which demographic characteristics, clinical measurements and biomarkers were associated with poor self-reported health (SRH among Inuit adults in the Canadian Arctic. Study design. Cross-sectional survey was adopted as the study design. Methods. The International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey carried out in 36 Canadian Arctic communities in 2007 and 2008 included Inuit men and women, aged 18 years or older, recruited from randomly selected households. The main outcome measure was SRH, which was dichotomized into good health (excellent, very good and good responses and poor health (fair and poor responses. Results. Of the 2,796 eligible households, 1,901 (68% households and 2,595 participants took part in the survey. The weighted prevalence of poor SRH was 27.8%. Increasing age was significantly associated with poor SRH. The relative risk ratios for poor SRH was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–3.1 for men aged 50 years or older and 2.3 (95% CI 1.7–3.0 for women aged 50 years or older, compared with men and women aged 29 years or younger. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index, poor SRH was significantly associated with smoking status (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; CI 1.1–2.0, at-risk fasting glucose levels (≥6.1 mmol/L (OR=2.5; 95%; CI 1.5–4.2 and elevated hs C-reactive protein levels (>3–≤10 mg/L (OR=2.1; 95% CI 1.4–3.1. Poor SRH was also significantly associated with a hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (high-risk waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women with high triglyceride levels, ≥1.7 mmol/L, adjusted for age and gender, OR=1.6; 95% CI 1.1–2.3. Conclusions. Clinically relevant indicators of chronic disease risk were related to subjective assessment of SRH among Inuit.

  20. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... final results of each test conducted by the licensee and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  1. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Cevizci; Ethem Erginoz; Zuhal Baltas

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to ...

  2. Climate Change Impacts and Risks for Animal Health in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, S.; Hungerford, N.; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T.; Tsai, H J; Joo, Y.S.; Yang, D. K.; Nha, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases a...

  3. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    OpenAIRE

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TCPs), the Section evaluated our activities as part of the Agency's 2004/2005 midterm performance evaluation. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performances were achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed and which we then addressed. It became apparent that more proactive measures are needed towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant support to Member States. A particular case in point is the current avian influenza situation. This issue discussed the problem posed by rinderpest and the Agency's effort in eradicating this viral disease

  5. The Domestication of Health Care: Health Advice to Canadian Mothers 1993-2008 in "Today's Parent"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the ways that parents' and children's health are portrayed in health advice to parents in Canada's major mass print media magazine entitled "Today's Parent", from 1993 to 2008. The qualitative content analysis noted three significant themes, including: most health issues are easily managed by…

  6. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Dobbins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the June 2004 Newsletter, we focused on the topic of molecular diagnostic technologies and the way forward. It is clear from the feedback, that there is a strong desire for having reliable, definitive, sensitive, specific, cost effective and on-site diagnostic tests, in parallel with so-called herd or population surveillance tests. This will allow for the implementation of more effective disease control strategies. It is indeed exciting to consider the current technological explosion and its consequences and what potential advantages might be in store for many of our Member States. This will also help to ensure that we keep abreast of new developments and employ the most appropriate tools.The conclusions and recommendations will be placed on the web as soon as they are available and published in the next Newsletter. The second topic under discussion in this Newsletter will focus on the management of animal genetic resources. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this issue

  9. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration. PMID:25707190

  10. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Canadian Isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Human, Animal, and Food Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Bekal, Sadjia; Macdonald, Kimberley A; Parmley, E Jane; Agunos, Agnes; Desruisseau, Andrea; Daignault, Danielle; Slavic, Durda; Hoang, Linda; Ramsay, Danielle; Pollari, Frank; Robertson, James; Nash, John H E; Johnson, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain several drug resistance genes.

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Canadian Isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Human, Animal, and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Bekal, Sadjia; Parmley, E. Jane; Agunos, Agnes; Desruisseau, Andrea; Daignault, Danielle; Slavic, Durda; Hoang, Linda; Ramsay, Danielle; Pollari, Frank; Robertson, James; Nash, John H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S. Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain several drug resistance genes. PMID:27635008

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of 17 Canadian Isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Human, Animal, and Food Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Bekal, Sadjia; Macdonald, Kimberley A; Parmley, E Jane; Agunos, Agnes; Desruisseau, Andrea; Daignault, Danielle; Slavic, Durda; Hoang, Linda; Ramsay, Danielle; Pollari, Frank; Robertson, James; Nash, John H E; Johnson, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain several drug resistance genes. PMID:27635008

  15. Building blocks for a wild animal health business case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investment in wild animal health has not kept pace with investment in health programs for agriculture or people. Previous arguments of the inherent value of wildlife or the possible public health or economic consequences of fish or terrestrial wildlife diseases have failed to motivate sufficient, sustained funding. Wildlife health programs are often funded on an issue-by-issue basis, most often in response to diseases that have already emerged, rather than being funded to protect and promote the health of wild animals on an ongoing basis. We propose that one explanation for this situation is the lack of business cases that explains the value of wild animal health programs to funders. This paper proposes a set of building blocks that inform the creation of wildlife health business cases. The building blocks are a series of questions derived from a literature review, the experience of directors of two large national wildlife health programs and lessons learned in developing a draft business case for one of those programs. The six building blocks are: (1 Know what you are trying to achieve; (2 Describe your capabilities; (3 Identify factors critical to your success; (4 Describe the value you can bring to supporters; (5 Identify who needs your services and why; and (6 Share the plan.

  16. Brief Introduction Animal Health Standardization of The National Technical Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The National Animal Health Standardization Technical Committee (NAHSTC),originated from Animal Quarantine Programming Committee,Ministry of Agriculture, was established in 1978. It was reconstituted in 1991 approved by State Bureau of Quality & Technical Supervision of P.R.China. In June 2004, NAHSTC was renamed and changed staff with approval of the Standardization Administration of China (SAC), under the document No. [2004] 59 of the office of SAC.

  17. Plant usage in protecting the farm animal health

    OpenAIRE

    Davidović V.; Todorović Joksimović M.; Stojanović B.; Relić R.

    2012-01-01

    Phytotherapy, as form of traditional and conventional veterinary medicine, includes curing, alleviation and prevention the onset of diseases in animals based on natural medicinal raw materials and folk remedies made from plants. In animal health care, the use of medicinal and other plants as supporting therapy, in preventive purposes or as a complete therapy has a large potential regardless whether it is the question of individual or combined plant medicina...

  18. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, E. S.; C.L. dos Santos; Jahncke, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglec...

  19. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cirulli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.

  20. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  2. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  3. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety. PMID:24816999

  4. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  5. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  6. Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of relevant pathogens, and (iii provides an assessment of the phosphate-salt treatment recommended by OIE for foot and mouth disease virus, in particular if it could be considered safe as regards the elimination of other animal pathogens. The rate of inactivation of viruses was highly dependent on temperature for both NaCl and phosphate-NaCl treatment. Treatment with phosphate-NaCl mixture leads to faster inactivation than treatment with NaCl salt alone. Brucella species are readily inactivated by NaCl salting, but mycobacteriamay survive beyond 30 days in intestines in conditions similar to those used for salting of casings. It is recommended that casings should be treated at 20 °C for 30 days to achieve effective inactivation of animal pathogens. Several other treatments have been applied to casings with the aim of inactivating infectious agents, but none of them have been extensively investigated with viruses relevant for animal health.

  7. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  8. THE VAXED PROJECT: An Assessment of Immunization Education in Canadian Health Professional Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxendale Darlene M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge & attitudes of healthcare providers (HCP have significant impact on frequency with which vaccines are offered & accepted but many HCP are ill equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits & risks. We performed an assessment of the educational needs of trainees regarding immunization and used the information thus ascertained to develop multi-faceted, evaluable, educational tools which can be integrated into formal education curricula. Methods (i A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian nursing, medical & pharmacy schools to assess immunization-related curriculum content (ii A 77-item web-based, validated questionnaire was emailed to final-year students in medicine, nursing, & pharmacy at two universities in Nova Scotia, Canada to assess knowledge, attitudes, & behaviors reflecting current immunization curriculum. Results The curriculum review yielded responses from 18%, 48%, & 56% of medical, nursing, & pharmacy schools, respectively. Time spent on immunization content varied substantially between & within disciplines from 50 hrs. Most schools reported some content regarding vaccine preventable diseases, immunization practice & clinical skills but there was considerable variability and fewer schools had learning objectives or formal evaluation in these areas. 74% of respondents didn't feel comfortable discussing vaccine side effects with parents/patients & only 21% felt they received adequate teaching regarding immunization during training. Conclusions Important gaps were identified in the knowledge of graduating nursing, medical, & pharmacy trainees regarding vaccine indications/contraindications, adverse events & safety. The national curriculum review revealed wide variability in immunization curriculum content & evaluation. There is clearly a need for educators to assess current curricula and adapt existing educational resources such as the Immunization Competencies for Health Professionals in

  9. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of...

  10. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of...

  11. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Service Agency, APHIS' Wildlife Services, or from State veterinary health officials and animal testing... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  12. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  13. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S;

    2006-01-01

    of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors......Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about...... the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health...

  14. Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

    2012-01-01

    Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i) improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii) alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of releva...

  15. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  16. Animal Instincts and the Canadian Beast. Reflections on Sex, War and Survival in Timothy Findley's Not Wanted on the Voyage

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Brad, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Timothy Findley’s Not Wanted on the Voyage is a work of Canadian literature which re-tells the Biblical story of Noah and the Ark with the sympathetic viewpoint of creatures, both human and non-human who were, or almost were, left behind and forgotten in the worldly deluge. The revised fable heeds a warning to patriarchal and myopic visions of the world in which diversity and/or dissention is ignored or made obsolete; there is too much varied nature, history and humanity to be lost through ig...

  17. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''51Cr, 32P and 35S) and stable (15N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  18. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  19. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health:critical needs, challenges and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop Steve C; Lunney Joan K; Pinard-van der Laan Marie-Hélène; Gay Cyril G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working a...

  20. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  2. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen;

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...

  3. Overview of the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, John

    2016-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases arising from livestock and wildlife pose serious threats to global human health, as shown by a series of continuous outbreaks involving highly pathogenic influenza, SARS, Ebola and MERS. The risk of pandemics and bioterrorism threats is ever present and growing, but our ability to combat them is limited by the lack of available vaccines, therapeutics and rapid diagnostics. The use of high bio-containment facilities, such as the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, plays a key role studying these dangerous pathogens and facilitates the development of countermeasures. To combat diseases like MERS, we must take a holistic approach that involves the development of early biomarkers of infection, a suite of treatment options (vaccines, anti-viral drugs and antibody therapeutics) and appropriate animal models to test the safety and efficacy of candidate treatments. PMID:27118215

  4. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie O’Sullivan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  5. The construction of health care and the ideology of the private in Canadian constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, H

    1993-01-01

    Healthcare benefits are provided universally to all Canadians through a national healthcare system with provincial differences. A history of the manner in which healthcare issues have been understood in different historical and constitutional periods reveals the ever present inequalities in many aspects of healthcare delivery. PMID:10139964

  6. Occupational Stress, Mental Health and Satisfaction in the Canadian Multicultural Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Romana; Wagner, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Workplaces are becoming increasingly multicultural and therefore, include a large variety of employees from more than one ethnicity, nationality, religious and/or cultural background. In the context of this new global economy, Canadian workplace structure and composition has also permanently changed. Consequently, the primary purpose of this…

  7. An Evaluation of the Five Most Used Evidence Based Bedside Information Tools in Canadian Health Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Farrell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This project sought to identify the five most used evidence based bedside information tools used in Canadian health libraries, to examine librarians’ attitudes towards these tools, and to test the comprehensiveness of the tools. Methods – The author developed a definition of evidence based bedside information tools and a list of resources that fit this definition. Participants were respondents to a survey distributed via the CANMEDLIB electronic mail list. The survey sought to identify information from library staff regarding the most frequently used evidence based bedside information tools. Clinical questions were used to measure the comprehensiveness of each resource and the levels of evidence they provided to each question.Results – Survey respondents reported that the five most used evidence based bedside information tools in their libraries were UpToDate, BMJ Clinical Evidence, First Consult, Bandolier and ACP Pier. Librarians were generally satisfied with the ease of use, efficiency and informative nature of these resources. The resource assessment determined that not all of these tools are comprehensive in terms of their ability to answer clinical questions or with regard to the inclusion of levels of evidence. UpToDate was able to provide information for the greatest number of clinical questions, but it provided a level of evidence only seven percent of the time. ACP Pier was able to provide information on only 50% of the clinical questions, but it provided levels of evidence for all of these.Conclusion – UpToDate and BMJ Clinical Evidence were both rated as easy to use and informative. However, neither product generally includes levels of evidence, so it would be prudent for the practitioner to critically appraise information from these sources before using it in a patient care setting. ACP Pier eliminates the critical appraisal stage, thus reducing the time it takes to go from forming a clinical question to

  8. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant... to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring...

  9. Flea Infestation in Farm Animals and Its Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.

  10. Mental disorders and their association with perceived work stress: an investigation of the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace. PMID:23458060

  11. Examining the Link between Education Related Outcomes and Student Health Risk Behaviours among Canadian Youth: Data from the 2006 National Youth Smoking Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathammavong, Ratsamy; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid; Griffith, Jane; Nowatzki, Janet; Manske, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether student tobacco, alcohol, marijuana use, and sedentary behaviour were associated with the educational outcomes of health-related absenteeism, truancy, and academic motivation in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analyses indicate a high proportion of students missed school due to health,…

  12. The effect of educational attainment levels on use of non-traditional health information resources: Findings from the Canadian survey of experiences with primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Hardiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian provincial governments have made significant investments in nurse advice telephone lines and Internet resources as non-traditional options to reduce emergency department visits and improve access to health care for the population. However, little is known about the characteristics of users of these services, and who chooses to use them first, before accessing other sources of health advice. Additionally, individuals with lower levels of education tend to be late adopters of technology and have inconsistent utilization of health services. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of educational attainment levels on the use of non-traditional health information sources first, before other more conventional sources of health information. The study utilized Canadian Survey of Experiences with Primary Health Care (CSE-PHC, 2007-2008 survey data. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between use of non-traditional health information sources first, and educational attainment, adjusted for confounders. Relative to someone with less than secondary education, individuals with secondary education (OR = 4.30, 95% CI: 2.44 – 7.59, and individuals with post-secondary education (OR 4.91, 95% CI: 2.78 – 8.67, had significantly greater odds of using non-traditional health information sources first. These findings suggest that educational attainment has a significant effect on the use of non-traditional health information sources first. Future providers of non-traditional health information sources, especially in the design of future eHealth tools and consideration of eHealth literacy, should consider these results in development and implementation of their communications strategies to maximize the reach of their services.

  13. Canadian valuation of EQ-5D health states: preliminary value set and considerations for future valuation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bansback

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D is a preference based instrument which provides a description of a respondent's health status, and an empirically derived value for that health state often from a representative sample of the general population. It is commonly used to derive Quality Adjusted Life Year calculations (QALY in economic evaluations. However, values for health states have been found to differ between countries. The objective of this study was to develop a set of values for the EQ-5D health states for use in Canada. METHODS: Values for 48 different EQ-5D health states were elicited using the Time Trade Off (TTO via a web survey in English. A random effect model was fitted to the data to estimate values for all 243 health states of the EQ-5D. Various model specifications were explored. Comparisons with EQ-5D values from the UK and US were made. Sensitivity analysis explored different transformations of values worse than dead, and exclusion criteria of subjects. RESULTS: The final model was estimated from the values of 1145 subjects with socio-demographics broadly representative of Canadian general population with the exception of Quebec. This yielded a good fit with observed TTO values, with an overall R2 of 0.403 and a mean absolute error of 0.044. CONCLUSION: A preference-weight algorithm for Canadian studies that include the EQ-5D is developed. The primary limitations regarded the representativeness of the final sample, given the language used (English only, the method of recruitment, and the difficulty in the task. Insights into potential issues for conducting valuation studies in countries as large and diverse as Canada are gained.

  14. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Jessri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences.

  15. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq; Hezmee, Mohd Noor Mohd; Haron, Abd Wahid; Sabri, Mohd Yusof Mohd; Rajion, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver”) and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well. PMID:27397992

  16. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver” and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.

  17. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq; Hezmee, Mohd Noor Mohd; Haron, Abd Wahid; Sabri, Mohd Yusof Mohd; Rajion, Mohd Ali

    2016-06-01

    Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning "the liquid silver") and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well. PMID:27397992

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  19. [Animal biomonitoring and micropollutants in public health--review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombolà, Pasquale; Battisti, Sabrina; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to provide a picture of the current knowledge on animal biomonitoring and on the link between pollution and Public Health. There are various reasons leading to this road: the need of early detection of industrial pollutants, especially micropollutants that have adverse effects in very low concentrations: it is important to disclose the presence of these compounds directly or through certain molecular biomarkers in living organisms rather than in the natural environment, where they are often below the detection threshold; the need to optimize the allocation of resources: some experiences of biomonitoring carried out in wild animals may be useful in the identification of pollution sources; however, biomonitoring of domestic animals appears to be more feasable and effective, because they share with humans the exposure to pollutants. Nowadays, professionals of different disciplines such as doctors and biologists do not share a common set of terms and definitions in animal biomonitoring: this review wants to give a contribution in the consolidation of the current knowledge under a common language. PMID:23139184

  20. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  1. Patient Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination by Health Care Providers and its Relationship with Mental Disorders: Results from the 2012 Canadian Community Health-Mental Health Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Palis, Heather; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health, this secondary analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of perceived prejudice by health care providers (HCPs) and its relationship with mental disorders. Respondents accessing HCPs in the prior year were asked if they experienced HCP prejudice. A hypothesis driven multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between type of mental disorders and HCP prejudice. Among the 3006 respondents, 10.9 % perceived HCP prejudice, 62.4 % of whom reported a mental disorder. The adjusted odds of prejudice was highest for respondents with anxiety (OR 3.12; 95 % CI 1.60, 6.07), concurrent mood or anxiety and substance disorders (OR 3.08; 95 % CI 1.59, 5.95) and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.68, 4.97) compared to respondents without any mental disorders. These findings are timely for informing discussions regarding policies to address HCP prejudice towards people with mental disorders.

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 55, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest event in 2011 was the declaration of global freedom from rinderpest by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The IAEA celebrated this momentous occasion on the 20th of September 2011, during the IAEA 55th General Conference. The commitment, dedication and hard work of past and present IAEA staff were commended by all participants as the contribution of the IAEA was a critical and essential component of the eradication success. Building on the success of the rinderpest campaign, technology transfer in the field of animal health continued to be a top priority of the Subprogramme during 2011 and this will continue for the future since our next target disease for eradication is peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Member States received support through Technical Cooperation Projects. In most of the tropics, climatic variation, rainfall patterns and droughts reduce plant growth and feed availability and quality leading to extensive livestock losses and reduced productivity. With the assistance of the IAEA, tremendous improvement has been achieved in terms of quantity and quality of the available feed resource base, particularly, in terms of nutritive value, palatability and/or cold and drought tolerance - vital benefits whose effectiveness can be monitored using nuclear technology. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter and are also accessible at our website (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/index.html); I thus need not mention them in this section. Please contact us if you have any further ideas, comments, concerns or questions. As discussed in previous newsletters, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field, to optimally serve our Member States.

  3. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

    2012-04-12

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide. PMID:22498624

  4. Employers' perceptions and attitudes toward the Canadian national standard on psychological health and safety in the workplace: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi

    2016-01-01

    The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive.

  5. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners.

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  7. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  8. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study... National Animal Health Monitoring System Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. DATES: We will... INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study....

  9. Technology assessment and resource allocation for predictive genetic testing: A study of the perspectives of Canadian genetic health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsiedel Edna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.

  10. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this newsletter, I want to discuss shortly the effects of climate variations, food security and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases within the sphere of what the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme can contribute. My take home message would be: • Globalization and climate change are causing an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and reemerging animal and zoonotic diseases. • Vector borne diseases are now spreading to previously non-endemic and cooler areas. A dramatically increased incidence in deadly infectious and zoonotic diseases in wildlife, livestock, and people may be the most immediate serious consequence of global warming, food security or food shortage. Globalization and climate change have had a worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. Rift Valley fever. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. There is evidence that the increasing occurrence of tropical infectious diseases in the mid latitudes is linked to either global warming or food security. Vector borne diseases are particularly affected by weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. Most of these diseases are caused by insects and their population dynamics are dependent on the prevailing weather conditions, specifically temperature and humidity. Climate change influences local weather conditions and therefore has a significant impact on the presence of vectors and their geographical

  11. A review of experimental animal radon health effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant epidemiological data from underground miners confirm that radon decay products (progeny) are carcinogenic, although the evidence is less conclusive on the quantitative risks of these exposures, especially for indoor air. The imprecision results principally from differences between exposures in mining and domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between smoking and exposure to radon progeny. Experimental animal studies of radon-induced lung cancer are particularly valuable for understanding the carcinogenicity of human radon exposures in the home and in the workplace. Animals can be exposed to a variety of agents under carefully controlled conditions and then sacrificed for the study of developing lesions or held for their life span for tumor development. The doses to critical cells in the respiratory tract can be determined, and these in turn can be related to doses to critical cells in the respiratory tract of humans exposed to similar aerosols. The study of radon-induced mutations and changes in expression of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes as well as growth factors and growth factor receptors during tumor progression in animals also provides valuable evidence on the underlying mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. This evidence, particularly that of the efficiency for oncogenic transformation at low dose rates, is crucial to the determination of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to indoor levels of radon. This review of animal health effects data emphasizes the carcinogenicity of radon exposures in rats; mechanistic data on radon-induced lung tumors in rats are currently sparse and are not reviewed here. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Psychiatric Illness in Relation to Frailty in Community-Dwelling Elderly People without Dementia: A Report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Melissa K.; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether frailty, defined as the accumulation of multiple, interacting illnesses, impairments and disabilities, is associated with psychiatric illness in older adults. Five-thousand-six-hundred-and-seventy-six community dwellers without dementia were identified within the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, and self-reported…

  14. Associations between sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity, and health indicators among Canadian children and youth using compositional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Chastin, Sebastien F M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between movement behaviours (sleep duration, sedentary time, physical activity) and health indicators in a representative sample of children and youth using compositional analyses. Cross-sectional findings are based on 4169 children and youth (aged 6-17 years) from cycles 1 to 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Sedentary time (SB), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were accelerometer-derived. Sleep duration was subjectively measured. Body mass index z scores, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, and aerobic fitness were measured in the full sample. Triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were measured in a fasting subsample. The composition of movement behaviours was entered into linear regression models via an isometric log ratio transformation and was found to be associated with all health indicators (p aerobic fitness. Likewise, MVPA was also negatively associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers (p < 0.008). Compositional data analyses provide novel insights into collective health implications of 24-h movement behaviours and can facilitate interesting avenues for future investigations. PMID:27306435

  15. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Paul Cherniack; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  16. Veterinary education for global animal and public health, D.A. Walsh : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This 28th annual volume published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, addresses the need for a global shift in the way veterinary students are taught veterinary public health (VPH. As well as taking the lead in prevention and control of animal diseases, the OIE develops health and welfare standards to promote food security and equitable international trade in animals and animal products.

  17. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  18. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 54, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is with great enthusiasm that I address you in a new era - the era of a rinderpest free world. The OIE and FAO have declared the world-wide eradication of Rinderpest recently - but more about this later. The first part of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were involved in the technical planning of projects for the new TC projects by Member States for the 2012/2013 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with finalizing the IAEA's 2012/2013 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the subprogramme

  19. Manipulating dietary PUFA in animal feed: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Gillian

    2014-02-01

    Milk, meat and eggs tend not to be regarded as an important source of PUFA. They are disproportionally high in SFA compared with their PUFA content, especially those from cattle and sheep, since their rumen microbes are responsible for the loss of over 90% of PUFA intake by livestock. This need not necessarily be the case since the relative proportion of PUFA in these foods is dictated by livestock management, especially feeding, and this can be manipulated to boost their content of crucial long-chain n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic fatty acids. The present paper considers the fatty acid composition in animal-derived foods and how these can be manipulated to be more conducive for consumers' health. The importance of recognising the effect of livestock production systems on fat composition is also highlighted along with the fact that we may have to compromise between intensive, high levels of production and this particular aspect of food quality.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies

  1. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 57, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2012 Scientific Forum examined the challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear applications. In the first session on 'Increasing Food Production' it was noted that the world will need to produce 70% more food between now and 2050 to satisfy the demand of a population in excess of 9 billion people. In this regard, the intensification and diversification of more and higher quality food in a climate-smart and sustainable manner whilst protecting the environment is therefore critical to smallholder farmers and is the key to poverty reduction and increased food security. The Forum noted that the increasing global population faces the challenge of substantially increasing food production under conditions of severe land degradation that has led to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of agricultural lands. Sustainable soil management, plant mutation breeding and animal nutrition and production are therefore critical to the improvement of agricultural productivity. The second session on 'Ensuring Food Protection' noted that global food insecurity is inherently linked to pests and diseases that harm or kill livestock and crops, as well as people working in rural agricultural areas. The losses caused by diseases and pests at both the pre- and post-harvest levels average 30-40% of agricultural outputs, making returns on agricultural investments in land, seeds, water, fertilizer, animal feed, labour and other inputs correspondingly inefficient. In addition, the world is currently facing an unprecedented increase of invasive animal and plant diseases and pests that threaten food security by causing serious losses in production and by necessitating costly control measures, including the escalating use of increasingly expensive pesticides. Outbreaks of secondary pests, the development of resistance of pests to pesticides and the increasing threat of zoonotic diseases to public health cause

  3. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution

  4. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... information about the owner of or person having primary responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a... responsibility for an animal undergoing testing in a networked laboratory, the following information ] will be... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal...

  5. Development of key indicators to quantify the health impacts of climate change on Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, June J; Berry, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed at developing a list of key human health indicators for quantifying the health impacts of climate change in Canada. Methods A literature review was conducted in OVID Medline to identify health morbidity and mortality indicators currently used to quantify climate change impacts. Public health frameworks and other studies of climate change indicators were reviewed to identify criteria with which to evaluate the list of proposed key indicators and a rating scale was d...

  6. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  7. A Comprehensive Profile of Health Risk Behaviors Among Students at a Small Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…

  8. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Preventing disease spillover from animals to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health: NLM update Transcript Preventing disease spillover from animals to humans : 07/11/2016 To use the ... weekly topics. The prevention of disease transmission from animals to humans begins by careful surveillance of the ...

  9. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY... National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. DATES: We will consider all... Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study. OMB Number: 0579-xxxx. Type of...

  10. Introduction: A welcome to the first special animal health issue of AAPS PharmSci

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Marilyn; Soback, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this special volume is to provide veterinary scientists with state-of-the art reviews in animal health and to inform human health scientists of the various challenges and collaborative opportunities associated with their animal health counterparts. The contributors are highly respected experts, providing invaluable insights into current issues and state-of-the-art advances within veterinary medicine.

  11. European organic dairy farmers’ preference for animal health management within the farm management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van F.J.S.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management an

  12. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... import regulations for agricultural products? Who enforces the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) in my area? Does APHIS hold cargo, ... permit, notification or petition? How can I find Animal Welfare Act Inspection Reports? I Want To ... Obtain a listing ...

  13. Riding the knowledge translation roundabout: lessons learned from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Summer Institute in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kho Michelle E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding the education and training of the next generation of health researchers is a key mandate of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR knowledge translation (KT portfolio. The field of KT is growing daily; thus, the training and development of a new generation of KT researchers is essential. Methods Using curriculum documents, participant evaluations, and self-reflection, this paper describes a unique Summer Institute hosted by the CIHR in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada. We outline the key aspects of a successful training initiative that could inform organizations and agencies worldwide with an interest in or who have a mandate for KT. Results This work provides potential funders, faculty, and students with an inside look into the purpose, process, and outcomes of such training initiatives. Conclusion National and international KT organizations, research institutions, and funding agencies are encouraged to consider replicating the training model employed here, as investment into KT personnel will foster the advancement of the field within and beyond local borders. 'To the individual who devotes his/her life to science, nothing can give more happiness than when the results immediately find practical application. There are not two sciences. There is science and the application of science, and these two are linked as the fruit is to the tree.' – Louis Pasteur, 1871 (from presentation by Ian Graham, 2008 CIHR Knowledge Translation Summer Institute

  14. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  15. The vascular health status of a population of adult Canadian Indigenous peoples from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, H J A; Bredin, S S D; Warburton, D E R

    2016-04-01

    Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg(-1) vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg(-1) × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s(-1) vs 5.1±2.3 m s(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals. PMID:26063562

  16. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  17. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North: revisiting cultural safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    . I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...

  18. Association between Organizational Capacity and Involvement in Chronic Disease Prevention Programming among Canadian Public Health Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement…

  19. The challenges and opportunities of multiskilling in health care. Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The pursuit of lower costs and greater efficiency in Canada's health care sector has led some governments and health care institutions to consider multiskilled workers as an option in health care reform and organizational restructuring. Multiskilled practitioners perform more than one main function, often in more than one discipline. This article explores various aspects of multiskilling and how it could affect, or already is affecting, medical radiation technologists and other allied health professionals. It discusses key issues and implications of multiskilling for governments, employers, educational institutions, professional associations, health care professionals, and patients. The article is based on a report released to members for discussion at the 53rd CAMRT Annual General Meeting. Copies of the full report are available on request from: CAMRT, Suite 601, 294 Albert St., Ottawa, ON K1P 6E6. Or, fax your request to: (613) 234-1097. PMID:10145068

  20. Multidrug resistant bacteria in companion animals: impact on animal health and zoonotic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro

    The role of companion animals as a source of antibiotic resistant bacteria has historically been given little emphasis when compared with that of food animals. However, various resistant bacteria may cause serious treatment problems in companion animal medicine. Some of the most important multidrug......-resistant bacteria include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria will be described with focus on their prevalence across Europe, their impact on animal...

  1. Energy Drinks: An Assessment of the Potential Health Risks in the Canadian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Rotstein, Joel; Barber, Jennifer; Strowbridge, Carl; Hayward, Stephen; Huang, Rong; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop a health risk assessment on energy drinks, based on health hazard and exposure assessments when consumed as a food in Canada. In this document, a typical energy drink is exemplified by the product known as Red Bull, where a single can serving of 250 ml contains 80 mg of caffeine, 1000 mg of taurine, 600 mg of glucuronolactone and several B vitamins. Health hazard data on energy drinks were found to be limited and therefore the hazard assessment w...

  2. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  3. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  4. Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigaratne Susitha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income. Results Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for cancer varied dramatically across the dissemination areas. However, application of the Moran's I statistic, a popular index of spatial autocorrelation, suggested significant spatial patterns for only two cancers, lung and prostate, both in males (p Conclusion This paper demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a systematic approach to identifying neighbourhoods, within the area served by a public health unit, that have significantly higher risks of cancer. This exploratory, ecologic study suggests several hypotheses for these spatial patterns that warrant further investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Canadian study published in the peer-reviewed literature estimating the risk of relatively rare public health outcomes at a very small areal level, namely dissemination areas.

  5. Newspaper portrayals of health and illness among Canadian seniors : Who ages healthily and at what cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rozanova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While media representations of health and illness receive growing atten-tion from researchers, few studies have considered the newspaper por-trayals of health and illness among the elderly. Yet, print media are one vehicle through which governments, in a climate of concern about population aging and the sustainability of the social safety net, empha-size individual responsibility for health and well-being in later life. By praising healthy aging, the media may, perhaps inadvertently, perpetu-ate new ageist stereotypes that marginalize vulnerable adults who fail to age healthily, and downplay the role of social institutions and structural inequalities (particularly gender and socio-economic status in influenc-ing individuals’ personal resources and lifestyle choices. This paper explores whether, and if so, how the media represent interrelations between health and aging, through thematic analysis of a pool of articles about seniors published in The Globe and Mail in 2005.

  6. A survey of Canadian regulated complementary and alternative medicine schools about research, evidence-based health care and interprofessional training, as well as continuing education

    OpenAIRE

    Toupin April, Karine; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Background While some effort has been made to integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information in conventional biomedical training, it is unclear whether regulated Canadian CAM schools’ students are exposed to research activities and continuing education, or whether topics such as evidence-based health care and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are covered during their training. Since these areas are valued by the biomedical training field, this may help to bridge the at...

  7. Where theory and practice of global health intersect: the developmental history of a Canadian global health initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Daibes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper examines the scope of practice of global health, drawing on the practical experience of a global health initiative of the Government of Canada – the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program. A number of challenges in the practical application of theoretical definitions and understandings of global health are addressed. These challenges are grouped under five areas that form essential characteristics of global health: equity and egalitarian North–South partnerships, interdisciplinary scope, focus on upstream determinants of health, global conceptualization, and global health as an area of both research and practice. Design: Information in this paper is based on the results of an external evaluation of the program, which involved analysis of project proposals and technical reports, surveys with grantees and interviews with grantees and program designers, as well as case studies of three projects and a review of relevant literature. Results: The philosophy and recent definitions of global health represent a significant and important departure from the international health paradigm. However, the practical applicability of this maturing area of research and practice still faces significant systemic and structural impediments that, if not acknowledged and addressed, will continue to undermine the development of global health as an effective means to addressing health inequities globally and to better understanding, and acting upon, upstream determinants of health toward health for all. Conclusions: While it strives to redress global inequities, global health continues to be a construct that is promoted, studied, and dictated mostly by Northern institutions and scholars. Until practical mechanisms are put in place for truly egalitarian partnerships between North and South for both the study and practice of global health, the emerging philosophy of global health cannot be effectively put into practice.

  8. The role of the clinical pharmacologist in animal health

    OpenAIRE

    Langston, Cory; Clarke, Cyril R.

    2002-01-01

    Like most scientific disciplines, pharmacology is replete with subspecialties. Certainly most scientists recognize the value of animal studies in drug development for human pharmaceuticals. However, animals as the target species also represent a major focus of investigation. According to recent estimates, in the United States for the year 2000, 98.1 million cattle, 59.8 million pigs, and 1.5 billion chickens existed. Added to that estimate were companion animals, including 4 million horses, 5...

  9. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  10. Oral health-related quality of life in an aging Canadian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzer Robert D; Lawrence Herenia P; Clovis Joanne B; Matthews Debora C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to describe the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on the lives of pre-seniors and seniors living in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 1461 participants, grouped by age (pre-seniors [45–64] and seniors [65+]) and residential status (long-term care facility [LTC] or community). OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) in a random digit dialing telep...

  11. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren L. Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and health services utilization (H in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations ORadj=0.73; P<0.001 and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj=0.92; P<0.01 than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj=0.82, P<0.05. Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services.

  12. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  13. Alternative funding for academic medicine: experience at a Canadian Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paul; Shortt, S E D; Walker, D M C

    2004-03-01

    In 1994 the School of Medicine of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, its clinical teachers, and the three principal teaching hospitals initiated a new approach to funding, the Alternative Funding Plan, a pragmatic response to the inability of fee-for-service billing by clinical faculty to subsidize the academic mission of the health sciences center. The center was funded to provide a package of service and academic deliverables (outputs), rather than on the basis of payment for physician clinical activity (inputs). The new plan required a new governance structure representing stakeholders and raised a number of important issues: how to reconcile the preservation of physician professional autonomy with corporate responsibilities; how to gather requisite information so as to equitably allocate resources; and how to report to the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care in order to demonstrate accountability. In subsequent iterations of the agreement it was necessary to address issues of flexibility resulting from locked-in funding levels and to devise meaningful performance measures for departments and the center as a whole. The authors conclude that the Alternative Funding Plan represents a successful innovation in funding for an academic health sciences center in that it has created financial stability, as well as modest positive effects for education and research. The Ontario government hopes to replicate the model at the province's other four health sciences centers, and it may have applicability in any jurisdiction in which the costs of medical education outstrip the capacity of faculty clinical earnings. PMID:14985191

  14. Alternative funding for academic medicine: experience at a Canadian Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paul; Shortt, S E D; Walker, D M C

    2004-03-01

    In 1994 the School of Medicine of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, its clinical teachers, and the three principal teaching hospitals initiated a new approach to funding, the Alternative Funding Plan, a pragmatic response to the inability of fee-for-service billing by clinical faculty to subsidize the academic mission of the health sciences center. The center was funded to provide a package of service and academic deliverables (outputs), rather than on the basis of payment for physician clinical activity (inputs). The new plan required a new governance structure representing stakeholders and raised a number of important issues: how to reconcile the preservation of physician professional autonomy with corporate responsibilities; how to gather requisite information so as to equitably allocate resources; and how to report to the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care in order to demonstrate accountability. In subsequent iterations of the agreement it was necessary to address issues of flexibility resulting from locked-in funding levels and to devise meaningful performance measures for departments and the center as a whole. The authors conclude that the Alternative Funding Plan represents a successful innovation in funding for an academic health sciences center in that it has created financial stability, as well as modest positive effects for education and research. The Ontario government hopes to replicate the model at the province's other four health sciences centers, and it may have applicability in any jurisdiction in which the costs of medical education outstrip the capacity of faculty clinical earnings.

  15. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  16. Sentinel Animals in a One Health Approach to Harmful Cyanobacterial and Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine C. Backer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs. However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people occupying the same habitat, making them sentinels for human exposures. Historically, we have taken advantage of unique physiological characteristics of animals, such as the sensitivity of canaries to carbon monoxide, to more quickly recognize threats and help protect human health. As HAB events become more severe and widespread worldwide, exposure and health outcome data for animals can be extremely helpful to predict, prevent, and evaluate human exposures and health outcomes. Applying a One Health approach to investigation of HABs means that lessons learned from animal sentinels can be applied to protect people, animals and our shared environment.

  17. Bacteriophages : an underestimated role in human and animal health ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDe Paepe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e. the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity.

  18. Biotechnology for development: Human and animal health perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ; training of scientists in the new technologies through graduate programs, postdoctoral fellowships, and workshops given in developing nations, and, specifically, the transfer of technologies in the development of recombinant vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits for improving both human and animal health. To illustrate these points, a few examples of the contributions of the ILMB are provided

  19. Animal Health and the Control of Diseases: Economic Issues with Particular Referene to a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1994-01-01

    The economic importance of livestock production has been undervalued compared to crop production and agricultural economists have not given it the attention which it deserves. Animal health is a significant influence on the productivity of livestock and the economics of animal husbandry. The range of animal health issues which can be usefully considered by economists is outlined. Some of the economic issues and problems involved in extrapolating farm-level and village-level estimates of the e...

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  1. Resettling refugees and safeguarding their mental health: lessons learned from the Canadian Refugee Resettlement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton

    2009-12-01

    The Ryerson University Refugee Resettlement Project (RRP), a decade-long study of 1348 Southeast Asian refugees who came to Canada between 1979 and 1981, is one of the largest, most comprehensive and longest-lived investigations of refugee resettlement ever carried out. Knowledge gleaned from the RRP about research methodology, about the resettlement experience, about the social costs of resettling refugees, about factors that promote or hinder integration, about risk and protective factors for refugee mental health, and about the refugees' consumption of mental health and social services is summarized in the form of 18 "Lessons." The lessons are offered in order to encourage and stimulate further research, as well to suggest policy and practice innovations that could help make resettlement easier, less costly, more effective, and more humane.

  2. Leadership challenges in Canadian health care: exploring exemplary professionalism under the malaise of modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Mary Louise (Marylou)

    2005-01-01

    This thesis explores the nature of leadership within the health professions and the influences upon them of the "malaise of modernity." In order to address this question, significant aspects of the following are dealt with: moral and political philosophy, the influences of modernity, professionalism, the moral community, the communitarian ethic, leadership theories and organizational culture. Primarily a theoretical essay, this project uses a broad range of writings from classical and contemp...

  3. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Murnaghan; Courtney Laurence; Brandi Bell; Melissa Munro-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy...

  4. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-03-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming.

  5. Mental health network governance and coordination: comparative analysis across Canadian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Wiktorowicz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Methods: Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Results: Mental health networks adopted either a 'corporate structure', 'mutual adjustment 'or an 'alliance 'governance model. A 'corporate structure 'supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an 'alliance 'model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their 'alliance 'realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support 'alliance 'based models. Discussion: In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an 'alliance 'or 'voluntary mutual adjustment', external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration.

  6. Mental health network governance and coordination: comparative analysis across Canadian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Wiktorowicz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them.Methods: Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis.Results: Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models.Discussion: In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration.

  7. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-03-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming. PMID:24957329

  8. Bacteriophages : an underestimated role in human and animal health ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne eDe Paepe; Marion eLeclerc; Tinsley, Colin R.; Marie-Agnès ePetit

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e. the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associa...

  9. Infrared thermal image for assessing animal health and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Rodrigo Garófallo Garcia; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a non-destructive testing technology that can be used to determine the superficial temperature of objects. This technology has an increasing use in detecting diseases and distress in animal husbandry within the poultry, pig and dairy production. The process can identify changes in peripheral blood flow from the resulting changes in heat loss and; therefore, have been a useful tool for evaluating the presence of disease, edema, and stress in animals. This paper revi...

  10. 77 FR 42255 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Layers 2013 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant... INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Layers 2013 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type... since the National Animal Health Monitoring Systems' (NAHMS) Layers `99 Study. On March 20, 2012,...

  11. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

  12. Lifetime intimate partner violence exposure, attitudes and comfort among Canadian health professions students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Megan R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread public health problem and training of health professions students has become common. Understanding students' prior knowledge, attitudes and personal exposure to IPV will aid educators in designing more effective curriculum. As interprofessional educational efforts proliferate, understanding differences across disciplines will be critical. Findings Students in the schools of Medicine, Nursing and Rehabilitation at a university in Ontario attend an annual daylong interprofessional IPV training. To measure perceived role and comfort with IPV and prior personal exposure, we administered a brief Likert scale survey to a convenience sample of students over three years. 552 students completed the survey; the overall response rate was 73%. The majority (82% agreed that it was their role to intervene in cases of IPV; however Rehabilitation students expressed lower overall comfort levels than did their peers in other schools (p Conclusion While the majority of professional students believe it is their role to address IPV in clinical practice, comfort level varied significantly by field of study. More than one fifth of the students reported some personal exposure to IPV. However this did not impact their level of comfort in addressing this issue. Educators need to take students' preexisting attitudes and personal exposure into account when planning curriculum initiatives in this area.

  13. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  14. One Health - Transdisciplinary Opportunities for SETAC Leadership in Integrating and Improving the Health of People, Animals, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people,animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ?2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interi...

  15. Oral health-related quality of life in an aging Canadian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotzer Robert D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to describe the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL on the lives of pre-seniors and seniors living in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 1461 participants, grouped by age (pre-seniors [45–64] and seniors [65+] and residential status (long-term care facility [LTC] or community. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14 in a random digit dialing telephone survey (for community residents or a face-to-face interview (for LTC residents. Intra-oral examinations were performed by one of six dentists calibrated to W.H.O. standards. Results Approximately one in four pre-seniors and seniors reported at least one OHRQoL impact ‘fairly/very often’. The most commonly reported impacts were within the dimensions ‘physical pain’ and ‘psychological discomfort’. It was found that 12.2% of LTC residents found it uncomfortable to eat any foods ‘fairly/very’ often compared to 7.7% in the community, and 11.6% of LTC residents reported being self-conscious ‘fairly/very often’ compared to 8.2% in the community. Of those residing in the community, pre-seniors (28.8% reported significantly more impacts than seniors (22.0%; but there were no significant differences in OHRQoL between pre-seniors (21.2% and seniors (25.3% in LTC. Pre-seniors living in the community scored significantly higher than community dwelling seniors on prevalence, extent and severity of OHIP-14 scores. Logistic regression revealed that for the community dwelling sample, individuals living in rural areas in addition to those being born outside of Canada were approximately 2.0 times more likely to report an impact ‘fairly/very often’, whereas among the LTC sample, those having a high school education or less were 2.3 times more likely to report an impact. Conclusions Findings indicate that the oral health and OHRQoL of both pre

  16. [Translation and adaptation to Spanish language of the quality of life questionnaire for celiac people called Canadian Celiac Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrí, Cristina; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Adaptar y valorar el cuestionario de calidad de vida denominado Canadian Celiac Health Survey (CCHS). Objetivo: Traducir y adaptar en castellano el cuestionario CCHS para poder ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana puesto que se trata de un cuestionario específico para la celiaquía. Método: La adaptación del CCHS, que consta de 76 ítems distribuidos en 11 secciones diferentes, se realizó mediante el método de traducción-retrotraducción y tras ser revisado y consensuado se procedió a realizar una prueba piloto con 25 personas celíacas, de forma individual y por un miembro del grupo de investigación, para valorar la comprensión de los ítems y sus secciones. Las aportaciones fueron introducidas, configurando el cuestionario definitivo. Resultados: La máxima dificultad en la traducción se produjo en la pregunta donde existían principios activos y nombres comerciales de medicamentos, optándose para ello a los comercializados a nivel nacional. Por otro lado, para el estudio piloto del cuestionario se observó un buen valor de la naturalidad de la comprensión con valores comprendidos entre 8,4 y 10,0. Conclusiones: La herramienta específica CHCS permitirá el uso de un cuestionario que pueda ser utilizado por la población de habla hispana en estudios, ensayos clínicos o en la práctica profesional sanitaria cotidiana, permitiendo un mejor conocimiento del estado de salud de los celíacos.

  17. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided

  18. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  19. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions o

  20. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  1. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training. PMID:20128484

  2. Overview of the animal health drug development and registration process: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert P; Shryock, Thomas R; Cox, Brian R; Butler, Roger M; Hammelman, Jason E

    2011-05-01

    Products for animal health commercialization follow a structured progression from initial concept through to regulatory approval. Typically, products are developed for use in either food animals or companion animals. These can be for the intention of disease intervention, productivity enhancement or improvement in a quality of life capacity. The animal health industry is a regulated industry, meaning that a government agency is responsible for oversight of products, both pre- and post-approval. There are three primary US government agencies that ensure quality, safety and effectiveness for the approval of new products and post-marketing compliance.

  3. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  4. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  5. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  6. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobial...

  7. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  8. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.

  9. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  10. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Denli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry.

  11. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks. PMID:26904893

  12. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  13. 78 FR 1825 - Notice of Establishment of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Inspection Service Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Service stakeholder registry. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Hallie Zimmers, Advisor for State and Stakeholder Relations, Legislative and Public Affairs, APHIS, room 1147, 1400 Independence Avenue...

  14. Encouraging newly elected parliamentarians to take action on animal health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    BVA and its branches developed three manifestos ahead of the May elections in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, aiming to raise awareness of the importance of safeguarding animal health and promoting animal welfare. Public affairs manager, Helena Cotton, encourages members to use the manifestos when speaking to newly elected representatives and stakeholders. PMID:27154947

  15. Developing a Comprehensive Animal Care Occupational Health and Safety Program at a Land-Grant Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodly, Lyndon J; Jarrell, Vickie L; Miller, Monica A; Banks, Maureen C; Anderson, Thomas J; Branson, Katherine A; Woodward, Robert T; Peper, Randall L; Myers, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and sound ethical practices require institutions to provide safe working environments for personnel working with animals; this mandate is achieved in part by establishing an effective animal care Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP). Land-grant institutions often face unique organizational challenges in fulfilling this requirement. For example, responsibilities for providing health and safety programs often have historically been dispersed among many different divisions scattered around the campus. Here we describe how our institutional management personnel overcame organizational structure and cultural obstacles during the formation of a comprehensive campus-wide animal care OHSP. Steps toward establishing the animal care OHSP included assigning overall responsibility, identifying all stakeholders, creating a leadership group, and hiring a fulltime Animal Care OHSP Specialist. A web-based portal was developed, implemented, and refined over the past 7 y and reflected the unique organizational structures of the university and the needs of our research community. Through this web-based portal, hazards are identified, risks are assessed, and training is provided. The animal care OHSP now provides easy mandatory enrollment, supports timely feedback regarding hazards, and affords enrollees the opportunity to participate in voluntary medical surveillance. The future direction and development of the animal care OHSP will be based on the research trends of campus, identification of emerging health and safety hazards, and ongoing evaluation and refinement of the program.

  16. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  18. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  19. Developing a Comprehensive Animal Care Occupational Health and Safety Program at a Land-Grant Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodly, Lyndon J; Jarrell, Vickie L; Miller, Monica A; Banks, Maureen C; Anderson, Thomas J; Branson, Katherine A; Woodward, Robert T; Peper, Randall L; Myers, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and sound ethical practices require institutions to provide safe working environments for personnel working with animals; this mandate is achieved in part by establishing an effective animal care Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP). Land-grant institutions often face unique organizational challenges in fulfilling this requirement. For example, responsibilities for providing health and safety programs often have historically been dispersed among many different divisions scattered around the campus. Here we describe how our institutional management personnel overcame organizational structure and cultural obstacles during the formation of a comprehensive campus-wide animal care OHSP. Steps toward establishing the animal care OHSP included assigning overall responsibility, identifying all stakeholders, creating a leadership group, and hiring a fulltime Animal Care OHSP Specialist. A web-based portal was developed, implemented, and refined over the past 7 y and reflected the unique organizational structures of the university and the needs of our research community. Through this web-based portal, hazards are identified, risks are assessed, and training is provided. The animal care OHSP now provides easy mandatory enrollment, supports timely feedback regarding hazards, and affords enrollees the opportunity to participate in voluntary medical surveillance. The future direction and development of the animal care OHSP will be based on the research trends of campus, identification of emerging health and safety hazards, and ongoing evaluation and refinement of the program. PMID:26817980

  20. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... semen; (3) The date of semen collection; (4) The identification and breed of the donor animal; (5) The number of ampules or straws covered by the health certificate and the identification number or code on... donor animal as a condition for importing the semen; (7) The seal number on the shipping container;...

  1. A STAKEOHOLDER ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH AND SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTE FOR ANIMAL HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Okala, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate stakeholder perspectives of the research and surveillance activities of the Institute for Animal Health. Using frameworks from stakeholder theory and strategy, and qualitative investigatory techniques the study finds that while the reputation of the Institute for Animal Health remains outstanding in the international community, it is still suffering locally from the FMD outbreak of 2007, and this is made worse by the lack of effective communication with its sta...

  2. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  3. A case for increased private sector involvement in ireland's national animal health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia. The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands.

  4. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  5. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  6. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  7. The Association Between Noncancer Pain, Cognitive Impairment, and Functional Disability: An Analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Debra K.; Paice, Judith A.; Bilir, S. Pinar; Rockwood, Kenneth; Herr, Keela; Ersek, Mary; Emanuel, Linda; Dale, William

    2010-01-01

    Background. Noncancer pain and cognitive impairment affect many older adults and each is associated with functional disability, but their combined impact has yet to be rigorously studied. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Pain was collapsed from a 5-point to a dichotomous scale (no and very mild vs moderate and greater). Cognitive status was dichotomized from the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (0–100) to no (>77) or mild-moderate (77–50) impairment. Five Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and seven Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were self-rated as “accomplished without any help” (0), “with some help” (1), or “completely unable to do oneself” (2) and then summed to create a composite score of 0–10 and 0–14, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the associations between self-reported functional status with moderate or greater pain, cognitive impairment, and the interaction of the two. Results. A total of 5,143 (90.2%) participants were eligible, 1,813 (35.6%) reported pain at a moderate intensity or greater and 727 (14.3%) were cognitively impaired. The median IADL and ADL summary scores increased among the pain and cognition categories in the following order: no pain and cognitively intact (0.63 SD 1.24, 0.23 SD 0.80), pain and cognitively intact (1.18 SD 1.69, 0.57 SD 1.27), no pain and cognitively impaired (1.64 SD 2.22, 0.75 SD 1.57), and pain and cognitively impaired (2.27 SD 2.47, 1.35 SD 2.09), respectively. Multivariate linear regression found IADL summary scores were associated with pain, coefficient .17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.26), p < .01; cognitive impairment, coefficient .67 (95% CI 0.51–0.83), p < .01; and an interaction effect of pain with cognitive impairment, coefficient .24 (95% CI 0.01–0.49), p = .05. ADL summary scores were associated with pain coefficient .10 (95% CI 0.04–0.17), p < .01 and

  8. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi eWeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  9. A descriptive study of visits by animal health specialists in pig farming: type, frequency, and herd-health management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, J.; Laak, van de M.J.L.; Tielen, M.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This research was carried out to analyse the visits specialists of the Dutch Animal Health Service made to growing and fattening pig farms. The type and frequency of the visits and identified herd-health management factors that did not meet accepted standards were investigated. In total 373 visit re

  10. Report on the activities carried out by 'Sonrisas' to promote oral health: the experience of a Canadian dental hygienist in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsman, Elina

    2007-08-01

    Smiles Foundation is a non-profitable organization established in Canada as a sister foundation to the Dominican Fundacion para la Prevencion y la Salud Bucal de los Ninos "Sonrisas" the Dominican Republic, which provides free dental treatment and oral health education to underprivileged children. Its founder Elina Katsman, a Canadian dental hygienist embarked on this project in 1986, and started giving lectures in the small community of Samana along with two local nurses that she trained in the principles of oral hygiene and related primary health care. Today, the foundation runs eight dental clinics and five mobile units that serve remote areas and has benefited 1,723,119 people in total. The aim of this article was to report on the growth that Smiles Foundation has experienced to promote oral health among children and adults in the Dominican Republic including its activities and the results it has achieved up until 2005. PMID:17615022

  11. The reporting of theoretical health risks by the media: Canadian newspaper reporting of potential blood transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nadya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The media play an important role at the interface of science and policy by communicating scientific information to the public and policy makers. In issues of theoretical risk, in which there is scientific uncertainty, the media's role as disseminators of information is particularly important due to the potential to influence public perception of the severity of the risk. In this article we describe how the Canadian print media reported the theoretical risk of blood transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Methods We searched 3 newspaper databases for articles published by 6 major Canadian daily newspapers between January 1990 and December 1999. We identified all articles relating to blood transmission of CJD. In duplicate we extracted information from the articles and entered the information into a qualitative software program. We compared the observations obtained from this content analysis with information obtained from a previous policy analysis examining the Canadian blood system's decision-making concerning the potential transfusion transmission of CJD. Results Our search identified 245 relevant articles. We observed that newspapers in one instance accelerated a policy decision, which had important resource and health implication, by communicating information on risk to the public. We also observed that newspapers primarily relied upon expert opinion (47 articles as opposed to published medical evidence (28 articles when communicating risk information. Journalists we interviewed described the challenges of balancing their responsibility to raise awareness of potential health threats with not unnecessarily arousing fear amongst the public. Conclusions Based on our findings we recommend that journalists report information from both expert opinion sources and from published studies when communicating information on risk. We also recommend researchers work more closely with journalists to assist them in identifying

  12. One Health profile of a community at the wildlife-domestic animal interface, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Amanda M; van Rooyen, Jacques; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Knobel, Darryn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Wilkes, Michael S; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    We used a community engagement approach to develop a One Health profile of an agro-pastoralist population at the interface of wildlife areas in eastern South Africa. Representatives from 262 randomly-selected households participated in an in-person, cross-sectional survey. Questions were designed to ascertain the participants' knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human health, domestic animal health, and natural resources including wildlife and water. Surveys were conducted within four selected villages by a team of trained surveyors and translators over four weeks in July-August 2013. Questions were a combination of multiple choice (single answer), multiple selection, open-ended, and Likert scale. The study found that nearly three-quarters of all households surveyed reported owning at least one animal (55% owned chickens, 31% dogs, 25% cattle, 16% goats, 9% cats, and 5% pigs). Among the animal-owning respondents, health concerns identified included dissatisfaction with government-run cattle dip facilities (97%) and frequent morbidity and mortality of chickens that had clinical signs consistent with Newcastle disease (49%). Sixty-one percent of participants believed that diseases of animals could be transmitted to humans. Ninety-six percent of respondents desired greater knowledge about animal diseases. With regard to human health issues, the primary barrier to health care access was related to transportation to/from the community health clinics. Environmental health issues revealed by the survey included disparities by village in drinking water reliability and frequent domiciliary rodent sightings positively associated with increased household size and chicken ownership. Attitudes towards conservation were generally favorable; however, the community demonstrated a strong preference for a dichotomous approach to wildlife management, one that separated wildlife from humans. Due to the location of the community, which neighbors the Great Limpopo

  13. Development, validation and implementation of animal health information systems in an environment without uniquely identified animals in transitional countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The veterinary activities for control of animal diseases are based on the Low for Veterinary Health [2], the Programme for control and eradication of especially dangerous diseases in animals [3] and the special programmes designed for specific diseases, which are in accordance with the EU legislative. This legislative is defining a division of the country into 30 Epidemiological Areas (EAs) and 123 Epidemiological Units (EUs). Each village belongs to a defined EU, which further belongs to a defined EA. Two animal health information systems were developed in Macedonia, the National Epidemiological Information System (NEIS) and the Laboratory Information System (LABIS). Both systems were aimed on collection/interpretation of animal disease data, in a country where animals are not uniquely identified. The development of NEIS was based on the existing legislation of compulsatory notification of infectious diseases. Field records are collected via the designated veterinary practices (DVP) and entered into the NEIS via the veterinary inspectors (VIs), (employees of the MAFWE). Sources of data for NEIS are obligatory disease control programs (Annual order), Endemic diseases, Outbreaks, Slaughterhouses and Laboratory results of annual surveys. LABIS is a separate database for managing laboratory results. It collects data from samples submitted by DVPs. The samples can be then analyzed in different laboratories, using different methods and given a 'final status' by authorized person. The final status is linked to the previously performed tests and entered into the NEIS. By this concept, the Veterinary department is capable to trace back the background for each individual sample, by reviewing the analyses performed on it. Both systems are designed as a referential integrity databases, where the field result is linked to the animal, owner, village (n = 1803), epidemiological units (n = 123) and epidemiological areas (n = 30) in the country. NEIS can also present the same data

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 45, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once again the year is at end and a new exciting year lies ahead of us. The past year has been a busy time for all staff in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2007/2008 biennial project cycle. We have also prepared the IAEA's 2008/2009 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. As with previous newsletters, I want to introduce a topic to hopefully stimulate discussion and debate and encourage interactions between all. It has been well discussed in previous newsletters that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and risks. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the local economy and producers and the potential risks are the flow-on costs to the environment, livestock health and welfare and human health, through increased chemical and nutrient pollution, disease transmission and centralization of feed resources. Understanding nutrition is one of the keys to taking advantage of the opportunities and minimizing the risks

  15. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  16. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  17. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 52, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globalization and climate change have had an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing diseasecausing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wild life and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas, e.g. malaria. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. Insect-borne diseases are now present in temperate areas where the vector insects were non-existent in the past, e.g. trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, bluetongue. Humans are also at an increased risk from insect-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever. Warmer temperatures are already enabling insects and microorganisms to invade and reproduce in areas where they once could not due to severely low temperatures and seasonal chills. A small rise in temperatures can produce a 10-fold increase in a mosquito population causing an increase of malaria cases, and hence, malaria is now occurring in several Eastern European countries as well as in the highland areas of countries like Kenya where historically cooler climatic conditions had prevented the breeding of populations of diseasecarrying mosquitoes. Freshwater snails, intermediate hosts for fascioliasis, a disease that affects millions of herbivorous animals and humans can now be observed in areas above 4200 meters above sea level in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia as milder temperatures and altered environment conditions are more favourable to their survival. Important zoonotic diseases such as avian influenza, Lyme disease and Rift Valley fever are also likely to spread. Avian influenza viruses occur naturally in wild birds

  18. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 53, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this newsletter I want to highlight the biggest event on the animal calendar - Rinderpest is no longer a threat to livestock farmers' world wide. It is expected that FAO and OIE will jointly declare the world to be free from Rinderpest in 2011. In commemoration of this, I want to pay tribute to the members that made this possible such as regional organizations (EC, AU/IBAR CG-Centres etc), international organizations (FAO, OIE, IAEA etc), individual countries (France, Japan, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy etc) and the Member States that suffered from this disease and worked towards its eradication. Together with all the role players, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department's contribution to the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies was a niche and critical area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has two mechanisms of technical support to Member States - the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related technologies through the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) mechanism, and the transfer and sustainable implementation of the CRP developed technologies through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) mechanism. The development of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies were jointly developed between CRPs of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and TCPs of the Technical Cooperation Department

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 47, December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Agency's 2006/7 Programme of Work and Budget, we evaluated our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Co-operation projects (TCPs) and focussed our activities for the Agency's 2008/9 cycle. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performance was achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed ? and which we then addressed. We also had time to reflect on our past performance in order to serve the best interests of our Member States. It became apparent that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has to be more proactive towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant and effective support to MS. Attention was given to increasing our collaboration with other International Organisations (such as OIE, WHO and CGIAR Centres) as well as our Joint FAO/IAEA divisional activities. The clear advantage that we as a Joint FAO/IAEA programme have is a very proficient laboratory (and expertise) that focuses on our direct support to MS. To this effect this Issue want to highlight our activities related to small ruminant reproduction and breeding in this section of the newsletter

  20. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 51, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As 2010 is dawning on us, I want to look forward and highlight some of the exciting new nuclear and nuclear related areas that we think will play an important role in the near future. The main constraint to livestock production in many tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America is the scarcity and fluctuations in quality and quantity of the year-around supply of feeds. Animal productivity is restricted by the low nitrogen and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues, which form the basis of the diets in these regions. An additional consequence of this poor diet in ruminants is the increased production of methane compared with ruminants fed on better quality forages. Studies on rumen metabolism using isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen have revealed how the ruminal microbial flora can change depending on the type of forage ingested. In addition, certain plant metabolites reduce the microbial population thereby improving efficiency of feed utilization by up to 10 per cent. The future application of this strategy is that the modulation of fermentation can reduce methane production, hence mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

  1. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  2. Applying One Health to the Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Darlene; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-12-01

    The use of animal-assisted interventions in therapeutic programs is a growing phenomenon. Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) involve a variety of species (dogs, cats, horses, domesticated birds, etc.) in primary health care. Despite their increasing application in a wide range of therapeutic services, the empirical evidence base of AAIs is limited. The authors of this paper propose that the public health framework of One Health can be adapted to advance AAI research. One Health's perspective on the environment is primarily ecological. The environmental impact on the human-animal interactions within AAIs, however, incorporates social, cultural, political, and economic factors. The environment has received minimal attention in AAI research. The authors discuss how this framework has been used in their prior AAI research and work with Indigenous people. Applying this framework to AAIs may guide future AAI research.

  3. Preserving health status of farm animals: what is expected from feed and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Le Floc'h, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Health preservation is one of the main priorities and a constant challenge for livestock production. Medication based on antibiotics have been used systematically and preventively to limit the negative consequences of poor health status. The reduction of their utilization is a challenge for the development of sustainable livestock production systems, which requires that health and performance could be maintained to limit the environmental impact and to improve the animal welfare. ...

  4. An analysis of institutional arrangements for providing animal health services : a theoretical framework and empirical evidence from Kenya and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ilukor, John

    2015-01-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades, mainly because of governance challenges. Although good governance has been recognized as an important element in addressing emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats, animal health research has paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. The existing fram...

  5. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  6. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  7. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  8. Development, validation and implementation of animal health information systems in an environment without uniquely identified animals in transitional countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two animal health information systems were developed in Macedonia, the National Epidemiological Information System (NEIS) and the Laboratory Information System (LABIS). Both systems were aimed at collecting/interpreting animal disease data in a country where animals are not uniquely identified. The development of NEIS was based on the existing legislation of compulsory notification of infectious diseases. Field records are collected via the designated veterinary practices and entered into the NEIS via the veterinary inspectors who are employees of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy. Sources of data for NEIS are obligatory disease control programmes (Annual Order), endemic diseases, outbreaks, slaughterhouses and laboratory results of annual surveys. LABIS is a separate database for managing laboratory results. It collects data from samples submitted by Designated Veterinary Practices (DVPs). The samples can then be analysed in different laboratories using different methods and given a 'final status' by an authorised person. The final status is linked to the previously performed tests and entered into the NEIS. Using this concept, the Veterinary Department can trace back the background for each individual sample by reviewing the analyses performed on it. Both systems are designed as a referential integrity databases, where the field result is linked to the animal, owner, village (n = 1 803), epidemiological unit (n = 123) and epidemiological area (n = 30) in the country. NEIS can also present the same data in geographical maps, showing the infected village as the smallest unit of observation. Both systems have also different levels of authorisation access, allowing precise tracing of entered data. (author)

  9. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Lix

    Full Text Available Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF, which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF and mental health (MH sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample.Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos, which collected baseline data in 1996-1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects.The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size.SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations.

  10. Organic Farming in the Nordic Countries – Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg SM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming (or ecological agriculture is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1–10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.

  11. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.;

    2006-01-01

    . The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial......-resistant animal enterococci should be disregarded as a human health hazard. On the basis of review of the literature, we find that neither the results provided by molecular typing that classify enterococci as host-specific organisms nor the occurrence of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci provide reasons...

  12. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P < 0.001), and important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On

  13. The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS as a tool for animal health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Franceschini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS. GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW, mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA, disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.

  14. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J;

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others......Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  15. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  16. Planning for better animal health and welfare, Report from the 1st ANIPLAN project workshop, Hellevad, October 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarst, Mette; Leeb, Christine; Nicholas, Phillipa; Roderick, Stephen; Smolders, Gidi; Walkenhorst, Michael; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Stöger, Elisabeth; Winkler, Christoph; Gratzer, Elisabeth; Lund, Vonne; Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Hansen, Inger; Neale, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    ’Minimising medicine use in organic dairy herds through animal health and welfare planning’, ANIPLAN, is a CORE-Organic project which was initiated in June 2007. The main aim of the project is to investigate active and well planned animal health and welfare promotion and disease prevention as a means of minimising medicine use in organic dairy herds. This aim will be met through the development of animal health and welfare planning principles for organic dairy farms under diverse conditions b...

  17. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  18. 77 FR 50457 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Intent To Renew and Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... giving notice that the Secretary is soliciting nominations for membership for this Committee. DATES..., Attn: Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. Nomination packages may also be faxed to (301... for nominations for membership was published \\1\\ in the Federal Register on May 24, 2012 (77 FR...

  19. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human–Companion Animal Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg K. Takashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB as it relates to healthcare in these areas.

  20. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  1. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  2. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  3. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  4. Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk.

  5. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  6. Considerations for preparing a randomized population health intervention trial: lessons from a South African–Canadian partnership to improve the health of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalee Yassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs are increasingly being conducted to address pressing global health concerns. Preparations for clinical trials are well-described, as are the steps for multi-component health service trials. However, guidance is lacking for addressing the ethical and logistic challenges in (cluster RCTs of population health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: We aimed to identify the factors that population health researchers must explicitly consider when planning RCTs within North–South partnerships. Design: We reviewed our experiences and identified key ethical and logistic issues encountered during the pre-trial phase of a recently implemented RCT. This trial aimed to improve tuberculosis (TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention and care for health workers by enhancing workplace assessment capability, addressing concerns about confidentiality and stigma, and providing onsite counseling, testing, and treatment. An iterative framework was used to synthesize this analysis with lessons taken from other studies. Results: The checklist of critical factors was grouped into eight categories: 1 Building trust and shared ownership; 2 Conducting feasibility studies throughout the process; 3 Building capacity; 4 Creating an appropriate information system; 5 Conducting pilot studies; 6 Securing stakeholder support, with a view to scale-up; 7 Continuously refining methodological rigor; and 8 Explicitly addressing all ethical issues both at the start and continuously as they arise. Conclusion: Researchers should allow for the significant investment of time and resources required for successful implementation of population health RCTs within North–South collaborations, recognize the iterative nature of the process, and be prepared to revise protocols as challenges emerge.

  7. [The design and development of a quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases at the National Centre for Animal and Plant Health in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, N Montes; Villoch, A; Pérez Ruano, M

    2004-12-01

    A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba. PMID:15861883

  8. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses.

  9. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  10. Good governance of animal health systems and public-private partnerships: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, P F

    2012-08-01

    The animal health system in Australia has evolved over more than 100 years and includes innovative public-private partnership arrangements. The establishment in 1996 of Animal Health Australia (AHA), a not-for-profit company, was a crucial development which formalised arrangements for shared decision-making and funding across both government and industry stakeholders. However, Federal and State governments retain legislative authority for animal health control. Accordingly, all programmes must recognise that the public sector remains an executive arm of government, accountable for its actions. Hence, much effort has been invested in ensuring that the governance arrangements within AHA are lawful and transparent. The Emergency Animal Disease Response Agreement (EADRA) is a very good example of governance arrangements that are sustainably financed, widely available, provided efficiently, without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. The benefits of EADRA include certainty and greater transparency of funding; greater efficiency through increased probability of a rapid response to an occurrence of any of 65 diseases; and industry participation in the management and financing of such a response.

  11. Integrated epidemiology and economics modelling for the management of animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Randolph, T F

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of integrated epidemiology and economics modelling in animal health planning, with particular reference to the evaluation of national level interventions that involve the vaccination of livestock. Well-integrated epidemiology and economics is considered essential if model outputs are to be of value in national animal disease control planning. The different approaches to the use of modelling in priority setting and resource allocation in animal health are reviewed and discussed. The authors conclude that this particular application of modelling is poorly developed, due in part to the complexities involved. Much more has been done to develop models that evaluate the merits of different intervention scenarios for a given single disease, and examples of these are presented. However, the authors conclude that despite the widespread use of such models, there is still considerable scope for the development of a more standardised approach, incorporating consideration of both direct and indirect implications of intervention options. In discussing the changing demands on animal health economics modelling, the authors propose that increased attention should be given to the valuation of "externalities", the calculation and interpretation of the distribution of costs and benefits, the evaluation of the impact of disease control on poverty reduction, and the development of real-time economics modelling techniques, to assist particularly in the effective management of disease outbreaks. PMID:15742652

  12. Proceedings of the symposium on air pollution and public health[Organized under the auspices of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, D.; Drouin, L. [National Public Health Inst. of Quebec, PQ (Canada)]|[Direction de la sante publique de Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    Air pollution levels throughout New England and southeastern Canada generally exceed U.S. and Canadian ambient air quality limits, most notably for ozone and particulate matter. The pollutants can reduce respiratory function and trigger asthma attacks. Acute effects are also associated with short-term peaks in air pollution levels. This two-day symposium featured presentations by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe who described recent advances in their areas of expertise and presented recommendations to reduce air pollution and its impact on human health. The recommendations, which were compiled according to individual presentations as well as the plenary sessions of the symposium, have been classified as follows: improving the air quality database; epidemiological and toxicological research needs; and, concrete intervention to reduce air pollution-related health impacts. The six sessions were entitled as follows: (1) levels and sources of air pollution in northeastern America, (2) specific sources of air pollution, (3) human health effects, (4) air pollution and asthma, (5) epidemiology, and (6) scientific basis for regulatory approaches to air pollution standards. refs.

  13. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015. PMID:26506187

  14. The FORCE Fitness Profile--Adding a Measure of Health-Related Fitness to the Canadian Armed Forces Operational Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Spivock, Michael; Reilly, Tara; Mattie, Paige; Stockbrugger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) implemented the Fitness for Operational Requirements of Canadian Armed Forces Employment (FORCE), a field expedient fitness test designed to predict the physical requirements of completing common military tasks. Given that attaining this minimal physical fitness standard may not represent a challenge to some personnel, a fitness incentive program was requested by the chain of command to recognize and reward fitness over and above the minimal standard. At the same time, it was determined that the CAF would benefit from a measure of general health-related fitness, in addition to this measure of operational fitness. The resulting incentive program structure is based on gender and 8 age categories. The results on the 4 elements of the FORCE evaluation were converted to a point scale from which normative scores were derived, where the median score corresponds to the bronze level, and silver, gold, and platinum correspond to a score which is 1, 2, and 3 SDs above this median, respectively. A suite of rewards including merit board point toward promotions and recognition on the uniform and material rewards was developed. A separate group rewards program was also tabled, to recognize achievements in fitness at the unit level. For general fitness, oxygen capacity was derived from FORCE evaluation results and combined with a measure of abdominal circumference. Fitness categories were determined based on relative risks of mortality and morbidity for each age and gender group. Pilot testing of this entire program was performed with 624 participants to assess participants' reactions to the enhanced test, and also to verify logistical aspects of the electronic data capture, calculation, and transfer system. The newly dubbed fitness profile program was subsequently approved by the senior leadership of the CAF and is scheduled to begin a phased implementation in June 2015.

  15. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  16. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid Training among Student Affairs Staff at a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Brooks, Meghan; Burrow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of providing the Mental Health First Aid training program to student affairs staff. The objective of the training was to increase knowledge of mental health, enhance sensitivity, and raise confidence to intervene and assist individuals experiencing a mental health issue. We found the training successfully met…

  18. Recommendations for improving the end-of-life care system for homeless populations: A qualitative study of the views of Canadian health and social services professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeil Ryan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless populations have complex and diverse end-of-life care needs. However, they typically die outside of the end-of-life care system. To date, few studies have explored barriers to the end-of-life care system for homeless populations. This qualitative study involving health and social services professionals from across Canada sought to identify barriers to the end-of-life care system for homeless populations and generate recommendations to improve their access to end-of-life care. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 health and social services professionals involved in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless persons in six Canadian cities (Halifax, Hamilton, Ottawa, Thunder Bay, Toronto and Winnipeg. Participants included health administrators, physicians, nurses, social workers, harm reduction specialists, and outreach workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Participants identified key barriers to end-of-life care services for homeless persons, including: (1 insufficient availability of end-of-life care services; (2 exclusionary operating procedures; and, (3 poor continuity of care. Participants identified recommendations that they felt had the potential to minimize these barriers, including: (1 adopting low-threshold strategies (e.g. flexible behavioural policies and harm reduction strategies; (2 linking with population-specific health and social care providers (e.g. emergency shelters; and, (3 strengthening population-specific training. Conclusions Homeless persons may be underserved by the end-of-life care system as a result of barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Changes in the rules and regulations that reflect the health needs and circumstances of homeless persons and measures to improve continuity of care have the potential to increase equity in the end-of-life care system for this

  19. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni;

    been infected for several years were slightly lower than the design prevalence of 2 % currently used for monthly testing of sentinel animals, but much lower than the design prevalences of 20 % and 10 % for annual surveys in populations of unvaccinated and vaccinated ruminants, respectively. Currently......Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  20. Safety testing of VIROTECTO as a bio insecticide on animal health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal's health. Fifty-four male albino rats (100-110 g) were randomly divided into three equal groups, eighteen in each, the first group served as control, the second group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% normal potato and the third group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% potato sprayed with 0.15 g/kg potato virotecto. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals of 15, 35 and 45 days. Results of the present study showed that viral uses led to a significant decrease in final body weight and organs weight. Hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb, Ht, MCU, MCH and MCHC), biochemical (testosterone, lipid peroxide, total lipid, total protein and albumin) and histopathological examination of testis revealed that there were different disorders as a result of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal health

  1. The Quality of Canadian and U.S. Government Health Documents Remains Unchallenged Until Better Research Can Be Undertaken. A review of: Lambert, Frank. “Assessing the Authoritativeness of Canadian and American Health Documents: A Comparative Analysis Using Informetric Methodologies.” Government Information Quarterly 22.2 (2005: 277‐96.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Corkett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To assess by means of citation analysis whether the public trust afforded health documents published by the Canadian and U.S. governments is appropriate, and to ascertain whether differences in the respective health care systems influence how publications are produced.Design – Comparative study.Setting – The Canadian Depository Service Program (DSP and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS websites.Subjects – One hundred sixty‐six electronic documents sourced from the DSP website, and 284 electronic documents sourced from the DHHS website.Methods – Subjects were randomly selected from repositories offering the most comprehensive collections. Documents with evidence of references to other works used in preparation were separated from thos ewithout such characteristics. Data variables were collected from documents with evidence of references. Statistical analysis of the data was undertaken.Main results – Of the respective samples, 89(53% from the DSP and 109 (38.4% from the DHHS contained references. Personal authors were identified in 46 (51.7% and 63(58% of the respective subsets. Handbooks and guidebooks accounted for the largest portion of the DSP subset (29; 32.6% and government periodicals were the largest constituent of the DHHS subset (41; 37.6%. Scholarly journals were the most common reference type for both the DSP (44% and the DHHS (58.5% subsets. The number of references per document was widely dispersed for both subsets; the DSP mean was approximately 64 (SD=114.68 and the DHHS was 73.71 (SD=168.85. Kruskal‐Wallis subset analysis of median number of references by document type found differences generalizable to the entire DSP (pConclusion – Significant differences in reference use frequencies between DSP and DHHS documents challenges Foskett’s stance that documents of value contain references (Foskett. Use of peer‐reviewed scholarly journals for both DSP and DHHS publications was

  2. The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) as a tool for animal health applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Franceschini; Robinson, Timothy P.; Karl Morteo; Dario Dentale; William Wint; Joachim Otte

    2009-01-01

    Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient ...

  3. Veterinary education in Africa : current and future perspectives : animal health management in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    G.E. Swan; N.P.J. Kriek

    2009-01-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa.Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and ag...

  4. Synergies Between Human and Animal Health Syndromic Surveillance: Triple-S Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Céline; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Bronner, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Fouillet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study, based on the Triple-S project outputs, was to present the existing synergies between human and animal health syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems in Europe and a proposal to enhance this kind of collaboration. Introduction The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe, www.syndromicsurveillance.eu), co-financed by the European Commission and involving twenty four organizations from fourteen countries was launched in September 2010 with t...

  5. Cost Benefit Analysis with Applications to Animal Health Programmes: Basics of CBA

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper is one of a series of six papers which brings together both cost-benefit analysis methodology and the problems and issues in evaluation of regional and national animal health programs. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a powerful economic technique for evaluating public sector investments, evaluating proposed research projects and programs, estimating the economic impact of new regulations, predicting the economic impacts of resource exploitation and conservation programs, ...

  6. EFSA Panel Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and its potential implications for animal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Brown, Ian; Capua, Ilaria;

    . Such vaccines efficiently prevent disease by reducing virus replication in the lungs. However, voluntary vaccination of swine with these vaccines has not halted the circulation of SIV in swine. There is no urgency for vaccination of pigs against pH1N1 virus. Currently, no vaccines against H1 viruses for poultry...... of wild birds with pH1N1 virus has been reported. From an animal health perspective, no specific disease control measures are considered necessary. Vaccines based on the pH1N1 virus appear to induce protection in swine similar to that induced by the existing swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines...... are available but at present, there is no need to vaccinate poultry against pH1N1 virus. Monitoring of circulating influenza viruses in swine and poultry populations should be instigated to monitor the evolution of the pH1N1 virus including changes in virulence....

  7. Host-targeted approaches to managing animal health: old problems and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M E; Bütz, D E; Yang, M; Sand, J M

    2016-07-01

    Our fellow medical and regulatory scientists question the animal producer's dependence on antibiotics and antimicrobial chemicals in the production of animal products. Retail distributors and consumers are putting even more pressure on the animal industry to find new ways to produce meat without antibiotics and chemicals. In addition, federal funding agencies are increasingly pressuring researchers to conduct science that has application. In the review that follows, we outline our approach to finding novel ways to improve animal performance and health. We use a strict set of guidelines in our applied research as follows: (1) Does the work have value to society? (2) Does our team have the skills to innovate in the field? (3) Is the product we produce commercially cost-effective? (4) Are there any reasons why the general consumer will reject the technology? (5) Is it safe for the animal, consumer, and the environment? Within this framework, we describe 4 areas of research that have produced useful products, areas that we hope other scientists will likewise explore and innovate such as (1) methods to detect infection in herds and flocks, (2) methods to control systemic and mucosal inflammation, (3) improvements to intestinal barrier function, and (4) methods to strategically potentiate immune defense. We recognize that others are working in these areas, using different strategies, but believe our examples will illustrate the vast opportunity for research and innovation in a world without antibiotics. Animal scientists have been given a new challenge that may help shape the future of both animal and human medicine. PMID:27345308

  8. From "Evil Influence" to Social Facilitator: Representations of Youth Smoking, Drinking, and Citizenship in Canadian Health Textbooks, 1890-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sharon Anne

    2008-01-01

    One route to uncovering schooling's goals for an improved citizenry is to track certain subjects of the compulsory curriculum. In this case, health is investigated, and especially its messages on smoking and drinking. First introduced as scientific temperance instruction (in the 1880s), renamed hygiene (from about 1910), then as health (from the…

  9. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (bovine animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Salmonella spp. and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC as current high-priority biological hazards for meat inspection of bovine animals. As these hazards are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system for the farm-to-chilled carcass continuum using a risk-based approach was proposed. Key elements of the system are risk-categorisation of slaughter animals for high-priority biological hazards based on improved food chain information, as well as risk-categorisation of slaughterhouses according to their capability to control those hazards. Omission of palpation and incision during post-mortem inspection for animals subjected to routine slaughter may decrease spreading and cross-contamination with the high-priority biological hazards. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern; all other substances were ranked as of medium or lower concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account the completeness and quality of the food chain information supplied and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated to include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control programmes, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat inspection is a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. Omission of palpation and incision would reduce detection effectiveness for bovine tuberculosis and would have a negative impact on the overall surveillance system especially in officially tuberculosis free countries. The detection effectiveness for bovine cysticercosis, already low with the current meat inspection system, would result in a further decrease, if palpation and incision are removed

  11. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.

  12. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  13. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  14. A descriptive study of visits by animal health specialists in pig farming: type, frequency, and herd-health management factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, J; van de Laak, M J; Tielen, M J; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-01

    This research was carried out to analyse the visits specialists of the Dutch Animal Health Service made to growing and fattening pig farms. The type and frequency of the visits and identified herd-health management factors that did not meet accepted standards were investigated. In total 373 visit reports were studied. The majority of the visits (n = 306 of 373) were made to investigate the cause of health, welfare, and performance problems ('problem-solving visits'). Respiratory disorders were the main reason for requesting a specialist to assess farm conditions and management (n = 156). In the other 67 of 373 visit reports the specialists screened for herd-health management factors that did not meet standards for the prevention of disease ('screening visits'). For both types of visits, the main factors detected were abrupt changes in feeding regimens (e.g. changes in feed type, feed composition or feed supplier) (37%), inadequate measures to prevent introduction of pathogens by people and trucks (83%), and incorrect adjustment of the ventilation system (58-60%). The specialists focusing on housing-climate management, identified the majority of factors in an equal number irrespective of whether the visit was a problem-solving visit or a screening visit. This implies that even on farms that appear not to have health or performance problems, factors that relate to disease are present and may cause problems sooner or later. Although veterinary practitioners and other farm advisors assist farmers in their management to optimize herd health, the findings of the research suggest that advisors could provide additional support in situations where environmental and managerial factors play a role in pig health and performance. The knowledge of advisors about integrated herd-health management can be broadened by means of textbooks, courses, or computer programs.

  15. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines

  16. Revisualising 'porn': how young adults' consumption of sexually explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion.

  17. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. PMID:24948412

  18. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases.

  19. Revisualising 'porn': how young adults' consumption of sexually explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion. PMID:24917353

  20. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network Laboratory Guidelines for the Use of Direct Tests to Detect Syphilis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond SW Tsang; Muhammad Morshed; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C.; Kamran Kadkhoda

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine d...

  1. Chronic animal health assessment during axial ventricular assistance: importance of hemorheologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameneva, M V; Watach, M J; Litwak, P; Antaki, J F; Butler, K C; Thomas, D C; Taylor, L P; Borovetz, H S; Kormos, R L; Griffith, B P

    1999-01-01

    Chronic testing of the Nimbus/UOP Axial Flow Pump was performed on 22 calves for periods of implantation ranging from 27 to 226 days (average, 74 days). The following parameters were measured: plasma free hemoglobin, blood and plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability and mechanical fragility, oxygen delivery index (ODI), blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, fibrinogen, and plasma osmolality. Most of the above parameters were stable during the full course of support. Compared with baseline, statistically significant differences during the entire period of implantation were only found in: hematocrit (p0.2). After the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period, pump performing parameters for all animals were consistent and stable. In general, the Nimbus/UOP Axial Flow Pump demonstrated basic reliability and biocompatibility and did not produce significant alterations in the mechanical properties of blood or animal health status. The pump provided adequate hemodynamics and was well tolerated by the experimental animal for periods as long as 7.5 months. Monitoring rheologic parameters of blood is very helpful for evaluation of health during heart-assist device application.

  2. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  3. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  4. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  5. 78 FR 15023 - Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the Assessment of Data Quality in Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Health Assessment and Translation Webinar on the... quality in animal studies. The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), Division of the... known about current human exposure levels. OHAT also organizes workshops or state-...

  6. Becoming Resilient: Promoting the Mental Health and Well-Being of Immigrant Women in a Canadian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. MacDonnell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on grounded theory findings that are relevant to promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in Canada. The findings illustrate how relationships among settlement factors and dynamics of empowerment had implications for “becoming resilient” as immigrant women and how various health promotion approaches enhanced their well-being. Dimensions of empowerment were embedded in the content and process of the feminist health promotion approach used in this study. Four focus groups were completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with 35 racialized immigrant women who represented diverse countries of origin: 25 were from Africa; others were equally represented from South Asia (5, Asia (5, and Central or South America and the Caribbean (5. Participants represented diverse languages, family dynamics, and educational backgrounds. One focus group was conducted in Somali; three were conducted in English. Constructivist grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and a critical feminist approach were chosen to be congruent with health promotion research that fostered women’s empowerment. Findings foreground women’s agency in the study process, the ways that immigrant women name and frame issues relevant to their lives, and the interplay among individual, family, community, and structural dynamics shaping their well-being. Implications for mental health promotion are discussed.

  7. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue serotype 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Oura, Chris; Saegerman, Claude;

    established by the Animal Health and Welfare Panel. Currently, three special features can be assigned to BTV-8, which are the ability to cause serious disease in cattle and goats, the ability to be transmitted transplacentally, and the ability to contaminate semen. The transplacental transmission...... and the contamination of semen are also observed for several serotypes of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines and for some cell culture/egg passaged strains. These two features may have an impact on the epidemiology of the disease, since they may increase the ability of BTV-8 to survive the winter period, for example...... of seropositive but virus negative pregnant animals, which may give birth to viraemic calves, or through natural mating or AI using BTV-8 contaminated semen by transmission from semen to receiving dam. The current legislation provides effective measures to ensure that all dams are immune to BTV before...

  8. State of the Animal: monitoring animal welfare and health in The Netherlands (0-measurement) : summary, full report is available in Dutch (report 323)

    OpenAIRE

    Leenstra, F.R.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hanekamp, W.J.A.; Vermeij, I.; Ipema, A.H.; Jong, A.R.; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document over het effect van het dierenwelzijns- en diergezondheidsbeleid van LNV is. Deze eerste rapportage betreft een nulmeting. Bij herhaalde metingen geeft de rapportage inzicht in de ontwikkeling. In 25 meetpunten zijn de resultaten voor beleidsdoelen op het gebied van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid in beeld gebracht25 measuring points summarise the results of policy measures for animal welfare and health in The Netherlands

  9. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities.

  10. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  11. Identified and unidentified challenges for reproductive biotechnologies regarding infectious diseases in animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the known and theoretical risks for in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos as well as for nuclear transferred or transgenic embryos in terms of animal diseases or diseases of public health consequence. For in vivo derived embryos, a considerable number of experiments and scientific investigations have resulted in recommended guidelines and procedures that ensure a high level of safety. The effectiveness of these measures has been validated by field experience with the safe transfer of several million embryos over the past three decades. In vitro produced embryos have several characteristics that differentiate them from the former, in particular a structure of the zona pellucida that results in a more frequent possible association of pathogens with the embryo. However, the guidelines prescribed by the IETS, the international standard setting body (OIE) and existing national regulatory frameworks are in place to minimize the risk of disease transmission. No specific public health risks have been identified to date with respect to in vivo or in vitro derived embryos. In regard to nuclear transferred and transgenic embryos, theoretical risks have been identified in relation to the potential effects on some intrinsic viruses such as endogenous retroviruses but very little targeted experimental work has been carried out on infectious diseases that could have adverse consequences on animal or human health. Although there has been no report of such adverse consequences associated with the limited number of animals produced to date by such reproductive technologies, a precautionary approach is warranted given the potential negative impacts and it would be prudent to restrict at this stage, the international movement of such "manipulated" embryos.

  12. Rates of influenza vaccination in older adults and factors associated with vaccine use: A secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Heather

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in the older adult population. In Canada, vaccination rates remain suboptimal. We identified factors predictive of influenza vaccination, in order to determine which segments of the older adult population might be targeted to increase coverage in influenza vaccination programs. Methods The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA is a population-based national cohort study of 10263 older adults (≥ 65 conducted in 1991. We used data from the 5007 community-dwelling participants in the CSHA without dementia for whom self-reported influenza vaccination status is known. Results Of 5007 respondents, 2763 (55.2% reported having received an influenza vaccination within the previous 2 years. The largest predictive factors for flu vaccination included: being married (57.4 vs. 52.6%, p = 0.0007, having attained a higher education (11.0 vs. 10.3 years, p While many other differences were statistically significant, most were small (e.g. mean age 75.1 vs. 74.6 years for immunized vs. unimmunized older adults, p = 0.006, higher Modified Mini Mental Status Examination score (89.9 vs. 89.1, p Residents of Ontario were more likely (64.6% to report vaccination (p Conclusions The vaccination rate in this sample, in whom influenza vaccination is indicated, was low (55.2%. Even in a publicly administered health care setting, influenza vaccination did not reach an important proportion of the elderly population. Whether these differences reflect patient preference or access remains to be determined.

  13. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  14. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to publi...

  15. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  16. Factors influencing the adoption of an innovation: an examination of the uptake of the Canadian Heart Health Kit (HHK)

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikoff Ronald C; Scott Shannon D; Karunamuni Nandini; Bize Raphaël; Rodgers Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an emerging knowledge base on the effectiveness of strategies to close the knowledge-practice gap. However, less is known about how attributes of an innovation and other contextual and situational factors facilitate and impede an innovation's adoption. The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK) is a risk management and patient education resource for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and promotion of cardiovascular health. Although previous studies have demonstrated ...

  17. Construct Validation of Three Nutrition Questions Using Health and Diet Ratings in Older Canadian Males Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Usman; Keller, Heather H; Tate, Robert B; Lengyel, Christina O

    2015-12-01

    Brief nutrition screening tools are desired for research and practice. Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition (SCREEN-II, 14 items) and the abbreviated version SCREEN-II-AB (8 items) are valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for older adults. This exploratory study used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the construct validity of a subset of 3 items (weight loss, appetite, and swallowing difficulty) currently on the SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB tools. Secondary data on community-dwelling senior males (n = 522, mean ± SD age = 86.7 ± 3.0 years) in the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) study were available for analysis. Participants completed the mailed MFUS Nutrition Survey that included SCREEN-II items and questions pertaining to self-rated health, diet healthiness, and rating of the importance of nutrition towards successful aging as the constructs for comparison. Self-perceived health status (F = 14.7, P nutrition's importance to aging (ρ = 0.10, P = 0.03) were correlated with the 3-item score. Inferences were consistent with associations between these construct variables and the full SCREEN-II. Three items from SCREEN-II and SCREEN-II-AB demonstrate initial construct validity with self-perceived health status and diet healthiness ratings by older males; further exploration for criterion and predictive validity in more diverse samples is needed.

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis with Applications to Animal Health Programmes: Valuation of Non-Market Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper is designed to provide an introduction to the various methods of valuing so-called ‘non-market goods’ for economic analysis of animal health programs. The concept of non-market values is examined, with examples in relation to animal health. Various techniques for estimation of these values are discussed, and the contingent valuation method is examined in detail. Finally, some comments are made about various issues associated with the use of these techniques.

  19. Aspergillus flavus genomics: gateway to human and animal health, food safety, and crop resistance to diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiujiang; Cleveland, Thomas E; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

    2005-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It also causes allergic reactions in humans. A. flavus infects agricultural crops and stored grains and produces the most toxic and potent carcinogic metabolites such as aflatoxins and other mycotoxins. Breakthroughs in A. flavus genomics may lead to improvement in human health, food safety, and agricultural economy. The availability of A. flavus genomic data marks a new era in research for fungal biology, medical mycology, agricultural ecology, pathogenicity, mycotoxin biosynthesis, and evolution. The availability of whole genome microarrays has equipped scientists with a new powerful tool for studying gene expression under specific conditions. They can be used to identify genes responsible for mycotoxin biosynthesis and for fungal infection in humans, animals and plants. A. flavus genomics is expected to advance the development of therapeutic drugs and to provide information for devising strategies in controlling diseases of humans and other animals. Further, it will provide vital clues for engineering commercial crops resistant to fungal infection by incorporating antifungal genes that may prevent aflatoxin contamination of agricultural harvest. PMID:16499411

  20. Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals: their impact on occupational health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Gómez C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Venomous or poisonous animals are a very common cause of accidents in Colombia. Such accidents occur due to vertebrates such as snakes and fish or invertebrates such as scorpions, spiders, bees, etc. The most affected individuals are young people ages 15 to 45. They are mainly farmers and fishermen. These events can be considered work accidents given their characteristics. Nevertheless, the occupational risk insurance companies, the central Colombian government, and the regional, departmental, and municipal governmental authorities do not record or study these events. Therefore, the true magnitude of the problems caused by this, and the social, economic and occupational losses for Colombia and its companies are not perceived. Likewise, Colombian companies lack protocols, manuals, mechanisms for the identification of potentially dangerous animals to which workers are exposed based on their sector or occupation. This critical factor can have direct implications in the treatments applied to specific cases. This review article attempts to contextualize the impact of poisonous and venomous animals on the health of workers by presenting theoretical foundations and concepts for approaching this issue.

  1. The Use and Effect of Carbamate Insecticide on Animal Health and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbamate in Indonesia is relatively new, in particular after prohibition on the use of most organochlorines (OC. Carbamates that commonly used for agricultural activities are carbofuran (Furadan, aldicarb (Temik and carbaryl (Sevin. When properly used, they will provide benefit, but misuse of insecticides would affect productivity, poisoning, public health problems, environmental contamination and residues in foods. A monitoring result of carbamate used in Java indicates that carbofurans were detected in soils (0,8 – 56,3 ppb; water (0,1 – 5,0 ppb; rice (nd – 5,0 ppb; soybeans (1,2 – 610 ppb; animal feed (12 – 102 ppb; beef (110 – 269 ppb; and sera of beef cattle (167 – 721 ppb. The residue level was above the maximum residue limits (MRL released by Indonesian Standardization Agency (Badan Standardisasi Nasional in some samples. The presence of carbofuran in foods should be taken into account since the carbofuran is regarded highly toxic for public and animal health. This paper describes the toxicity of carbamate, clinical signs of poisoning, residue in foods and environment, handling of poisoning and residue control.

  2. The transitioning experiences of internationally-educated nurses into a Canadian health care system: A focused ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beyond well-documented credentialing issues, internationally-educated nurses (IENs may need considerable support in transitioning into new social and health care environments. This study was undertaken to gain an understanding of transitioning experiences of IENs upon relocation to Canada, while creating policy and practice recommendations applicable globally for improving the quality of transitioning and the retention of IENs. Methods A focused ethnography of newly-recruited IENs was conducted, using individual semi-structured interviews at both one-to-three months (Phase 1 and nine-to-twelve months post-relocation (Phase 2. A purposive sample of IENs was recruited during their orientation at a local college, to a health authority within western Canada which had recruited them for employment throughout the region. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data was managed using qualitative analytical software. Data analysis was informed by Roper and Shapira's framework for focused ethnography. Results Twenty three IENs consented to participate in 31 interviews. All IENs which indicated interest during their orientation sessions consented to the interviews, yet 14 did not complete the Phase 2 interview due to reorganization of health services and relocation. The ethno-culturally diverse group had an average age of 36.4 years, were primarily educated to first degree level or higher, and were largely (under employed as "Graduate Nurses". Many IENs reported negative experiences related to their work contract and overall support upon arrival. There were striking differences in nursing practice and some experiences of perceived discrimination. The primary area of discontentment was the apparent communication breakdown at the recruitment stage with subsequent discrepancy in expected professional role and financial reimbursement. Conclusions Explicit and clear communication is needed between employers and recruitment

  3. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama eSzmolka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of E. coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  4. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of direct tests to detect syphilis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond Sw; Morshed, Muhammad; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kadkhoda, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide) susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies. PMID:25798160

  5. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network Laboratory Guidelines for the Use of Direct Tests to Detect Syphilis in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond SW Tsang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies.

  6. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization.

  7. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure. PMID:26519423

  8. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    pollen in animals. With regard to the effects on the environment of the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union, the PLH Panel concluded that there is no direct evidence that Ambrosia spp. cause extinction of plant species. However, there are some indications that A. artemisiifolia......The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia...... could become highly invasive in certain environmentally-valuable habitats and might be linked to an impoverishment of species richness, therefore further ecological studies are needed. The CONTAM Panel focused on the relative importance of animal feed, bird feed in particular, on the dispersion...

  9. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The

  10. Factors influencing the adoption of an innovation: An examination of the uptake of the Canadian Heart Health Kit (HHK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikoff Ronald C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging knowledge base on the effectiveness of strategies to close the knowledge-practice gap. However, less is known about how attributes of an innovation and other contextual and situational factors facilitate and impede an innovation's adoption. The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK is a risk management and patient education resource for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD and promotion of cardiovascular health. Although previous studies have demonstrated the HHK's content validity and practical utility, no published study has examined physicians' uptake of the HHK and factors that shape its adoption. Objectives Conceptually informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation theory, and Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study had two objectives: (1 to determine if specific attributes of the HHK as well as contextual and situational factors are associated with physicians' intention and actual usage of the HHK kit; and (2, to determine if any contextual and situational factors are associated with individual or environmental barriers that prevent the uptake of the HHK among those physicians who do not plan to use the kit. Methods A sample of 153 physicians who responded to an invitation letter sent to all family physicians in the province of Alberta, Canada were recruited for the study. Participating physicians were sent a HHK, and two months later a study questionnaire assessed primary factors on the physicians' clinical practice, attributes of the HHK (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, confidence and control using the HHK, barriers to use, and individual attributes. All measures were used in path analysis, employing a causal model based on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results 115 physicians (follow up rate of 75% completed the questionnaire. Use of the HHK was associated with intention to use the HHK, relative advantage, and years of

  11. Strains toward convergence in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the Canadian case and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P C; Macdonald, S

    1987-05-01

    Sulkunen's observations that international trends in the consumption of alcoholic beverages involve quantitative as well as qualitative homogenization of drinking practices are tested against the experience of Canada and its provinces from the mid 1960s to late 1970s. Per capita consumption of spirits, beer, and wine, and the contribution of each of these types of alcoholic beverages to total consumption are examined for each province for the fiscal years 1966, 1972, and 1978. On the whole, the findings are consistent with worldwide trends. Per capita consumption is increasing generally and there is a trend toward greater similarity in per capita consumption across the provinces (quantitative homogenization). Consumption of different types of beverages is becoming more similar (qualitative homogenization) and increases in the beverage with the lowest share of the market (i.e., wine) appear to be additive to overall consumption. The observation that increases in consumption of the traditional types of beverages have the most impact on overall consumption is not observed for beer, but is observed in the case of spirits. Implications for public health and social policy are discussed.

  12. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Elias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

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    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  14. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  15. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  16. Senecio brasiliensis and pyrrolizidine alkaloids: toxicity to animals and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice de Souza Spinosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most economic losses in Brazilian livestock production, especially in horses and cattle, are due to poison plants, such as those of the genus Senecio. Senecio brasiliensis Lessing is the main cause of death in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The toxicity of this genus is attributed to their content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which undergo liver biotransformation creating toxic metabolites, namely pyrroles. These compounds can be transferred to humans through contaminated animal products or by the use of this plant in folk medicine. Thus, the present article is a review of the species S. brasiliensis, its toxic active principles and the mechanism by which pathogenesis occurs. Other plants with the same toxic principles that are harmful to human health are covered as well.

  17. Veterinary education in Africa : current and future perspectives : animal health management in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Swan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa.Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade.

  18. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  19. Risk, human health, and the oppression of nonhuman animals: the development of transgenic nonhuman animals for human use

    OpenAIRE

    Peggs, Kay

    2011-01-01

    In May 2009, the journal Nature published an article by Erika Sasaki et al. outlining a research development in biomedical science that, the authors argue, will provide new possibilities for using nonhuman primates in experiments for human health benefits. The authors claim that their research offers the potential for the reproduction of transgenic marmosets who, because of their “close genetic relations with humans” (523), might be extremely useful in advances designed to reduce the risks fr...

  20. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeler Edmund J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated. A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease

  1. Humanizing Oral Health Care through Continuing Education on Social Determinants of Health: Evaluative Case Study of a Canadian Private Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Martine; Levine, Alissa; Bedos, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Primary care practitioners are frequently unprepared to take into account the effects of social determinants on underprivileged patients' health and health management. To address this issue among dental professionals, an original onsite continuing education (CE) course on poverty was co-developed by researchers, dental professionals, and community organizations. Integrating patient narratives and a short film, course material aims to elicit critical reflection and provide coaching for practice improvements. A qualitative case study conducted with a large Montreal Canada dental team reveals CE course participants' newfound understandings and increased sensitivity to the causes of poverty and the nature of life on welfare. Participants also describe revised interpretations of certain patient behaviors, subtle changes in communication with patients and improved equity in appointment-giving policy. Unintended outcomes include reinforced judgment and a tendency to moralize certain patient categories. Implications for health professional educators, researchers, and dental regulatory authorities are discussed. PMID:27524746

  2. Parasites and fungi as risk factors for human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralska, Katarzyna; Błaszkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature data suggests that parasitic and fungal diseases, which pose a threat to both human and animal health, remain a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by natural microbiota in maintaining homeostasis in humans. A particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of manipulating the human microbiota (permanent, transient, pathogenic) and macrobiota (e.g., Trichuris suis) to support the treatment of selected diseases such as Crohn's disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Emphasis is placed on important medical species whose infections not only impair health but can also be life threatening, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Echinococcus multilocularis and Baylisascaris procyonis, which expand into areas which have so far been uninhabited. This article also presents the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic parasitoses imported from the tropics, which spread across large groups of people through human-to-human transmission (Enterobius vermicularis, Sarcoptes scabiei). It also discusses the problem of environmentally-conditioned parasitoses, particularly their etiological factors associated with food contaminated with invasive forms (Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii). The analysis also concerns the presence of developmental forms of geohelminths (Toxocara sp.) and ectoparasites (ticks), which are vectors of serious human diseases (Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis), in the environment. Mycological topics contains rare cases of mycoses environmentally conditioned (CNS aspergillosis) and transmissions of these pathogens in a population of hospitalized individuals, as well as seeking new methods used to treat mycoses. PMID:26878617

  3. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance.

  4. The association between proximity to animal feeding operations and community health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M O'Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs and the health of individuals living near AFOs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

  5. Protective environments and health status: cross-talk between human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Burton; Friedman, Elliot; Seeman, Teresa; Fava, Giovanni A; Ryff, Carol D

    2005-12-01

    Although aging populations tend to have increased prevalence of a diversity of diseases and disabilities, there are substantial numbers of people who, nevertheless, maintain good health into old age. Human studies frequently demonstrate associations between environmental factors, particularly supportive social environments, and positive states of health. Identifying the pathways from protective social environments to reduced disease risk necessitates the use of animal models as a basis of explanation and a source of suggestions for further human research. We present two examples of this kind of cross-talk: (i) the possibility that the success of well-being therapy following pharmacological treatment for depression as a means of preventing recurrent depressive episodes is based on the stimulation of enrichment of dendritic networks in the hippocampus and spine retraction in the basolateral amygdala; (ii) the possibility that the release of intracerebral oxytocin is a mediating factor between persistently supportive social environments and reduced disease in later life, as exemplified by low levels of allostatic load. PMID:16213626

  6. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Schreier; Werner Kremer; Fritz Huber; Sindy Neumann; Philipp Pagel; Kai Lienemann; Sabine Pestel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

  7. Refinement and use of Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (Health Certificates) for optimal assurance of disease freedom in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, D E; Palić, D; Scarfe, A D

    2007-01-01

    Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI), generally termed "Health Certificates", are pivotal for ensuring that translocated animals are not diseased or do not harbour significant pathogens. While used very successfully with terrestrial animal movement for decades, CVIs for aquatic animals are not well refined, understood or used, despite the availability of several aquatic animal "certification processes", "permits" and "health certificates", including the OIE model health certificates. Correctly designed CVIs provide the single most economical and effective assurance of disease status (generally freedom from specific diseases or pathogens) for individuals or lots of animals, at any point in time. When issued by a qualified independent third-party (typically a licensed and government accredited veterinarian) they provide the official level of assurance necessary for intrastate, interstate and international trade. Tailored modifications of CVIs are also useful for other purposes requiring the evaluation of animal health (e.g. specific pathogen-free (SPF) assurance for premises, risk-mitigating assurance necessary for insurance policies, breeding soundness assurance of broodstock, etc.). Here we discuss necessary information for aquatic animal CVIs: animal, ownership and location; standardized diagnostic results and their interpretation; and language contained in CVIs. Also addressed is the viability for use with multiple aquatic species and diseases/pathogens of interest, and their use in conjunction with established veterinary inspection procedures. A revised model aquatic CVI, with broad potential use for individual operations, states or countries, is offered for discussion, comment and refinement. In addition an optimally designed model CVI may be of use with electronic systems that are evolving in, for example, Europe, the USA and Australia/New Zealand (e.g. TRACES, e-CVI, e-Certs). PMID:18306523

  8. Diversity and Distribution of Host Animal Species of Hantavirus and Risk to Human Health in Jiuhua Mountain Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xing Qiang; LI Shi Guang; LIU Hong; WANG Jun; HUA Ri Mao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. Methods The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Results Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. Conclusion The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health.

  9. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Song-En Huang

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI, and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5% were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2% persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9% persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22% were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and

  10. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health. Part I: Moving beyond pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Gabrielsson, J; Fink, M; Mochel, J

    2016-06-01

    The application of mathematical modeling to problems in animal health has a rich history in the form of pharmacokinetic modeling applied to problems in veterinary medicine. Advances in modeling and simulation beyond pharmacokinetics have the potential to streamline and speed-up drug research and development programs. To foster these goals, a series of manuscripts will be published with the following goals: (i) expand the application of modeling and simulation to issues in veterinary pharmacology; (ii) bridge the gap between the level of modeling and simulation practiced in human and veterinary pharmacology; (iii) explore how modeling and simulation concepts can be used to improve our understanding of common issues not readily addressed in human pharmacology (e.g. breed differences, tissue residue depletion, vast weight ranges among adults within a single species, interspecies differences, small animal species research where data collection is limited to sparse sampling, availability of different sampling matrices); and (iv) describe how quantitative pharmacology approaches could help understanding key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of a drug candidate, with the goal of providing explicit, reproducible, and predictive evidence for optimizing drug development plans, enabling critical decision making, and eventually bringing safe and effective medicines to patients. This study introduces these concepts and introduces new approaches to modeling and simulation as well as clearly articulate basic assumptions and good practices. The driving force behind these activities is to create predictive models that are based on solid physiological and pharmacological principles as well as adhering to the limitations that are fundamental to applying mathematical and statistical models to biological systems.

  11. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  12. Historic role of nuclear techniques in solving problems of animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reflecting on the role nuclear techniques have played in resolving the needs of developing country livestock keepers I have taken a slightly different approach to previous presentations in this area. I will view developments to date from the perspective of the user and beneficiary of such new knowledge. The paper will also attempt to put the work of the Animal Production and Health Section (APHS) into historical context, thus giving its future strategy a place in the development marathon. Efforts to assess the value of previous investments in nuclear techniques for the benefit of livestock farmers have been few and far between. Most of the earlier work focused on the contribution to new knowledge - the elaboration of metabolic pathways, unravelling the complexity of disease transmission or understanding the endocrine system feedbacks in relation to reproductive and metabolic hormones. Hence the products originally had more intellectual than economic/practical values. It is only relatively recently (last 20-30 years) that the more applied consequences of such knowledge have been used to help resolve some of the difficult problems facing third-world animal agriculture. This paper elaborates some of the past and present successes and future challenges in: Nutrition and feeding -from the use of isotopes (deuterium) in the investigation of metabolism in the rat in the 1930s to the use of stable (N15) and radio-isotopes (P32 and S35) in assessing new diet formulations and feeding standards for livestock in marginal environments. New 'political' targets in Africa to increase livestock productivity by 6% per annum provide new challenges to the livestock feed sector - for which the foregoing technologies are uniquely placed to address. Reproduction - from the use of competitive protein-binding assays (based on 3H) for various steroid and protein hormones to the use of rapid (I125 based) radioimmunoassay kits for quantifying progesterone levels -and thereby to detect

  13. Using public health surveillance data to monitor the effectiveness of brucellosis control measures in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUJTIM MERSINAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current brucellosis control program in small ruminants consists in two major components the first is an intervention strategy through modification of host resistance by vaccinating the entire small ruminant’s population using live attenuated Rev-1 strain of B. melitensis. The second is a post vaccination monitoring and surveillance system (MOSS to monitor the efficacy of the mass vaccination. The MOSS is based on sampling vaccinated animals between 20 to 40 days post-vaccination and testing through Rose Bengal Plate Test in order to detect antibody presence and evaluate the vaccination sero-conversion and coverage. Rose Bengal test is recommended for screening of samples to determine flock prevalence and like other serological tests it cannot discriminate between natural infection and vaccination antibodies. The methodology used in the post vaccination MOSS during the mass vaccination campaigns of 2012 and 2013 demonstrated much strength upon which future MOSS should be built. However, the current system has also shown gaps in terms of missed opportunities to analyse information generated from other sources. Trends of disease in accidental hosts like humans have not been integrated within post vaccination MOSS. Given that the infection level cannot be estimated in small ruminants, data generated by public health surveillance system can be able to give an independent overview of the impact of the vaccination campaign. This paper will address in depth this issue by showcasing the value of integrated surveillance data in monitoring the success of brucellosis control measures in small ruminants as a one health approach in practise.

  14. Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Isolated from Food Producing Animals: A Public Health Implication

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    Etinosa O. Igbinosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals is a potential public health concern. Staphylococci are a significant opportunistic pathogen both in humans and dairy cattle. In the present study, the genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from dairy cattle in a rural community (Okada, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 283 samples from cattle (137 milk samples and 146 nasal swabs were assessed between February and April 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of 16S rRNA, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leucocidinis (PVL genes. The staphylococcal strains were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNA nucleotide sequencing, and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST analysis of the gene sequence showed that the staphylococcal strains have 96%–100% similarity to Staphylococcus aureus (30, S. epidermidis (17, S. haemolyticus (15, S. saprophyticus (13, S. chromogenes (8, S. simulans (7, S. pseudintermedius (6 and S. xylosus (4. Resistance of 100% was observed in all Staphylococcus spp. against MET, PEN, CLN, CHL and SXT. Multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria from nasal cavities and raw milk reveals 13 isolates were MDR against METR, PENR, AMXR, CLNR, CHLR, SXTR CLXR, KANR, ERYR, and VANR. Of all isolates, 100% harboured the mecA gene, while 30% of the isolates possess the PVL gene. All S. aureus harboured the PVL gene while other Staphylococcus spp. were negative for the PVL gene. The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates in dairy cattle is a potential public health risk and thus findings in this study can be used as a baseline for further surveillance.

  15. 7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under the International Plant Protection Convention. (6) (Laboratory) Animal Welfare Act, as amended (7....S.C. 80502). (9) Export Animal Accommodation Act, as amended (46 U.S.C. 3901-3902). (10) Purebred animal duty-free-entry provision of Tariff Act of June 17, 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1202, part 1,...

  16. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  17. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  18. Investigating the role of state and local health departments in addressing public health concerns related to industrial food animal production sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P Fry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments' responses, and barriers to involvement. RESULTS: Health departments' roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health.

  19. Animal health aspects of adaptation to climate change: beating the heat and parasites in a warming Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, P J; Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J; Mitchell, M

    2013-06-01

    Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animal health and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animal health consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities.

  20. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals regarding the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Gauthier; Fernanda Almeida; Patrick Arcache; Catherine Ashton-McGregor; David Côté; Helen Driver; Kathleen Ferguson; Gilles Lavigne; Philippe Martin; Jean-François Masse; Florence Morisson; Jeffrey Pancer; Charles Samuels; Maurice Schachter; Frédéric Sériès

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe O...

  1. The process of minimising medicine use through dialogue based animal health and welfare planning, Workshop report FIBL. In: CORE Organic project no. 1903 - ANIPLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Alfoeldi, Thomas; Gantner, Urs; Vaarst, Mette; Algers, Bo; Nicholas, Phillipa; Gratzer, Elisabeth; Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Mejdell, Cecilie; Hansen, Berit; Whay, Becky; Walkenhorst, Michael; Smolders, Gidi; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Hassing, M.; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The process of minimising medicine use through dialogue based animal health and welfare planning. Livestock are important in many organic farming systems, and it is an explicit goal to ensure high levels of animal health and welfare (AHW) through good management. In two previous EU network projects, NAHWOA & SAFO, it was concluded that this is not guaranteed merely by following organic standards. Both networks recommended implementation of individual animal health plans to stimulate organ...

  2. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  3. The value and potential of animal research in enabling astronaut health - Transition from Spacelab to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshnek, V.; Ballard, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining astronaut health is a critical aspect of human space exploration. Three decades of space research have demonstrated that microgravity produces significant physiological changes in astronauts. For long-duration missions, the possibility exists that these changes may prevent the achievement of full health and safety and may therefore require countermeasures. Meeting this goal depends on a strong biomedical foundation. Although much research is conducted with humans, some of the most critical work involves a necessary in-depth look into complex problem areas requiring invasive procedures using animals. Much of this research cannot be performed in humans within the bounds of accepted medical practice. A large portion of knowledge and experience in flying animals and applying the data to astronaut health has been obtained through the Spacelab experience and can be applied to a space station situation (expanded to accommodate necessary standardization and flexibility). The objectives of this paper are to (a) discuss the value and potential of animal research in answering critical questions to enable astronaut health for advanced missions, (b) discuss how previous Spacelab operational experience in animal studies can be applied to facilitate transition into a space station era, and (c) review capabilities of biological facilities projected for Space Station Freedom.

  4. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.

  5. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented.

  6. Basic Living Expenses for the Canadian Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald; Doug Andrews; Brown, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Our research undertakes to determine the basic living expenses required by Canadian seniors living in different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter, means of transportation and health status. The paper develops required expenses for food, shelter, health care, transportation and miscellaneous. The research identifies the typical expenses of seniors in each of these categories. Using 2001 as our base year, we follow the US Elder Standar...

  7. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy CS; Guglietti C; Gibson JL; Wilson Kumanan; Ritvo Paul; Nie JX; Jadad AR; Upshur REG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additi...

  8. Antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and meat: a human health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Lester, Camilla H; Heuer, Ole E

    2010-10-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis belong to the gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals. Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The use of avoparcin, gentamicin, and virginiamycin for growth promotion and therapy in food animals has lead to the emergence of vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant enterococci and quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium in animals and meat. This implies a potential risk for transfer of resistance genes or resistant bacteria from food animals to humans. The genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, gentamicin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been found in E. faecium of human and animal origin; meanwhile, certain clones of E. faecium are found more frequently in samples from human patients, while other clones predominate in certain animal species. This may suggest that antimicrobial-resistant E. faecium from animals could be regarded less hazardous to humans; however, due to their excellent ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes, E. faecium of animal origin may act as donors of antimicrobial resistance genes for other more virulent enterococci. For E. faecalis, the situation appears different, as similar clones of, for example, vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis have been obtained from animals and from human patients. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci from humans and animals is essential to follow trends and detect emerging resistance. PMID:20578915

  9. Sentinel Animals in a One Health Approach to Harmful Cyanobacterial and Algal Blooms

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Melissa Miller

    2016-01-01

    People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people occupying the same habitat, making them sentinels for human exposures. Historically, we have taken advantage of unique physiological characteristics of animals, such as the sensitivity of canaries to carbon m...

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    AnnalisaPantosti

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  12. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution.

  13. Diet before and during Pregnancy and Offspring Health: The Importance of Animal Models and What Can Be Learned from Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines epidemiologic studies that support the hypothesis that maternal environment (including early nutrition) plays a seminal role in determining the offspring's long-term health and metabolism, known as the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD). In this context, current concerns are particularly focused on the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, particularly in youth and women of child-bearing age. We summarize key similarities, differences and limitations of various animal models used to study fetal programming, with a particular focus on placentation, which is critical for translating animal findings to humans. This review will assist researchers and their scientific audience in recognizing the pros and cons of various rodent and non-rodent animal models used to understand mechanisms involved in fetal programming. Knowledge gained will lead to improved translation of proposed interventional therapies before they can be implemented in humans. Although rodents are essential for fundamental exploration of biological processes, other species such as rabbits and other domestic animals offer more tissue-specific physiological (rabbit placenta) or physical (ovine maternal and lamb birth weight) resemblances to humans. We highlight the important maternal, placental, and fetal/neonatal characteristics that contribute to developmentally programmed diseases, specifically in offspring that were affected in utero by undernutrition, overnutrition or maternal diabetes. Selected interventions aimed at prevention are summarized with a specific focus on the 1000 days initiative in humans, and maternal exercise or modification of the n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) balance in the diet, which are currently being successfully tested in animal models to correct or reduce adverse prenatal programming. Animal models are essential to understand mechanisms involved in fetal programming and in order to propose

  14. Diet before and during Pregnancy and Offspring Health: The Importance of Animal Models and What Can Be Learned from Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Chavatte-Palmer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines epidemiologic studies that support the hypothesis that maternal environment (including early nutrition plays a seminal role in determining the offspring’s long-term health and metabolism, known as the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD. In this context, current concerns are particularly focused on the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, particularly in youth and women of child-bearing age. We summarize key similarities, differences and limitations of various animal models used to study fetal programming, with a particular focus on placentation, which is critical for translating animal findings to humans. This review will assist researchers and their scientific audience in recognizing the pros and cons of various rodent and non-rodent animal models used to understand mechanisms involved in fetal programming. Knowledge gained will lead to improved translation of proposed interventional therapies before they can be implemented in humans. Although rodents are essential for fundamental exploration of biological processes, other species such as rabbits and other domestic animals offer more tissue-specific physiological (rabbit placenta or physical (ovine maternal and lamb birth weight resemblances to humans. We highlight the important maternal, placental, and fetal/neonatal characteristics that contribute to developmentally programmed diseases, specifically in offspring that were affected in utero by undernutrition, overnutrition or maternal diabetes. Selected interventions aimed at prevention are summarized with a specific focus on the 1000 days initiative in humans, and maternal exercise or modification of the n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA balance in the diet, which are currently being successfully tested in animal models to correct or reduce adverse prenatal programming. Animal models are essential to understand mechanisms involved in fetal programming and in order to

  15. Broad-spectrum β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin: molecular aspects, mobility and impact on public health

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Annemieke; Martel, An; Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Heyndrickx, Marc; Herman, Lieve; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Broad-spectrum β-lactamase genes (coding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases) have been frequently demonstrated in the microbiota of food-producing animals. This may pose a human health hazard since these genes may be present in zoonotic bacteria, which would cause a direct problem. They can also be present in commensals, which may act as a reservoir of resistance genes for pathogens causing disease both in humans and animals. Broad-spectrum β-lactamase genes ...

  16. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Greek Ray; Pippus Annalea; Hansen Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive...

  17. Antimicrobial-Resistant Enterococci in Animals and Meat: A Human Health Hazard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A.M.; Lester, C.H.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis belong to the gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals. Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The use...... in enterococci from humans and animals is essential to follow trends and detect emerging resistance....

  18. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  19. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  20. [Impact on public health of quinolone resistance in animal-origin bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orden Gutiérrez, J A; de la Fuente López, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most useful classes of antimicrobial agents used in human and animal medicine today, both because of their spectrum and their physicochemical properties. The use of quinolones in animals is a matter of special concern because it could contribute to the acquisition of resistance in foodborn bacteria (such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and this, in turn, could lead to a reduction in the efficacy of such compounds in treating infections in humans. However, the causal relationship between the use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine and the isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in humans has not been generally proven and, moreover, the use of fluoroquinolones in animals is only one of the many factors implicated in the resistance to these antimicrobials. Even so, the surveillance of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and foods and the prudent use of these antimicrobials in animals should have the highest priority. PMID:11693069