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Sample records for canadian animal health

  1. Comparison of the Canadian and US Laws, Regulations, Policies, and Systems of Oversight for Animals in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Locke, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Canadian and United States' approaches to oversight of animals in research are both based on the "3Rs" principles outlined in Russell and Burch's classic text, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Each country seeks to protect the welfare of animals, while permitting the legitimate goals of scientific research to be attained according to the legal principles, cultures, and strengths and constraints of their jurisprudential and societal traditions. Canada is one of the most decentralized federations in the world, and regulation of activities is based to a great extent on custom and practice. The United States is more hierarchical and, at least with respect to laws governing animal research, more centralized. Accordingly, the Canadian approach is rooted in the concepts of social contracts, with a greater emphasis on guidance and policy and less reliance on legislation. No federal (national) direct legislation of laboratory animal welfare exists, although the federal government uses its criminal and spending authorities to shape behavior. The central feature of the Canadian system is the Canadian Council on Animal Care, which was formed to support universities and government departments involved in animal-based science. Animal care committees play a central role in implementing the guidelines and policies in facilities that carry out animal research. The United States has enacted two federal (national) laws applicable to animals in research. The Animal Welfare Act is a more traditional, command-and-control law that gives authority to the US Department of Agriculture to promulgate regulations, inspect facilities, and enforce violations. The Health Research Extension Act, which amended the US Public Health Services (PHS) Act, applies to any activity conducted or supported by the PHS, including research efforts supported by the US National Institutes of Health. It is largely nonregulatory and establishes a system of assurances and policies that covered

  2. Using foresight to prepare animal health today for tomorrow's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Norman G; Munroe, Fonda A; Empringham, R Edward; Renwick, Shane A; Van der Linden, Ingrid W M; Dunlop, James R

    2011-06-01

    Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animal health as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animal health. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animal health policy development, foresight's widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animal health.

  3. Health practices of Canadian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erica; Segura, Carolina

    2009-08-01

    To study the health and health practices of Canadian physicians, which can often influence patient health. Mailed survey. Canada. A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians; 7934 were found to be eligible and 3213 responded (40.5% response rate). Factors that influence health, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, amount of exercise and alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass idex, and participation in preventive health screening measures, as well as work-life balance and emotional stability. Canadian physicians are healthy. More than 90% reported being in good to excellent health, and only 5% reported that poor physical or mental health made it difficult to handle their workload more than half the time in the previous month (although a quarter had reduced work activity because of long-term health conditions). Eight percent were obese, 3% currently smoked cigarettes, and 1% typically consumed 5 drinks or more on days when they drank alcohol. Physicians averaged 4.7 hours of exercise per week and ate fruits and vegetables 4.8 times a day. Their personal screening practices were largely compliant with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations. They averaged 38 hours per week on patient care and 11 hours on other professional activities. Fifty-seven percent agreed that they had a good work-life balance, and 11% disagreed with the statement "If I can, I work when I am ill." Compared with self-reports from the general Canadian population, Canadian physicians, like American physicians, seem to be healthy and to have generally healthy behaviour. There is, however, room for improvement in physicians' personal and professional well-being, and improving their personal health practices could be an efficient and beneficent way to improve the health of all Canadians.

  4. Using foresight to prepare animal health today for tomorrow’s challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Norman G.; Munroe, Fonda A.; Empringham, R. Edward; Renwick, Shane A.; Van der Linden, Ingrid W.M.; Dunlop, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animal health as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animal health. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animal health policy development, foresight’s widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animal health. PMID:22131576

  5. Mental health concerns among Canadian physicians: results from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Frank, Erica

    2011-01-01

    In light of prior reports on the prevalence of stress, depression, and other mental health problems among physicians in training and practice, we examined the mental health concerns of Canadian physicians using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. Among 3213 respondents, 5 variables (depressive symptoms during the past year, anhedonia in the past year, mental health concerns making it difficult to handle one's workload in the past month, problems with work-life balance, and poor awareness of resources for mental health problems) were examined in relation to sex, specialty, practice type (solo practice vs group or other practice settings), and practice setting (inner city, urban/suburban, or rural/small town/remote). Nearly one quarter of physicians reported a 2-week period of depressed mood, and depression was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians. Anhedonia was reported by one fifth; anesthesiologists were most likely to report anhedonia, followed by general practitioners/family physicians. More than one quarter reported mental health concerns making it difficult to handle their workload, which was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians and psychiatrists. Nearly one quarter reported poor work-life balance. Lack of familiarity with mental health resources was problematic, which was more prominent among female physicians and specialists outside of general practice/family medicine or psychiatry. Mental health concerns are relatively common among Canadian physicians. Training programs and programmatic/policy enhancements should redouble efforts to address depression and other mental health concerns among physicians for the benefit of the workforce and patients served by Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  7. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    ... these and other issues at the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians. Situating their work within the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range fr...

  8. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  9. Bridging Grant : Building Canadian Support for Global Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting research for global health equity. The CCGHR provides a networking and action platform for the Canadian global health research community and partners in low- and middle-income countries. This grant will ...

  10. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  11. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  12. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  13. Canadians' perceptions of food, diet, and health--a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Schermel

    Full Text Available Poor nutrition is harmful to one's health as it can lead to overweight and obesity and a number of chronic diseases. Understanding consumer perceptions toward diet and nutrition is critical to advancing nutrition-related population health interventions to address such issues. The purpose of this paper was to examine Canadians' perceived health and diet status, compared to their actual health status, and general concern about their own diet and beliefs about health. Also analyzed were some of the perceived barriers to eating "healthy" foods, with a focus on the availability of "healthy" processed foods.Two surveys were administered online to a group of Canadian panelists from all ten provinces during May 2010 to January 2011. Thirty thousand were invited; 6,665 completed the baseline survey and 5,494 completed the second survey. Panelists were selected to be nationally representative of the Canadian adult population by age, sex, province and education level, according to 2006 census data.Approximately one third of Canadians perceived their health or diet to be very good while very few Canadians perceived their health or diet to be very poor. While the majority of Canadians believed food and nutrition to be very important for improving one's health, fewer Canadians were concerned about their own diets. The majority of Canadians reported difficulty finding "healthy" processed foods (low in salt and sugar and with sufficient vitamins and minerals. Many also reported difficulty finding healthy foods that are affordable.Although consumers believe that nutrition is one of the most important factors for maintaining health, there are still a number of attitudinal and perceived environmental barriers to healthy eating.

  14. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  15. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Austin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses numerous risks to the health of Canadians. Extreme weather events, poor air quality, and food insecurity in northern regions are likely to increase along with the increasing incidence and range of infectious diseases. In this study we identify and characterize Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal adaptation to these health risks based on publically available information. Federal health adaptation initiatives emphasize capacity building and gathering information to address general health, infectious disease and heat-related risks. Provincial and territorial adaptation is varied. Quebec is a leader in climate change adaptation, having a notably higher number of adaptation initiatives reported, addressing almost all risks posed by climate change in the province, and having implemented various adaptation types. Meanwhile, all other Canadian provinces and territories are in the early stages of health adaptation. Based on publically available information, reported adaptation also varies greatly by municipality. The six sampled Canadian regional health authorities (or equivalent are not reporting any adaptation initiatives. We also find little relationship between the number of initiatives reported in the six sampled municipalities and their provinces, suggesting that municipalities are adapting (or not adapting autonomously.

  16. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Ford, James D.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Araos, Malcolm; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses numerous risks to the health of Canadians. Extreme weather events, poor air quality, and food insecurity in northern regions are likely to increase along with the increasing incidence and range of infectious diseases. In this study we identify and characterize Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal adaptation to these health risks based on publically available information. Federal health adaptation initiatives emphasize capacity building and gathering information to address general health, infectious disease and heat-related risks. Provincial and territorial adaptation is varied. Quebec is a leader in climate change adaptation, having a notably higher number of adaptation initiatives reported, addressing almost all risks posed by climate change in the province, and having implemented various adaptation types. Meanwhile, all other Canadian provinces and territories are in the early stages of health adaptation. Based on publically available information, reported adaptation also varies greatly by municipality. The six sampled Canadian regional health authorities (or equivalent) are not reporting any adaptation initiatives. We also find little relationship between the number of initiatives reported in the six sampled municipalities and their provinces, suggesting that municipalities are adapting (or not adapting) autonomously. PMID:25588156

  17. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs

  18. Health psychology in autobiography: Three Canadian critical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Henderikus J; Murray, Michael; Lubek, Ian

    2018-03-01

    Three Canadian colleagues in health psychology recount their careers in a field of research and practice whose birth they witnessed and whose developments they have critiqued. By placing the development of health psychology in Canada in a context that is both institutional and personal, Stam, Murray, and Lubek raise a series of questions about health psychology and its propagation. While uniquely Canadian their professional careers were affected by international colleagues as well as others-patients and community members-whose views shaped their perspectives. This article is a plea for the continuing development of critical voices in health psychology.

  19. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A survey of Canadian public health personnel regarding knowledge, practice and education of zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, K G; Anderson, M E C; Sargeant, J M; Weese, J S

    2013-11-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can spread under natural conditions between humans and other animals, are become a major public health concern in many countries including Canada. In Canada, investigations of zoonotic disease incidents are often conducted by public health inspectors (PHIs). However, little is known about PHIs' knowledge of transmission of zoonotic pathogens, their perceptions of zoonotic disease importance or their education regarding zoonotic diseases. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge, perceptions and education of Canadian PHIs regarding zoonotic diseases. Data were collected from December 2008-January 2009 using an internet-based survey distributed to members of the Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors national listserv. Responses were received from 229 PHIs in four provinces, with a response rate of approximately 20%. The majority of respondents reported at least 10 years of experience in the public health sector, 80% (181/225) were in frontline positions, and 62% (137/222) were routinely involved in investigations of infectious diseases. Two-thirds believed that the importance of zoonotic diseases with regards to public health would increase in the next 5 years. Whilst most respondents were able to correctly identify animals capable of directly transmitting common zoonotic pathogens, there were gaps in knowledge, particularly with regard to rabies and transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens by companion animals. PHIs tended to feel that their training on zoonotic diseases prior to working as PHIs was deficient in some areas, or left some room for improvement. Their responses also suggested that there is a need for improvement in both the quantity and the quality of continuing education on zoonotic diseases. In particular, less than one-third of PHIs received ongoing continuing education regarding zoonotic diseases, and of those that did, nearly two-thirds rated the quantity and quality as only fair.

  1. Integrating Ethnicity and Migration As Determinants of Canadian Women's Health

    OpenAIRE

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly; Kazanjian, Arminée

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue This chapter investigates (1) the association between ethnicity and migration, as measured by length of residence in Canada, and two specific self-reported outcomes: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions; and (2) the extent to which these selected determinants provide an adequate portrait of the differential outcomes on Canadian women's self-perceived health and self-reports of chronic conditions. The 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey w...

  2. The health meanings and practices of older Greek-Canadian widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J N

    1991-11-01

    Folk health and illness beliefs and practices were abstracted from a large-scale study of older Greek-Canadian widows conceptualized within Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality using ethnographic, ethnonursing, and life health-care history methods. Data were collected using observation-participation and interviews in three Greek-Canadian communities with 12 widowed key informants and 30 general informants. Interview inquiry guides, Leininger's Life History Health Care Protocol, and field journal recordings assisted data collection. Data were analysed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. A major health theme which was abstracted from the raw data and patterns was: health for Greek-Canadian widows meant a state of well-being, ability to perform daily role activities, and avoidance of pain and illness. The findings, which also included folk health care and illness beliefs and practices, will stimulate future nursing research related to health and nursing care of people of diverse cultures.

  3. Canadian physicians' responses to cross border health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Packer, Corinne; Chaudhry, Sabrina; Adams, Owen; Blackmer, Jeff

    2014-04-03

    The idea for this survey emanated from desk research and two meetings for researchers that discussed medical tourism and out-of-country health care, which were convened by some of the authors of this article (VR, CP and RL). A Cross Border Health Care Survey was drafted by a number of the authors and administered to Canadian physicians via the Canadian Medical Association's e-panel. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of physicians' experiences with and views of their patients acquiring health care out of country, either as medical tourists (paying out-of-pocket for their care) or out-of-country care patients funded by provincial/territorial public health insurance plans. Quantitative and qualitative results of the survey were analyzed. 631 physicians responded to the survey. Diagnostic procedures were the top-ranked procedure for patients either as out-of-country care recipients or medical tourists. Respondents reported that the main reason why patients sought care abroad was because waiting times in Canada were too long. Some respondents were frustrated with a lack of information about out-of-country procedures upon their patients' return to Canada. The majority of physician respondents agreed that it was their responsibility to provide follow-up care to medical travellers on return to Canada, although a substantial minority disagreed that they had such a responsibility. Cross-border health care, whether government-sanctioned (out-of-country-care) or patient-initiated (medical tourism), is increasing in Canada. Such flows are thought likely to increase with aging populations. Government-sanctioned outbound flows are less problematic than patient-initiated flows but are constrained by low approval rates, which may increase patient initiation. Lack of information and post-return complications pose the greatest concern to Canadian physicians. Further research on both types of flows (government-sanctioned and patient-initiated), and how they affect

  4. Canadian physicians’ responses to cross border health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The idea for this survey emanated from desk research and two meetings for researchers that discussed medical tourism and out-of-country health care, which were convened by some of the authors of this article (VR, CP and RL). Methods A Cross Border Health Care Survey was drafted by a number of the authors and administered to Canadian physicians via the Canadian Medical Association’s e-panel. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of physicians’ experiences with and views of their patients acquiring health care out of country, either as medical tourists (paying out-of-pocket for their care) or out-of-country care patients funded by provincial/territorial public health insurance plans. Quantitative and qualitative results of the survey were analyzed. Results 631 physicians responded to the survey. Diagnostic procedures were the top-ranked procedure for patients either as out-of-country care recipients or medical tourists. Respondents reported that the main reason why patients sought care abroad was because waiting times in Canada were too long. Some respondents were frustrated with a lack of information about out-of-country procedures upon their patients’ return to Canada. The majority of physician respondents agreed that it was their responsibility to provide follow-up care to medical travellers on return to Canada, although a substantial minority disagreed that they had such a responsibility. Conclusions Cross-border health care, whether government-sanctioned (out-of-country-care) or patient-initiated (medical tourism), is increasing in Canada. Such flows are thought likely to increase with aging populations. Government-sanctioned outbound flows are less problematic than patient-initiated flows but are constrained by low approval rates, which may increase patient initiation. Lack of information and post-return complications pose the greatest concern to Canadian physicians. Further research on both types of flows (government

  5. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  6. Best practices for online Canadian prenatal health promotion: A public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedid, Rebecca A; Terrell, Rowan M; Phillips, Karen P

    2017-11-04

    Prenatal health promotion provides information regarding pregnancy risks, protective behaviours and clinical and community resources. Typically, women obtain prenatal health information from health care providers, prenatal classes, peers/family, media and increasingly, Internet sites and mobile apps. Barriers to prenatal health promotion and related services include language, rural/remote location, citizenship and disability. Online public health platforms represent the capacity to reach underserved women and can be customised to address the needs of a heterogeneous population of pregnant women. Canadian government-hosted websites and online prenatal e-classes were evaluated to determine if accessible, inclusive, comprehensive and evidence-based prenatal health promotion was provided. Using a multijurisdictional approach, federal, provincial/territorial, municipal and public health region-hosted websites, along with affiliated prenatal e-classes, were evaluated based on four criteria: comprehensiveness, evidence-based information, accessibility and inclusivity. Online prenatal e-classes, federal, provincial/territorial and public health-hosted websites generally provided comprehensive and evidence-based promotion of essential prenatal topics, in contrast to municipal-hosted websites which provided very limited prenatal health information. Gaps in online prenatal health promotion were identified as lack of French and multilingual content, targeted information and representations of Indigenous peoples, immigrants and women with disabilities. Canadian online prenatal health promotion is broadly comprehensive and evidence-based, but fails to address the needs of non-Anglophones and represent the diverse population of Canadian pregnant women. It is recommended that agencies enhance the organisation of website pregnancy portals/pages and collaborate with other jurisdictions and community groups to ensure linguistically accessible, culturally-competent and inclusive

  7. Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Rachel C; Garriguet, Didier; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Cora L; Clarke, Janine; Tremblay, Mark S

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of health and fitness. This study provides contemporary estimates of the physical activity levels of Canadians aged 6 to 19 years. Data are from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. The physical activity of a nationally representative sample was measured using accelerometers. Data are presented as time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity movement, and in steps accumulated per day. An estimated 9% of boys and 4% of girls accumulate 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on at least 6 days a week. Regardless of age group, boys are more active than girls. Canadian children and youth spend 8.6 hours per day-62% of their waking hours-in sedentary pursuits. Daily step counts average 12,100 for boys and 10,300 for girls. Based on objective and robust measures, physical activity levels of Canadian children and youth are low.

  8. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan A; Boden, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor). Lack of time and insufficient training were the most frequently reported barriers to participating in SRs. The findings provide a benchmark for tracking changes in Canadian university health sciences librarians' participation in SRs.

  10. The mental health of Canadian transgender youth compared with the Canadian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F.; Watson, Ryan J.; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study documents the prevalence of mental health concerns among Canadian transgender youth and makes comparisons with cisgender or mostly-cisgender population-based studies. This study also compares gender identity subgroups (transgender girls/women, boys/men, and non-binary) and age subgroups (14–18 year olds and 19–25 year olds) on mental health outcomes. Methods A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from across Canada completed a bilingual online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, healthcare settings, social media, and the researchers’ networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episode, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Risk ratios ranged from 3.8 to 16.1. Transgender boys/men and non-binary youth were most likely to report self-harm and non-binary youth also reported lower overall mental health. Rates of self-harm and suicide were lower in the 19–25 age group than the 14–18 age group, but reported overall mental health was the same across these age groups. Conclusions Although a notable minority of transgender youth reported good mental health, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Policy Implications These findings underscore the need for policies and laws protecting transgender people from discrimination, training for transgender competency for mental healthcare providers, providers, and further development of transgender-specific interventions to promote positive mental health and reduce mental health problems among transgender youth. PMID:28007056

  11. The promise of e-health--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    Canadians value their health care system above any other social programme. Canada's system of health care faces significant financial and population pressures, relating to cost, access, quality, accountability, and the intergration of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The health-system also faces certain unique challenges that include care delivery within a highly decentralised system of financing and accountability, and care delivery to a significant portion of the population sparsely distributed across a land mass of 10 million square kilometres, in areas of extreme climatic conditions. All of these challenges are significant catalysts in the development of technologies that aim to significantly mitigate or eliminate these selfsame challenges. The system is undergoing widespread review, nationally and within each province and territory, where the bulk of care provision is financed and managed. The challenges are being addressed by national, regional and provincial initiatives in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The promise of e-health lies in the manner and degree to which it can mitigate or resolve these challenges to the health system and build on advancements in ICTs supporting the development of a health infostructure. Canada is actively developing and implementing technological solutions to deliver health information and health care services across the country. These solutions, while exciting and promising, also present new challenges, particularly in regard to acceptable standards, choice of technologies, overcoming traditional jurisdictional boundaries, up-front investment, and privacy and confidentiality. Many organizations and governments are working to address these challenges. Canada Health Infoway, a not-for-profit corporation, was founded by the first ministers in 2001 to accelerate the establishment of an interoperable, pan-Canadian electronic health record. It works with partners in the federal, provincial and

  12. Benchmarking participation of Canadian university health sciences librarians in systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan A.; Boden, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the current state of Canadian university health sciences librarians' knowledge about, training needs for, and barriers to participating in systematic reviews (SRs). A convenience sample of Canadian librarians was surveyed. Over half of the librarians who had participated in SRs acknowledged participating in a traditional librarian role (e.g., search strategy developer); less than half indicated participating in any one nontraditional librarian role (e.g., data extractor). Lack of time and insufficient training were the most frequently reported barriers to participating in SRs. The findings provide a benchmark for tracking changes in Canadian university health sciences librarians' participation in SRs. PMID:25918485

  13. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  14. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  15. Health care spending accounts: a flexible solution for Canadian employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R; Steeves, L

    1996-01-01

    Flexible benefits plans have grown more slowly in Canada than in the United States, largely because of certain legal and regulatory considerations. Health care spending accounts (HCSAs) provide a cost-effective way for Canadian employers to address the health care benefit needs of a diverse workforce. A flexible health care spending account is a versatile and cost-effective instrument that can be used by Canadian employers that wish to provide a full range of health care benefits to employees. The health care alternatives available through an HCSA can provide employees with an opportunity to customize and optimize their benefits program. Regulatory requirements that an HCSA must meet in order to qualify for available tax advantages are discussed, as are the range of health care services that may be covered.

  16. Assessing availability of scientific journals, databases, and health library services in Canadian health ministries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Grégory; Ouimet, Mathieu; Lavis, John N; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2013-03-21

    Evidence-informed health policymaking logically depends on timely access to research evidence. To our knowledge, despite the substantial political and societal pressure to enhance the use of the best available research evidence in public health policy and program decision making, there is no study addressing availability of peer-reviewed research in Canadian health ministries. To assess availability of (1) a purposive sample of high-ranking scientific journals, (2) bibliographic databases, and (3) health library services in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. From May to October 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among librarians employed by Canadian health ministries to collect information relative to availability of scientific journals, bibliographic databases, and health library services. Availability of scientific journals in each ministry was determined using a sample of 48 journals selected from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports (Sciences and Social Sciences Editions). Selection criteria were: relevance for health policy based on scope note information about subject categories and journal popularity based on impact factors. We found that the majority of Canadian health ministries did not have subscription access to key journals and relied heavily on interlibrary loans. Overall, based on a sample of high-ranking scientific journals, availability of journals through interlibrary loans, online and print-only subscriptions was estimated at 63%, 28% and 3%, respectively. Health Canada had a 2.3-fold higher number of journal subscriptions than that of the provincial ministries' average. Most of the organisations provided access to numerous discipline-specific and multidisciplinary databases. Many organisations provided access to the library resources described through library partnerships or consortia. No professionally led health library environment was found in four out of fourteen Canadian health ministries (i.e. Manitoba Health, Northwest

  17. The human consequences of animal health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... ... fish are primary animal protein sources, and that has huge implications.” ... and others are working on making fish diets from table scraps”— all of ... Highlight: Canadian High Commissioners call IDRC a catalyst for change.

  18. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  19. Management of human resources in health care: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O

    1992-07-01

    Each of Canada's ten provinces has a publicly administered system of health insurance, funded by provincial and federal taxes, that is accessible to all citizens and covers all medically necessary services provided by physicians and hospitals. Canadians spend an estimated 9.2 percent of their gross national product on health care (about 2.8 percentage points below US spending), of which three quarters is public-sector spending. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Canada's health status is equal to or better than that of the United States, despite lower per capita health spending. About seven percent of the Canadian labour force works in health care, and attempts to introduce coordinated planning of human resources in health care have not as yet proceeded far. The predominant policy issue here is the supply and the role of physicians. It has been argued that entrenching within the system the fee-for-service method of paying physicians has created a disincentive to the delegation of responsibility to health personnel other than doctors. It is also argued that introduction of government-run health insurance provided the opportunity for human resource planning, but that the decision by governments to act only as the payer resulted in ad-hoc planning approaches. However, governments' concern over health care costs has led to a more direct role by them in the planning of the human resources in health. They are re-examining the autonomy and jurisdictional rights of the professions that deliver health care to Canadians.

  20. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn G.; Curren, Meredith S.; Adlard, Bryan; Provost, Jonathan; Leech, Tara; Tikhonov, Constantine; Feeley, Mark; Tomlinson, Scott; Shearer, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:24282784

  1. Mental health literacy in secondary schools: a Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng

    2015-04-01

    "Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    supported researcher is receiving international attention for his work to address maternal and child death rates in East Africa. View moreMaternal and child health research featured in Canadian Geographic ...

  3. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP regulations: industry perceptions and compliance factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natural health products, such as vitamins, minerals, and herbs, by Canadians has been increasing with time. As a result of consumer concern about the quality of these products, the Canadian Department of Health created the Natural Health Products (NHP Regulations. The new Canadian regulations raise questions about whether and how the NHP industry will be able to comply and what impact they will have on market structure. The objectives of this study were to explore who in the interview sample is complying with Canada's new NHP Regulations (i.e., submitted product licensing applications on time; and explore the factors that affect regulatory compliance. Methods Twenty key informant interviews were conducted with employees of the NHP industry. The structured interviews focused on the level of satisfaction with the Regulations and perceptions of compliance and non-compliance. Interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were independently coded, using qualitative content analysis. Team meetings were held after every three to four interviews to discuss emerging themes. Results The major finding of this study is that most (17 out of 20 companies interviewed were beginning to comply with the new regulatory regime. The factors that contribute to likelihood of regulatory compliance were: perceptions and knowledge of the regulations and business size. Conclusion The Canadian case can be instructive for other countries seeking to implement regulatory standards for natural health products. An unintended consequence of the Canadian NHP regulations may be the exit of smaller firms, leading to industry consolidation.

  4. Health behaviour advice from health professionals to Canadian adults with hypertension: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Gee, Marianne E; Bancej, Christina; Nolan, Robert P; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Bienek, Asako; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals play an important role in providing health information to patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the type of advice that Canadians with hypertension recall receiving from health professionals to manage their condition, and to assess if there is an association between health behaviour advice provided by health professionals and self-reported engagement in health behaviour modification. Respondents of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (N = 6142) were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health care utilization, and health behaviour modification to control hypertension. Association between receipt of advice from health professional and ever engaging, continuing to engage, and not engaging in health behaviour modification was quantified by prevalence rate ratios. Most participants (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6-92.2) reported that the health professional most responsible for treating their high blood pressure was their general practitioner. Approximately 9% reported that they had not received or do not recall receiving any advice for blood pressure control. The most commonly reported advice received from a health professional was to participate in physical activity or exercise (70.0%). Respondents who had received advice on health behaviour change to manage their high blood pressure were more likely to report engaging in the behaviour compared with those who did not receive such advice. Many Canadians with hypertension receive health behaviour change advice from their health professionals. Receiving this advice was associated with a greater likelihood of attempting health behaviour change and attempting to sustain that change. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteniuk, Julie G; Dickinson, Harley D

    2003-07-01

    The social gradient in heath refers to the fact that inequalities in population health status are related to inequalities in social status. This study advances and tests a model of the relationships between what we term primary and secondary determinants of the social gradient in health. The primary determinants of health include socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Secondary determinants include stressors, control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. Health status is indicated by measures of physical health, self-reported health status, and mental distress. Data are taken from the Canadian National Population Health (NPH) Survey (1994-1995). The study sample consists of 7720 men and 9269 women 15 to over 80 years of age. Using path analysis, we found that higher household income, being retired and growing older are significantly associated with lower stressor levels. Higher stressor levels are associated with lower levels of control, self-esteem, and social support. Higher income Canadians experience greater levels of control and social support, while older Canadians experience lower rates of social support but higher rates of social involvement. Being employed and caring for one's family are positively associated with better physical and self-reported health status. Higher household income, being retired, and aging are associated with better physical health and lower mental distress when accounting for their role in lowering stressor levels and bolstering control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. Replicating this study with future samples of the NPH Survey should be of benefit in ascertaining whether the social gradient in Canadians' health status shows signs of declining.

  6. Indigenous housing and health in the Canadian North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....

  7. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  8. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  9. Living in Two Cultures: Chinese Canadians' Perspectives on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunlei; McGinn, Michelle K; Xu, Xiaojian; Sylvestre, John

    2017-04-01

    Chinese people have distinctive perspectives on health and illness that are largely unrecognized in Western society. The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop a profile of Chinese immigrants' beliefs and practices related to diet, mental and social health, and sexual health. A quantitative survey with descriptive and correlational analyses was employed to examine 100 first-generation Chinese immigrants living in four urban centres across Canada (Vancouver, Toronto, Halifax, and St. Catharines). Although most Chinese immigrants preferred a Chinese diet, where they resided affected the groceries they bought and the meals they ate. Almost all participants reported their mental health was important to them and most felt comfortable discussing mental health issues with others. However, only a third would see a psychiatrist if they believed they had a mental health problem. Most participants believed social relationships were important for their health. Only a small number of participants, however, preferred making friends with mainstream Caucasian Canadians. More men than women believed sexuality contributed to health and were comfortable talking about sexual health. Chinese immigrants should be encouraged to be more engaged in the larger community in order to fully integrate themselves into Canadian society while still being encouraged to retain their healthy practices. These findings may help educators and practitioners enhance their understandings of Chinese immigrants' perspectives on health and develop culturally competent education and services in health care and health promotion.

  10. Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sabrina; Labonté, Ronald; Bancej, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Despite a clear impact on the Canadian economy, little is known about the subsequent health impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) in this country. This study fills this gap in knowledge by conducting a repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data from 7 cycles (2007-2013) of the CCHS were combined to form a large data set representative of the Canadian working-age population (15-64 years) residing in 1 of 10 provinces. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether exposure to various periods of the GFC resulted in increased odds of reporting poor mental health. Exposure was categorised into 4 periods based on political and economic indicators, as follows: precrisis period (baseline), initial crisis period, stimulus period and austerity period. Other outcomes investigated included: anxiety disorders (AD), mood disorders (MD), poor physical health and health-related behaviours (heavy alcohol drinking (HAD) and decreased fruit/vegetable consumption (FVC)). A significant increased odds of reporting poor mental health was observed during the austerity period compared with the precrisis period (OR=1.26 (1.16 to 1.32)); findings remain significant when adjusted for sex, marital status and education. Exposure to the austerity period was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting AD, MD, HAD and decreased odds of FVC. No significant associations were observed for the poor self-perceived physical health variable. Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Access to health-care in Canadian immigrants: a longitudinal study of the National Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants often lose their health advantage as they start adapting to the ways of the new society. Having access to care when it is needed is one way that individuals can maintain their health. We assessed the healthcare access in Canadian immigrants and the socioeconomic factors associated with access over a 12-year period. We compared two measures of healthcare access (having a regular doctor and reporting an unmet healthcare need in the past 12 months) among immigrants and Canadian-born men and women, aged more than 18 years. We applied a logistic random effects model to evaluate these outcomes separately, in 3081 males and 4187 females from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006). Adjusting for all covariates, immigrant men and women (white and non-white) had similar odds of having a regular doctor than the Canadian-born individuals (white immigrants: males OR: 1.32, 95% C.I.: 0.89-1.94, females OR: 1.14, 95% C.I.: 0.78-1.66; non-white immigrants: males OR: 1.28, 95% C.I.: 0.73-2.23, females OR: 1.23, 95% C.I.: 0.64-2.36). Interestingly, non-white immigrant women had significantly fewer unmet health needs (OR: 0.32, 95% C.I.: 0.17-0.59). Among immigrants, time since immigration was associated with having access to a regular doctor (OR per year: 1.02, 95% C.I.: 1.00-1.04). Visible minority female immigrants were least likely to report an unmet healthcare need. In general, there is little evidence that immigrants have worse access to health-care than the Canadian-born population. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Brighter Smiles Africa--translation of a Canadian community-based health-promoting school program to Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Radziminski, N; Budden, H; Kasangaki, A; Zavuga, R; Gagnon, F A; Mbabali, M

    2010-08-01

    PROJECT GOAL: To adapt a successful Canadian health-promoting school initiative to a Ugandan context through international partnership. Rural children face many health challenges worldwide; health professionals in training understand these better through community-based learning. Aboriginal leaders in a Canadian First-Nations community identified poor oral health as a child health issue with major long-term societal impact and intervened successfully with university partners through a school-based program called "Brighter Smiles". Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (MUK) sought to implement this delivery model for both the benefit of communities and the dental students. MUK identified rural communities where hospitals could provide dental students with community-based learning and recruited four local schools. A joint Ugandan and Canadian team of both trainees and faculty planned the program, obtained ethics consent and baseline data, initiated the Brighter Smiles intervention model (daily at-school tooth-brushing; in-class education), and recruited a cohort to receive additional bi-annual topical fluoride. Hurdles included: challenging international communication and planning due to inconsistent internet connections; discrepancies between Canadian and developing world concepts of research ethics and informed consent; complex dynamics for community engagement and steep learning curve for accurate data collection; an itinerant population at one school; and difficulties coordinating Canadian and Ugandan university schedules. Four health-promoting schools were established; teachers, children, and families were engaged in the initiative; community-based learning was adopted for the university students; quarterly team education/evaluation/service delivery visits to schools were initiated; oral health improved, and new knowledge and practices were evident; an effective international partnership was formed providing global health education, research and health care

  13. Tax-Assisted Approaches for Helping Canadians Meet Out-of-Pocket Health-Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canadians are not saving for the inevitable costs of drugs and long-term care which they will have to pay for out of pocket in their old age, and these costs could potentially be financially devastating for them. Later in life, when out-of-pocket health-care costs mount, those who previously enjoyed the security of a workplace insurance plan to cover such expenses will face a grim financial reality. Many aspects of care for older Canadians aren’t covered by this country’s single-payer health-care system. Besides prescription drugs, these include management of chronic conditions by ancillary health professionals, home care, long-term care, and dental and vision care. Statistics show that in 2012, Canadians’ private spending on health care totaled $60 billion, with private health insurance covering $24.5 billion of that amount. Coverage of health-care costs that don’t fall under Medicare’s purview is at present rather piecemeal. The non-refundable federal Medical Expense Tax Credit covers expenses only after the three-per-cent minimum, or first $2,171, of out-of-pocket costs have been paid by the individual. The Disability Tax Credit is available to those with a certified chronic disability, and these individuals are eligible for further support via the Registered Disability Savings Plan. A Caregiver Tax Credit is also available. The federal government has a golden opportunity to provide an incentive for Canadians to set aside money to pay not only for the often catastrophic medical and drug costs that can come with aging, but also to save so they can afford long-term care, or purchase private health insurance. Too many Canadians, unfortunately, believe that the federal government picks up the tab for long-term care. In fact, provincial subsidies are provided on a means-testing basis, thus leaving many better-off Canadians in the lurch when they can no longer live alone and must make the transition to long-term care. Providing more

  14. Inequalities in the spiritual health of young Canadians: a national, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Valerie; Freeman, John; King, Nathan; Ascough, Hannah; Davison, Colleen; Trothen, Tracy; Phillips, Sian; Pickett, William

    2016-11-28

    Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 25,036). Principal components analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the psychometric properties of the spiritual health items and the associated composite scale describing perceived importance of spiritual health. Associations among this composite scale, its individual sub-domains, and key socio-demographic factors were then explored. The principal components analysis best supported a four-factor structure where the eight scale items loaded highly according to the original four domains. This was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses. We then combined the eight items into composite spiritual health score as supported by theory, principal components analysis findings, and acceptable tests of reliability. Further confirmatory factor analysis suggested the need for additional refinements to this scale. Based upon exploratory cross-sectional analyses, strong socio-demographic inequalities were observed in the spiritual health measures by age, gender, relative material wealth

  15. Canadian prediction equations of spirometric lung function for Caucasian adults 20 to 90 years of age: Results from the Canadian Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) study and the Lung Health Canadian Environment (LHCE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Wan C; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no reference or normative values for spirometry based on a randomly selected Canadian population exist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present analysis was to construct spirometric reference values for Canadian adults 20 to 90 years of age by combining data collected from health...

  16. Animal Health Ireland: providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Doherty, M L; Downey, L; McKenzie, K; Devitt, C; O'Flaherty, J

    2011-12-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in the Irish economy. Regulatory animal health issues are the responsibility of government, but until recently there has been no national coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues. This gap has recently been filled with the establishment of Animal Health Ireland (AHI), a not-for-profit, partnership-based organisation providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland. Animal Health Ireland provides benefits to livestock producers and processors by providing the knowledge, education and coordination required to establish effective control strategies, both on-farm and nationally. This paper presents a brief overview of the context for AHI, and of its establishment and initial activities. Non-regulatory animal health issues have been prioritised. A series of work programmes (each focusing on a high-priority issue) have been established. Partnership is critical to success, both for AHI as an organisation and for effective farm-level transfer of knowledge. This model for national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues may be of relevance elsewhere.

  17. Mental Illness-Related Stigma in Canadian Military and Civilian Populations: A Comparison Using Population Health Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Zamorski, Mark A; Rusu, Corneliu; Colman, Ian

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to compare the prevalence and impacts of mental illness-related stigma among Canadian Armed Forces personnel and Canadian civilians. Data were from two highly comparable, population-based, cross-sectional surveys of Canadian military personnel and Canadian civilians: the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (N=6,696) and the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N=25,113), respectively. Perceived stigma was assessed among those who reported care seeking for a mental health problem in the past 12 months. Follow-up questions assessed the impact of stigma in various domains. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine population differences (military versus civilian) in terms of care seeking, stigma, and stigma impact, with adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics and the need for care. Military personnel were significantly more likely than civilians to have perceived stigma (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]=1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-2.60). Stigma had a greater impact on military personnel, particularly in terms of work or school life (b=1.01, CI=.57-1.47). However, military personnel were also significantly more likely than civilians to have sought care (PR=1.86, CI=1.53-2.25). Military personnel reported a disproportionate amount of mental illness-related stigma, compared with Canadian civilians, and a greater impact of stigma. Nevertheless, military personnel were more likely to seek care, pointing to a complex relationship between stigma and care seeking in the military.

  18. Sustained improvements in students' mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-12-31

    Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.

  19. Capturing how age-friendly communities foster positive health, social participation and health equity: a study protocol of key components and processes that promote population health in aging Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Généreux, Mélissa; Menec, Verena; Raina, Parminder; Roy, Mathieu; Gabaude, Catherine; Couturier, Yves; St-Pierre, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    To address the challenges of the global aging population, the World Health Organization promoted age-friendly communities as a way to foster the development of active aging community initiatives. Accordingly, key components (i.e., policies, services and structures related to the communities' physical and social environments) should be designed to be age-friendly and help all aging adults to live safely, enjoy good health and stay involved in their communities. Although age-friendly communities are believed to be a promising way to help aging Canadians lead healthy and active lives, little is known about which key components best foster positive health, social participation and health equity, and their underlying mechanisms. This study aims to better understand which and how key components of age-friendly communities best foster positive health, social participation and health equity in aging Canadians. Specifically, the research objectives are to: 1) Describe and compare age-friendly key components of communities across Canada 2) Identify key components best associated with positive health, social participation and health equity of aging adults 3) Explore how these key components foster positive health, social participation and health equity METHODS: A mixed-method sequential explanatory design will be used. The quantitative part will involve a survey of Canadian communities and secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The survey will include an age-friendly questionnaire targeting key components in seven domains: physical environment, housing options, social environment, opportunities for participation, community supports and healthcare services, transportation options, communication and information. The CLSA is a large, national prospective study representative of the Canadian aging population designed to examine health transitions and trajectories of adults as they age. In the qualitative part, a multiple

  20. Paid health and family leave: the Canadian experience in the global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S Jody; Gerecke, Megan; Chaussard, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Two thirds of Canadian adults participate in the workforce. Their health and that of their families can be markedly affected by the availability of paid sick leave, paid leave to care for family members' health and paid parental leave. We gathered data from all Canadian provinces and territories on these essential leave policies and compared Canadian policies with data collected on 186 United Nations (UN) countries. While Canada pays sickness benefits for 15 weeks for serious illnesses, globally at least 90 countries provide benefits for at least 26 weeks or until recovery. Moreover, within Canada only Saskatchewan and Quebec guarantee job protection if sick leave lasts over 12 days. The federal government guarantees Canadian workers six weeks of paid leave to provide care or support to gravely ill family members. Only 39 countries guarantee such leave with pay. Most, but not all, provinces guarantee workers' job protection during compassionate care leave. Eligibility for job protection during parental leave varies across the country from having no restrictions to requiring at least one year of service. Compared with Canada, many countries offer a longer duration of paid sick leave for employees and replace a higher percentage of wages lost. Internationally, Canada performs well in having policies that guarantee paid leave to care for dependants with serious illnesses, but it lags behind in the provision of paid leave to address the health needs of children or family members' with non-life-threatening conditions. Finally, while paid parental leave is of adequate duration, the wage replacement rate lowers its accessibility to families with limited means.

  1. Health care: a community concern? : developments in the organization of Canadian health services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crichton, Anne

    1997-01-01

    ... Canadian Health Care Organizational Policies 1967-86 IV Service Delivery Systems and Their Response to the Need for Change to a Collective Care Organization 9. Care in the Doctor's Office 10. Support Services for Physicians in General Practice 11. Medical Practice Organization: Alternative Medical Care Delivery Models 12. Evolution of Public H...

  2. Linkage of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging to provincial administrative health care databases in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, A M; Kephart, G; Rockwood, K

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) was a cohort study that included 528 Nova Scotian community-dwelling participants. Linkage of CSHA and provincial Medical Services Insurance (MSI) data enabled examination of health care utilization in this subsample. This article discusses methodological and ethical issues of database linkage and explores variation in the use of health services by demographic variables and health status. Utilization over 24 months following baseline was extracted from MSI's physician claims, hospital discharge abstracts, and Pharmacare claims databases. Twenty-nine subjects refused consent for access to their MSI file; health card numbers for three others could not be retrieved. A significant difference in healthcare use by age and self-rated health was revealed. Linkage of population-based data with provincial administrative health care databases has the potential to guide health care planning and resource allocation. This process must include steps to ensure protection of confidentiality. Standard practices for linkage consent and routine follow-up should be adopted. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) began in 1991-92 to explore dementia, frailty, and adverse health outcomes (Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group, 1994). The original CSHA proposal included linkage to provincial administrative health care databases by the individual CSHA study centers to enhance information on health care utilization and outcomes of study participants. In Nova Scotia, the Medical Services Insurance (MSI) administration, which drew the sampling frame for the original CSHA, did not retain the list of corresponding health card numbers. Furthermore, consent for this access was not asked of participants at the time of the first interview. The objectives of this study reported here were to examine the feasibility and ethical considerations of linking data from the CSHA to MSI utilization data, and to explore variation in health

  3. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  4. Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

    2007-06-01

    Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build

  5. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad

  6. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  7. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Kingsbury, Paul

    2011-05-31

    The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad. Therefore, a call for a comprehensive public

  8. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  9. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Canadian community pharmacists' use of digital health technologies in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  11. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration.

  12. Capturing pan-Canadian Primary Health Care indicator data using multiple approaches for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vicky; Sullivan-Taylor, Patricia; Webster, Greg; Macphail, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), in collaboration with diverse stakeholders, led the development of pan-Canadian indicators to measure primary health care. In 2006, CIHI released a set of 105 pan-Canadian Primary Health Care (PHC) indicators that were developed with the assistance of national, provincial and territorial representatives, clinicians and researchers. Additionally, data gaps were identified in a series of reports. In 2006 and 2007, CIHI assessed options for closing the data gaps so that the indicators could be measured and reported. CIHI then began a program to build the data infrastructure needed for the PHC indicators. The program included the development of content standards for electronic medical records, a prototype of a voluntary reporting system, enhancements to surveys, and the development of reports. In 2006, fewer than 10% of the 105 indicators could be calculated with existing data sources. Now, four projects have begun and over 50% of the indicators are being captured. Important relationships have been established with key collaborators. These relationships will lead to the development of a reporting system prototype and to the refinement of PHC indicators and electronic medical record (EMR) content standards. The project for pan-Canadian PHC indicators has encouraged consultation and synergy. It has motivated CIHI to establish an information program to fill data gaps and to make PHC indicators available.

  13. Canadian Health Libraries’ Responses to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action: A Literature Review and Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maestro

    2017-12-01

      Introduction: As part of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s (TRC Final Report on the history and legacy of residential schools in Canada, ninety-four (94 Calls to Action were identified. Of those, seven are health-specific. The objective of this research paper is to determine how Canadian health library websites are responding to these calls to action.   Methods: The authors conducted an initial literature review to gain an understanding of the context of Indigenous health in Canada. A content analysis of Canadian health library websites was conducted to track mentions of the TRC and their responses to the need for Indigenous-focused resources.   Results: The results of content analysis indicated few online responses to the TRC’s Calls to Action from Canadian health libraries. Only thirty-three per cent of Canadian health libraries had content that was Indigenous-focused, and only about fifteen per cent of health libraries had visible content related to the TRC’s Calls to Action. Academic and consumer health libraries were more likely to have both TRC- and Indigenous-focused content.   Discussion: Nuances related to the research question resulted in some challenges to research design. For example, website content analysis is an imperfect indicator of real-world action. Limitations in research design notwithstanding, visibility is an important part of conveying commitment to the TRC, and the information available indicates the Canadian medical community is not living up to that commitment.   Conclusion: Canadian health libraries need to do more to show a visible commitment to the TRC’s Calls to Action.

  14. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  15. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  16. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

  17. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  18. Perceptions and opinions of Canadian pet owners about anaesthesia, pain and surgery in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steagall, P V; Monteiro, B P; Ruel, H L M; Beauchamp, G; Luca, G; Berry, J; Little, S; Stiles, E; Hamilton, S; Pang, D

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of Canadian pet owners about anaesthesia, pain and surgery in dogs and cats. Six Canadian veterinary hospitals participated. Each practice received 200 copies of a questionnaire that were distributed to pet owners. Questions regarding the use of analgesics, anaesthesia, surgery and onychectomy (cats) were included. Responses were transformed into ordinal scores and analysed with a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. A total of 849 out of 1200 questionnaires were returned. Owners believed more frequently that analgesics are needed for surgical procedures than for the medical conditions. Owners rated as very important/important: "knowing what to expect during illness/injury/surgery" (99·3%), "being assured that all necessary analgesic drugs/techniques will be used" (98·6%), "being informed about procedures/risk" (98·5%), and having a board-certified anaesthesiologist (90·5%). Most owners agreed/partly agreed that pain impacts quality of life (94·2%), and affects their pet's behaviour (89·5%). Most respondents (69%) were women; they were significantly more concerned than men about anaesthesia, pain, cost and client-communication. Cat owners believed that analgesics were necessary for some procedures/conditions significantly more often than canine-only owners. Pet owners with previous surgery disagreed more frequently that "pain after surgery can be helpful" and that "pain in animals is easy to recognize" than those without previous surgery. Most owners think onychectomy should be banned in cats (56·4%). This study identified important areas of client communication regarding pain and its control in pets. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Indicatoren voor dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid = Indicators for animal welfare and animal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Neijenhuis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality requires a monitor for animal welfare and animal health to evaluate progress in this field. This report describes which indicators for animal welfare and health can be used for the monitor

  20. Genital warts: Canadians' perception, health-related behaviors, and treatment preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steben, Marc; LaBelle, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    The study aimed to gauge the perceptions of Canadians toward genital warts, related health behaviors, and treatment preferences. An online survey supported by an unrestricted grant from Graceway Canada was conducted in February 2011 by Leger Marketing. It included 9 demographic questions and 17 questions relating to genital wart perception (2 multiple-choice, 15 four-point rating from strongly agree to strongly disagree). The survey was completed by 1520 Canadian adults aged 18 to older than 75 years, of whom 52% (786/1520) were female. Fifty-two percent of respondents stated that they would monitor an unrecognized spot on their genitals, and only seek medical assistance if it did not go away. Only 43% (652/1520) said that they would stop having sex until the spots were gone. Although only 10% (158/1520) of respondents stated that they would not inform their partner, this was much higher among men (14%, 103/734) than women (7%, 55/786), with p ≤ .01. Concerns of being judged by friends/family were high (44%, 669/1520), especially among younger (18-34 y) Canadians (60%), with p ≤ .05. Regarding prevention, 32% (493/1520) of respondents believed that monogamy would protect against genital warts and 25% (373/1520) believed they are not at risk if they use a condom. Treatment preference was in favor of a cream rather than an "invasive" treatment (58%, 886/1520), particularly among younger (67%, 283/425, p ≤ .05) and male respondents (63%, 464/734, p ≤ .01). Sixty percent (921/1520) would worry that genital warts could not be resolved; and 44% (668/1520), that they would recur. Among Canadians, genital warts were associated with a fair degree of social stigma and potential negative impact on their psyche, especially for younger Canadians.

  1. D-fence Against the Canadian Winter: Making Insufficient Vitamin D Levels a Higher Priority for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Zwicker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With most of the country situated above the latitude of the 42nd parallel north, there is a significant portion of the Canadian population that is not getting enough of the sunshine vitamin during the winter. Vitamin D is naturally produced when skin is exposed to sunlight, however during the winter months in Canada the sun is too low in the sky for this to occur. A full quarter of the Canadian population is estimated to have vitamin D levels so low as to be considered insufficient or deficient by Health Canada guidelines. Increasing vitamin D intake should be considered a public health priority. Vitamin D deficiency is known to be linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults (bone softening and malformation as well as osteoporosis (loss of bone density, increasing susceptibility to fractures. However a growing body of evidence also suggests that vitamin D may have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, cognitive decline, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. There is, of course, no way to change Canada’s proximity to the equator. But there are ways to help Canadians get more vitamin D through dietary intake. Improving the vitamin D status of the Canadian population through food fortification and dietary supplements represents an inexpensive intervention that can improve the health of the population, but debate remains over how much vitamin D the Canadian population needs and how to ensure the population adheres to whatever recommendations are made. Food fortification has already demonstrated its effectiveness in improving vitamin D levels (as it has for other public health priorities, such as with iodized salt. Decades ago, the prevalence of rickets in Canadian children led health professionals to lobby for, and win, legislation making vitamin D fortification mandatory for milk. Other foods, such as orange juice, milk of plant origin and

  2. Is the profitability of Canadian tiestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D

    2018-03-01

    In order for dairy producers to comply with animal welfare recommendations, financial investments may be required. In Canada, a new dairy animal care assessment program is currently being implemented under the proAction Initiative to determine the extent to which certain aspects of the Code of Practice are being followed and to assess the care and well-being of dairy cattle on farm. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting the proAction animal-based and the electric trainer placement criteria and certain aspects of productivity and profitability on tiestall dairy farms. The results of a previous on-farm cow comfort assessment conducted on 100 Canadian tiestall farms were used to simulate the results of a part of the proAction Animal Care assessment on these farms. Each farm's productivity and profitability data were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement associations. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the associations between meeting these proAction criteria and the farms' average yearly: corrected milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval, number of breedings/cow, culling rate, prevalence of cows in third or higher lactation, and margins per cow and per kilogram of quota calculated over replacement costs. The association between milk production and the proAction lameness criterion was moderated through an interaction with the milk production genetic index which resulted in an increase in milk production per year with increasing genetic index that was steeper in farms that met the proAction lameness criterion compared with farms that did not. Meeting the proAction body condition score criterion was associated with reduced SCC and meeting the proAction electric trainer placement criterion was associated with SCC through an interaction with the farms' average SCC genetic index. The increase in SCC with increasing SCC genetic index was milder in farms that met this

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included.

  5. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue.

  6. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11-15 years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Hunger was reported by 25 % of participants, with 4 % reporting this experience "often" or "always". Its prevalence was associated with socio-economic disadvantage and family-related factors, but not with whether or not a student had access to school-based food and nutrition programs. The consistency of hunger's associations with the health outcomes was remarkable. Relations between hunger and health were partially explained when models controlled for family practices, but not the socio-economic or school measures. Societal responses to hunger certainly require the provision of food, but may also consider family contexts and basic essential elements of care that children need to thrive.

  7. Sex and sexual health: A survey of Canadian youth and mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Jean-Yves; Kaufman, Miriam; Baltzer, Franziska; Elliott, April; Lane, Margo; Pinzon, Jorge; McDuff, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Apparent changes in adolescent sexual behaviours have led to debate in recent years. A survey on adolescent sexuality was designed to determine mainstream Canadian adolescents’ current knowledge and sources of sexual health information, to identify their needs, and to understand the perceptions and the role of parents in sexual health education. METHODOLOGY In October 2005, on-line interviews were conducted by Ipsos Reid (Ipsos Canada) with 1171 Canadian teenagers (14 to 17 years of age) and 1139 mothers of teenagers. RESULTS Twenty-seven per cent of teens were sexually active at a mean age of 15 years, with an average of 2.5 lifetime partners, and had been in their current relationship for longer than eight months. The last time that they had had sex, 76% had used a condom. Teens and mothers overestimated the percentages of teens sexually active at any age. Most valuable sources of information were school, parents, friends and doctors. Sixty-nine per cent of teens could not find the information that they were looking for, and 62% reported obstacles in getting information. Teens lacked knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and their consequences. Seventy-five per cent of mothers believed that their teenagers’ friends were significant role models when it came to sexuality, and 50% mentioned entertainment celebrities at par with them. However, 45% of teenagers regarded their parents as their role models, far ahead of friends (32%) and entertainment celebrities (15%). Despite saying that they had positive relationships with their mothers, 38% of teens had not discussed sexuality with them. Most teens trusted the information given by health professionals (94%) and believed that it was their role to provide sexual health information. CONCLUSIONS Most adolescents are responsible when it comes to sexuality, but there are still areas of concern. Adolescents identify barriers to getting information and lack knowledge about sexually transmitted

  8. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  9. Promoting equitable global health research: a policy analysis of the Canadian funding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Walters, Dylan; Campbell, Sandy; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-08-29

    Recognising radical shifts in the global health research (GHR) environment, participants in a 2013 deliberative dialogue called for careful consideration of equity-centred principles that should inform Canadian funding polices. This study examined the existing funding structures and policies of Canadian and international funders to inform the future design of a responsive GHR funding landscape. We used a three-pronged analytical framework to review the ideas, interests and institutions implicated in publically accessible documents relevant to GHR funding. These data included published literature and organisational documents (e.g. strategic plans, progress reports, granting policies) from Canadian and other comparator funders. We then used a deliberative approach to develop recommendations with the research team, advisors, industry informants and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) partners. In Canada, major GHR funders invest an estimated CA$90 M per annum; however, the post-2008 re-organization of funding structures and policies resulted in an uncoordinated and inefficient Canadian strategy. Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America invest proportionately more in GHR than Canada. Each of these countries has a national strategic plan for global health, some of which have dedicated benchmarks for GHR funding and policy to allow funds to be held by partners outside of Canada. Key constraints to equitable GHR funding included (1) funding policies that restrict financial and cost burden aspects of partnering for GHR in LMICs; and (2) challenges associated with the development of effective governance mechanisms. There were, however, some Canadian innovations in funding research that demonstrated both unconventional and equitable approaches to supporting GHR in Canada and abroad. Among the most promising were found in the International Development Research Centre and the (no longer active) Global Health

  10. The Canadian health care system: a model for American to emulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, C D

    1992-04-01

    The American health care system has the world's highest per capita costs and over 30 million citizens uninsured. The neighbouring Canadian system provides coverage for all basic medical and hospital services, at costs per capita that are about US$700 lower. Single-agency public funding allows tighter control of Canadian expenditures, and reduces administrative overheads. Hospitals are run as non-profit private corporations, funded primarily by a fixed annual allocation for operating costs. Most physicians are in private fee-for-service practice, but cannot charge more than the insured tariff negotiated between their provincial government and medical association. This approach, while attractive in its decentralization, tends to separate the funding and management of clinical services. Thus, hospital information systems lag a decade behind the USA, managed care initiatives are few, health maintenance organisations do not exist, and experimentation with alternative funding or delivery systems has been sporadic. Strengths of the system compared to the USA include: higher patient satisfaction, universal coverage, slightly better cost containment, higher hospital occupancy rates, and reduction in income-related rationing with more equitable distribution of services. Weaknesses in common with the United States are: cost escalation consistently outstripping the consumer price index with costs per capita second highest in the world, ever rising consumption of services per capita, inadequate manpower planning and physician maldistribution, poor regional co-ordination of services, inadequate quality assurance and provider frustration. Additional weaknesses include: an emerging funding crisis caused by the massive federal deficit, less innovation in management and delivery of care as compared to the USA, implicit rationing with long waiting lists for some services, and recurrent provider-government conflicts that have reduced goodwill among stakeholders. Thus, while the

  11. The distribution of animal antimicrobials in British Columbia for over-the-counter and veterinary sales, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Brian R

    2018-03-01

    Canadian Animal Health Institute (CAHI) data are used for provincial, national, and international comparisons of Canadian animal antimicrobial use. The objectives of this paper were to: i) use CAHI and British Columbia (BC) antimicrobial distribution data to group BC antimicrobial sales into the following BC retail distribution channels: over-the-counter retail outlets, livestock and poultry feed mills, aquaculture feed mills, livestock and poultry veterinarians, and companion animal veterinarians; and ii) to validate the CAHI BC distribution data and BC's antimicrobial distribution data from 2012 to 2014. Annual total antimicrobial distribution and distribution by antimicrobial class were presented for each distribution channel. The distribution of medically important antimicrobials for production animals was validated, the distribution of ionophores was not. A lack of data precluded any attempt to validate the distribution of antimicrobials for companion animals. Each distribution channel typically experienced substantial fluctuations in total antimicrobial use and use by antibiotic class at least once over the 3-year period. The validated data are useful for evidence-based analysis of a proposed Canadian policy requiring a veterinary prescription for all medically important antimicrobials.

  12. Ecosystem and population health: the role of Canadian physicians at home and abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Woollard, R F

    1995-01-01

    Seemingly intractable problems of overpopulation, ecologic degradation, diminishing resources and regional warfare are having a profound effect on global population health. Canadian physicians can assist in ameliorating these problems by helping to modify the overconsumption of natural resources at home and by participating in international health projects focused at the community level, where the health of individuals and that of their environment intersect. The author describes the work of ...

  13. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  14. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  15. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration.

  16. Methods to stimulate national and sub-national benchmarking through international health system performance comparisons: a Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Moses McKeag, Alexandra; Tipper, Brenda; Krylova, Olga; Reason, Ben

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents, discusses and evaluates methods used by the Canadian Institute for Health Information to present health system performance international comparisons in ways that facilitate their understanding by the public and health system policy-makers and can stimulate performance benchmarking. We used statistical techniques to normalize the results and present them on a standardized scale facilitating understanding of results. We compared results to the OECD average, and to benchmarks. We also applied various data quality rules to ensure the validity of results. In order to evaluate the impact of the public release of these results, we used quantitative and qualitative methods and documented other types of impact. We were able to present results for performance indicators and dimensions at national and sub-national levels; develop performance profiles for each Canadian province; and show pan-Canadian performance patterns for specific performance indicators. The results attracted significant media attention at national level and reactions from various stakeholders. Other impacts such as requests for additional analysis and improvement in data timeliness were observed. The methods used seemed attractive to various audiences in the Canadian context and achieved the objectives originally defined. These methods could be refined and applied in different contexts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Indicators of Mental Health: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Filmer; Ohinmaa, Arto; Klarenbach, Scott; Wong, Zing-Wae; Veugelers, Paul

    2017-10-13

    The main function of vitamin D is calcium homeostasis. However, emerging evidence has correlated adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with better mental health. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with indicators of mental health such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Associations of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with four indicators of mental health were examined using ordered logistic regression models with increasing specificity that account for demographics, socio-economic status, and health. Margin effects are used to determine the probability of the average adult Canadian being in the best mental health state by groupings of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A robust association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the indicators of mental health were observed. In the fully adjusted ordered logistic model, an average Canadian appeared more likely to experience better mental health when serum 25(OH)D concentrations were higher. This study adds to the weight of the existence of an association between vitamin D status and mental health, but, as this study is cross sectional, it does not establish causality. Due to the low risk of harm from toxicity and the relative modest costs of vitamin D supplements, more research to establish the effectiveness and causality of this relationship is recommended.

  18. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367

  19. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  20. Heart Disease and Occupational Risk Factors in the Canadian Population: An Exploratory Study Using the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to find temporal trends in the associations between cardiovascular disease and occupational risk factors in the context of the Canadian population. Methods: Population data were analyzed from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS collected between 2001 and 2014 for trends over time between heart disease and various occupational risk factors: hours worked, physical exertion at work, and occupation type (management/arts/education, business/finance, sales/services, trades/transportations, and primary industry/processing. Results: We found no significant difference in the average number of hours worked/wk between individuals who report having heart disease in all years of data except in 2011 (F1,96 = 7.02, p = 0.009 and 2012 (F1,96 = 8.86, p = 0.004. We also found a significant difference in the degree of physical exertion at work in 2001 (F1,79 = 7.45, p = 0.008. There were statistically significant results of occupation type on self-reported heart disease from 2003 to 2014. Conclusion: Canadian data from the CCHS do not exhibit a trend toward an association between heart disease and the number of hours worked/wk. There is an association between heart disease and physical exertion at work, but the trend is inconsistent. The data indicate a trend toward an association between heart disease and occupation type, but further analysis is required to determine which occupation type may be associated with heart disease. Keywords: occupational health, occupation type, physical exertion, self-reported cardiovascular disease

  1. When Does an Immigrant with HIV Represent an Excessive Demand on Canadian Health or Social Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEDNAPA THAVORN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act of 2001 outlines conditions under which individuals may be granted or denied admission to Canada. The Act stipulates that applications for residence will be rejected if their health is expected to generate excessive demand on Canadian health or social services. The purpose of this paper is to derive a statistical definition of excessive demand and to apply that threshold to persons with HIV who are seeking admission to Canada. The paper demonstrates that the current threshold used by Citizenship and Immigration Canada is much lower than the thresholds that may be derived statistically.

  2. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  3. Guidelines for Management Information Systems in Canadian Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Larry E.

    1987-01-01

    The MIS Guidelines are a comprehensive set of standards for health care facilities for the recording of staffing, financial, workload, patient care and other management information. The Guidelines enable health care facilities to develop management information systems which identify resources, costs and products to more effectively forecast and control costs and utilize resources to their maximum potential as well as provide improved comparability of operations. The MIS Guidelines were produced by the Management Information Systems (MIS) Project, a cooperative effort of the federal and provincial governments, provincial hospital/health associations, under the authority of the Canadian Federal/Provincial Advisory Committee on Institutional and Medical Services. The Guidelines are currently being implemented on a “test” basis in ten health care facilities across Canada and portions integrated in government reporting as finalized.

  4. Dyslipidemia prevalence, treatment, control, and awareness in the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel; Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S; Connor Gorber, Sarah

    2013-04-24

    The most recent Canadian population-level data on lipid levels are from 1992. This study presents current estimates of Canadians with dyslipidemia, the proportion aware of their condition, and the proportion being treated and below target values. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) assessed the prevalence, awareness and treatment of dyslipidemia. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥5; measured LDL-C ≥3.5 mmol/L; or taking lipid-modifying medications. The 2009 guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia were used to define low, moderate or high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and treatment initiation and targets. Forty-five percent of Canadians aged 18-79 years have dyslipidemia. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were not aware of their condition. Lipid-modifying therapy was initiated in individuals where treatment would be recommended in 49%, 20% and 54% of those at high, moderate, and low risk levels, respectively. The majority (81%) of those taking medication had their lipid levels under desirable levels, however, only 24% of those with dyslipidemia reported medication use. Overall, only 19% of those with dyslipidemia had their lipids under recommended levels. Only 41% of those taking lipid-modifying medication reached a recommended target of LDL-C dyslipidemia, who are not being treated to recommended levels. These data need to be integrated into CVD reduction recommendations and represent an important baseline for assessing progress.

  5. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  6. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  7. "Judging a body by its cover": young Lebanese-Canadian women's discursive constructions of the "healthy" body and "health" practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rizk, Zeina; Rail, Geneviève

    2014-02-01

    Our interest stems from the dramatic increase in the number of obesity studies, which expose Canadian women to a huge amount of information that links health to weight. Using feminist poststructuralist and postcolonial lenses, this paper investigates young Lebanese-Canadian women's constructions of the body and "health" practices within the context of the dominant obesity discourse. Participant-centered conversations were held with 20 young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women. A thematic analysis was first conducted and was followed by a poststructuralist discourse analysis to further our understanding of how the participants construct themselves as subjects within various discourses surrounding health, obesity, and the body. Our findings reveal that most participants conflate the "healthy" body and the "ideal" body, both of which they ultimately portray as thin. The young women construct the "healthy"/"ideal" body as a solely individual responsibility, thus reinforcing the idea of "docile bodies." The majority of participants report their frequent involvement in disciplinary practices such as rigorous physical activity and dietary restrictions, and a few young women mention the use of other extreme forms of bodily monitoring such as detoxes, dieting pills, and compulsive exercise. We discuss the language employed by participants to construct their multiple and shifting subjectivities. For instance, many of these Lebanese-Canadian women use the term "us" to dissociate themselves from Lebanese women ("them"), whom they portray as overly focused on thinness and beauty and engaged in physical activity and other bodily practices for "superficial" purposes. The participants also use the "us/them" trope to distance themselves from "Canadian" women (read: white Euro-Canadian women), whom they portray as very physically active for purposes beyond the improvement of the physical appearance of the body. We discuss the impacts of the young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women

  8. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  9. Reminiscence functions and the health of Israeli Holocaust survivors as compared to other older Israelis and older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G; Cappeliez, Philippe; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Existing research with English-speaking samples indicates that various ways in which older adults recall their past affect both their physical and mental health. Self-positive reminiscence functions (i.e. identity, problem-solving, death preparation) correlate and predict mental health in later life whereas self-negative functions (i.e. bitterness revival, boredom reduction, intimacy maintenance) correlate and predict the physical health of older adults. For this study, we recruited 295 Israeli Holocaust survivors to ascertain if early life trauma affects these associations between reminiscence and health. In order to distinguish cross-national differences from survivor-specific effects, we also recruited two comparative samples of other older Israelis (not Holocaust survivors; n = 205) and a second comparative sample of 335 older Canadians. Three separate structural equation models were computed to replicate this tripartite reminiscence and health model. Coefficients for self-negative functions significantly differed between survivors and both Canadians and other older Israelis, and between Canadians and both Israeli samples. However, no differences were found between prosocial and self-positive functions. Moreover, the higher order structure of reminiscence and health appears largely indistinguishable across these three groups. Early life trauma does not appear to fundamentally affect associations between reminiscence and health. These findings underscore the resilience of Holocaust survivors.

  10. Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health : benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, K.

    2005-07-01

    This report presented soil quality guidelines for benzene to protect humans and ecological receptors in 4 types of land uses: agricultural; residential and parklands; commercial and industrial. The chemical and physical properties of benzene were reviewed, as well as the sources and emissions of benzene in Canada. The distribution and behaviour of benzene in the environment was examined, and the toxicological effects of benzene on microbial processes, plants, animals and humans were reviewed. It was noted that the background information and rationale for the derivation of Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for this substance were originally published in 1999 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) in Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. These guidelines have since been revised to reflect new data and lessons learned during the development of the Canada-wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil (CCME 2000). Modifications in this report included the derivation of guidelines for different soil textures and depths. Behaviour and effects in biota were reviewed, including soil microbial processes; terrestrial plants; terrestrial invertebrates; livestock and wildlife; and bioaccumulation. Behaviour and effects in humans and mammalian species were examined. The derivation of environmental soil quality guidelines was outlined. Recommendations for Canadian soil quality guidelines were presented. It was concluded that there is a lack of studies on the toxic effects of benzene on livestock, mammalian wildlife and birds and that studies on the metabolism of benzene in mammals and birds as well as invertebrates are needed. In addition, research is needed on the effects of benzene on nitrogen fixation, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, decomposition and respiration. 118 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is limited evidence about the medical and psychological risks ofsurrogacy. Whether theoretical concerns about these risks are clinically relevant remains unknown. In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support. PMID:17296962

  12. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dan R

    2007-02-13

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is limited evidence about the medical and psychological risks of surrogacy. Whether theoretical concerns about these risks are clinically relevant remains unknown. In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support.

  13. Canadian military personnel's population attributable fractions of mental disorders and mental health service use associated with combat and peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Belik, Shay-Lee; Afifi, Tracie O; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Cox, Brian J; Stein, Murray B

    2008-12-01

    We investigated mental disorders, suicidal ideation, self-perceived need for treatment, and mental health service utilization attributable to exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations among Canadian military personnel. With data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 Canadian Forces Supplement, a cross-sectional population-based survey of active Canadian military personnel (N = 8441), we estimated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of adverse mental health outcomes. Exposure to either combat or peacekeeping operations was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (men: PAF = 46.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.3, 62.7; women: PAF = 23.6%; 95% CI = 9.2, 40.1), 1 or more mental disorder assessed in the survey (men: PAF = 9.3%; 95% CI = 0.4, 18.1; women: PAF = 6.1%; 95% CI = 0.0, 13.4), and a perceived need for information (men: PAF = 12.3%; 95% CI = 4.1, 20.6; women: PAF = 7.9%; 95% CI = 1.3, 15.5). A substantial proportion, but not the majority, of mental health-related outcomes were attributable to combat or peacekeeping deployment. Future studies should assess traumatic events and their association with physical injury during deployment, premilitary factors, and postdeployment psychosocial factors that may influence soldiers' mental health.

  14. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  15. Canadian medical students' perceptions of public health education in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L

    2009-09-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.

  16. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…

  17. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  18. The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Gaetz, Stephen; O'Grady, Bill

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population. This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators. Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]). This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.

  19. Priority issues in tropical animal health management | Etuk | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of livestock to sustain family and local economies have been acknowledged worldwide. However, the major constraints to the attainment of this potential especially in the tropics have been the incidence of disease and sundry ill health. Thus the development of an effective animal health management strategy ...

  20. National evaluation of policies on individual financial conflicts of interest in Canadian academic health science centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Sekeres, Melanie; Gold, Jennifer; Ferris, Lorraine E; Kalkar, Sunila R; Wu, Wei; Van Laethem, Marleen; Chan, An-Wen; Moher, David; Maskalyk, M James; Taback, Nathan; Rochon, Paula A

    2008-11-01

    Conflicts of interest (COI) in research are an important emerging topic of investigation and are frequently cited as a serious threat to the integrity of human participant research. To study financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) policies for individual investigators working in Canadian academic health centers. Survey instrument containing 61 items related to FCOI. All Canadian academic health science centers (universities with faculties of medicine, faculties of medicine and teaching hospitals) were requested to provide their three primary FCOI policies. Number of all centers and teaching hospitals with policies addressing each of the 61 items related to FCOI. Only one item was addressed by all 74 centers. Thirteen items were present in fewer than 25% of centers. Fewer than one-quarter of hospitals required researchers to disclose FCOI to research participants. The role of research ethics boards (REBs) in hospitals was marginal. Asking centers to identify only three policies may not have inclusively identified all FCOI policies in use. Additionally, policies at other levels might apply. For instance, all institutions receiving federal grant money must comply with the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans. Canadian centers within the same level (for instance, teaching hospitals) differ significantly in the areas that their policies address and these policies differ widely in their coverage. Presently, no single policy in any Canadian center informs researchers about the broad range of individual FCOI issues. Canadian investigators need to understand the environment surrounding FCOI, be able to access and follow the relevant policies and be confident that they can avoid entering into a FCOI.

  1. Province-level income inequality and health outcomes in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-03-01

    To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Participants (aged 12-17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Quality of working life indicators in Canadian health care organizations: a tool for healthy, health care workplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Robson, Lynda S; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; McGuire, Wendy; Sicotte, Claude; Champagne, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Quality-of-work-life (QWL) includes broad aspects of the work environment that affect employee learning and health. Canadian health care organizations (HCOs) are being encouraged to monitor QWL, expanding existing occupational health surveillance capacities. To investigate the understanding, collection, diffusion and use of QWL indicators in Canadian HCOs. We obtained cooperation from six diverse public HCOs managing 41 sites. We reviewed documentation relevant to QWL and conducted 58 focus groups/team interviews with strategic, support and programme teams. Group interviews were taped, reviewed and analysed for themes using qualitative data techniques. Indicators were classified by purpose and HCO level. QWL indicators, as such, were relatively new to most HCOs yet the data managed by human resource and occupational health and safety support teams were highly relevant to monitoring of employee well-being (119 of 209 mentioned indicators), e.g. sickness absence. Monitoring of working conditions (62/209) was also important, e.g. indicators of employee workload. Uncommon were indicators of biomechanical and psychosocial hazards at work, despite their being important causes of morbidity among HCO employees. Although imprecision in the definition of QWL indicators, limited links with other HCO performance measures and inadequate HCO resources for implementation were common, most HCOs cited ways in which QWL indicators had influenced planning and evaluation of prevention efforts. Increase in targeted HCO resources, inclusion of other QWL indicators and greater integration with HCO management systems could all improve HCO decision-makers' access to information relevant to employee health.

  3. The impact of polypharmacy on the health of Canadian seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Ben; Terner, Michael; Moses McKeag, Ali; Tipper, Brenda; Webster, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Prescription medication use increases with age. Seniors face an increased risk of adverse drug reactions from medications, partly because the kidneys and liver can lose functional ability with increasing age, resulting in the need for changes in dosage. To use population survey data to understand the extent and impact of multiple medication use and adverse drug events among Canadian seniors. This study consists of analysis of data from the Canadian Survey of Experiences with Primary Health Care, which was conducted through telephone by Statistics Canada in 2008. These analyses focussed on the 3132 respondents who were ≥ 65 years of age. Twenty-seven per cent of seniors reported taking five or more medications on a regular basis. Within the past year, 12% of seniors taking five or more medications experienced a side effect that required medical attention compared with 5% of seniors taking only one or two medications. Even when controlling for age and number of chronic conditions, the number of prescription medications was associated with the rate of emergency department use. Less than half of all seniors reported having received medication reviews and having the possible side effects of their prescription medications explained to them by their physician. Many Canadian seniors have an elevated risk of adverse events due to taking a high number of prescription medications and not having the potential side effects and drug interactions explained to them. There are interventions that can potentially reduce polypharmacy and adverse events, including routine medication reviews.

  4. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenberg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry depends on the outlook for gas prices at Canadian producing basins, the cost of producing in Canada and the volume of production of Canadian natural gas. Price, cost and volume determine the health of the Canadian industry. Industry's costs are the basis of the supply (volume) offered on the market and price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. (author)

  5. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  6. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... establish the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health for a 2-year period. The Secretary of...

  7. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  8. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-08-24

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  9. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  10. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  11. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeza, James; Kankya, Clovice; Muleme, James; Akandinda, Ann; Sserugga, Joseph; Nantima, Noelina; Okori, Edward; Odoch, Terence

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures. Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO) representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim. 70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215) of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues. CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the traditional civil

  12. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bugeza

    Full Text Available An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures.Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim.70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215 of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues.CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the

  13. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  14. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  15. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  16. Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alena Praneet; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach’s α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17–1.71). Closer adherence to Canada’s Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada’s Food

  17. Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Jessri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Eating Index (HEI is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010 has been made. The aims of this study were: (a to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010 by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada’s Food Guide (CFG 2007; (b to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach’s α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001. Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17–1.71. Closer adherence to Canada’s Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada

  18. Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D; Orsel, K; Pellerin, D

    2018-03-01

    Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economic margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was associated

  19. Intersections of Stigma, Mental Health, and Sex Work: How Canadian Men Engaged in Sex Work Navigate and Resist Stigma to Protect Their Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Sunny; Bungay, Vicky

    2018-05-01

    Men engaged in sex work experience significant stigma that can have devastating effects for their mental health. Little is known about how male sex workers experience stigma and its effects on mental health or their strategies to prevent its effects in the Canadian context. This study examined the interrelationships between stigma and mental health among 33 Canadian indoor, male sex workers with a specific goal of understanding how stigma affected men's mental health and their protective strategies to mitigate against its effects. Men experienced significant enacted stigma that negatively affected their social supports and ability to develop and maintain noncommercial, romantic relationships. Men navigated stigma by avoidance and resisting internalization. Strategy effectiveness to promote mental health varied based on men's perspectives of sex work as a career versus a forced source of income. Programming to promote men's mental health must take into consideration men's diverse strategies and serve to build social supports.

  20. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A...

  1. Scripts, animal health and biosecurity : The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enticott, Gareth; Vanclay, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are

  2. I want to move, but cannot: characteristics of involuntary stayers and associations with health among Canadian seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of seniors in the Canadian population who are involuntary stayers and to assess associations with health. Data come from the 1994 Canadian National Population Health Survey, with the sample restricted to those 65 and older (N = 2,551). Nearly 1 in 10 seniors identified as an involuntary stayer. Seniors with few socioeconomic resources, poor health, greater need for assistance, and low social involvement were more likely to identify as an involuntary stayer. Furthermore, seniors who were involuntary stayers report significantly more distress and greater odds of low self-rated health than other seniors. This study brings into visibility an understudied segment of the elderly population: seniors who are unable to move from their present location despite their desire to do so. Further research and policy responses assisting seniors to age in a setting of their own choosing are needed.

  3. Genomic Tools and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo

    2016-09-07

    Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  4. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  5. The interactions of Canadian ethics consultants with health care managers and governing boards during times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris; Maddalena, Victor; Brunger, Fern; Pullman, Daryl; Singleton, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Health care organizations can be very complex, and are often the setting for crisis situations. In recent years, Canadian health care organizations have faced large-scale systemic medical errors, a nation-wide generic injectable drug shortage, iatrogenic infectious disease outbreaks, and myriad other crises. These situations often have an ethical component that ethics consultants may be able to address. Organizational leaders such as health care managers and governing boards have responsibilities to oversee and direct the response to crisis situations. This study investigates the nature and degree of involvement of Canadian ethics consultants in such situations. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with Canadian ethics consultants to investigate the nature of their interactions with upper-level managers and governing board members in health care organizations, particularly in times of organizational crisis. We used a purposive sampling technique to identify and recruit ethics consultants throughout Canada. We found variability in the interactions between ethics consultants and upper-level managers and governing boards. Some ethics consultants we interviewed did not participate in managing organizational crisis situations. Most ethics consultants reported that they had assisted in the management of some crises and that their participation was usually initiated by managers. Some ethics consultants reported the ability to bring issues to the attention of upper-level managers and indirectly to their governing boards. The interactions between managers and ethics consultants were characterized by varying degrees of collegiality. Ethics consultants reported participating in or chairing working groups, participating in incident management teams, and developing decision-making frameworks. Canadian ethics consultants tend to believe that they have valuable skills to offer in the management of organizational crisis situations. Most of the ethics consultants

  6. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) regulations: industry compliance motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeque, Hina; Boon, Heather; Kachan, Natasha; Cohen, Jillian Clare; D'Cruz, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintaining a competitive market advantage. In contrast, SMEs are motivated to comply due to the deterrent fear of legal prosecution and a sense of duty.

  7. Canadian and the United States' health care systems performance and governance: elements of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerman, Steven; Hodges, Hart; Vining, Aidan

    2002-01-01

    International comparisons of the organisation and performance of health care sectors are increasingly informing policy makers about potential policies relating to health care. Politicians, academics and critics in both the United States and Canada have compared and contrasted the health care systems in the two countries. Public debate tends to emphasise the differences between the US and Canadian health care systems. But, dramatic differences between the organisation and performances of health care systems of the two countries would be surprising given that most elements of divergence have only emerged in the last fifty years, and that health systems tend to be driven by the same basic economic problems. This paper provides an overview of the main economic efficiency issues that must be addressed by health care delivery systems, as well as statistical and related evidence on both input usage and output performance of the two health care systems. While Canada clearly spends less on health care, it is difficult to conclude that Canada has a more efficient health care system than the United States. In particular, the US population puts greater demands on its national health care system owing to a combination of behavioural patterns and socio-economic disparities that contribute to much higher rates of violent accidents, as well as specific diseases and other health problems. Also, the stylized representation of the US system as being 'market-driven' and the Canadian system as being 'centrally controlled' is, increasingly, inept. Both systems are evolving toward bureaucratic models that rely more on internal competition than market competition for governance. In this respect, economic forces are nudging both systems towards a convergence of structure and performance.

  8. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Current trends in Canadian health care: myths and misconceptions in health economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyte, P C

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the economic aspects of the trends in Canadian health care. Various myths and misconceptions abound regarding the applicability of economics to behaviour in the health care industry as well as to the interpretation of recent trends. Both issues are examined in this paper. While most discussions regarding health care trends begin with the share of health expenditures in Gross National Product, I propose an alternative share that adjusts for cyclical variations in both unemployment and labour force participation. Using this measure, I show that the "real" growth of resources devoted to the health care industry is much larger than that obtained with conventional measures, and that the difference in growth rates between Canada and the U.S. is narrowed considerably. The paper outlines and disputes the validity of three public health policy propositions. First, it is not empirically valid to say that the introduction of universal medical insurance in Canada successfully contained the growth in the share of society's resources devoted to the health care industry. Second, it is not correct to argue that the change in the federal funding for hospital and medical care in 1977 was a "fiscal non-event". And finally, the proposed "equity" funding formula for Ontario hospitals is unlikely to contain costs and will potentially skew hospitals towards the provision of complex forms of care instead of cost-effective community-based alternatives.

  10. 76 FR 63210 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health.

  11. Disability in two health care systems: access, quality, satisfaction, and physician contacts among working-age Canadians and Americans with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Stephen P; Altman, Barbara M

    2008-10-01

    An overarching question in health policy concerns whether the current mix of public and private health coverage in the United States can be, in one way or another, expanded to include all persons as it does in Canada. As typically high-end consumers of health care services, people with disabilities are key stakeholders to consider in this debate. The risk is that ways to cover more persons may be found only by sacrificing the quantity or quality of care on which people with disabilities so frequently depend. Yet, despite the many comparisons made of Canadian and U.S. health care, few focus directly on the needs of people with disabilities or the uninsured among them in the United States. This research is intended to address these gaps. Given this background, we compare the health care experiences of working-age uninsured and insured Americans with Canadian individuals (all of whom, insured) with a special focus on disability. Two questions for research guide our inquiry: (1) On the basis of disability severity level and health insurance status, are there differences in self-reported measures of access, utilization, satisfaction with, or quality of health care services within or between the United States and Canada? (2) After controlling covariates, when examining each level of disability severity, are there any significant differences in these measures of access, utilization, satisfaction, or quality between U.S. insured and Canadian persons? Cross-sectional data from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) are analyzed with particular attention to disability severity level (none, nonsevere, or severe) among three analytic groups of working age residents (insured Americans, uninsured Americans, and Canadians). Differences in three measures of access, one measure of satisfaction with care, one quality of care measure, and two varieties of physician contacts are compared. Multivariate methods are then used to compare the healthcare experiences of

  12. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T. Do

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Methods: We performed analyses using biomonitoring and directly measured anthropometric data from 4733 adults aged 18 to 79 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2011. We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to estimate associations of urinary BPA with body mass index (BMI categories (overweight vs. under/normal weight; obesity vs. under/normal weight and elevated waist circumference (males: ≥ 102 cm; females: ≥ 88 cm, respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Linear regression analyses were also performed to assess associations between urinary BPA and continuous BMI and waist circumference measures. Results: Urinary BPA was positively associated with BMI-defined obesity, with an odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–2.37 in the highest (vs. lowest BPA quartile (test for trend, p = .041. Urinary BPA was not associated with elevated waist circumference defined using standard cut-offs. Additionally, each natural-log unit increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with a 0.33 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.10–0.57 increase in BMI and a 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.34–1.65 increase in waist circumference. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the growing body of evidence that BPA is positively associated with obesity. Prospective studies with repeated measures are needed to address temporality and improve exposure classification.

  13. An Industry Perspective on Canadian Patients' Involvement in Medical Tourism: Implications for Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Adams, Krystyna; Kingsbury, Paul; Snyder, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian med...

  14. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  15. Gut microbiomes and their metabolites shape human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojun

    2018-03-01

    The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health. This editorial introduces six review papers that provide new discoveries of disease-associated microbiomes and suggest possible microbiome-based therapeutic approaches to human disease.

  16. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... 90 [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY... notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health... animal health. DATES: The meeting will be held September 23, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight...

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian market-age pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, A A; Aramini, J J; Tiffin, G; Bisaillon, J R

    1998-08-01

    During 1991 and 1992, 2,800 market-age pigs were sampled at federally inspected abattoirs from across Canada. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG at titers of > or =1:32 were found in 240 pigs examined by a commercial, latex agglutination test. Seroprevalences ranged from 3.5 to 13.2% in the different regions of the country. Tissue hybridization studies using a previously developed probe demonstrated T. gondii ribosomal RNA in 9 of 36 animals, whereas mouse bioassay testing of heart muscle and diaphragm from all 2,800 pigs failed to demonstrate the presence of infective stages of T. gondii in tissues. Although serology results from this study indicated that Canadian market-age pigs are infected with T. gondii at rates similar to those reported from other parts of North America, mouse bioassay results suggested that Canadian pork products contain low levels of infective organisms. This apparent discrepancy suggests that serological evidence of T. gondii infection in pigs alone does not accurately assess the public health risks associated with consuming improperly cooked pork products.

  18. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  19. Animal Health in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Jainudeen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries in Africa and Asia are located in the tropics (23° north and south of the equator. The poor productivity of ruminants in these countries is mostly due to inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases, low rates of reproduction, poor genotype, high ambient temperatures and socioeconomic constraints. In addition to infectious diseases which have long since been eradicated or brought under control in developed countries, there are diseases unique to the tropical environment. In the past, the diagnosis of most diseases was based on serological tests. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a rapid method of identifying viral and bacterial infections, is contributing to the eradication or control of most epidemic diseases which inflict high mortality. Less attention has; however, been given to subclinical diseases which adversely affect reproduction, growrh rates and reduced performance (draught power, milk and meat. The interaction of veterinary epidemiology and agricultural economics has helped epidemiologists and veterinarians to focus on the economic importance of animal diseases. The emerging trends in animal health include new diagnostic methods using DNA probes, new vaccines, sustainable parasite control schemes and herd health monitoring. The study of infectious diseases of veterinary importance will continue to he supported by modern techniques of molecular biology. Veterinary curricula should emphasis both animal health and production in the context of current national development occurring in the livestock sector.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  1. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  2. Canadian Medicare: prognosis guarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, C D; Fooks, C; Williams, J I

    1995-08-01

    Beset by unprecedented fiscal pressures, Canadian medicare has reached a crossroads. The authors review the impact of recent cuts in federal transfer payments on provincial health care programs and offer seven suggestions to policymakers trying to accommodate these reductions. (1) Go slowly: public health care spending is no longer rising and few provinces have the necessary systems in place to manage major reductions. (2) Target reductions, rewarding quality and efficiency instead of making across-the-board cuts. (3) Replace blame with praise:give health care professionals and institutions credit for their contributions. (4) Learn from the successful programs and policies already in place across the country. (5) Foster horizontal and vertical integration of services. (6) Promote physician leadership by rewarding efforts to promote the efficient use of resources. (7) Monitor the effects of cutbacks: physician groups should cooperate with government in maintaining a national "report card" on services, costs and the health status of Canadians.

  3. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of three upcoming meetings of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee.

  4. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  5. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  6. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steve C; Lunney, Joan K; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Gay, Cyril G

    2011-06-03

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. Importantly, stakeholders were included to provide input on priorities and the potential value of animal genomics to the animal health community. In an effort to facilitate the roundtable discussion, the organizers identified four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This report provides the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, problems are identified, including potential solutions and recommendations. This report captures key points made by symposium participants during the roundtable discussion and serves as a roadmap to steer future research priorities in animal genomics research.

  7. Exclusive breastfeeding among Canadian Inuit: results from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Lou, Wendy; Sellen, Daniel; Young, T Kue

    2014-05-01

    Very little population-based research has been conducted around the exclusive breastfeeding practices of Inuit Canadians. This research aims to assess the distribution of exclusive breastfeeding among Inuit Canadians and to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding as recommended. We use data from 188 infant-mother dyads who completed the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based survey of Inuit children aged 3 to 5 years. A series of multinomial logistic regression models were run to identify factors associated with 4 exclusive breastfeeding durations (≤ 1 month, > 1- 6.5 months). Of infants, 23% were exclusively breastfed as recommended (ie, between 5.5 and 6.5 months; 95% CI, 16.2-29.3). Many infants (61%) were exclusively breastfed for less than 5.5 months and 16% (95% CI, 10.9-22.0) were exclusively breastfed for more than 6.5 months. Families receiving income support were less likely to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding before 5.5 months (pOR1- Inuit Canadian infants receive suboptimal exclusive breastfeeding. National, provincial, and community-specific interventions to protect, promote, and support exclusive breastfeeding should emphasize not only the benefits of exclusively breastfeeding to 6 months but also the importance of timely introduction of complementary foods into the infant's diet.

  8. Comorbidity between lifetime eating problems and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl

    2015-03-01

    This study was to examine profiles of eating problems (EPs), mood and anxiety disorders and their comorbidities; explore risk patterns for these disorders; and document differences in health service utilization in a national population. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. The lifetime prevalence of EPs was 1.70% among Canadians, compared with 13.25% for mood disorder, 11.27% for anxiety disorder and 20.16% for any mood or anxiety disorder. Almost half of those with EPs also suffered with mood or anxiety disorders. A similar pattern in depressive symptoms was found among individuals with major depression and EPs, but individuals with EPs reported fewer symptoms. Factors associated with the comorbidity of EPs and mood and anxiety disorders were identified. Individuals with EPs reported more unmet needs. Patients with EPs should be concomitantly investigated for mood and anxiety disorders, as similar interventions may be effective for both. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Not on the radar: the impact of rural health realities on Canadian public policy and HHR migration from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Arminée; Apland, Lars E; Labonté, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The policy environment of Health Human Resource (HHR) demands in rural and remote areas of Canada seems to compel health system planners either to ignore or only pay lip service to memoranda of understanding and other non-binding international agreements on ethical principles of recruitment. Despite common acknowledgement that the migration of health professionals from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the resultant loss of capacity to deliver health services are devastating for populations in that region, Canadian public policy consideration of the "brain drain" of health human resources from SSA seems cursory, at best. As a result, broadly based domestic HHR policies and international development policy objectives invariably seem to conflict and produce unsatisfactory results that continue to be detrimental to populations of source countries in the developing world, while doing little to alleviate the continued reliance of Canada's rural and remote "'gateways" on foreign-trained health professionals. A key challenge for Canadian public policy, at all levels of government, is to coordinate and find common ground, whereby brain drain issues and specific domestic Canadian HHR needs can be simultaneously and effectively addressed. This research explored the congruity between rural HHR policy principles and international development objectives in the context of federal, provincial, and territorial government relations in Canada.

  10. The Availability of MeSH in Vendor-Supplied Cataloguing Records, as Seen Through the Catalogue of a Canadian Academic Health Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Morgan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of medical subject headings in vendor-supplied cataloguing records for publications contained within aggregated databases or publisher collections. In the first phase, the catalogue of one Canadian academic medical library was examined to determine the extent to which medical subject headings (MeSH are available in the vendor-supplied records. In the second phase, these results were compared to the catalogues of other Canadian academic medical libraries in order to reach a generalization regarding the availability of MeSH headings for electronic resources. MeSH was more widespread in records for electronic journals but was noticeably lacking in records for electronic monographs, and for Canadian publications. There is no standard for ensuring MeSH are assigned to monograph records for health titles and there is no library in Canada with responsibility for ensuring that Canadian health publications receive Medical Subject Headings. It is incumbent upon libraries using MeSH to ensure that vendors are aware of this need when purchasing record sets.

  11. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  12. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    biotechnology must be shown to be pure, potent, safe and effective when used according to label recommendations. The Canadian regulatory system relies on the 'precautionary principle' in its approach to regulate the 'product' instead of the 'process'. The regulatory framework captures transgenic animals under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Food from transgenic animals is assessed for safety by Health Canada under its Novel Foods Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act. Feed containing any genetically modified organism is considered Novel Feed under the Feeds Act and Regulations. The regulation of veterinary biologics, in an effort to prevent and diagnose infectious diseases of animals, relies on effective science-based regulatory controls under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. The Canadian system of regulation for feeds, veterinary biologics and transgenic animals could be useful to developing countries in the process of establishing an effective framework for new regulations. (author)

  13. Convergence of body mass index of immigrants to the Canadian-born population: evidence from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent immigrants typically have better physical health than the native born population. However, this 'healthy immigrant effect' tends to gradually wane over time, with increasing length of residence in the host country. To assess whether the body mass index (BMI) of different immigrant groups converged to the Canadian population's levels, we estimated 12-year trajectories of changes in BMI (accounting for socio-demographic changes). Using data from seven longitudinal waves of the National Population Health Survey (1994 through 2006), we compared the changes in BMI (kg/m(2)) among three groups: white immigrants, non-white immigrants and Canadian born, aged 18-54 at baseline. We applied linear random effects models to evaluate these BMI separately in 2,504 males and 2,960 females. BMI increased in Canadian born, white immigrants, and non-white immigrants over the 12-year period. However, non-white immigrants (males and females) had a lower mean BMI than Canadian born individuals during this period [Males: -2.27, 95% Confidence interval (CI) -3.02 to -1.53; Females: -1.84, 95% CI -2.79 to -0.90]. In contrast, the mean BMI in white male immigrants and Canadian born individuals were similar (-0.32, 95% CI -0.91 to 0.27). Even after adjusting for time since immigration, non-white immigrants had lower BMI than white immigrants. White male immigrants were the only sub-group to converge to the BMI of the Canadian born population. These results indicate that the loss of 'healthy immigrant effect' with regard to convergence of BMI to Canadian levels may not be experienced equally by all immigrants in Canada.

  14. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  15. How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns from the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Morgan, Jeff; Adams, Krystyna

    2017-06-01

    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: (1) Inbound medical tourism to Canada's public hospitals; (2) Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; (3) Canadian patients opting to go abroad for medical tourism; and (4) Canadian patients traveling abroad with a Canadian surgeon. These patterns of medical tourism affect preferential access to health care by Canadians by circumventing domestic regulation of care, creating jurisdictional tensions over the provision of health care, and undermining solidarity with the Canadian health system.

  16. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  17. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  19. Servant leadership: a case study of a Canadian health care innovator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderpyl TH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tim H VanderpylSchool of Global Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, USAAbstract: Both servant leadership and innovation are easier to theorize than to actually implement in practice. This article presents a case study of a Canadian health care executive who led a remarkable turnaround of St Michael's Health Centre, a floundering and almost bankrupt nursing home. In less than 7 years, Kevin Cowan turned around the finances and changed numerous broken relationships into strategic alliances. Under his leadership, St Michael's Health Centre went from being one of the most underperforming health care organizations in Canada, to one of the most innovative. This article describes some of Cowan's strategies and argues that a servant leadership approach has a direct impact on an organization's ability to innovate. As far as the author is aware, this is the first published article on this specific change effort, which presents a unique perspective on the topics of servant leadership and innovation.Keywords: servant leadership, innovation, Canada, health care, case study

  20. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Corine S; van Weert, Julia C M; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-13

    Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that

  1. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  2. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research.

  3. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  4. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  6. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of the topics on the agenda for an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health.

  7. Fall-related injuries among Canadian seniors, 2005-2013: an analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, M T; Chang, V C; Kuran, N; Thompson, W

    2015-09-01

    We describe the epidemiology and trends of fall-related injuries among Canadian seniors aged 65 years and older by sex and age, as well as the circumstances and consequences of their injuries. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005, 2009/2010 and 2013 samples of the Canadian Community Health Survey to calculate the number and rates of fall-related injuries for each survey year. Where possible, we combined data from two or more samples to estimate the proportion of fall-related injuries by type of injury, part of body injured, type of activity and type of treatment. The rate of fall-related injuries among seniors increased from 49.4 to 58.8 per 1000 population between 2005 and 2013, during which the number of fall-related injuries increased by 54% overall. Women had consistently higher rates than men across all survey years, while rates increased with advancing age. The upward trend in fall-related injury rates was more prominent among women and younger age groups. The most common type of injury was broken or fractured bones (37%), and the shoulder or upper arm (16%) was the most commonly injured body part. Many fall-related injuries occurred while walking on a surface other than snow or ice (45%). Over 70% of seniors seeking treatment for their injuries visited a hospital emergency department. Given the increase in both the number and rates of fall-related injuries over time, there is a need to continue monitoring trends and injury patterns associated with falls.

  8. 76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...This document informs the public of the next meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. In this document, we provide a new date for the July 2011 meeting, which had been scheduled for the previous week. The meeting is being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee.

  9. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website.

  12. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  13. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  14. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  16. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-06-15

    Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, "Liberation therapy" for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other businesses market regional, cross

  17. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  18. Support infrastructure available to Canadian residents completing post-graduate global health electives: current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lojan Sivakumaran

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Canadian universities are encouraged to continue to send their trainees on global health electives. To address the gaps in infrastructure reported in this study, the authors suggest the development of comprehensive standardized guidelines by post-graduate regulatory/advocacy bodies to better ensure patient and participant safety. We also encourage the centralization of infrastructure management to the universities’ global health departments to aid in resource management.

  19. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Primary animal health workers in Laos learn to use smartphones in their practice. A smartphone application developed with IDRC support is helping primary animal health workers (PAHWs) in Laos PDR to quickly and accurately answer questions and treat poultry. The app is also helping farmers raise ...

  20. Wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities: "That's wheelie gross!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paula; Muller, Matthew P; Prior, Betty; So, Ken; Tooze, Jane; Eum, Linda; Kachur, Oksana

    2014-11-01

    Wheelchairs are complex equipment that come in close contact with individuals at increased risk of transmitting and acquiring antibiotic-resistant organisms and health care-associated infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection in Canadian health care facilities. Acute care hospitals (ACHs), chronic care hospitals (CCHs), and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were contacted and the individual responsible for oversight of wheelchair cleaning and disinfection was identified. A structured interview was conducted that focused on current practices and concerns, barriers to effective wheelchair cleaning and disinfection, and potential solutions. Interviews were completed at 48 of the 54 facilities contacted (89%), including 18 ACHs, 16 CCHs, and 14 LTCFs. Most (n = 24) facilities had 50-200 in-house wheelchairs. Respondents were very concerned about wheelchair cleaning as an infection control issue. Specific concerns included the lack of reliable systems for tracking and identifying dirty and clean wheelchairs (71%, 34/48), failure to clean and disinfect wheelchairs between patients (52%, 25/48), difficulty cleaning cushions (42%, 20/48), lack of guidelines (35%, 27/48), continued use of visibly soiled wheelchairs (29%, 14/48) and lack of resources (25%, 12/48). Our results suggest that wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is not optimally performed at many Canadian hospitals and LTCFs. Specific guidance on wheelchair cleaning and disinfection is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Reproduced

  2. Marketers don't wear plaid: marketing and health care administration in the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J M; Backman, A M

    1997-01-01

    Marketing has a bad reputation among Canadian health managers, even though marketing solutions may address many of their problems. This article provides an overview of current understandings of marketing and how they may be applied to health care situations. Marketing should be considered an ongoing process. This is particularly helpful if we understand the root task of health managers as creating and promoting exchanges--with governments, physicians, nurses, other health workers and client groups. Exchanges that are desirable to the health care community will more likely occur if the true costs and benefits of health services are analyzed, understood and imaginatively communicated. The public constantly evaluates the health system. Constant evaluation implies a need for marketing directed internally at staff and those within the health system, and externally at constituents outside the system. Properly understood and practiced, marketing can be part of the innovative solutions health care managers develop and apply as they deal with the difficult challenges facing them in Canada's current health care environment.

  3. Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  4. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  5. Pan-Canadian Respiratory Standards Initiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE: 2011 National Forum Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Diane Lougheed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario’s Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS. Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to

  6. Fall-related injuries among Canadian seniors, 2005–2013: an analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, M. T.; Chang, V. C.; Kuran, N.; Thompson, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We describe the epidemiology and trends of fall-related injuries among Canadian seniors aged 65 years and older by sex and age, as well as the circumstances and consequences of their injuries. Methods: We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005, 2009/2010 and 2013 samples of the Canadian Community Health Survey to calculate the number and rates of fall-related injuries for each survey year. Where possible, we combined data from two or more samples to estimate the proportion of fall-related injuries by type of injury, part of body injured, type of activity and type of treatment. Results: The rate of fall-related injuries among seniors increased from 49.4 to 58.8 per 1000 population between 2005 and 2013, during which the number of fall-related injuries increased by 54% overall. Women had consistently higher rates than men across all survey years, while rates increased with advancing age. The upward trend in fall-related injury rates was more prominent among women and younger age groups. The most common type of injury was broken or fractured bones (37%), and the shoulder or upper arm (16%) was the most commonly injured body part. Many fall-related injuries occurred while walking on a surface other than snow or ice (45%). Over 70% of seniors seeking treatment for their injuries visited a hospital emergency department. Conclusion: Given the increase in both the number and rates of fall-related injuries over time, there is a need to continue monitoring trends and injury patterns associated with falls. PMID:26378768

  7. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  8. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs.

  9. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  11. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  12. No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Kennedy, V Logan; Poliquin, Vanessa; Dzineku, Frederick; Dean, Nicola L; Margolese, Shari; Symington, Alison; Money, Deborah M; Hamilton, Scot; Conway, Tracey; Khan, Sarah; Yudin, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines. The full search strategy is available upon request. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and through use of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation instrument for the development of clinical guidelines. Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an evidence-based approach for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy, preconception, fertility, and pregnancy planning counselling in the context of HIV infection. These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Disease Committee and the Executive and Council of the SOGC. Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant Planning and Dissemination grant (Funding Reference # 137186), which funded a Development Team meeting in 2016. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction to the Special Issue: Precarious Solidarity-Preferential Access in Canadian Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette

    2017-06-01

    Systems of universal health coverage may aspire to provide care based on need and not ability to pay; the complexities of this aspiration (conceptual, practical, and ethical) call for normative analysis. This special issue arises in the wake of a judicial inquiry into preferential access in the Canadian province of Alberta, the Vertes Commission. I describe this inquiry and set out a taxonomy of forms of differential and preferential access. Papers in this special issue focus on the conceptual specification of health system boundaries (the concept of medical need) and on the normative questions raised by complex models of funding and delivery of care, where patients, providers, and services cross system boundaries.

  14. Animal-assisted interventions: A national survey of health and safety policies in hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Siebens, Hannah C; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs are increasing in popularity, but it is unknown to what extent therapy animal organizations that provide AAI and the hospitals and eldercare facilities they work with implement effective animal health and safety policies to ensure safety of both animals and humans. Our study objective was to survey hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations on their AAI policies and procedures. A survey of United States hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations was administered to assess existing health and safety policies related to AAI programs. Forty-five eldercare facilities, 45 hospitals, and 27 therapy animal organizations were surveyed. Health and safety policies varied widely and potentially compromised human and animal safety. For example, 70% of therapy animal organizations potentially put patients at risk by allowing therapy animals eating raw meat diets to visit facilities. In general, hospitals had stricter requirements than eldercare facilities. This information suggests that there are gaps between the policies of facilities and therapy animal organizations compared with recent guidelines for animal visitation in hospitals. Facilities with AAI programs need to review their policies to address recent AAI guidelines to ensure the safety of animals and humans involved. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of Canadian Institute for Health Research Funding for Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deonandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined patterns of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR funding on autism spectrum disorder (ASD research. From 1999 to 2013, CIHR funded 190 ASD grants worth $48 million. Biomedical research received 43% of grants (46% of dollars, clinical research 27% (41%, health services 10% (7%, and population health research 8% (3%. The greatest number of grants was given in 2009, but 2003 saw the greatest amount. Funding is clustered in a handful of provinces and institutions, favouring biomedical research and disfavouring behavioural interventions, adaptation, and institutional response. Preference for biomedical research may be due to the detriment of clinical research.

  16. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  17. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  18. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  19. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  1. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Short communication: Prevalence of digital dermatitis in Canadian dairy cattle classified as high, average, or low antibody- and cell-mediated immune responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, S L; Malchiodi, F; Thompson-Crispi, K; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2017-10-01

    Lameness is a major animal welfare issue affecting Canadian dairy producers, and it can lead to production, reproduction, and health problems in dairy cattle herds. Although several different lesions affect dairy cattle hooves, studies show that digital dermatitis is the most common lesion identified in Canadian dairy herds. It has also been shown that dairy cattle classified as having high immune response (IR) have lower incidence of disease compared with those animals with average and low IR; therefore, it has been hypothesized that IR plays a role in preventing infectious hoof lesions. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of digital dermatitis in Canadian dairy cattle that were classified for antibody-mediated (AMIR) and cell-mediated (CMIR) immune response. Cattle (n = 329) from 5 commercial dairy farms in Ontario were evaluated for IR using a patented test protocol that captures both AMIR and CMIR. Individuals were classified as high, average, or low responders based on standardized residuals for AMIR and CMIR. Residuals were calculated using a general linear model that included the effects of herd, parity, stage of lactation, and stage of pregnancy. Hoof health data were collected from 2011 to 2013 by the farm's hoof trimmer using Hoof Supervisor software (KS Dairy Consulting Inc., Dresser, WI). All trim events were included for each animal, and lesions were assessed as a binary trait at each trim event. Hoof health data were analyzed using a mixed model that included the effects of herd, stage of lactation (at trim date), parity (at trim date), IR category (high, average, and low), and the random effect of animal. All data were presented as prevalence within IR category. Results showed that cows with high AMIR had significantly lower prevalence of digital dermatitis than cattle with average and low AMIR. No significant difference in prevalence of digital dermatitis was observed between high, average, and low CMIR cows. These results

  3. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  4. Prostate cancer surveillance by occupation and industry: the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritharan, Jeavana; MacLeod, Jill; Harris, Shelley; Cole, Donald C; Harris, Anne; Tjepkema, Michael; Peters, Paul A; Demers, Paul A

    2018-04-01

    As there are no well-established modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer, further evidence is needed on possible factors such as occupation. Our study uses one of the largest Canadian worker cohorts to examine occupation, industry, and prostate cancer and to assess patterns of prostate cancer rates. The Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) was established by linking the 1991 Canadian Census Cohort to the Canadian Cancer Database (1969-2010), Canadian Mortality Database (1991-2011), and Tax Summary Files (1981-2011). A total of 37,695 prostate cancer cases were identified in men aged 25-74 based on age at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In men aged 25-74 years, elevated risks were observed in the following occupations: senior management (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20); office and administration (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.11-1.27); finance services (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14); education (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11); agriculture and farm management (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06-1.17); farm work (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21); construction managers (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.14); firefighting (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36); and police work (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.36). Decreased risks were observed across other construction and transportation occupations. Results by industry were consistent with occupation results. Associations were identified for white-collar, agriculture, protective services, construction, and transportation occupations. These findings emphasize the need for further study of job-related exposures and the potential influence of nonoccupational factors such as screening practices. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Management of patients with refractory angina: Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Pain Society joint guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillion, Michael; Arthur, Heather M; Cook, Allison; Carroll, Sandra L; Victor, J Charles; L'allier, Philippe L; Jolicoeur, E Marc; Svorkdal, Nelson; Niznick, Joel; Teoh, Kevin; Cosman, Tammy; Sessle, Barry; Watt-Watson, Judy; Clark, Alexander; Taenzer, Paul; Coyte, Peter; Malysh, Louise; Galte, Carol; Stone, James

    2012-01-01

    Refractory angina (RFA) is a debilitating disease characterized by cardiac pain resistant to conventional treatments for coronary artery disease including nitrates, calcium-channel and β-adrenoceptor blockade, vasculoprotective agents, percutaneous coronary interventions, and coronary artery bypass grafting. The mortality rate of patients living with RFA is not known but is thought to be in the range of approximately 3%. These individuals suffer severely impaired health-related quality of life with recurrent and sustained pain, poor general health status, psychological distress, impaired role functioning, and activity restriction. Effective care for RFA sufferers in Canada is critically underdeveloped. These guidelines are predicated upon a 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Position Statement which identified that underlying the problem of RFA management is the lack of a formalized, coordinated, interprofessional strategy between the cardiovascular and pain science/clinical communities. The guidelines are therefore a joint initiative of the CCS and the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) and make practice recommendations about treatment options for RFA that are based on the best available evidence. Concluding summary recommendations are also made, giving direction to future clinical practice and research on RFA management in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of occupational health risks in small-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Eva; Barraclough, Richard; Fishwick, David; Curran, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Small-animal work is a major element of veterinary practice in the UK and may be hazardous, with high levels of work-related injuries and ill-health reported in Australia and USA. There are no studies addressing the management of occupational health risks arising from small-animal work in the UK. To investigate the sources of health and safety information used and how health and safety and 12 specific occupational health risks are managed by practices. A cross-sectional postal survey of all small-animal veterinary practices in Hampshire. A response was mandatory as this was a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) inspection activity. A total of 118 (100%) practices responded of which 93 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 99 and 86%, respectively, were aware of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) practice standards and had British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) staff members, while only 51% had previous contact with HSE (publications, advice and visit). Ninety per cent had health and safety policies, but only 31% had trained responsible staff in health and safety. Specific health hazards such as occupational allergens and computer use were relatively overlooked both by practices and the RCVS/BSAVA guidance available in 2002. Failings in active health risk management systems could be due to a lack of training to ensure competence in those with responsibilities. Practices rely on guidance produced by their professional bodies. Current RCVS guidance, available since 2005, has remedied some previous omissions, but further improvements are recommended.

  8. Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

    2012-12-01

    This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Perceived Eating Habits and Food Skills of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce J; Mudryj, Adriana N

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and described Canadians' self-perceived eating habits and food skills through the use of population-based data. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013 Rapid Response on Food Skills was used to examine the eating quality and patterns of Canadians. Data were collected from all provinces in January and February 2013. Respondent variables (sex, age, Aboriginal/immigrant status) were examined to assess differentiations between socio-demographic groupings (family structure, marital status, education, and income). Logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic variables increased the likelihood of certain responses. Forty-six percent of Canadians believe they have excellent/very good eating habits, with 51% categorizing their habits as good or fair. Similarly, the majority report having good food skills. Sex and age were significantly associated with food skills, with women rating their cooking skill proficiency higher than men (72% vs 55%), and older Canadians reporting higher food skill knowledge than their younger counterparts. Results indicate that while portions of the Canadian population have adequate food skills, others are lacking, which may negatively impact their diet. Findings from this study have implications for education and health promotion programs focusing on foods skills, particularly among vulnerable target groups. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Canadian governance of health research involving human subjects: is anybody minding the store?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M

    2001-01-01

    From an ethical perspective, good governance involves the translation of collective moral intentions into effective and accountable institutional actions. With respect to the use of human subjects in Canadian health research, I contend that there have been many good intentions but very little in the way of appropriate governance arrangements. Hence, the question, "who minds the store?" is especially acute with respect to the protection of vulnerable individuals and groups that are typically recruited as subjects for health research in Canada. Beyond diagnosing failures in governance and their causes, I offer suggestions for significant reforms, including evidence-based ethics assessment, independent oversight, and greater participation of research subjects in governance. I will close with some more general reflections on ethics, law, and governance.

  11. Massage therapy and canadians' health care needs 2020: proceedings of a national research priority setting summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Trish; Sumpton, Bryn; Shipwright, Stacey; Kahn, Janet; Reece, Barbara Findlay

    2014-03-01

    The health care landscape in Canada is changing rapidly as forces, such as an aging population, increasingly complex health issues and treatments, and economic pressure to reduce health care costs, bear down on the system. A cohesive national research agenda for massage therapy (MT) is needed in order to ensure maximum benefit is derived from research on treatment, health care policy, and cost effectiveness. A one-day invitational summit was held in Toronto, Ontario to build strategic alliances among Canadian and international researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders to help shape a national research agenda for MT. Using a modified Delphi method, the summit organizers conducted two pre-summit surveys to ensure that time spent during the summit was relevant and productive. The summit was facilitated using the principles of Appreciative Inquiry which included a "4D" strategic planning approach (defining, discovery, dreaming, designing) and application of a SOAR framework (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results). Twenty-six researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders actively participated in the events. Priority topics that massage therapists believe are important to the Canadian public, other health care providers, and policy makers and massage therapists themselves were identified. A framework for a national massage therapy (MT) research agenda, a grand vision of the future for MT research, and a 12-month action plan were developed. The summit provided an excellent opportunity for key stakeholders to come together and use their experience and knowledge of MT to develop a much-needed plan for moving the MT research and professionalization agenda forward.

  12. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  13. Improving the use of economics in animal health - Challenges in research, policy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters. The paper explores the question by looking at the changing role of animals in society and the associated change of the animal health professional's activities. It then questions if the current allocation of scarce resources for animal health are adequately allocated for societies and whether currently available data are sufficient for good allocation. A rapid review of the data on disease impacts - production losses and costs of human reaction - indicate that the data are sparse collected in different times and geographical regions. This limits what can be understood on the productivity of the economic resources used for animal health and this needs to be addressed with more systematic collection of data on disease losses and costs of animal health systems. Ideally such a process should learn lessons from the way that human health has made estimates of the burden of diseases and their capture of data on the costs of human health systems. Once available data on the global burden of animal diseases and the costs of animal health systems would allow assessments of individual disease management processes and the productivity of wider productivity change. This utopia should be aimed at if animal health is to continue to attract and maintain adequate resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials.

  15. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises.

  16. Depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne

    2017-01-18

    Among Canadians aged 15 to 24, the rate of depression is higher than at any other age, and suicide is the second leading cause of death. The current study provides detailed information about depression and suicidal ideation among young Canadians, including their use of mental health support. Data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH) were used to describe rates and experiences of depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15 to 24, including psychosocial characteristics of those who had depression or reported suicidal thoughts. Characteristics associated with seeking professional support were also examined. About 11% of Canadians aged 15 to 24 had experienced depression in their lifetime; 7%, in the past year. Approximately 14% reported having had suicidal thoughts in their lifetime; 6%, in the past year. Lifetime depression and suicidal thoughts were moderately correlated (r = .34, p ⟨ .001). Individuals with lifetime depression had more than four times the odds of seeking professional support in the previous year, compared with those who did not have lifetime depression; those with lifetime suicidal thoughts had more than three times the odds of seeking professional support, compared with those who did not have lifetime suicidal thoughts. Psychosocial factors such as negative social interactions and lower perceived ability to deal with stress were associated with depression and suicidal thoughts, although these associations differed for males and females. The findings suggest that many young Canadians have depression and/or suicidal thoughts. Their odds of seeking professional support are significantly high.

  17. Canadian Medicare: prognosis guarded.

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, C D; Fooks, C; Williams, J I

    1995-01-01

    Beset by unprecedented fiscal pressures, Canadian medicare has reached a crossroads. The authors review the impact of recent cuts in federal transfer payments on provincial health care programs and offer seven suggestions to policymakers trying to accommodate these reductions. (1) Go slowly: public health care spending is no longer rising and few provinces have the necessary systems in place to manage major reductions. (2) Target reductions, rewarding quality and efficiency instead of making ...

  18. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  20. An Opportunity for Healing and Holistic Care: Exploring the Roles of Health Care Providers Working Within Northern Canadian Aboriginal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Zaida; Holmes, Dave; Chartrand, Larry

    2016-05-22

    The purpose of this qualitative study was exploring what the roles and challenges of health care providers working within Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities are and what resources can help support or impede their efforts in working toward addressing health inequities within these communities. The qualitative research conducted was influenced by a postcolonial epistemology. The works of theorists Fanon on colonization and racial construction, Kristeva on semiotics and abjection, and Foucault on power/knowledge, governmentality, and biopower were used in providing a theoretical framework. Critical discourse analysis of 25 semistructured interviews with health care providers was used to gain a better understanding of their roles and challenges while working within Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities. Within this research study, three significant findings emerged from the data. First, the Aboriginal person's identity was constructed in relation to the health care provider's role of delivering essential health services. Second, health care providers were not treating the "ill" patient, but rather treating the patient for being "ill." Third, health care providers were treating the Aboriginal person for being "Aboriginal" by separating the patient from his or her identity. The treatment involved reforming the Aboriginal patient from the condition of being "Aboriginal." © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  2. Television viewing, computer use and total screen time in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Amy E; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2006-11-01

    Research has linked excessive television viewing and computer use in children and adolescents to a variety of health and social problems. Current recommendations are that screen time in children and adolescents should be limited to no more than 2 h per day. To determine the percentage of Canadian youth meeting the screen time guideline recommendations. The representative study sample consisted of 6942 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 who participated in the 2001/2002 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Only 41% of girls and 34% of boys in grades 6 to 10 watched 2 h or less of television per day. Once the time of leisure computer use was included and total daily screen time was examined, only 18% of girls and 14% of boys met the guidelines. The prevalence of those meeting the screen time guidelines was higher in girls than boys. Fewer than 20% of Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 met the total screen time guidelines, suggesting that increased public health interventions are needed to reduce the number of leisure time hours that Canadian youth spend watching television and using the computer.

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  5. Veterinary education for global animal and public health, D.A. Walsh : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This 28th annual volume published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, addresses the need for a global shift in the way veterinary students are taught veterinary public health (VPH. As well as taking the lead in prevention and control of animal diseases, the OIE develops health and welfare standards to promote food security and equitable international trade in animals and animal products.

  6. Reports on boys', youth's and men's health in Canadian newspapers: Now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Margareth Santos; Byam, Aaron Andrew; Solomon, Donna; Jalili, Katayoon; Haag, Carlos; Tallarico, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background: This media content analysis explored the Canadian newspapers reporting on men's health, and their contribution to public understanding of the social determinants of men's health and lifestyles. Methods: A media content analysis of 44 news articles on boys', youth's and men's health,published from 2010 to 2014 by three national newspapers (The Globe and Mail, National Post,and Metro News). Results: Data indicated that the predominant discourse consists of informative and awareness messages, mostly about men's prostate and sexual health. Very little health news content referred to working conditions, education and income, all of which are significant social determinants of health (SDH). This may reflect the current state of health research, which does not adequately incorporate the effects of these determinants. It may also indicate a reproduction of dominant health knowledge and understanding of masculinity. Little content was found on policy solutions to other publicized health issues, such as limited access to health services or inter-sectoral collaborations; this reflects a lack of government action and a lack of citizen engagement toward the creation of a concerted men's health policy. Conclusion: Despite the acknowledged importance of the media in promoting access to health information and indirectly contributing to improve the general public's level of health literacy, it is also necessary to remember that there must be a greater attention to the structural constraints imposed by socioeconomic inequalities. Future studies should explore media discourses about men's unequal access to health care services and citizens' awareness of ways to overcome those inequalities shortcomings.

  7. Health-related quality of life in Canadian adolescents and young adults: normative data using the SF-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; Prior, Jerilynn C; Anastassiades, Tassos; Poliquin, Suzette; Zhou, Wei; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A; Tenenhouse, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Normative data for the SF-36 measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exist for those over 25 years of age, based on data from the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). CaMos recently recruited a sample of young Canadians aged between 16 and 24 years. The purpose of this study was to develop normative SF-36 data for this age group. After direct standardization to the Canadian population, means, standard deviations (SD), 95% confidence intervals and percentage at floor and ceiling were produced for the eight domain and two summary scores of the SF-36. Domains are scored from 0 (poor) to 100 (excellent). Summary scores are standardized to a mean of 50, with scores over 50 representing better than average and below 50 poorer than average function. Separate analyses were completed for men and women, and for those 16-19 years and 20-24 years. The 1,001 community-based participants consisted of 474 men and 527 women from nine CaMos centres across Canada. Mean Physical Component Summary scores were 53.9 (SD = 6.9) and 53.3 (SD = 5.7) for young men and women, respectively. The equivalent Mental Component Summary scores were 49.3 (SD = 9.7) and 48.8 (SD = 8.9). In general, men scored somewhat higher than women, and younger (16-19 years) women scored higher than older (20-24 years) women, although the differences were small. HRQOL is good in this cohort of young Canadians. Both men and women scored somewhat better on physically than mentally oriented domains. In general, Canadian scores were similar to those of the US, while a comparable Swedish sample scored higher than both countries on most domains. Results underscore the importance of taking country, age and gender into consideration when using normative data.

  8. The costs of uncertainty: regulating health and safety in the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.

    1982-04-01

    Federalism, and particularly federal/provincial jurisdictional relationships, have led to considerable uncertainty in the regulation of occupational health and safety and of environmental protection in the Canadian uranium mining industry. The two principal uranium producing provinces in Canada are Saskatchewan and Ontario. Since 1978, in an attempt to avoid constitutional issues, both these provinces and the federal government as well have proceeded unilaterally with health and safety reforms for the industry. In Saskatchewan this has resulted in areas of overlapping jurisdiction, which have led to uncertainty over the legal enforceability of the provincial regulations. In Ontario, the province has left significant gaps in the protection of both workers and the environment. Little progress can be expected in eliminating these gaps and overlaps until the current administrative and jurisdictional arrangements are understood

  9. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  10. Integrating the issues of world animal health and world public health into the veterinary curriculum: a Southeast Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri-Saad, M; Romziah, S; Kunavongkrit, A; Valdez, C A; Thien, M

    2009-08-01

    The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in total. In general, world animal health and world public health are well integrated into the veterinary curriculum. Most curricula allocate approximately 3% of their total credit hours to subjects associated with animal and public health, but other subjects that may contain discussions on these issues range between 6% and 10%. Most veterinary schools in Southeast Asia offer a Master's programme in Veterinary Public Health, with detailed emphasis on animal and public health but focusing principally on topics of local importance. At the same time, undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary students are exposed to current issues in animal and public health through regional and international scientific meetings.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  12. Zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, F Claire; Johnston, Nancy A; Weigler, Benjamin J; Di Giacomo, Ronald F

    2003-12-01

    In contemporary laboratory animal facilities, workplace exposure to zoonotic pathogens, agents transmitted to humans from vertebrate animals or their tissues, is an occupational hazard. The primary (e.g., macaques, pigs, dogs, rabbits, mice, and rats) and secondary species (e.g., sheep, goats, cats, ferrets, and pigeons) of animals commonly used in biomedical research, as classified by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, are established or potential hosts for a large number of zoonotic agents. Diseases included in this review are principally those wherein a risk to biomedical facility personnel has been documented by published reports of human cases in laboratory animal research settings, or under reasonably similar circumstances. Diseases are listed alphabetically, and each section includes information about clinical disease, transmission, occurrence, and prevention in animal reservoir species and humans. Our goal is to provide a resource for veterinarians, health-care professionals, technical staff, and administrators that will assist in the design and on-going evaluation of institutional occupational health and safety programs.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  14. "It is about being outside": Canadian youth's perspectives of good health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Skarlato, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data generated from an ethnographic study exploring Canadian youth's understanding of health, this paper examines youth's perspectives of the relationships between health and environment. Seventy-one youth (12 to 19 years of age) took part in individual and focus group interviews, as well as in photovoice interviews. Although initial discourse about health mainly focused on healthy eating and exercise, youth were more enthused and able to share their thoughts and feelings about the relationships between health and environment during the photovoice interviews. For these youth, good health was defined and visualized as "being outside" in a safe, clean, green, and livable space. Youth talked about conditions contributing to healthy environments and how healthy environments contributed to a strong sense of place. Overall, the conversations about the environment evoked many feelings in the youth. Results are discussed in the context of current research and in relation to youth, but also more broadly in relation to research on health and environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  16. The Business Of Urban Animals Survey: the facts and statistics on companion animals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Terri

    2009-01-01

    At the first Banff Summit for Urban Animal Strategies (BSUAS) in 2006, delegates clearly indicated that a lack of reliable Canadian statistics hampers municipal leaders and legislators in their efforts to develop urban animal strategies that create and sustain a healthy community for pets and people. To gain a better understanding of the situation, BSUAS municipal delegates and other industry stakeholders partnered with Ipsos Reid, one of the world's leading polling firms, to conduct a national survey on the "Business of Urban Animals." The results of the survey, summarized in this article, were presented at the BSUAS meeting in October 2008. In addition, each participating community will receive a comprehensive written analysis, as well as a customized report. The online survey was conducted from September 22 to October 1, 2008. There were 7208 participants, including 3973 pet and 3235 non-pet owners from the Ipsos-Reid's proprietary Canadian online panel. The national results were weighted to reflect the true population distribution across Canada and the panel was balanced on all major demographics to mirror Statistics Canada census information. The margin for error for the national results is 1/- 1.15%.

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  19. Infectious respiratory disease outbreaks and pregnancy: occupational health and safety concerns of Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.

  20. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  1. Recent trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Celia; Sharma, Atul K

    2016-09-20

    Previous studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children from 23.3% to 34.7% during 1978-2004. We examined the most recent trends by applying current definitions of overweight and obesity based on World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) thresholds and recently validated norms for waist circumference and waist:height ratio. We examined directly measured height and weight data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2004-2005) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009-2013). We calculated z scores for BMI, height and weight based on the 2014 WHO growth charts for Canada, including the new extension of weight-for-age beyond 10 years. To calculate z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratios, we used new charts from the reference population in the US NHANES III (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994). Data were available for 14 014 children aged 3-19 years for the period 2004-2013. We observed a decline in the prevalence of overweight or obesity, from 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.7% to 31.6%) to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.7%) (p obesity at about 13%. These trends persisted after we adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. Although they declined, the median z scores for BMI, weight and height were positive and higher than those in the WHO reference population. The z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratio were negative, which indicated that the Canadian children had less central adiposity than American children in historic or contemporary NHANES cohorts. After a period of dramatic growth, BMI z scores and the prevalence of overweight or obesity among Canadian children decreased from 2004 to 2013, which attests to progress against this important public health challenge. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  2. Human health considerations in the assessment of Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baweja, A.S.; Tracy, B.L.; Ahier, B.; Bartlett, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1978, AECL was mandated by the government of Ontario and the federal government to find a permanent disposal solution for spent nuclear fuels. Canada opted for disposal in plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield. The Canadian concept calls for disposal in crystalline rocks at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface. The spent fuel would be contained in a canister, the canister would be emplaced in a vault containing clay-based buffer materials, and the cavity would be backfilled and sealed with natural materials. A Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel was formed in 1992 to assess the concept for disposal of the spent fuel. In this paper a brief discussion of the human health impacts of the proposed concept is presented. Our assessment is based on the information provided by AECL, namely, the main EIS document, a summary and nine other supporting documents

  3. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  4. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  5. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  6. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  7. The Global Public Health Intelligence Network and early warning outbreak detection: a Canadian contribution to global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Weir, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The recent SARS epidemic has renewed widespread concerns about the global transmission of infectious diseases. In this commentary, we explore novel approaches to global infectious disease surveillance through a focus on an important Canadian contribution to the area--the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). GPHIN is a cutting-edge initiative that draws on the capacity of the Internet and newly available 24/7 global news coverage of health events to create a unique form of early warning outbreak detection. This commentary outlines the operation and development of GPHIN and compares it to ProMED-mail, another Internet-based approach to global health surveillance. We argue that GPHIN has created an important shift in the relationship of public health and news information. By exiting the pyramid of official reporting, GPHIN has created a new monitoring technique that has disrupted national boundaries of outbreak notification, while creating new possibilities for global outbreak response. By incorporating news within the emerging apparatus of global infectious disease surveillance, GPHIN has effectively responded to the global media's challenge to official country reporting of outbreak and enhanced the effectiveness and credibility of international public health.

  8. Canadian valuation of EQ-5D health states: preliminary value set and considerations for future valuation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bansback

    Full Text Available The EQ-5D is a preference based instrument which provides a description of a respondent's health status, and an empirically derived value for that health state often from a representative sample of the general population. It is commonly used to derive Quality Adjusted Life Year calculations (QALY in economic evaluations. However, values for health states have been found to differ between countries. The objective of this study was to develop a set of values for the EQ-5D health states for use in Canada.Values for 48 different EQ-5D health states were elicited using the Time Trade Off (TTO via a web survey in English. A random effect model was fitted to the data to estimate values for all 243 health states of the EQ-5D. Various model specifications were explored. Comparisons with EQ-5D values from the UK and US were made. Sensitivity analysis explored different transformations of values worse than dead, and exclusion criteria of subjects.The final model was estimated from the values of 1145 subjects with socio-demographics broadly representative of Canadian general population with the exception of Quebec. This yielded a good fit with observed TTO values, with an overall R2 of 0.403 and a mean absolute error of 0.044.A preference-weight algorithm for Canadian studies that include the EQ-5D is developed. The primary limitations regarded the representativeness of the final sample, given the language used (English only, the method of recruitment, and the difficulty in the task. Insights into potential issues for conducting valuation studies in countries as large and diverse as Canada are gained.

  9. Animal health risk of legally imported exotic animals into the Netherlands in the period 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de Clazien; Swanenburg, Manon; Tafro, Nedzib; Roon, van Annika; Stenvers, Olaf F.J.; Elbers, Armin R.W.

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide trade in exotic animals is a potential moderator for the global dispersion of infectious disease agents. Better insight into the pathogens that could be introduced by these trade flows can help to target surveillance efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the animal health risk

  10. The relationship between child protection contact and mental health outcomes among Canadian adults with a child abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; McTavish, Jill; Turner, Sarah; MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine

    2018-05-01

    Despite being a primary response to child abuse, it is currently unknown whether contact with child protection services (CPS) does more good than harm. The aim of the current study was to examine whether contact with CPS is associated with improved mental health outcomes among adult respondents who reported experiencing child abuse, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and abuse severity. The data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-2012), which used a multistage stratified cluster design (household-level response rate = 79.8%). Included in this study were individuals aged 18 years and older living in the 10 Canadian provinces (N = 23,395). Child abuse included physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Mental health outcomes included lifetime mental disorders, lifetime and past year suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts, and current psychological well-being and functioning and distress. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and severity of child abuse. For the majority of outcomes, there were no statistically significant differences between adults with a child abuse history who had CPS contact compared to those without CPS contact. However, those with CPS contact were more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts. These findings suggest that CPS contact is not associated with improved mental health outcomes. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands).

  12. A case for increased private sector involvement in ireland's national animal health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia. The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands.

  13. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  14. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Systemic Therapies in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer in the Canadian Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Doug; Ko, Yoo-Joung; Coyle, Kathryn; Saluja, Ronak; Shah, Keya; Lien, Kelly; Lam, Henry; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of gemcitabine (G), G + 5-fluorouracil, G + capecitabine, G + cisplatin, G + oxaliplatin, G + erlotinib, G + nab-paclitaxel (GnP), and FOLFIRINOX in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer from a Canadian public health payer's perspective, using data from a recently published Bayesian network meta-analysis. Analysis was conducted through a three-state Markov model and used data on the progression of disease with treatment from the gemcitabine arms of randomized controlled trials combined with estimates from the network meta-analysis for the newer regimens. Estimates of health care costs were obtained from local providers, and utilities were derived from the literature. The model estimates the effect of treatment regimens on costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) discounted at 5% per annum. At a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of greater than $30,666 per QALY, FOLFIRINOX would be the most optimal regimen. For a WTP threshold of $50,000 per QALY, the probability that FOLFIRINOX would be optimal was 57.8%. There was no price reduction for nab-paclitaxel when GnP was optimal. From a Canadian public health payer's perspective at the present time and drug prices, FOLFIRINOX is the optimal regimen on the basis of the cost-effectiveness criterion. GnP is not cost-effective regardless of the WTP threshold. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  17. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Sharon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  18. The Canadian Dollar and the Dutch and Canadian Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Coulombe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the spectacular rise of the dollar, along with rising natural-resource prices during the first decade of the 21st century, Canadians heard a great deal about Dutch disease. Many politicians and pundits blamed the phenomenon — in which a country’s currency, inflated by rising commodity prices, renders manufacturing exports increasingly uncompetitive — for rising unemployment in the Canadian manufacturing industry. But a close look at what happened during that period reveals that the Dutch disease mechanism was only part of the story. The other part, and quantitatively the most important, is an affliction of an altogether different providence: Canadian disease. Canadian disease is the economic trouble that can be caused by Canada’s extraordinarily heavy reliance on the United States as a trading partner. As a consequence, a sudden depreciation of the U.S, dollar will deteriorate the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing exporters. Such a phenomenon was at work during the “Great Appreciation” of the Canadian dollar between 2002 and 2008 — the largest such appreciation on record in this country. The depreciation of the U.S. dollar is a phenomenon that is independent of the resource boom and the resulting consequences on the Canadian economy cannot be endorsed to a Dutch disease. Almost 2/3 of the employment losses that are exchange rate related in the trade-exposed manufacturers in Canada during the 2002–2008 period could be attributed to the Canadian disease. The Canadian dollar is partly driven by commodity prices, and the appreciation of the Canadian dollar exerts a negative impact on manufacturing industries that are exposed to international competition. This phenomenon can be coined as a Dutch Affair. The Dutch Affair becomes a disease in the long run when the non-renewable resource is depleted and the manufacturing base is gone. New manufacturing activities might not reappear due to a variety of obstacles. In Canada

  19. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  20. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring... Warnken, Management and Program Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS, APHIS, 2150...

  1. What can the Canadians and Americans learn from each other's health care systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Numerous papers have been written comparing the Canadian and US healthcare systems, and a number of health policy experts have recommended that the Americans implement their single-payer system to save 12-20% of its healthcare expenditures. This paper is different in that it assumes that neither country will undertake a significant philosophic or structural change in their healthcare system, but there are lessons to be learned that are inherent in one that could be a major breakthrough for the other. Following the model in Canada and in Western Europe, the USA could implement universal health insurance so that the 32.0 million (2015) Americans still uninsured would have at least minimal coverage when incurring medical expenditures. Also, the USA could use smart cards to evaluate eligibility and to process health insurance claims; these changes resulting in an estimated 15% reduction in US health expenditures without adversely effecting access or quality of care. Such a strategy would result in the eventual loss of 2.5 million white-collar jobs at hospitals, physician offices and insurance companies, a long-term economic gain. Only a few would agree with the statement that Canada already functions with a multi-payer reimbursement system as evidenced by (1) a federal-provincial, tax-supported plan, administered by each of the provinces, providing universal coverage for hospital and physician services and (2) roughly 60% of its residents receiving employer-paid health insurance benefits, underwritten primarily by investor-owned plans, that are less than effective to reimburse for pharmaceuticals, dental and other healthcare services. What could be learned from the USA and particularly from Western European countries is possibly implementing an approach, whereby at least upper-income Canadians could opt out of their federal-provincial plan and purchase private insurance coverage - being eligible for far more comprehensive "private" benefits for hospital, physician

  2. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training.

  3. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  5. Social and economic aspects of aquatic animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, K E; Gunn, G J

    2017-04-01

    Aquaculture is an increasingly important source of animal protein for a growing global population. Disease is a major constraint to production, with resultant socio-economic impacts for individuals, communities and economies which rely on aquaculture. Aquatic animal health is also strongly influenced by human factors, ranging from international trade regulations to the behaviours of individuals working in aquaculture. This article summarises the human factors associated with aquaculture production using international examples for illustration.

  6. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  7. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.S.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Haven, C.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  8. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  9. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains

  10. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  11. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's CanMEDS competency framework. A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  13. Calcium, Vitamin D, Iron, and Folate Messages in Three Canadian Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Zalot, Lindsay; Wadsworth, Laurie A

    2014-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey showed that calcium, vitamin D, iron, and folate are nutrients of concern for females 19-50 years of age. The study objectives were to assess the quantity, format, and accuracy of messages related to these nutrients in selected Canadian magazines and to examine their congruency with Canadian nutrition policies. Using content analysis methodology, messages were coded using a stratified sample of a constructed year for Canadian Living, Chatelaine, and Homemakers magazines (n = 33) from 2003-2008. Pilot research was conducted to assess inter-coder agreement and to develop the study coding sheet and codebook. The messages identified (n = 595) averaged 18 messages per magazine issue. The most messages were found for calcium, followed by folate, iron, and vitamin D, and the messages were found primarily in articles (46%) and advertisements (37%). Overall, most messages were coded as accurate (82%) and congruent with Canadian nutrition policies (90%). This research demonstrated that the majority of messages in 3 Canadian magazines between 2003 and 2008 were accurate and reflected Canadian nutrition policies. Because Canadian women continue to receive much nutrition information via print media, this research provides important insights for dietitians into media messaging.

  14. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  15. Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among Canadian Transgender Youth and its Relation to Mental Health, Sexual Health, and Gender Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie; Watson, Ryan J; Adjei, Jones; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While little research has been conducted into the reproductive experiences of transgender people, available evidence suggests that like cisgender people, most transgender people endorse a desire for these experiences. This study explores the pregnancy experiences and related health factors among transgender and gender-diverse 14-25 year olds using a national Canadian sample ( N = 923). Results indicated that 26 (5%) transgender youth reported a pregnancy experience in the past and the prevalence among 14-18 year olds was comparable to population-based estimates using the same question in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey. Transgender youth with a history of pregnancy involvement reported a diverse range of gender identities, and this group did not differ from the remainder of the sample on general mental health, social supports, and living in felt gender. This group did report over six times greater likelihood of having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection by a doctor (19%), but did they not differ in reported contraception use during last sexual intercourse. These findings suggest that pregnancy involvement is an issue that should not be overlooked by health professionals working with transgender youth and that this group has particular sexual health needs.

  16. The "old internationals": Canadian nurses in an international nursing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeyre, Jaime; Nelson, Sioban

    2010-12-01

    The vast devastation caused by both the First World War and the influenza pandemic of 1918 led to an increased worldwide demand for public health nurses. In response to this demand, a number of new public health training programs for nurses were started at both national and international levels. At the international level, one of two influential programs in this area included a year-long public health nursing course offered by the League of Red Cross Societies, in conjunction with Bedford College in London, England. In total, 341 nurses from 49 different countries have been documented as participants in this initiative throughout the interwar period, including 20 Canadians. Using archival material from the Canadian Nurses Association and the Royal College of Nursing, as well as articles from the journals Canadian Nurse, American Journal of Nursing and British Journal of Nursing, this paper examines these nurses' commitment to internationalism throughout their careers and explores the effect of this commitment on the development of nursing education and professionalization at the national level.

  17. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  19. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain. © 2013 Crown Copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency`s programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  2. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  3. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  4. Diet quality and mental health in subsequent years among Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Seanna E; Kuhle, Stefan; Colman, Ian; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    To examine the association between diet quality and the diagnosis of an internalizing disorder in children and adolescents. A prospective study examining the relationship between diet quality and mental health. FFQ responses of 3757 children were used to calculate a composite score for diet quality and its four components: variety, adequacy, moderation and balance. Physicians' diagnoses on internalizing disorders were obtained by linking the children's dietary information to administrative health data. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between diet quality and diagnosis of an internalizing disorder. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (age 10-11 years). Diet quality was not found to be associated with internalizing disorder in a statistically significant manner (incidence rate ratio = 1.09; 95 % CI 0.73, 1.63). However, relative to children with little variety in their diets, children with greater variety in their diet had statistically significant lower rates of internalizing disorder in subsequent years (incidence rate ratio = 0.45; 95 % CI 0.25, 0.82). These findings suggest the importance of variety in children's diet and opportunities in the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety.

  5. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-08-31

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  6. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  7. Understanding the structure of community collaboration: the case of one Canadian health promotion network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Martha; Maclean, Joanne; Cousens, Laura

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, over 6.8 million Canadians were considered overweight, with an additional 2.4 million labeled clinically obese. Due to these escalating levels of obesity in Canada, physical activity is being championed by politicians, physicians, educators and community members as a means to address this health crisis. In doing so, many organizations are being called upon to provide essential physical activity services and programs to combat rising obesity rates. Yet, strategies for achieving these organizations' mandates, which invariably involve stretching already scarce resources, are difficult to implement and sustain. One strategy for improving the health and physical activity levels of people in communities has been the creation of inter-organizational networks of service providers. Yet, little is known about whether networks are effective in addressing policy issues in non-clinical health settings. The purpose of this investigation was 2-fold; to use whole network analysis to determine the structure of one health promotion network in Canada, and to identify the types of ties shared by actors in the health network. Findings revealed a network wherein information sharing constituted the basis for collaboration, whereas efforts related to sharing resources, marketing and/or fundraising endeavors were less evident.

  8. Stakeholder views on the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H

    2016-05-01

    This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. 2016 FRAME.

  9. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Paul Cherniack; Ariella R. Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  10. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E; Alpi, Kristine M; Pike, Caitlin A; Whitman, Elisabeth E; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    "One Health" is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%-34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated.

  11. Sustainable improvement of animal health care by systematic quality risk management according to the HACCP concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, J P; Welpelo, H J

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept as applied to animal health management strategy. Characteristics of the concept were analysed and compared with those of current animal health care strategies for disease risk identification and herd health management, insurance, and certification. HACCP is a hybrid strategy of quality control at both production process and product level. Animal health is considered a particular quality feature. We show that process control (expressed in terms of controlling both general and specific disease risk factors) and product control (expressed in terms of testing animals or animal products for specific disease agents) could form the basis for improving animal health. We conclude that HACCP provides ample opportunity for preventive health action and risk management at a relatively low cost in terms of labour, finance and documentation expenditure, at both the farm and sector level. Epidemiological field studies are currently needed to identify critical control points and to design HACCP procedures for livestock producers. In the long run, HACCP based animal health care can be further developed into a quality control systems approach to cover all aspects that are related, either directly or indirectly, to animal health.

  12. Point of care hand hygiene-where's the rub? A survey of US and Canadian health care workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jane; Kendall, Anson; Marx, James F; Pincock, Ted; Young, Elizabeth; Hughes, Jillian M; Landers, Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Hand hygiene at the point of care is recognized as a best practice for promoting compliance at the moments when hand hygiene is most critical. The objective of this study was to compare knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US and Canadian frontline health care personnel regarding hand hygiene at the point of care. Physicians and nurses in US and Canadian hospitals were invited to complete a 32-question online survey based on evidence supporting point of care hand hygiene. Eligible health care personnel were in direct clinical practice at least 50% of the time. Three hundred fifty frontline caregivers completed the survey. Among respondents, 57.1% were from the United States and 42.9% were from Canada. Respondents were evenly distributed between physician and nurses. The US and Canadian respondents gave identical ranking to their perceived barriers to hand hygiene compliance. More than half of the respondents from both the United States and Canada agreed or strongly agreed that they would be more likely to clean their hands when recommended if alcohol-based handrub was closer to the patient. This survey demonstrates that similarities between Canada and the United States were more common than not, and the survey raises, or suggests, potential knowledge gaps that require further illumination. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  14. Omega-3 Index of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2015-11-01

    Cardioprotective properties have been associated with two fatty acids-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The Omega-3 Index indicates the percentage of EPA+DHA in red blood cell fatty acids. Omega-3 Index levels of the Canadian population have not been directly measured. Data for respondents aged 20 to 79 from cycle 3 (2012/2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey were used to calculate means and the prevalence of Omega-3 Index coronary heart disease (CHD) risk cut-offs-high (4% or less), moderate (more than 4% to less than 8%), and low (8% or more)-by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, including fish consumption and use of omega-3 supplements. Associations between the Omega-3 Index and CHD-related factors including biomarkers, risk factors, and previous CHD events, were examined in multivariate regression models. The mean Omega-3 Index level of Canadians aged 20 to 79 was 4.5%. Levels were higher for women, older adults, Asians and other non-white Canadians, omega-3 supplement users, and fish consumers; levels were lower for smokers and people who were obese. Fewer than 3% of adults had levels associated with low CHD risk; 43% had levels associated with high risk. No CHD-related factor was associated with the Omega-3 Index when control variables were taken into account. Omega-3 Index levels among Canadian adults were strongly related to age, race, supplement use, fish consumption, smoking status and obesity. Fewer than 3% of adults had Omega-3 Index levels associated with low risk for CHD.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  16. Burnout among Canadian Psychiatry Residents: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halli, Priyanka; Ogrodniczuk, John S.; Hadjipavlou, George

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is a serious problem for health care providers that has implications for clinical practice and personal health. While burnout is known to affect residents, no studies have examined the prevalence or impact of burnout among Canadian psychiatry residents. Method: Residents in all Canadian psychiatry training programs were surveyed between May 1, 2014, and July 1, 2014. The survey included a well-validated, single-item measure to assess symptoms of burnout, several demographic questions, and Likert-scale items to assess residents’ appraisals of empathic functioning and strategies for coping with stress from patient encounters. Results: Responses were obtained from 400 residents, for a response rate of 48%. Twenty-one percent (N = 84) of residents reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout was reported more frequently by residents in postgraduate year 2 than by those in other years and was associated with engagement in personal psychotherapy during residency. No association was found between burnout and age, gender, or location of residency program. Residents who endorsed symptoms of burnout reported higher levels of compromised empathic functioning, were less likely to consult with supervisors about stressful clinical experiences, and were more likely to engage in unhealthy coping strategies. Conclusions: Symptoms of burnout affect one-fifth of Canadian psychiatry residents. The associations between burnout symptoms and problematic clinical and personal functioning suggest areas of concern for those involved in the training of Canadian psychiatry residents. PMID:27310237

  17. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human–Companion Animal Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg K. Takashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB as it relates to healthcare in these areas.

  19. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  20. Social correlates of leisure-time sedentary behaviours in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, S; Szafron, M

    2017-03-01

    Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI), and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.

  1. Social correlates of leisure-time sedentary behaviours in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Huffman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI, and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.

  2. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  3. Canadian experiences with avian influenza: a look at regional disease control--past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, J-P

    2009-04-01

    Over the past 5 yr, the poultry industry in Canada has had a few H5 or H7 avian influenza (AI) epidemics. An analysis of these outbreaks by government officials highlighted the need to establish a better partnership between those responsible for controlling the disease and public health officials responsible for protecting the public and those participating in eradication efforts. These officials also agreed that compensations had to be reviewed, that national biosecurity standards needed to be established to better prevent AI, that a national mortality disposal plan was needed, and finally that the current emergency disease management protocols had to be reviewed. Industry representatives stressed the need for early detection and reporting; for more effective tools for decision making, including using local expertise for trace-back activities and quick interventions; for better communications within industry, but mainly between industry and governmental authorities at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels; and finally, for better planning to minimize the impact of eradication efforts on poultry production and for the recovery following the epidemic. These observations triggered a series of initiatives. A National Office of Animal Biosecurity was created by federal authorities, with the mandate to establish national biosecurity standards. A Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was also put in place to improve the capacity of early detection of the disease and to increase the surge capacity of the Canadian laboratory system. Wildlife and commercial poultry AI surveillance programs have also been put in place. Provincial poultry grower organizations have established AI control and eradication plans that are increasing their ability to intervene early and to assist government authorities once AI is confirmed in the field. This includes the creation of industry incident command centers with emphasis on confidentiality agreements between government and

  4. Severe accident considerations in Canadian nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, A.M.; Measures, M.P.; Scott, C.K.; Lewis, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes a current study on severe accidents being sponsored by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and provides background on other related Canadian work. Scoping calculations are performed in Phase I of the AECB study to establish the relative consequences of several permutations resulting from six postulated initiating events, nine containment states, and a selection of meteorological conditions and health effects mitigating criteria. In Phase II of the study, selected accidents sequences would be analyzed in detail using models suitable for the design features of the Canadian nuclear power reactors

  5. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reports on boys’, youth’s and men’s health in Canadian newspapers: Now what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Santos Zanchetta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This media content analysis explored the Canadian newspapers reporting on men's health, and their contribution to public understanding of the social determinants of men’s health and lifestyles. Methods: A media content analysis of 44 news articles on boys’, youth’s and men’s health,published from 2010 to 2014 by three national newspapers (The Globe and Mail, National Post,and Metro News. Results: Data indicated that the predominant discourse consists of informative and awareness messages, mostly about men’s prostate and sexual health. Very little health news content referred to working conditions, education and income, all of which are significant social determinants of health (SDH. This may reflect the current state of health research, which does not adequately incorporate the effects of these determinants. It may also indicate a reproduction of dominant health knowledge and understanding of masculinity. Little content was found on policy solutions to other publicized health issues, such as limited access to health services or inter-sectoral collaborations; this reflects a lack of government action and a lack of citizen engagement toward the creation of a concerted men’s health policy. Conclusion: Despite the acknowledged importance of the media in promoting access to health information and indirectly contributing to improve the general public’s level of health literacy, it is also necessary to remember that there must be a greater attention to the structural constraints imposed by socioeconomic inequalities. Future studies should explore media discourses about men’s unequal access to health care services and citizens’ awareness of ways to overcome those inequalities shortcomings.

  7. Health behaviours in a Canadian community college sample: prevalence of drug use and interrelationships among behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, C M; Faris, P D; Stam, H J; Egger, L A

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of drug use among a Canadian college sample and the covariation of drug taking and other health-related behaviours. A representative sample of students at a community college in Alberta were interviewed using telephone surveys, mail-in questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected on drug, alcohol and caffeine use, cigarette smoking, eating habits, sleep habits and exercise. While use of illicit drugs did not appear to be widespread, alcohol appeared to be a primary substance abuse problem for a minority of subjects. Factor analysis indicated that the various health habits did not form one dimension of health-related behaviours. Four separate factors emerged: abusive drinking, eating habits, a drug use factor (caffeine intake, smoking, cannabis and hallucinogen use), and exercise levels. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research, treatment and intervention.

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced.

  12. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  13. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cirulli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.

  14. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  15. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish an Ecohealth Chair in Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and the health of local ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  16. Pharmacists' Scope of Practice: Supports for Canadians with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Kerry; Edmunds, Kirsten; Guirguis, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacists' role in Canada has significantly advanced over the past decade, resulting in increasing access to primary care services. This study aimed to characterize pharmacists' expanded scope of practice as it relates to providing services to Canadians with diabetes. This environmental scan characterized services that could be useful to Canadians with diabetes in each of the provinces (excluding the territories): immunizations, medication prescribing, ordering and interpreting laboratory tests, and medication reviews. Researchers also collected information on pharmacists' access to health information. Data were collected from regulatory authorities in each province, from pharmacy stakeholders and through a web search. Pharmacists' scope of practice varies widely across the Canadian provinces. Three provinces have medication-review programs focused specifically on diabetes, and many people with diabetes can access publicly funded medication reviews. Other than in Quebec, pharmacists can provide influenza (publicly funded) and pneumococcal vaccinations (publicly funded in British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba). All pharmacists in Canadian provinces can renew prescriptions to ensure continuity of therapy. Pharmacists have varying levels of other prescriptive authority. Pharmacists in all provinces (except Ontario) can access provincial prescription information; in 4 provinces, they can access laboratory results, and in 3 provinces, they can order and interpret laboratory results, such as glycated hemoglobin levels. Canadians with diabetes can expect to receive influenza vaccines and have medications renewed at their pharmacies. Many patients with diabetes qualify for a publicly funded medication review, and some provinces allow pharmacists to order and interpret laboratory results. This expanded scope provides greater opportunities for pharmacists to help support patients with diabetes in conjunction with other health-care team members. Copyright © 2017

  17. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides

  18. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  19. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi eWeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  20. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare.

  1. Dominant Health Discourses in Action: Constructing People with Disabilities as the "Inadmissible Other" in Canadian Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya El-Lahib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a Critical Discourse Analysis study situated within a postcolonial theoretical framework and informed by Foucauldian analysis and the lens of governmentality.  The study examined official Canadian immigration documents and guidelines.  Findings suggest that discourses of risk and protection are used to mask dominant health discourses that construct immigration applicants with disabilities as the "inadmissible Other".  Implications for social work and other helping professions involved in facilitating immigration and settlement for newcomers with disabilities are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in research are offered.

  2. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  3. Justifiability and Animal Research in Health: Can Democratisation Help Resolve Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Scientists justify animal use in medical research because the benefits to human health outweigh the costs or harms to animals. However, whether it is justifiable is controversial for many people. Even public interests are divided because an increasing proportion of people do not support animal research, while demand for healthcare that is based on animal research is also rising. The wider public should be given more influence in these difficult decisions. This could be through requiring explicit disclosure about the role of animals in drug labelling to inform the public out of respect for people with strong objections. It could also be done through periodic public consultations that use public opinion and expert advice to decide which diseases justify the use of animals in medical research. More public input will help ensure that animal research projects meet public expectations and may help to promote changes to facilitate medical advances that need fewer animals. Abstract Current animal research ethics frameworks emphasise consequentialist ethics through cost-benefit or harm-benefit analysis. However, these ethical frameworks along with institutional animal ethics approval processes cannot satisfactorily decide when a given potential benefit is outweighed by costs to animals. The consequentialist calculus should, theoretically, provide for situations where research into a disease or disorder is no longer ethical, but this is difficult to determine objectively. Public support for animal research is also falling as demand for healthcare is rising. Democratisation of animal research could help resolve these tensions through facilitating ethical health consumerism or giving the public greater input into deciding the diseases and disorders where animal research is justified. Labelling drugs to disclose animal use and providing a plain-language summary of the role of animals may help promote public understanding and would respect the ethical beliefs of

  4. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  5. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  6. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoni Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.

  7. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  8. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  9. One health-one medicine: unifying human and animal medicine within an evolutionary paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Russell W; Steele, James H

    2011-08-01

    One health is a concept since early civilization, which promoted the view that there was no major distinction between animal and human medicine. Although persisting through the 19th century, this common vision was then all but forgotten in the early 20th century. It is now experiencing a renaissance, coincident with an awakening of the role that evolutionary biology plays in human and animal health, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A number of STIs in humans have comparable infections in animals; likewise, both humans and animals have STIs unique to each mammalian camp. These similarities and differences offer opportunities for basic medical and public health studies, including evolutionary insights that can be gleaned from ongoing interdisciplinary investigation--especially with the molecular analytical tools available--in what can become a golden age of mutually helpful discovery. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  11. Vision of Dutch organic dairy farmers on animal health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic dairy farmers expressed their opinions on animal health and welfare in order to be able to communicate it internally (within the dairy sector) and externally (to consumers). A healthy animal in their opinion is free of physical and psychological discomfort, survives in a herd, takes

  12. Where to next with animal health in Latin America? The transition from endemic to disease-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, H; Romero, J R

    2017-04-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security. Obtaining certification of disease-free status is only the first step towards gaining benefits from improvements in animal health. Increasing international trade means that countries must manage the sustainability of their disease-free status in conjunction with trade partners and must comply with additional food safety and animal welfare standards. This paper comments on the challenges created by this new scenario in relation to the epidemiology and economics of animal health, when seeking to improve decisionmaking for animal health management. The authors characterise the current LAC livestock landscape and animal health situation, describing transitions in disease control and the use of economics in improving animal health. They conclude with remarks on the challenges presented by decision-making, economic rationality, sources of benefits, distribution and incentives.

  13. Discourses of Dehumanization: Enemy Construction and Canadian Media Complicity in the Framing of the War on Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Steuter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Canadian news media’s coverage of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. In particular, Canadian newspaper headlines are examined for the way in which an image of the “enemy” is constructed and framed in dominant media discourse. An analysis of the data reveals a pattern of dehumanizing language applied to enemy leaders as well as Arab and Muslim citizens at large in the media’s uncritical reproduction of metaphors that linguistically frame the enemy in particular ways. Particularly, the paper argues that the Canadian media have participated in mediating constructions of Islam and Muslims, mobilizing familiar metaphors in representations that fabricate an enemy-Other who is dehumanized, de-individualized, and ultimately expendable. This dehumanizing language takes the form of animal imagery that equates and reduces human actions with sub-human behaviours. This paper argues that the repeated use of animal metaphors by monopoly media institutions constitute motivated representations that have ideological importance. The consequences of these representations are more than rhetorical, setting the stage for racist backlash, prisoner abuse and even genocide.

  14. Animal-Assisted Literacy: A Supportive Environment for Constrained and Unconstrained Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lori; Delisle, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or so, the popularity of animal-assisted literacy learning programs has gained momentum in schools and libraries around the world (Intermountain Therapy Animals, 2011). To date, such programs are currently running in four Canadian provinces and 43 U.S. states, as well as in Australia, the United Kingdom, Italy, and India…

  15. Management practices for male calves on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, D L; Duffield, T F; LeBlanc, S J; Haley, D B; Kelton, D F

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial use and resistance are major concerns in the rearing of male dairy calves, so information to support disease prevention is important. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe management practices associated with the care of male calves during their first days of life on Canadian dairy farms. A survey was completed by dairy producers across Canada between March 1 and April 30, 2015. The survey included 192 questions covering producer background, farm characteristics, biosecurity practices, disease prevalence, calf health, animal welfare, lameness, milking hygiene, reproduction, and Internet and social media use. A total of 1,025 surveys were completed online, by telephone, or by mail, representing 9% of all dairy farms in Canada. Five percent of respondents (n = 49) answered that they had euthanized at least 1 male calf at birth in the previous year, and blunt force trauma was commonly used in these cases. The majority of respondents always fed colostrum to male calves; however, 9% (n = 80) did not always feed colostrum. Almost 40% (n = 418) of respondents reported always dipping the navels of male calves, 12% (n = 123) vaccinated male calves, and 17% (n = 180) did not provide the same quantity of feed to male calves as heifer calves. The care of male calves differed greatly depending on the geographical region of the respondents. However, some regional effects may be confounded by economic conditions and the logistics of marketing male dairy calves in different parts of the country. Herd size was another important variable in many aspects of the management of male calves on dairy farms. Larger herd sizes were more likely to use an appropriate method of euthanasia at birth but were less likely to always feed colostrum to their male calves or feed them the same as female calves. Familiarity with the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle (National Farm Animal Care Council) by respondents

  16. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  17. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-02-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (δD) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for

  18. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM) - a Pan Canadian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Tu, Jack V; Awadalla, Philip; Black, Sandra; Boileau, Catherine; Busseuil, David; Desai, Dipika; Després, Jean-Pierre; de Souza, Russell J; Dummer, Trevor; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Knoppers, Bartha; Larose, Eric; Lear, Scott A; Marcotte, Francois; Moody, Alan R; Parker, Louise; Poirier, Paul; Robson, Paula J; Smith, Eric E; Spinelli, John J; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teo, Koon K; Tusevljak, Natasa; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity), cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  19. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  20. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  1. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  2. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition of Canadian Shift Workers: Data From the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Gotay, Carolyn C; Demers, Paul A; Campbell, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, physical fitness, and body composition in shift workers (SWs) with those who work regular days. Population-based, cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (n = 4323) were used. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to compare outcomes between SWs and day workers. In unweighted analyses, SWs were more likely to have poor body composition, although had fewer minutes per week of sedentary time. Despite no differences in physical activity, SWs had a lower aerobic capacity. In weighted analyses, only differences in aerobic capacity were observed. This analysis confirms previous findings that SWs have poorer body composition than day workers, and suggest that SWs may need to engage in more physical activity to achieve the same aerobic capacity as day workers.

  3. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  4. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  5. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  6. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  7. The Prevalence of CKD in Rural Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Results From the First Nations Community Based Screening to Improve Kidney Health and Prevent Dialysis (FINISHED) Screen, Triage, and Treat Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, Paul; Lavallee, Barry; Ferguson, Thomas W; Tangri, Navdeep; Chartrand, Caroline; McLeod, Lorraine; Gordon, Audrey; Dart, Allison; Rigatto, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous Canadians have high rates of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), in particular diabetes. Furthermore, they have increased rates of complications associated with CKD, such as kidney failure and vascular disease. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of CKD in this population. Cross-sectional cohort. Indigenous (First Nations) Canadians 18 years or older screened as part of the First Nations Community Based Screening to Improve Kidney Health and Prevent Dialysis (FINISHED) project, an initiative completed in 2015 that accomplished community-wide screening in 11 rural communities in Manitoba, Canada. Indigenous ethnicity and geographic location (communities accessible by road compared with those accessible only by air). Prevalence of CKD, presumed based on a single ascertainment of urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥ 30mg/g and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)indigenous Canadians in comparison to the general population and a prevalence of severely increased albuminuria that was 5-fold higher. This is comparable to patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. Public health strategies to screen, triage, and treat all Canadian indigenous peoples with CKD should be considered. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  9. [Family Health Teams in Ontario: Ideas for Germany from a Canadian Primary Care Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Lisa-R; Pham, Thuy-Nga Tia; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2017-07-11

    The German healthcare system is struggling with fragmentation of care in the face of an increasing shortage of general practitioners and allied health professionals, and the time-demanding healthcare needs of an aging, multimorbid patient population. Innovative interprofessional, intersectoral models of care are required to ensure adequate access to primary care across a variety of rural and urban settings into the foreseeable future. A team approach to care of the complex multimorbid patient population appears particularly suitable in attracting and retaining the next generation of healthcare professionals, including general practitioners. In 2014, the German Advisory Council on the Assessment of Developments in the Health Care System highlighted the importance of regional, integrated care with community-based primary care centres at its core, providing comprehensive, population-based, patient-centred primary care with adequate access to general practitioners for a given geographical area. Such centres exist already in Ontario, Canada; within Family Health Teams (FHT), family physicians work hand-in-hand with pharmacists, nurses, nurse practitioners, social workers, and other allied health professionals. In this article, the Canadian model of FHT will be introduced and we will discuss which components could be adapted to suit the German primary care system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Mutagenicity of smoke condensates from Canadian cigarettes with different design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladjenovic, Nemanja; Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Soo, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge regarding the impact of different cigarette designs on the toxicological properties of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This study used the Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay to examine the mutagenic activity of mainstream CSCs from 11 commercial Canadian cigarette brands with different design features or tobacco blend. The brands were selected to include design features that are common for cigarettes sold in the Canadian market, as well as cigarettes with alternate filters (charcoal or MicroBlue™), the super slim design, and cigarettes containing mixed blends of different tobacco types. CSCs were obtained using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) smoking regimes, and mutagenic activity was assessed using Salmonella strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5185. Comparisons of the commercial brands to the Kentucky 3R4F, the Canadian Monitor 8 reference and a Canadian best seller revealed no significant reduction in CSC mutagenicity for cigarettes with alternate filters. However, the super slim design did afford some reduction in mutagenic potency. Nevertheless, since the study did not attempt to evaluate the impact of the cigarette designs on human health at the individual or population level, the super slim cigarettes cannot be considered 'reduced-harm' cigarettes.

  11. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described.

  12. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  13. Assessing the Dietary Habits of Canadians by Eating Location and Occasion: Findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Nishi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Occasion and location of food environment has an influence on dietary habits, nutritional quality and overall health and nutrition-related chronic disease risk. Eating occasion and location was assessed in 20,402 Canadians aged ≥ 2 years, with a focus on energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium intake by age group. Data showed >80% of children, compared to ~60% of adolescents and adults, consumed three meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner plus snacks in a day. Dinner contributed the most calories [ranging from 395 ± 11 kcal (2–3 year olds to 952 ± 27 kcal (men 19–30 years], saturated fat [7.4 ± 0.2% energy (2–3 year olds to 9.1 ± 0.3% energy (women 31–50 years], and sodium [851 ± 24 mg (2–3 year olds to 1299 ± 69 mg (men 19–30 years], while snacks contributed the most added sugars [22 ± 1 kcal (men >70 years to 45 ± 1 kcal (2–3 year olds]. By eating location, most Canadians (>90% reported consuming food from home. Subsequently, home was associated with the majority of energy [1383 ± 23 kcal (women >70 years to 2090 ± 35 kcal (boys 9–13 years], saturated fat [20.4 ± 0.4%E (men 51–70 years to 24.2 ± 0.4%E (2–3 year olds], added sugars [77 ± 3 kcal (men 19–30 years to 117 ± 2 kcal (2–3 year olds], and sodium [2137 ± 59 mg (women 19–30 years to 2638 ± 45 mg (men 51–70 years] intakes. Reported eating behaviours suggest action is needed at individual and population levels to alter food purchasing and consumption habits, specifically with regards to snacking habits and foods prepared at home.

  14. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  15. Is there regional variation in the SF-36 scores of Canadian adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Tenenhouse, Alan; Poliquin, Suzette; Brown, Jacques P; Murray, Timothy M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A

    2002-01-01

    Canadian normative data for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) have recently been published. However, there is evidence from other countries to suggest that regional variation in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may exist. We therefore examined the SF-36 data from nine Canadian centres for evidence of systematic differences. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to compare the differences in the eight SF-36 domains and the two summary component scores within each of the age and gender strata across the nine sites. Five domains and the two summary component scores showed little clinically important variation. Other than a small number of exceptions, there was little overall evidence of HRQOL differences across most domains and across most sites. Our finding of only a few small differences suggests that there is no need to develop region-specific Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey.

  16. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are toxic to humans, fish and many other animals, even in low concentrations. Susceptibility to aflatoxins varies by age, health status, species and other factors. Most research has focused on aflatoxins in maize or groundnuts and their impacts on human health. However, aflatoxins are found in other foods and can also ...

  17. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Jessri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences.

  18. Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines: No. 278, June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona R; Margolese, Shari; Money, Deborah M; Gysler, Mathias; Hamilton, Scot; Yudin, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    Four main clinical issues need to be considered for HIV-positive individuals and couples with respect to pregnancy planning and counselling: (1) pre-conceptional health; (2) transmission from mother to infant, which has been significantly reduced by combined antiretroviral therapy; (3) transmission between partners during conception, which requires different prevention and treatment strategies depending on the status and needs of those involved; and (4) management of infertility issues. The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist HIV-positive individuals and couples with their fertility and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible, and they take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs and the social determinants of health. Intended outcomes are (1) reduction of risk of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of HIV, (2) improvement of maternal and infant health outcomes in the presence of HIV, (3) reduction of the stigma associated with pregnancy and HIV, and (4) increased access to pregnancy planning and fertility services. PubMed and Medline were searched for articles published in English or French to December 20, 2010, using the following terms: "HIV" and "pregnancy" or "pregnancy planning" or "fertility" or "reproduction" or "infertility" or "parenthood" or "insemination" or "artificial insemination" or "sperm washing" or "IVF" or "ICSI" or "IUI." Other search terms included "HIV" and 'horizontal transmission" or "sexual transmission" or "serodiscordant." The following conference databases were also searched: Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, International AIDS Conference, International AIDS Society, Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the Canadian Association of HIV/AIDS Research, and the Ontario HIV Treatment

  19. A survey of Canadian regulated complementary and alternative medicine schools about research, evidence-based health care and interprofessional training, as well as continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin April, Karine; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2013-12-28

    While some effort has been made to integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information in conventional biomedical training, it is unclear whether regulated Canadian CAM schools' students are exposed to research activities and continuing education, or whether topics such as evidence-based health care and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are covered during their training. Since these areas are valued by the biomedical training field, this may help to bridge the attitudinal and communication gaps between these different practices. The aim of this study was to describe the training offered in these areas and gather the perceptions of curriculum/program directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. A two-phase study consisting of an electronic survey and subsequent semi-structured telephone interviews was conducted with curriculum/program (C/P) directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. Questions assessed the extent of the research, evidence-based health care, IPC training and continuing education, as well as the C/P directors' perceptions about the training. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the schools', curriculum's and the C/P directors' characteristics. Content analysis was conducted on the interview material. Twenty-eight C/P directors replied to the electronic survey and 11 participated in the interviews, representing chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture and massage therapy schools. Canadian regulated CAM schools offered research and evidence-based health care training as well as opportunities for collaboration with biomedical peers and continuing education to a various extent (58% to 91%). Although directors were generally satisfied with the training offered at their school, they expressed a desire for improvements. They felt future CAM providers should understand research findings and be able to rely on high quality research and to communicate with conventional care providers as well as to engage in continuing education

  20. Epigenetics, eh! A meeting summary of the Canadian Conference on Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhiser, David I; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2011-10-01

    In May 2011, the Canadian Conference on Epigenetics: Epigenetics Eh! was held in London, Canada. The objectives of this conference were to showcase the breadth of epigenetic research on environment and health across Canada and to provide the catalyst to develop collaborative Canadian epigenetic research opportunities, similar to existing international epigenetic initiatives in the US and Europe. With ten platform sessions and two sessions with over 100 poster presentations, this conference featured cutting-edge epigenetic research, presented by Canadian and international principal investigators and their trainees in the field of epigenetics and chromatin dynamics. An EpigenART competition included ten artists, creating a unique opportunity for artists and scientists to interact and explore their individual interpretations of this scientific discipline. The conference provided a unique venue for a significant cross-section of Canadian epigenetic researchers from diverse disciplines to meet, interact, collaborate and strategize at the national level.

  1. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM – a Pan Canadian cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Anand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity, cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  2. Ad hoc method for the assessment on listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    compiled by disease scientists. A mapping was developed to identify which parameters from Article 7 were needed to inform each Article 5, 8 and 9 criterion. Specifically, for Articles 5 and 9 criteria, a categorical assessment was performed, by applying an expert judgement procedure, based on the mapped......The European Commission has requested EFSA to assess animal diseases according to the criteria as laid down in Articles 5, 7, 8 and Annex IV for the purpose of categorisation of diseases in accordance with Article 9 of the Regulation (EU) No 2016/429 (Animal Health Law). This scientific opinion...... addresses the ad hoc method developed for assessing any animal disease for the listing and categorisation of diseases within the Animal Health Law (AHL) framework. The assessment of individual diseases is addressed in distinct scientific opinions that are published separately. The assessment of Articles 5...

  3. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  4. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...] Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY... available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for the National Animal Health Laboratory... biological threats to the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  5. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  6. The Pharmaceutical Industry and the Canadian Government: Folie à Deux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-08-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry is in achieving a profit for its shareholders while the interest of the Canadian government should be in protecting public health. However, over the course of the past few decades the actions of the Canadian government have been tilted in favour of industry in two areas. The first is in the relationship between industry and Health Canada and is manifested in the regulation of clinical trials, the drug approval system, drug safety and promotion. The second is in economic policy as it applies to policies about patent protection, the price of medications and measures taken to incentivize research and development. The problems in the relationship are structural and will only be solved through systemic changes. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  7. Economic analysis and costing of animal health: a literature review of methods and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehove, A; Commault, J; Petitclerc, M; Teissier, M; Macé, J

    2012-08-01

    Myriads of data, a host of methods, but no single universal indicator. The Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Gap Analysis helps to quantify the needs of national Veterinary Services. In a world of scarce public financial resources and heightened transparency and accountability, official Veterinary Services (national Veterinary Authorities) must be able to justify their needs in economic and budgetary terms to their line minister, national parliament and the public at large, or in negotiations with donors. Animal health and Veterinary Service activities are a global public good. It is the responsibility of governments to maintain animal health systems, including networks for the surveillance and control of animal diseases to ensure the early detection of suspected animal disease outbreaks, a rapid response and, where possible, eradication of animal disease outbreaks 'at source'. The establishment of animal health systems is a core responsibility of the State, and it requires the use of public funds, although it does not preclude public-private partnerships and strategies for ensuring complementarity between the partners concerned. The PVS Gap Analysis mission of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a method for analysing and quantifying disparities between a baseline situation (determined by PVS Evaluation using the OIE PVS Tool) and the target levels set by the country itself in accordance with its priorities. An added advantage is that the method can be used for training and awareness raising.

  8. Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation Among Canadian Inuit from the 2007-2008 Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Sellen, Daniel W; Lou, Wendy; Young, Kue

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, breastfeeding initiation in Canadian Inuit. We used data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit children aged 3-5 years in 2007 or 2008 were randomly selected for the survey. Select household, maternal, infant and community characteristics were collected from the child's primary caregiver and entered into logistic regression models as potential predictors of breastfeeding initiation. Analyses were repeated in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. The reported prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 67.6% (95% CI 62.4-72.8) overall and 85.1% (95% CI 80.2-90.1) in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (pOR) indicate the primary caregiver was an important determinant of breastfeeding (adopted parent vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07; other vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and having access to a community birthing facility were also potentially important, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey indicate breastfeeding is initiated for more than two-thirds of children, but rates are below the national average and this may be one of several pathways to poor health outcomes documented in many Inuit communities. Considered in the particular context of birthing facilities utilization and postnatal care arrangements in Inuit communities, these results suggest that increasing breastfeeding initiation will require health interventions that effectively engage all types of primary caregivers.

  9. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  10. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-04-29

    Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700,000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood development action and policies, using the database as a tool

  11. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  12. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment

  13. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  14. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium - a protocol for building a national environmental exposure data platform for integrated analyses of urban form and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Jeffrey R; Setton, Eleanor M; Seed, Evan; Shooshtari, Mahdi; Doiron, Dany

    2018-01-08

    Multiple external environmental exposures related to residential location and urban form including, air pollutants, noise, greenness, and walkability have been linked to health impacts or benefits. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) was established to facilitate the linkage of extensive geospatial exposure data to existing Canadian cohorts and administrative health data holdings. We hypothesize that this linkage will enable investigators to test a variety of their own hypotheses related to the interdependent associations of built environment features with diverse health outcomes encompassed by the cohorts and administrative data. We developed a protocol for compiling measures of built environment features that quantify exposure; vary spatially on the urban and suburban scale; and can be modified through changes in policy or individual behaviour to benefit health. These measures fall into six domains: air quality, noise, greenness, weather/climate, and transportation and neighbourhood factors; and will be indexed to six-digit postal codes to facilitate merging with health databases. Initial efforts focus on existing data and include estimates of air pollutants, greenness, temperature extremes, and neighbourhood walkability and socioeconomic characteristics. Key gaps will be addressed for noise exposure, with a new national model being developed, and for transportation-related exposures, with detailed estimates of truck volumes and diesel emissions now underway in selected cities. Improvements to existing exposure estimates are planned, primarily by increasing temporal and/or spatial resolution given new satellite-based sensors and more detailed national air quality modelling. Novel metrics are also planned for walkability and food environments, green space access and function and life-long climate-related exposures based on local climate zones. Critical challenges exist, for example, the quantity and quality of input data to many of

  15. Health care utilization in a sample of Canadian lesbian women: predictors of risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Sherry; Senn, Charlene Y

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to test an exploratory path model predicting health care utilization by lesbian women. Using structural equation modeling we examined the joint influence of internalized homophobia, feminism, comfort with health care providers (HCPs), education, and disclosure of sexual identity both in one's life and to one's HCP on health care utilization. Surveys were completed by 254 Canadian lesbian women (54% participation rate) recruited through snowball sampling and specialized media. The majority (95%) of women were White, 3% (n = 7) were women of colour, and the remaining six women did not indicate ethnicity. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 67 with a mean age of 38.85 years (SD = 9.12). In the final path model, higher education predicted greater feminism, more disclosure to HCPs, and better utilization of health services. Feminism predicted both decreased levels of internalized homophobia and increased disclosure across relationships. Being more open about one's sexual identity was related to increased disclosure to HCPs, which in turn, led to better health care utilization. Finally, the more comfortable women were with their HCP the more likely they were to seek preventive care. All paths were significant at p < .01. The path model offers insight into potential target areas for intervention with the goal of improving health care utilization in lesbian women.

  16. Cultural care of older Greek Canadian widows within Leininger's theory of culture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J N

    1990-01-01

    Cultural care themes were abstracted from a large scale study of older Greek Canadian widows conceptualized within Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Ethnonursing, ethnographic, and life health-care history methods were used. Data were collected using observation-participation and interviews in three Greek Canadian communities with 12 widowed key informants and 30 general informants. Enabling tools used were interview inquiry guides, Leininger's Life History Health Care Protocol, Leininger's Acculturation Rating and Profile Scale of Traditional and Non-Traditional Lifeways, and field journal recordings. Data were analyzed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. The two major cultural care themes which were abstracted from the raw data and patterns were: (1) Cultural care for Greek Canadian widows meant responsibility for, reciprocation, concern, love, companionship, family protection, hospitality, and helping, primarily derived from their kinship, religious, and cultural beliefs, and values, and (2) Cultural care continuity diminished the spousal care void and contributed to the health of Greek Canadian widows. These findings will stimulate future nursing research related to cultural care of diverse populations and guide nursing practice to provide culturally congruent care which will assist widows to reduce their spousal care void. The author thanks Dr. Madeleine Leininger, Dr. Judith Floyd, Dr. Marjorie Isenberg, and Dr. Bernice Kaplan for their guidance in completing the large scale study on which this article is based.

  17. Disability correlates in Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James M; Pranger, Tina; Sweet, Jill; VanTil, Linda; McColl, Mary Ann; Besemann, Markus; Shubaly, Colleen; Pedlar, David

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to inform disability mitigation for military veterans by identifying personal, environmental, and health factors associated with activity limitations. A sample of 3154 Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force Veterans who were released during 1998-2007 participated in the 2010 Survey on Transition to Civilian Life. Associations between personal and environmental factors, health conditions and activity limitations were explored using ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of activity reduction in life domains was higher than the Canadian general population (49% versus 21%), as was needing assistance with at least one activity of daily living (17% versus 5%). Prior to adjusting for health conditions, disability odds were elevated for increased age, females, non-degree post-secondary graduation, low income, junior non-commissioned members, deployment, low social support, low mastery, high life stress, and weak sense of community belonging. Reduced odds were found for private/recruit ranks. Disability odds were highest for chronic pain (10.9), any mental health condition (2.7), and musculoskeletal conditions (2.6), and there was a synergistic additive effect of physical and mental health co-occurrence. Disability, measured as activity limitation, was associated with a range of personal and environmental factors and health conditions, indicating multifactorial and multidisciplinary approaches to disability mitigation.

  18. Recent advancement in biosensors technology for animal and livestock health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Tuteja, Satish K; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Kelton, David

    2017-12-15

    The term biosensors encompasses devices that have the potential to quantify physiological, immunological and behavioural responses of livestock and multiple animal species. Novel biosensing methodologies offer highly specialised monitoring devices for the specific measurement of individual and multiple parameters covering an animal's physiology as well as monitoring of an animal's environment. These devices are not only highly specific and sensitive for the parameters being analysed, but they are also reliable and easy to use, and can accelerate the monitoring process. Novel biosensors in livestock management provide significant benefits and applications in disease detection and isolation, health monitoring and detection of reproductive cycles, as well as monitoring physiological wellbeing of the animal via analysis of the animal's environment. With the development of integrated systems and the Internet of Things, the continuously monitoring devices are expected to become affordable. The data generated from integrated livestock monitoring is anticipated to assist farmers and the agricultural industry to improve animal productivity in the future. The data is expected to reduce the impact of the livestock industry on the environment, while at the same time driving the new wave towards the improvements of viable farming techniques. This review focusses on the emerging technological advancements in monitoring of livestock health for detailed, precise information on productivity, as well as physiology and well-being. Biosensors will contribute to the 4th revolution in agriculture by incorporating innovative technologies into cost-effective diagnostic methods that can mitigate the potentially catastrophic effects of infectious outbreaks in farmed animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterising and comparing animal-health services in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    Livestock are of vital importance to the livelihoods of millions of people across the world, playing a pivotal role in income generation, employment, food security, transport and social cohesion. Access to quality animal-health services by livestock owners is critical to sustainable food-animal production; therefore, animal-health practitioners represent key stakeholders within the world food system. A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise and compare existing private animal-health services and to explore perceptions of veterinary services amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal-health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of a Maasai pastoralist group and members of a dairy-farmer cooperative of their local animal-health services. Results were analysed using descriptive methods and the confidence interval overlap technique. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets (agricultural retailers), pharmacies and dukas (general shops). Sidai outlets offered a more professional and diverse portfolio of livestock services. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps and a shortage of cold-chain facilities were identified. Farmers have strong preferences for certain products, which may foster the development of drug resistance. There is a disconnection between the sale of veterinary medicines and the provision of quality advice, with many agrovets, pharmacies and dukas selling veterinary medicines but lacking the capacity to provide clinical services. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal-health services and products in Kenya; therefore, animal-health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods.

  20. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  1. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011 Study.

  2. Using institutional and behavioural economics to examine animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2017-04-01

    Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers. Perverse incentives may exist in the area of preventing and reporting disease. Behavioural economics examines the role of internal and external psychological and social factors. Biases, heuristics, habit, social norms and other such aspects can result in farm decision-makers arriving at what might be considered irrational or otherwise sub-optimal decisions. Framing choices and providing relevant information and examples can alleviate these behavioural issues. The implications of this approach for disease policy and an applied research and outreach programme to respond to animal diseases are discussed.

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  4. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  5. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements 1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2) 2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2) 3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  6. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements  1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2)  2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2)  3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  8. Development of the Canadian Marginalization Index: a new tool for the study of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Flora I; Dunn, James R; Smith, Katherine L W; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H

    2012-04-30

    Area-based measures of socio-economic status are increasingly used in population health research. Based on previous research and theory, the Canadian Marginalization Index (CAN-Marg) was created to reflect four dimensions of marginalization: residential instability, material deprivation, dependency and ethnic concentration. The objective of this paper was threefold: to describe CAN-Marg; to illustrate its stability across geographic area and time; and to describe its association with health and behavioural problems. CAN-Marg was created at the dissemination area (DA) and census tract level for census years 2001 and 2006, using factor analysis. Descriptions of 18 health and behavioural problems were selected using individual-level data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 3.1 and 2007/08. CAN-Marg quintiles created at the DA level (2006) were assigned to individual CCHS records. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was conducted to examine associations between marginalization and CCHS health and behavioural problems. The index demonstrated marked stability across time and geographic area. Each of the four dimensions showed strong and significant associations with the selected health and behavioural problems, and these associations differed depending on which of the dimensions of marginalization was examined. CAN-Marg is a census-based, empirically derived and theoretically informed tool designed to reflect a broader conceptualization of Canadian marginalization.

  9. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2012 Study.

  10. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  11. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  12. Prevalence of migraine in the Canadian household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Gilmour, Heather

    2014-06-01

    Based on data from the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys and the 2011 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, this article provides information about migraine among people living in private households. In 2010/2011, an estimated 8.3% of Canadians (2.7 million) reported that they had been diagnosed with migraine by a health professional. Females were more likely than males to report migraine: 11.8% versus 4.7%. Migraine prevalence was highest among people in their 30s and 40s: 17.0% for women and 6.5% for men. Compared with the national figure, the prevalence of migraine was lower in Quebec (6.8%) and higher in Manitoba (9.5%), Nova Scotia (9.1%) and Ontario (8.8%). Among people who reported a migraine diagnosis, 42% took prescription medication for their condition, and 56% incurred medication-related out-of-pocket expenses. Migraine was highly comorbid with depression and affected many aspects of daily life including education, work, sleep, and driving.

  13. The reporting of theoretical health risks by the media: Canadian newspaper reporting of potential blood transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nadya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The media play an important role at the interface of science and policy by communicating scientific information to the public and policy makers. In issues of theoretical risk, in which there is scientific uncertainty, the media's role as disseminators of information is particularly important due to the potential to influence public perception of the severity of the risk. In this article we describe how the Canadian print media reported the theoretical risk of blood transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Methods We searched 3 newspaper databases for articles published by 6 major Canadian daily newspapers between January 1990 and December 1999. We identified all articles relating to blood transmission of CJD. In duplicate we extracted information from the articles and entered the information into a qualitative software program. We compared the observations obtained from this content analysis with information obtained from a previous policy analysis examining the Canadian blood system's decision-making concerning the potential transfusion transmission of CJD. Results Our search identified 245 relevant articles. We observed that newspapers in one instance accelerated a policy decision, which had important resource and health implication, by communicating information on risk to the public. We also observed that newspapers primarily relied upon expert opinion (47 articles as opposed to published medical evidence (28 articles when communicating risk information. Journalists we interviewed described the challenges of balancing their responsibility to raise awareness of potential health threats with not unnecessarily arousing fear amongst the public. Conclusions Based on our findings we recommend that journalists report information from both expert opinion sources and from published studies when communicating information on risk. We also recommend researchers work more closely with journalists to assist them in identifying

  14. Assessing the nutritional quality of diets of Canadian children and adolescents using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Nishi, Stephanie K; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-05-10

    Health Canada's Surveillance Tool (HCST) Tier System was developed in 2014 with the aim of assessing the adherence of dietary intakes with Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG). HCST uses a Tier system to categorize all foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar, with Tier 4 reflecting the unhealthiest and Tier 1 the healthiest foods. This study presents the first application of the HCST to examine (i) the dietary patterns of Canadian children, and (ii) the applicability and relevance of HCST as a measure of diet quality. Data were from the nationally-representative, cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. A total of 13,749 participants aged 2-18 years who had complete lifestyle and 24-hour dietary recall data were examined. Dietary patterns of Canadian children and adolescents demonstrated a high prevalence of Tier 4 foods within the sub-groups of processed meats and potatoes. On average, 23-31 % of daily calories were derived from "other" foods and beverages not recommended in EWCFG. However, the majority of food choices fell within the Tier 2 and 3 classifications due to lenient criteria used by the HCST for classifying foods. Adherence to the recommendations presented in the HCST was associated with closer compliance to meeting nutrient Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, however it did not relate to reduced obesity as assessed by body mass index (p > 0.05). EWCFG recommendations are currently not being met by most children and adolescents. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both positive and negative nutrients and an overall score. In addition, a wider range of nutrient thresholds should be considered for HCST to better capture product differences, prevent categorization of most foods as Tiers 2-3 and provide incentives for product reformulation.

  15. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  16. What do we know about Canadian involvement in medical tourism?: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Kingsbury, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism, the intentional pursuit of elective medical treatments in foreign countries, is a rapidly growing global industry. Canadians are among those crossing international borders to seek out privately purchased medical care. Given Canada's universally accessible, single-payer domestic health care system, important implications emerge from Canadians' private engagement in medical tourism. A scoping review was conducted of the popular, academic, and business literature to synthesize what is currently known about Canadian involvement in medical tourism. Of the 348 sources that were reviewed either partly or in full, 113 were ultimately included in the review. The review demonstrates that there is an extreme paucity of academic, empirical literature examining medical tourism in general or the Canadian context more specifically. Canadians are engaged with the medical tourism industry not just as patients but also as investors and business people. There have been a limited number of instances of Canadians having their medical tourism expenses reimbursed by the public medicare system. Wait times are by far the most heavily cited driver of Canadians' involvement in medical tourism. However, despite its treatment as fact, there is no empirical research to support or contradict this point. Although medical tourism is often discussed in the Canadian context, a paucity of data on this practice complicates our understanding of its scope and impact.

  17. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  18. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    1977-01-01

    In the past ten years, public interest in nuclear power and its relationship to the environment has grown. Although most Canadians have accepted nuclear power as a means of generating electricity, there is significant opposition to its use. This opposition has effectively forced the Canadian nuclear industry to modify its behaviour to the public in the face of growing concern over the safety of nuclear power and related matters. The paper reviews Canadian experience concerning public acceptance of nuclear power, with special reference to the public information activities of the Canadian nuclear industry. Experience has shown the need for scientific social data that will permit the nuclear industry to involve the public in a rational examination of its concern about nuclear power. The Canadian Nuclear Association sponsored such studies in 1976 and the findings are discussed. They consisted of a national assessment of public attitudes, two regional studies and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. The social data obtained were of a base-line nature describing Canadian perceptions of and attitudes to nuclear power at that time. This research established that Canadian levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and that there are marked regional differences. Only 56% of the population have the minimum knowledge required to indicate that they know that nuclear power can be used to generate electricity. Nevertheless, 21% of informed Canadians oppose nuclear power primarily on the grounds that it is not safe. Radiation and waste management are seen to be major disadvantages. In perspective, Canadians are more concerned with inflation than with the energy supply. About half of all Canadians see the question of energy supplies as a future problem (within five years), not a present one. A more important aspect of energy is seen by the majority of Canadians to be some form of energy independence. The use of data from these studies is no easy

  19. Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce: Current status, concerns and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinville, Véronique; Drouin, Éric; Lévesque, Dominique; Espinosa, Victor M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern that the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce is inadequate to meet health care demands of the pediatric population. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Pediatric Committee performed a survey to determine characteristics and future plans of the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce and trainees. METHODS: Estimates of total and pediatric populations were obtained from the 2001 Census of Population, Statistics Canada (with estimates to July 1, 2005). Data on Canadian pediatric gastroenterologists, including clinical full-time equivalents, sex, work interests, opinions on workforce adequacy, retirement plans, fellowship training programs and future employment plans of fellows, were gathered through e-mail surveys and telephone correspondence in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: Canada had an estimated population of 32,270,507 in 2005 (6,967,853 people aged zero to 17 years). The pediatric gastroenterology workforce was estimated at 9.2 specialists per million children. Women accounted for 50% of the workforce. Physician to pediatric population ratios varied, with Alberta demonstrating the highest and Saskatchewan the lowest ratios (1:69,404 versus 1:240,950, respectively). Between 1998 and 2005, Canadian pediatric gastroenterology fellowship programs trained 65 fellows (65% international trainees). Twenty-two fellows (34%) entered the Canadian workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the variable and overall low numbers of pediatric gastroenterologists across Canada, an increasingly female workforce, a greater percentage of part-time physicians and a small cohort of Canadian trainees. In conjunction with high projected retirement rates, greater demands on the work-force and desires to partake in nonclinical activities, there is concern for an increasing shortage of pediatric gastroenterologists in Canada in future years. PMID:17948136

  20. Skin deep: Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-06-18

    Skin cancer is a significant public health problem among Canadians. Knowledge and attitudes about health are informed by mass media. The aim of our study was to describe the volume and nature of coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines. Directed content analysis on article text and images in six popular Canadian women's magazines (Chatelaine, Canadian Living, Homemakers, Flare, FASHION, ELLE Canada) from 2000-2012 with attention to risk factors, ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and protection behaviours, and early detection. Six popular American women's magazines were used for a between-country comparison. There were 154 articles (221 images) about skin cancer and tanning published over 13 years. Volume of coverage did not increase in a linear fashion over time. The most common risk factor reported on was UV exposure (39%), with other risk factors less frequently identified. Although 72% of articles promoted sunscreen use, little content encouraged other protection behaviours. Only 15% of articles and 1% of images discouraged indoor tanning, while 41% of articles and 53% of images promoted the tanned look as attractive. Few articles (<11%) reported on early detection. Relative to American magazines, Canadian magazines had a greater proportion of content that encouraged sunscreen use and promoted the tanned look and a lesser proportion of content on risk factors and early detection. Skin cancer and tanning messages in Canadian women's magazines had a narrow focus and provided limited information on risk factors or screening. Conflicting messages about prevention (text vs. images) may contribute to harmful UV behaviours among Canadian women.

  1. Expressive freedom and tobacco advertising: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Christopher P

    2002-03-01

    In 1989, Canada enacted the Tobacco Products Control Act (TPCA), which prohibited tobacco advertising, required health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restricted promotional activities. Canada's tobacco companies challenged the TPCA's constitutionality, arguing that it infringed on freedom of expression. Although it seemed likely that the Canadian Supreme Court would uphold the legislation, in 1995 the court declared the impugned provisions to be unconstitutional. The decision is testimony to the constraining force of liberalism on tobacco regulation, but it is also evidence of the power of political will. While the Canadian government could have used the decision to justify withdrawing from further confrontations with powerful commercial interests, it chose instead to enact new tobacco control legislation in 1997.

  2. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. V: Petition and clearance for radicidized poultry feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Lapidot, M.

    1978-01-01

    The experience obtained in Israel regarding procedures for petitioning and granting clearance for irradiated food is briefly reviewed. The Israel Ministry of Health deliberated on the approach to be taken towards irradiated farm animal feed, since feed is normally dealt with under Ministry of Agriculture Plant Protection Division Regulations. A similar situation existed in Canada, where the Feed and Fertilizer Section, Plant Products Division, granted clearance of radicidized poultry feed. However, since the meat of farm animals raised on radicidized feed is to be consumed by humans, and is thus included in the definition of food in the Public Health (Rules as to Food) Ordinance, the Ministry of Health finally decided that it would require a regular petition. The petition to clear irradiated poultry feed is described in detail. It is based on local studies as well as on the detailed material prepared by the Canadian authorities in their petition and the clearance. The petition was submitted in October 1972 and clearance was obtained in July 1973. The implementation of the legislative requirements in the forthcoming pilot scale test, aimed at radicidization of 300 tons of poultry feed, is considered in detail. (author)

  3. Certification of Canadian nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As part of its mandate, the CNSC requires certification of those who work in positions with direct impact on the safety of Canadian nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors. Other positions, such as exposure device operators and radiation safety officers at other nuclear facilities, also require CNSC certification. In this paper, the certification process of Canadian NPP personnel will be examined. In keeping with the CNSC's regulatory philosophy and international practice, licensees bear the primary responsibility for the safe operation of their NPPs. They are therefore held entirely responsible for training and testing their workers, in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements, to ensure they are fully qualified to perform their duties. The CNSC obtains assurance that all persons it certifies are qualified to carry out their respective duties. It achieves this by overseeing a regime of licensee training programs and certification examinations, which are based on a combination of appropriate regulatory guidance and compliance activities. Reviews of the knowledge-based certification examination methodology and of lessons learned from Fukushima have generated initiatives to further strengthen the CNSC's certification programs for NPP workers. Two of those initiatives are discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Recycling Biowaste – Human and Animal Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albihn Ann

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use.

  5. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    A specific concept of strain was developed in order to classify the BTV serotypes ever reported in Europe based on their properties of animal health impact: the genotype, morbidity, mortality, speed of spread, period and geographical area of occurrence were considered as classification parameters...... of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7, Article 5 on the eligibility of bluetongue to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to bluetongue. The assessment has...

  6. Cross-situational consistency of trait expressions and injunctive norms among Asian Canadian and European Canadian undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Kenneth D; Sadler, Pamela; McDonald, Kelly

    2018-06-14

    In the current paper, we sought to clarify when and why Asian Americans/Canadians and European Americans/Canadians differ in self-consistency (the consistency of personality traits across situations). European Canadian (n = 220) and second-generation Asian Canadian (n = 166) undergraduates (Mage = 19 years) described the traits they expressed and the traits others wanted them to express (i.e., injunctive norms, or injunctions) in four different social situations (i.e., with parents, with friends, with siblings, and with professors). Self-consistency was greater among European Canadians than Asian Canadians, but only when comparing behavior with parents versus with peers (i.e., friends and siblings). The same pattern was found for injunctive consistency (cross-situational consistency of trait injunctions). Injunctions strongly predicted the behavior of both Asian and European Canadians, but because the injunctions from parents versus peers diverged more for Asian Canadians, so did their behaviors. Controlling for the effect of inconsistent injunctions across situations eliminated the ethnic difference in self-consistency. Finally, Asian Canadians who perceived their immigrant parents as embracing a Canadian identity were as cross-situationally consistent as European Canadians because they tended to behave-and believe their parents approved of their behaving-with parents similarly to how they behaved with peers (e.g., more carefree and outspoken). Contrary to previous theorizing, cultural influences on broad cognitive or motivational dispositions (e.g., dialecticism, collectivism) alone cannot explain the observed pattern of ethnic differences in consistency. To understand when bicultural individuals are less consistent across situations also requires an understanding of the specific situations across which they tend to encounter divergent social norms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be

  8. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2014-02-24

    Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing

  9. Canadian sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Hicks, Audrey; Murumets, Kelly; Colley, Rachel C; Duggan, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), in partnership with the Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group (HALO) at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, and in collaboration with ParticipACTION, and others, has developed the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children (aged 5-11 years) and Youth (aged 12-17 years). The guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations for sedentary behaviour. The entire development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, which is the international standard for clinical practice guideline development. Thus, the guidelines have gone through a rigorous and transparent developmental process and the recommendations are based on evidence from a systematic review and interpretation of the research evidence. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive online consultation process with 230 domestic and international stakeholders and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for health benefits, children (aged 5-11 years) and youth (aged 12-17 years) should minimize the time that they spend being sedentary each day. This may be achieved by (i) limiting recreational screen time to no more than 2 h per day - lower levels are associated with additional health benefits; and (ii) limiting sedentary (motorized) transport, extended sitting time, and time spent indoors throughout the day. These are the first evidence-based Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth and provide important and timely recommendations for the advancement of public health based on a systematic synthesis, interpretation, and application of the current scientific evidence.

  10. Achieving an optimal allocation of resources for animal health surveillance, intervention and disease mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, B; Delabouglise, A; Babo Martins, S

    2017-04-01

    The primary role of animal health economics is to inform decision-making by determining optimal investments for animal health. Animal health surveillance produces information to guide interventions. Consequently, investments in surveillance and intervention must be evaluated together. This article explores the different theoretical frameworks and methods developed to assess and optimise the spending of resources in surveillance and intervention and their technical interdependence. The authors present frameworks that define the relationship between health investment and losses due to disease, and the relationship between surveillance and intervention resources. Surveillance and intervention are usually considered as technical substitutes, since increased investments in surveillance reduce the level of intervention resources required to reach the same benefit. The authors also discuss approaches used to quantify externalities and non-monetary impacts. Finally, they describe common economic evaluation types, including optimisation, acceptability and least-cost studies.

  11. 75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0025... Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: We are... disabilities. Done in Washington, DC, this 11\\th\\ day of June 2010. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal...

  12. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functi...

  13. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro eCeli; Pietro eCeli; Gianfranco eGabai

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional m...

  14. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  15. Evaluating health inequity interventions: applying a contextual (external) validity framework to programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kaye; Müller-Clemm, Werner; Ysselstein, Margaretha; Sachs, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Including context in the measurement and evaluation of health in equity interventions is critical to understanding how events that occur in an intervention's environment might contribute to or impede its success. This study adapted and piloted a contextual validity assessment framework on a selection of health inequity-related programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) between 1998 and 2006. The two overarching objectives of this study were (1) to determine the relative amount and quality of attention given to conceptualizing, measuring and validating context within CHSRF funded research final reports related to health-inequity; and (2) to contribute evaluative evidence towards the incorporation of context into the assessment and measurement of health inequity interventions. The study found that of the 42/146 CHSRF programs and projects, judged to be related to health inequity 20 adequately reported on the conceptualization, measurement and validation of context. Amongst these health-inequity related project reports, greatest emphasis was placed on describing the socio-political and economical context over actually measuring and validating contextual evidence. Applying a contextual validity assessment framework was useful for distinguishing between the descriptive (conceptual) versus empirical (measurement and validation) inclusion of documented contextual evidence. Although contextual validity measurement frameworks needs further development, this study contributes insight into identifying funded research related to health inequities and preliminary criteria for assessing interventions targeted at specific populations and jurisdictions. This study also feeds a larger critical dialogue (albeit beyond the scope of this study) regarding the relevance and utility of using evaluative techniques for understanding how specific external conditions support or impede the successful implementation of health inequity interventions. Copyright

  16. An overview of human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals in the Canadian Health Measures Survey: 2007-2019.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Douglas A; Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Werry, Kate; Khoury, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is used to indicate and quantify exposure by measuring environmental chemicals, their metabolites or reaction products in biological specimens. The biomonitoring component of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is the most comprehensive initiative providing general population HBM data in Canada. The CHMS is an ongoing cross-sectional direct measures survey implemented in 2-year cycles. It provides nationally-representative data on health, nutritional status, environmental exposures, and related risks and protective characteristics. The survey follows a robust planning, design and sampling protocol as well as a comprehensive quality assurance and quality control regime implemented for all aspect of the survey to ensure the validity of the HBM results. HBM blood and urine data are available for CHMS cycles 1 (2007-2009), 2 (2009-2011) and 3 (2012-2013). Field collection has been completed for cycle 4 (2014-2015), with cycle 5 (2016-2017) in progress and cycle 6 planning (2018-2019) being finalized. Biomonitoring results for 279 chemicals are expected over the six cycles of the CHMS (220 in individual blood, urine or hair samples, and 59 in pooled serum samples). The chemicals include metals and trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorines, flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metabolites, environmental phenols, triclocarban, acrylamide, pesticides (e.g., triazines, carbamates, organophosphates, phenoxy, pyrethroids) and/or their metabolites, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, phthalates and alternate plasticizer metabolites, and tobacco biomarkers. Approximately one half of the chemicals measured in individual blood and urine samples over the first three cycles were detected in more than 60% of samples. CHMS biomonitoring data have been used to establish baseline HBM concentrations in Canadians; inform public health, regulatory risk

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  18. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  19. Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop, March 26–27, 2013—Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Twine, Susan; Gerdts, Volker; Barreto, Luis; Richards, James C

    2014-01-01

    Novel adjuvants hold the promise for developing effective modern subunit vaccines capable of appropriately modulating the immune response against challenging diseases such as those caused by chronic and/or intracellular pathogens and cancer. Over the past decade there has been intensive research into discovering new adjuvants, however, their translation into routine clinical use is lagging. To stimulate discussion and identify opportunities for networking and collaboration among various stakeholders, a Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop was held in Ottawa. Sponsored by the National Research Council Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Vaccine Industry Committee, a two day workshop was held that brought together key Canadian and international stakeholders in adjuvant research from industry, academia and government. To discover innovation gaps and unmet needs, the presentations covered a board range of topics in adjuvant development; criteria for selection of lead adjuvant candidates from an industry perspective, discovery research across Canada, bioprocessing needs and challenges, veterinary vaccines, Canadian vaccine trial capabilities, the Canadian regulatory framework and WHO formulation laboratory experience. The workshop concluded with a discussion on the opportunity to create a Canadian Adjuvant Development Network. This report details the key discussion points and steps forward identified for facilitating adjuvant development research in Canada. PMID:24192752

  20. Are Indigenous Determinants of Health Associated with Self-Reported Health Professional-Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders Among Canadian First Nations Adults?: Findings from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Brar, Ramanpreet; Brar, Samanpreet; Maltby, Alana; Wilk, Piotr

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed anxiety disorders among Canadian First Nations adults living off-reserve, and assessed the relationship between anxiety disorders and Indigenous determinants of health (Status Indian, residential school attendance, knowledge of Indigenous language, and participation in traditional activities) using the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed using bootstrap weights. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 14.5% among off-reserve First Nations adults. There was an increased odds of anxiety disorders among those participating in traditional activities compared to their counterparts (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.90). No association was found between anxiety disorders and other Indigenous determinants of health. There is a high prevalence of self-reported anxiety among First Nations adults living off-reserve. However, further studies are warranted to identify and assess the role of Indigenous determinants of health for anxiety disorders and other prevalent mental health conditions in this population.

  1. Occupational Stress, Mental Health and Satisfaction in the Canadian Multicultural Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Romana; Wagner, Shannon L.

    2012-01-01

    Workplaces are becoming increasingly multicultural and therefore, include a large variety of employees from more than one ethnicity, nationality, religious and/or cultural background. In the context of this new global economy, Canadian workplace structure and composition has also permanently changed. Consequently, the primary purpose of this…

  2. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0010....), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is... birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat...

  3. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  4. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  5. CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network Coinfection and Concurrent Diseases Core Research Group: 2016 Updated Canadian HIV/Hepatitis C Adult Guidelines for Management and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Mark; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; Giguère, Pierre; Barrett, Lisa; Haider, Shariq; Conway, Brian; Klein, Marina; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document. PMID:27471521

  6. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  7. "With human health it's a global thing": Canadian perspectives on ethics in the global governance of an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alison K; Smith, Maxwell J; McDougall, Christopher W; Bensimon, Cécile; Perez, Daniel Felipe

    2015-03-01

    We live in an era where our health is linked to that of others across the globe, and nothing brings this home better than the specter of a pandemic. This paper explores the findings of town hall meetings associated with the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP), in which focus groups met to discuss issues related to the global governance of an influenza pandemic. Two competing discourses were found to be at work: the first was based upon an economic rationality and the second upon a humanitarian rationality. The implications for public support and the long-term sustainability of new global norms, networks, and regulations in global public health are discussed.

  8. Stages of Biological Development across Age: An Analysis of Canadian Health Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Wu, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The stages of biological development are not clearly defined despite the fact that they have been used to refer to concepts such as adolescence and aging. This study aimed to (1) propose and test a framework to search for stages of representative components and determine stages of stability and transition, (2) identify stages of biological development based on health questionnaire and biomarker data, and (3) interpret the major trajectories in a health and biomarker database. This study analyzed the data on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) interviewees from cycle 1 to 3 (2007-2013) in Canada. We selected 282 variables containing information from questionnaire and on biomarkers after removing redundant variables based on high correlation. Fifty-nine nominal variables were replaced by 122 binominal variables, leaving 345 variables for analysis. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to summarize the data and the loadings were used to interpret the PCs. A stable stage was assumed to be the age groups without significantly different values of PCs. The CHMS interviewed 16,340 Canadians. Of all, 51.25% were female. The age ranged from 6 to 79 years (mean = 34.41 years, 95% CI = 34.74-34.08). The proportions of total variance explained by the first three PCs were 12.14, 4.03, and 3.19%, respectively. The differences of the first PC were not significant, especially between age 22 and 33, 34 and 40, 41 and 45, 46 and 71, and 72 and 79 years (adjusted p  > 0.05 for all). The leading variable, in terms of the variance contributed to PC1, was time spent in physical activities, followed by variables related to alcohol consumption, and smoking. The 13 leading contributors to PC2 variances were all lung function measures. There are stages of stability and transition across all age groups based on the first PCs. The first and second PCs are related to physical development and lung function. The identification of stable stages is the first step

  9. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

  10. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations, an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System.

  11. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Safety & Security Chapter 2 - Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Heather Bair-Brake, Ryan M. Wallace, G. Gale Galland, Nina Marano HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals, ...

  12. Mental disorders and their association with perceived work stress: an investigation of the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace.

  13. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Dórea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS. Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.

  14. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Dupuy, Céline; Vial, Flavie; Reynolds, Tera L; Akkina, Judy E

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS). Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time) and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.

  15. Development of a Canadian deceased donation education program for health professionals: a needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jennifer; Shemie, Sam D; Lotherington, Ken; Appleby, Amber; Hall, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine how Canadian healthcare professionals perceive their deficiencies and educational requirements related to organ and tissue donation. We surveyed 641 intensive care unit (ICU) physicians, 1,349 ICU nurses, 1,561 emergency room (ER) physicians, and 1,873 ER nurses. The survey was distributed by the national organization for each profession (the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the National Emergency Nurses Association). Canadian Blood Services developed the critical care physician list in collaboration with the Canadian Critical Care Society. Survey development included questions related to comfort with, and knowledge of, key competencies in organ and tissue donation. Eight hundred thirty-one (15.3%) of a possible 5,424 respondents participated in the survey. Over 50% of respondents rated the following topics as highly important: knowledge of general organ and tissue donation, neurological determination of death, donation after cardiac death, and medical-legal donation issues. High competency comfort levels ranged from 14.7-50.9% for ICU nurses and 8.0-34.6% for ER nurses. Competency comfort levels were higher for ICU physicians (67.5-85.6%) than for ER physicians who rated all competencies lower. Respondents identified a need for a curriculum on national organ donation and preferred e-learning as the method of education. Both ICU nurses and ER practitioners expressed low comfort levels with their competencies regarding organ donation. Intensive care unit physicians had a much higher level of comfort; however, the majority of these respondents were specialty trained and working in academic centres with active donation and transplant programs. A national organ donation curriculum is needed.

  16. The Quality of Canadian and U.S. Government Health Documents Remains Unchallenged Until Better Research Can Be Undertaken. A review of: Lambert, Frank. “Assessing the Authoritativeness of Canadian and American Health Documents: A Comparative Analysis Using Informetric Methodologies.” Government Information Quarterly 22.2 (2005: 277‐96.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Corkett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To assess by means of citation analysis whether the public trust afforded health documents published by the Canadian and U.S. governments is appropriate, and to ascertain whether differences in the respective health care systems influence how publications are produced.Design – Comparative study.Setting – The Canadian Depository Service Program (DSP and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS websites.Subjects – One hundred sixty‐six electronic documents sourced from the DSP website, and 284 electronic documents sourced from the DHHS website.Methods – Subjects were randomly selected from repositories offering the most comprehensive collections. Documents with evidence of references to other works used in preparation were separated from thos ewithout such characteristics. Data variables were collected from documents with evidence of references. Statistical analysis of the data was undertaken.Main results – Of the respective samples, 89(53% from the DSP and 109 (38.4% from the DHHS contained references. Personal authors were identified in 46 (51.7% and 63(58% of the respective subsets. Handbooks and guidebooks accounted for the largest portion of the DSP subset (29; 32.6% and government periodicals were the largest constituent of the DHHS subset (41; 37.6%. Scholarly journals were the most common reference type for both the DSP (44% and the DHHS (58.5% subsets. The number of references per document was widely dispersed for both subsets; the DSP mean was approximately 64 (SD=114.68 and the DHHS was 73.71 (SD=168.85. Kruskal‐Wallis subset analysis of median number of references by document type found differences generalizable to the entire DSP (pConclusion – Significant differences in reference use frequencies between DSP and DHHS documents challenges Foskett’s stance that documents of value contain references (Foskett. Use of peer‐reviewed scholarly journals for both DSP and DHHS publications was

  17. [Survey among livestock practices on herd health management and an Internet-based animal health portal in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Buri, S; Witschi, U; Kirchhofer, M

    2009-12-01

    The importance of herd health management in Switzerland, its implementation by veterinarians as well as their willingness to collaborate within an Internet portal have been assessed by a questionnaire. The portal is meant to serve the genetic evaluation, the veterinary herd health management and the obligation to record treatments; it should be at disposal for all users in form of a central database. For the survey, questionnaires were sent to 784 veterinarians (mixed and livestock practices) in Switzerland. Amongst them, 217 (27.7 %) questionnaires could be evaluated. 125 veterinarians already offer a herd health management service and 147 veterinarians are inclined to collaborate in a central registration of animal health data. In this context, they are interested in an efficient veterinary herd health management program, which will allow direct exchange of data with farmers via an Internet portal. However, they fear a lack of interest of their customers and express some concern regarding data protection. The portal providers must therefore consider the needs of all potential users in order to succeed in this project. At this condition, the veterinarians are prepared to spread herd health management amongst the breeders by means of the animal health portal.

  18. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has requested and received emergency approval of an information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study to support the equine industry in the United States.

  19. The Canadian Registry for Pulmonary Fibrosis: Design and Rationale of a National Pulmonary Fibrosis Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ryerson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relative rarity and diversity of fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD have made it challenging to study these diseases in single-centre cohorts. Here we describe formation of a multicentre Canadian registry that is needed to describe the outcomes of fibrotic ILD and to enable detailed healthcare utilization analyses that will be the cornerstone for future healthcare planning. Methods. The Canadian Registry for Pulmonary Fibrosis (CARE-PF is a prospective cohort anticipated to consist of at least 2,800 patients with fibrotic ILD. CARE-PF will be used to (1 describe the natural history of fibrotic ILD, specifically determining the incidence and outcomes of acute exacerbations of ILD subtypes and (2 determine the impact of ILD and acute exacerbations of ILD on health services use and healthcare costs in the Canadian population. Consecutive patients with fibrotic ILD will be recruited from five Canadian ILD centres over a period of five years. Patients will be followed up as clinically indicated and will complete standardized questionnaires at each clinic visit. Prespecified outcomes and health services use will be measured based on self-report and linkage to provincial health administrative databases. Conclusion. CARE-PF will be among the largest prospective multicentre ILD registries in the world, providing detailed data on the natural history of fibrotic ILD and the healthcare resources used by these patients. As the largest and most comprehensive cohort of Canadian ILD patients, CARE-PF establishes a network for future clinical research and early phase clinical trials and provides a platform for translational and basic science research.

  20. Social Capital and Health Among Older Chinese Immigrants: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Sample in a Canadian Prairie City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai; Menec, Verena

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and health among Chinese immigrants. The sample included 101 older Chinese immigrants aged 60 to 96 who were recruited in 2013 in a city on the Canadian prairies. Participant completed a questionnaire assessing their structural and cognitive social capital (views on community, trust and reciprocity, civic participation, social networks and support, and social participation), physical and mental health status (SF-36), and sociodemographic characteristics. Findings indicate that Chinese seniors overall obtained low levels of social capital on all social capital dimensions. Social networks and support (a structural social capital indicator) was significantly positively associated with mental health (β = .31, p social capital is potentially more promising than ensuring cognitive social capital in terms of providing physical and mental health benefits to older adults from Chinese background.

  1. Patient Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination by Health Care Providers and its Relationship with Mental Disorders: Results from the 2012 Canadian Community Health-Mental Health Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Palis, Heather; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health, this secondary analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of perceived prejudice by health care providers (HCPs) and its relationship with mental disorders. Respondents accessing HCPs in the prior year were asked if they experienced HCP prejudice. A hypothesis driven multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between type of mental disorders and HCP prejudice. Among the 3006 respondents, 10.9 % perceived HCP prejudice, 62.4 % of whom reported a mental disorder. The adjusted odds of prejudice was highest for respondents with anxiety (OR 3.12; 95 % CI 1.60, 6.07), concurrent mood or anxiety and substance disorders (OR 3.08; 95 % CI 1.59, 5.95) and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.68, 4.97) compared to respondents without any mental disorders. These findings are timely for informing discussions regarding policies to address HCP prejudice towards people with mental disorders.

  2. The household food insecurity gradient and potential reductions in adverse population mental health outcomes in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman-Perreault, Geneviève; McIntyre, Lynn

    2017-12-01

    Household food insecurity is related to poor mental health. This study examines whether the level of household food insecurity is associated with a gradient in the risk of reporting six adverse mental health outcomes. This study further quantifies the mental health impact if severe food insecurity, the extreme of the risk continuum, were eliminated in Canada. Using a pooled sample of the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 302,683), we examined the relationship between level of food insecurity, in adults 18-64 years, and reporting six adverse mental health outcomes. We conducted a probit analysis adjusted for multi-variable models, to calculate the reduction in the odds of reporting mental health outcomes that might accrue from the elimination of severe food insecurity. Controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic covariates, a food insecurity gradient was found in six mental health outcomes. We calculated that a decrease between 8.1% and 16.0% in the reporting of these mental health outcomes would accrue if those who are currently severely food insecure became food secure, after controlling for covariates. Household food insecurity has a pervasive graded negative effect on a variety of mental health outcomes, in which significantly higher levels of food insecurity are associated with a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Reduction of food insecurity, particularly at the severe level, is a public health concern and a modifiable structural determinant of health worthy of macro-level policy intervention.

  3. Cost of privatisation versus government alcohol retailing systems: Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Patra, Jayadeep; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Gnam, William H; Giesbrecht, Norman; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol retail monopolies have been established in many countries to restrict alcohol availability and thus, minimise alcohol-related harm.The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the privatisation of alcohol sales on the burden and direct health-care, law enforcement costs and indirect costs (lost productivity due to disability or premature mortality) in Canada. Simulation modelling. International Guidelines for the Estimation of the Avoidable Costs of Substance Abuse were used. All burden and costs were compared with the baseline taken from the aggregate Cost Study on Substance Abuse in Canada 2002. If all Canadian provinces and territories were to privatise alcohol sales we assume that consumption would increase from 10% to 20% based on available Canadian literature. Under the 10% scenario the costs would increase from 6% ($828 million) and under the 20% scenario costs would increase 12% ($1.6 billion).This increase is substantially greater than the tax and mark-up revenue gained from increased sales,and represents a net loss. Alcohol-attributable burden and associated costs will increase markedly if all Canadian provinces and territories gave up the government alcohol retailing systems.For public health and economic reasons, governments should continue to have a strong role in alcohol retailing.

  4. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the research and development phase of surveys entitled National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments.

  5. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocatio