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Sample records for campylobacter fetus subspecies

  1. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    methods were attributed to methodological differences used in various laboratories. Conclusion Our results indicate that misidentification of C fetus in routine diagnostic laboratories may be relatively common. The PCR assay evaluated gave rapid and reproducible results and is thus a valuable adjunctive......Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme...... by traditional phenotypic methods and the PCR assay was found to be 80.8%. The polymerase chain reaction proved to be a reliable technique for the species and subspecies identification of C fetus; equivocal results were obtained in only two instances. Initial misidentifications by conventional phenotyping...

  2. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  3. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

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    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  4. [Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus endoaortitis on a Bentall tube prosthesis. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abassade, P; Crémieux, O; Korach, J M; Templier, F; Morette, C; Wolff, M; Baudouy, P Y; Farge, C

    1994-11-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of endocarditis and endoaortitis: the authors believe this to be the second reported case of infection of an intracardiac prosthesis. The patient was a man who had already undergone replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta, and a gastrectomy, which were predisposing factors. The portal of entry was not found. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive blood cultures and transoesophageal echocardiography. The outcome was rapidly fatal despite antibiotic therapy and surgery, because of the seriousness of the lesions (pseudo-aneurysm of the aorta ruptured into the right atrium), the precarity of the terrain and surgical difficulties.

  5. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    . The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene......, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes...

  6. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  8. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  9. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  10. Prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, C J; Clarke, T C; Spencer, R C

    1994-01-01

    A case of postoperative prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is described. Difficulties in isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this organism are discussed.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  13. Homologous Recombination between Genetically Divergent Campylobacter fetus Lineages Supports Host-Associated Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duim, Birgitta; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Zomer, Aldert L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare. Previously it was impossible to show whether this barrier to recombination was determined by the differential host preferences, by the genetic divergence between both lineages or by other factors influencing recombination, such as restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas, and transformation systems. Fortuitously, a distinct C. fetus lineage (ST69) was found, which was highly related to mammal-associated C. fetus, yet isolated from a chelonian. The whole genome sequences of two C. fetus ST69 isolates were compared with those of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus strains for phylogenetic and recombination analysis. In total, 5.1–5.5% of the core genome of both ST69 isolates showed signs of recombination. Of the predicted recombination regions, 80.4% were most closely related to Cft, 14.3% to Cff, and 5.6% to C. iguaniorum. Recombination from C. fetus ST69 to Cft was also detected, but to a lesser extent and only in chelonian-associated Cft strains. This study shows that despite substantial genetic divergence no absolute barrier to homologous recombination exists between two distinct C. fetus lineages when occurring in the same host type, which provides valuable insights in bacterial speciation and evolution. PMID:29608720

  14. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  15. [The occurrence of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella bacteria in some wild birds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella species in some wild birds. A total of 129 birds was examined, consisting of 71 pigeons, 54 seagulls, three crows and one raven. Campylobacter bacteria were isolated from 32 birds (24.8%), of which three were pigeons, 27 seagulls and two were crows. Of the 27 Campylobacter strains isolated from seagulls, four had the biochemical characteristics of the NARTC biotype described by Skirrow and Benjamin, seven were grouped as Campylobacter coli biotype and 16 as the biotype of Campylobacter jejuni. All the strains isolated from crows and pigeons had the biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni biotypes. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of two of the 54 seagulls (3.7%), and were identified serologically as Salmonella indiana and Salmonella typhimurium. One seagull was found to be a carrier of both Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium. A correlation could not be demonstrated between the occurrence of Salmonella bacteria and Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  16. Genetic Relationships among Reptilian and Mammalian Campylobacter fetus Strains Determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingle, K.E.; Blaser, M.J.; Tu, Z.C.; Pruckler, J.; Fitzgerald, C.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Lawson, A.J.; Owen, R.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reptile Campylobacter fetus isolates and closely related strains causing human disease were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. They shared similar to 90% nucleotide sequence identity with classical mammalian C. fetus, and there was evidence of recombination among members of these two

  17. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter... clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

  18. Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in poultry reared under different management systems in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekeye, J O; Abdu, P A; Bawa, E K

    1989-01-01

    Cloacal swabs from 487 live birds in 36 flocks and 70 poultry carcasses were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. It was isolated from 12.3% of the birds in 19 flocks. Chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowl differed from one another in isolation rates of the organism. Management system affected its occurrence, and only 7.1% of eviscerated carcasses yielded it. It was concluded that bird species, management system, and immersing slaughtered poultry in boiling water before dressing affect recovery of C. fetus subsp. jejuni from live birds and carcasses.

  19. Bacteriemia por Campylobacter fetus aislado mediante métodos convencionales de una paciente inmunocomprometida Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus isolated by conventional methods from an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Epifane

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las bacterias del género Campylobacter son bacilos gram-negativos móviles, helicoidales, que presentan morfologías características. Estos microorganismos requieren una baja tensión de oxígeno y un nivel aumentado de CO2 para su desarrollo. Se presenta un caso de bacteriemia por Campylobacter fetus en una paciente con diagnóstico previo de cáncer de mama, metástasis en columna dorso-lumbar y leucemia promielocítica aguda M3 variante de la clasificación FAB. La paciente ingresó al Hospital Italiano de Córdoba por pérdida de conocimiento y proctorragia de 48 h de evolución. Debido a su pancitopenia severa se le realizaron sucesivas transfusiones de sangre. A los 13 días de internación presentó fiebre permanente. Se tomaron muestras para hemocultivo y urocultivo y se comenzó el tratamiento antibiótico con clindamicina y ciprofloxacina. Los hemocultivos se subcultivaron a las 48 h en agar chocolate. A las 24 h de incubación a 35 °C en atmósfera con 5% de CO2 desarrollaron colonias diminutas. La coloración de Gram reveló en ambas muestras bacilos gram-negativos espirilados, posteriormente identificados como Campylobacter fetus por medio de pruebas bioquímicas convencionales. El esquema antibiótico fue rotado a gentamicina más clindamicina. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente y los hemocultivos resultaron negativos luego de 5 días de tratamiento.The genus Campylobacter includes gram-negative, motile, curved rods that can evidence characteristic morphologies. These microorganisms require low oxygen tension and an increased level of CO2 for growing. A case of bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus in a patient with a previous diagnosis of breast cancer with metastases in dorso-lumbar column and acute promyelocytic leukemia (FAB-M3 variant is presented. The patient was admitted to our institution due to loss of consciousness and a 2 day - history of bloody diarrhea. She received successive blood transfusions on account of

  20. A case of bacteremia caused by Campylobacter fetus: an unusual presentation in an infant

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    Alnimr AM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amani M Alnimr Department of Microbiology, King Fahad University Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Bacteremia due to Campylobacter spp. is rarely reported, and Campylobacter fetus is the species most commonly exhibiting vascular tropism, as occurred in this case report describing the diagnosis of C. fetus bacteremia in an infant presenting with respiratory tract infection. A 5-month-old baby, with undiagnosed failure to thrive, presented to the acute care service with a high fever and respiratory symptoms of 2 days duration. The initial clinical and laboratory diagnosis suggested bacteremia, but there was difficulty with recovery and identification of the organism from blood. Subsequent laboratory testing confirmed C. fetus as the etiological agent. Campylobacter isolated from blood culture bottles may give atypical laboratory features, rendering its identification challenging. Thus, such an infrequent species might be underestimated in frequency, and it should be considered in diagnostic laboratories, when a gram-negative organism with atypical findings is encountered in respiratory samples or blood culture bottles. Keywords: microbiology, vascular tropism, blood stream infection

  1. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

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    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  2. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

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    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  3. Investigação de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus na mucosa prepucial de touros da região do Médio Paraíba, RJ Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus investigation in prepucial mucous of bulls from Médio Paraíba/RJ region, Brazil

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    Flávio Soares da Rocha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e nove touros provenientes de propriedades de pecuária leiteira (n=9 e de pecuária de corte (n=30, situadas na região do Médio Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, foram investigados para a presença de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus. Para a pesquisa de Campylobacter, amostras de esmegma foram coletadas e submetidas à técnica de cultivo e isolamento e amostras de lavado prepucial ao teste de Imunofluorescência Direta (IFD. Para a pesquisa de Tritrichomonas, foi utilizada a técnica de exame direto a partir de lavado prepucial. Foi observada a presença de C. fetus em 14 amostras (35,9 %, por meio da IFD, e o isolamento de C. fetus, subespécie venerealis, foi obtido a partir de quatro amostras (10,3%. T. foetus não foi identificado nas amostras investigadas. A alta freqüência de C. fetus observada nos animais investigados sugere a presença da campilobacteriose na região do Médio Paraíba, em rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos.Thirty nine breeding bulls from dairy farms (n=9 and beef farms (n=30 located in Médio Paraíba region at Rio de Janeiro - Brazil state were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus. For Campylobacter investigation, smegma samples were examined by culture and prepucial washings were examined by direct immunofluorescence technique (DIF. The prepucial washings were also examined for Tritrichomonas foetus presence by direct examination. C. fetus was identified in 14 samples (35.9 % by DIF technique and C. fetus subspecies venerealis was isolated from four samples (10.3%. T. foetus was not detected in bull samples. The high frequency of C. fetus observed in bull samples suggests the occurrence of Campylobacteriosis among herds which have reproductive problems at the Médio Paraíba region.

  4. Campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with eating habits of raw meat and raw liver in a healthy patient: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Etaro; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Harumi

    2018-01-01

    Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C. fetus meningitis.

  5. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal

  6. Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method

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    Heath Sekou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual clinical symptomatology in that, in addition to gastroenteritis, they are associated often with bacteremia. In this study, we describe a novel multiplex PCR method, based on the nitrate reductase (nap locus, that can be used to unambiguously subspeciate C. jejuni isolates. Results Internal and flanking napA and napB primer sets were designed, based on existing C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli genome sequences to create two multiplex PCR primer sets, nap mpx1 and nap mpx2. Genomic DNA from 161 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and 27 C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd strains were amplified with these multiplex primer sets. The Cjd strains could be distinguished clearly from the Cjj strains using either nap mpx1 or mpx2. In addition, combination of either nap multiplex method with an existing lpxA speciation multiplex method resulted in the unambiguous and simultaneous speciation and subspeciation of the thermophilic Campylobacters. The Cjd nap amplicons were also sequenced: all Cjd strains tested contained identical 2761 bp deletions in napA and several Cjd strains contained deletions in napB. Conclusion The nap multiplex PCR primer sets are robust and give a 100% discrimination of C. jejuni subspecies. The ability to rapidly subspeciate C. jejuni as well as speciate thermophilic Campylobacter species, most of which are pathogenic in humans, in a single amplification will be of value to clinical laboratories in strain identification and the determination of the environmental source of campylobacterioses caused by Cjd. Finally, the sequences of the Cjd napA and napB loci suggest that Cjd strains arose from a common ancestor, providing clues as to

  7. Ocorrência da infecção por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis e Tritrichomonas foetus em búfalos no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    J.M. Borges

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se com estudo determinar a ocorrência da infecção por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis e Tritrichomonas foetus em búfalos no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram coletadas 133 amostras biológicas (muco cervicovaginal e raspado prepucial de animais, procedentes de oito propriedades, de diferentes regiões do estado. O material biológico coletado foi transferido para solução salina tamponada (PBS e, posteriormente, inoculado em meios de transporte específicos, Lander para diagnóstico de C. fetus subsp. venerealis e Diamond para T. foetus. Para o diagnóstico das infecções por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis e Tritrichomonas foetus, as amostras foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e cultivadas em meio ágar Columbia acrescido de antibiótico e Diamond, respectivamente. Para pesquisa de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, observou-se uma ocorrência de 1,8% (2/113 de animais positivos no exame microbiológico com confirmação pela PCR. Em relação à procedência, observou-se que 100% das amostras positivas pertenciam a dois machos do mesmo rebanho. Nenhum animal foi positivo na pesquisa de T. foetus. Este é o primeiro registro da infecção por C. fetus subsp. venerealis em búfalos no Brasil. Apesar da baixa ocorrência, recomenda-se adoção de medidas de controle, com o intuito de se evitar a disseminação do agente para outros rebanhos.

  8. Evaluation of long-acting oxytetracycline and a commercial monovalent vaccine for the control of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nathan E N; Lanigan, Emily; Waugh, Taryn; Gesy, Karen; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    A blinded randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a multi-modal therapeutic regime for treatment of beef bulls infected with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) . Treatment included 2 doses of a commercially available monovalent vaccine and long-acting oxytetracycline applied twice at a 2-week interval with treatment completed 2 weeks before post-treatment observation. Fifteen confirmed Cfv infected bulls were randomly allocated to control ( n = 8) or treatment groups ( n = 7). Preputial scrapings were collected each week from before infection to 11 weeks following the last treatment. When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for both culture and preputial scrapings were interpreted in parallel, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated bulls. Regardless of the type of diagnostic testing considered, treatment with 2 label doses of this regime did not stop shedding of Cfv in all treated bulls and is, therefore, not recommended as an effective management strategy.

  9. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

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    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  10. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  12. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis and has a high prevalence in poultry. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 327 is a subspecies of the genus Campylobacter of the family Campylobacteraceae in the phylum Proteobacteria. The microaerophilic, spiral shaped...

  13. Growth of non-Campylobacter, oxidase-positive bacteria on selective Campylobacter agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, L B; Chester, B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 67 oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacteria were tested for growth on selective Campylobacter agar (Blaser formulation, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) at 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Although the growth of most of these bacteria was prevented, all strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes grew as well as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  15. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...

  16. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  17. Occurrence and characterization of Campylobacter in the Brazilian production and processing of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuana, S L; Santos, L R; Rodrigues, L B; Borsoi, A; Moraes, H L S; Salle, C T P; Nascimento, V P

    2008-12-01

    Twenty-two commercial broiler flocks and their carcasses, totaling 546 samples (450 collected from a poultry farm and 96 from a slaughterhouse), were surveyed for the presence of Campylobacter. The positive results for Campylobacter among the analyzed samples were homogeneous, yielding 81.8% for cecal droppings, 80.9% for feces, and 80.4% for cloacal swabs. Pre-enrichment and direct plating showed that 77.85% and 81.8% of cloacal swabs, respectively, were positive for Campylobacter compared to 99.0% and 97.9% of carcasses testing positive with the pre-enrichment and direct plating methods. The Campylobacter count averaged 7.0 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g in cecal droppings, 5.15 log10 CFU/carcass after defeathering, and 4.24 log10 CFU/carcass after chilling. The samples were identified by the API Campy system as Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (68.8%), Campylobacter coli (8.3%), Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei (6.3%), Campylobacter upsaliensis (4.2%), and Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (2.1%). The analyzed broiler flocks were positive for Campylobacter in 81.8% of the cases, thus characterizing the occurrence of this pathogen in a broiler-producing region in southern Brazil. These results highlight the importance of programs targeted at the reduction of Campylobacter in poultry products, in order to minimize the risks for consumers.

  18. Comparative genomics of campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Zomer, Aldert L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is most closely related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, andC. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be a primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorumstrain 1485E, isolated

  19. Harlequin fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.A.; Ghauri, A. Q.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of harlequin fetus born to the consanguineous parents, She had the typical skin manifestations of thick armour like scales with fissures, complete ectropion and eclabium, atrophic and crumpled ears and swollen extremities with gangrenous digits, Supportive treatment was given but the neonate died on the 4th day. (author)

  20. Extensive 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity in Campylobacter hyointestinalis strains: taxonomic and applied implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, C.S.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subspecies were examined by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequence similarities among C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains exceeded 99.0 %, but values among C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis strains ranged from 96...... of the genus Campylobacter, emphasizing the need for multiple strain analysis when using 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons for taxonomic investigations........4 to 100 %. Sequence similarites between strains representing the two different subspecies ranged from 95.7 to 99.0 %. An intervening sequence was identified in certain of the C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strains. C. hyointestinalis strains occupied two distinct branches in a phylogenetic analysis...

  1. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  2. Detection probability of Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.G.; Post, J.; Putirulan, F.F.; Wal, van der F.J.

    2010-01-01

    A rapid presence/absence test for Campylobacter in chicken faeces is being evaluated to support the scheduling of highly contaminated broiler flocks as a measure to reduce public health risks [Nauta, M. J., & Havelaar, A. H. (2008). Risk-based standards for Campylobacter in the broiler meat

  3. Shedding subspecies: The influence of genetics on reptile subspecies taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstrom, Shannon M; Pangle, Kevin L; Swanson, Bradley J

    2014-07-01

    The subspecies concept influences multiple aspects of biology and management. The 'molecular revolution' altered traditional methods (morphological traits) of subspecies classification by applying genetic analyses resulting in alternative or contradictory classifications. We evaluated recent reptile literature for bias in the recommendations regarding subspecies status when genetic data were included. Reviewing characteristics of the study, genetic variables, genetic distance values and noting the species concepts, we found that subspecies were more likely elevated to species when using genetic analysis. However, there was no predictive relationship between variables used and taxonomic recommendation. There was a significant difference between the median genetic distance values when researchers elevated or collapsed a subspecies. Our review found nine different concepts of species used when recommending taxonomic change, and studies incorporating multiple species concepts were more likely to recommend a taxonomic change. Since using genetic techniques significantly alter reptile taxonomy there is a need to establish a standard method to determine the species-subspecies boundary in order to effectively use the subspecies classification for research and conservation purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  5. '1001' Campylobacters: cultural characteristics of intestinal campylobacters from man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirrow, M B; Benjamin, J

    1980-12-01

    The cultural characteristics of 1220 Campylobacter strains from a variety of sources are described. Forty-two were identified as Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (Véron & Chatelain, 1973), 1120 as members of the C. jejuni/C. coli group, and 58 did not conform to any known description. Sixteen of the latter strains had the basic characteristics of C. fetus but were atypical in certain other respects. The other 42 strains had the thermophilic characteristics of the jejuni/coli group, but were resistant to nalidixic acid and had other features in common; it is possible that they represent a new species. They were isolated from 19% of locally caught wild seagulls but only occasionally from other animals and man.Growth at 25 degrees C clearly distinguished strains of C. fetus from those of the jejuni/coli and the nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic (NARTC) groups. Maximum growth temperature was less reliable for this purpose, and 43 degrees C was found to be better than the traditional 42 degrees C. By arranging the results of three tests (tolerance to 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, growth at 30.5 and 45.5 degrees C) serially in the form of a schema comprising nine categories, the jejuni/coli strains fell into two main groups resembling the Institute Pasteur C. jejuni and C. coli type strains, but these groups could not be clearly defined owing to the existence of strains with intermediate characteristics.Most of the strains from cattle resembled C. jejuni, whereas those from pigs resembled C. coli; poultry strains occupied a more intermediate position. Strains from man and other animals were of mixed types, but most human strains resembled C. jejuni rather than C. coli. The type distribution pattern that most nearly matched that of human indigenous strains was given by a half-and-half mixture of strains from cattle and poultry.

  6. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  7. Fathers and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  8. Illness associated with Campylobacter laridis, a newly recognized Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, R V; Patton, C M; Edmonds, P; Barrett, T J; Brenner, D J; Blake, P A

    1985-02-01

    Campylobacter laridis, a recently described thermophilic Campylobacter species found principally in seagulls, has not previously been linked to illness in humans. Six clinical isolates of this species were referred to the national campylobacter reference laboratory in 1982 and 1983. Each isolate was confirmed by biochemical characterization and by DNA relatedness studies. The six isolates were obtained during an illness: enteritis in four, severe crampy abdominal pain in one, and terminal bacteremia in an immunocompromised host in one. The infections occurred in persons 8 months to 71 years old. Neither the geographic distribution nor the reports of the patients suggest that seagulls played a direct role in the epidemiology of these infections. This potential human enteric pathogen appears to be clinically, epidemiologically, and microbiologically similar to Campylobacter jejuni and may be mistaken for it if nalidixic acid susceptibility screening is not routinely performed.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea in Minas Gerais state, Brazil Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Leite Miranda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 25 Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea - 7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni was studied by the disk diffusion method. Eleven antimicrobial agents were tested amikacin, ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin G, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. All Campylobacter sp strains were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin and nitrofurantoin. Three strains were moderately susceptible to kanamycin (2 C. coli and 1 C. fetus. All the strains were resistant to penicillin G. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and 1 C. coli, 9 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to tetracycline and 3 C. coli, 2 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Eleven strains showed multidrug resistance (2 C. coli, 8 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni. There was no correlation between resistance of Campylobacter sp strains to antimicrobials and the occurrence of diarrhea in calves. The frequency of resistance and, most importantly, multi drug resistance found among Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were high and the patterns of resistance observed are related to the antimicrobials agents most largely used in cattle in Brazil.Foi estudado o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de 25 amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia (7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus e 2 C. jejuni. Foram testados pelo método de difusão 11 agentes antimicrobianos: amicacina, ampicilina, canamicina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazole-trimetoprim. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter sp foram susceptíveis a amicacina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina

  11. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobacters of human clinical (e.g. C. jejuni or veterinary (e.g. C. fetus relevance. However, other, emerging, Campylobacter species have been isolated increasingly from environmental, food animal or human clinical samples. We describe herein MLST methods for five emerging Campylobacter species: C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus. The concisus/curvus method uses the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD and pgm, whereas the other methods use the seven loci defined for C. jejuni (i.e., aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, pgm, and tkt. Multiple food animal and human clinical C. hyointestinalis (n=48, C. lanienae (n=34 and C. sputorum (n=24 isolates were typed, along with 86 human clinical C. concisus and C. curvus isolates. A large number of sequence types (STs were identified using all four MLST methods. Similar to Campylobacter MLST methods described previously, these novel MLST methods identified mixed isolates containing two or more strains of the same species. Additionally, these methods speciated unequivocally isolates that had been typed ambiguously using other molecular-based speciation methods, such as 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, the design of degenerate primer pairs for some methods permitted the typing of related species; for example, the C. hyointestinalis primer pairs could be used to type C. fetus strains. Therefore, these novel Campylobacter MLST methods will prove useful in speciating and differentiating strains of multiple, emerging Campylobacter species.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  13. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter c...

  14. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  15. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse

  16. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  17. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2005-11-01

    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  18. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J; Severs, Tim T; Kusters, Johannes G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  19. Occurrence, Diversity, and Host Association of Intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Kik, Marja; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Severs, Tim T.; Kusters, Johannes G.; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%), followed by lizards (19.6%) and snakes (3.0%). The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa. PMID:24988130

  20. Occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter in reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Gilbert

    Full Text Available Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these Epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. However, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. In this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large variety of reptiles. From 2011 to 2013, 444 cloacal swabs and fecal samples originating from 417 predominantly captive-held reptiles were screened for Epsilonproteobacteria. Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter genus specific PCRs were performed directly on all samples. All samples were also cultured on selective media and screened for the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria. Using a tiered approach of AFLP, atpA, and 16S rRNA sequencing, 432 Epsilonproteobacteria isolates were characterized at the species level. Based on PCR, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter were detected in 69.3% of the reptiles; 82.5% of the chelonians, 63.8% of the lizards, and 58.0% of the snakes were positive for one or more of these genera. Epsilonproteobacteria were isolated from 22.1% of the reptiles and were isolated most frequently from chelonians (37.0%, followed by lizards (19.6% and snakes (3.0%. The most commonly isolated taxa were Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, reptile-associated Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, and a putative novel Campylobacter taxon. Furthermore, a clade of seven related putative novel Helicobacter taxa was isolated from lizards and chelonians. This study shows that reptiles carry various intestinal Epsilonproteobacteria taxa, including several putative novel taxa.

  1. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  2. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses and group II (third-trimester fetuses, followed by dissection. Result. (1 Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%. In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2 Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3 Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4 Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position.

  3. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  4. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  5. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  6. Perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras Campylobacter spp isoladas de diferentes espécies animais em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pinheiro Toscano de Brito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available padrão de sensibilidade de 45 amostras de Campylobacter spp, incluindo 16 amostras de C. jejuni, 8 de C. coli e 21 C. fetus, isoladas de diferentes espécies de animais do Brasil, foi determinado para doze antimicrobianos. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter spp foram sensíveis à gentamicina, sulfadiazina e sulfametoxazol. C. jejuni e C. coli foram também sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, enquanto todas as amostras de C. fetus foram sensíveis à canamicina. Cefoperazona mostrou o maior percentual de resistência entre C. jejuni (68,75%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (31,25%, ampicilina (37,50%, tetraciclina (37,50%, eritromicina (12,50% e canamicina (6,25%. Similarmente, cefoperazona também exibiu o maior percentual de resistência entre as amostras de C. coli (75,00%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (50,00%, tetraciclina (50,00%, eritromicina (37,50%, ampicilina (12,50% e canamicina (12,50%. Entre os isolados de C. fetus, ácido nalidíxico apresentou maior taxa de resistência (85,71%, seguido de cefoperazona (71,43%, tetraciclina (42,86%, ampicilina (19,05%, cloranfenicol (9,52% e eritromicina (4,76%. Assim, os nossos resultados mostraram que a maioria das amostras de Campylobacter spp isolados de animais foram sensíveis à gentamicina, cloranfenicol, canamicina e sulfonamidas. No entanto, uma proporção elevada das amostras apresentou susceptibilidade reduzida ao ácido nalidíxico, ampicilina, cefoperazona e tetraciclina. Além disso, C. coli e C. fetus mostraram uma alta porcentagem de amostras resistentes a múltiplas drogas.

  7. Campylobacter gracilis and Campylobacter rectus in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2003-03-01

    A species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus in primary root canal infections. Samples were collected from 57 single-rooted teeth with carious lesions, necrotic pulps and radiographic evidence of periradicular disease. Twenty-eight cases were diagnosed as chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions, 12 cases as acute apical periodontitis, and 17 cases as acute periradicular abscess. DNA was extracted from the samples and initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification using the first PCR products was performed to specifically detect C. gracilis or C. rectus in the samples. Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus were, respectively, detected in 21.4 (6 of 28) and 30% (6 of 20) of the root canals associated with chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions. Campylobacter gracilis was found in 16.7% (2 of 12) of the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, whilst C. rectus was found in 33.3% (two of six cases). In the abscessed cases, C. gracilis and C. rectus were detected in 23.5 (4 of 17) and 11.8% (2 of 17) of the cases, respectively. No association of these species with clinical symptoms was observed (P > 0.01) In general, species-specific nPCR allowed the detection of C. gracilis in 21.1% (12 of 57) and C. rectus in 23.3% (10 of 43)of the samples taken from primary endodontic infections. Findings confirmed the assertion that both C. gracilis and C. rectus participate in infections of endodontic origin and suggest a pathogenetic role with regard to periradicular diseases.

  8. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  9. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2007-01-01

    range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results: In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated...... from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14...... range of 12 Danish Campylobacter phages. Due to their ability to infect the majority of the common serotypes in Denmark we suggest the phages can become an effective agent in the effort to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis in Denmark. This study provides the basis for future experiments...

  10. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  11. Fetus in Jetu and Teratoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, University of Natal, and Depart- ment of Paediatrics and ... imperfect X-ray films). Since the 1I ... tained a teratoma, with 5 fetiform structures. The latter ... dental rudiments of the fetus have suffered some un- paralleled ...

  12. Activity patterns in malformed fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F; Barr, M

    1982-04-15

    Knowledge of a malformed fetus before the onset of labor would assist the physician in preparing the expectant parents, managing the timing and method of delivery, and preparing for the immediate care of a salvageable infant. This 3-year prospective investigation compared the activity patterns of fetuses who were later found to have major malformation with those of fetuses who had no apparent defects. Fetal motion over prolonged periods was determined by daily charting of fetal movement by the mother. Although not a reliable predictor for all malformations, evidence of fetal inactivity was found to be more common (p less than 0.0001) among fetuses with anomalies (16 of 58 cases, 28%) than among those with no defects (39 of 1,098 cases, 4%). All malformations associated with fetal inactivity were strongly suspected ultrasonographically and included hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, nonimmune hydrops, bilateral renal agenesis, and bilateral dislocation of the hips. Documentation of fetal inactivity is helpful in recognizing certain major malformations and constitutes grounds for more detailed study by ultrasonography.

  13. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  14. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  15. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  16. [Delivery of the IUGR fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotin, F; Simon, E G; Potin, J; Laffon, M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review available data regarding the management of delivery in intra uterine growth retarded fetuses and try to get recommendations for clinical obstetrical practice. Bibliographic research performed by consulting PubMed database and recommendations from scientific societies with the following words: small for gestational age, intra-uterine growth restriction, fetal growth restriction, very low birth weight infants, as well as mode of delivery, induction of labor, cesarean section and operative delivery. The diagnosis of severe IUGR justifies the orientation of the patient to a referral centre with all necessary resources for very low birth weight or premature infants Administration of corticosteroids for fetal maturation (before 34 WG) and a possible neuroprotective treatment by with magnesium sulphate (before 32-33 WG) should be discussed. Although elective caesarean section is common, there is no current evidence supporting the use of systematic cesarean section, especially when the woman is in labor. Induction of labor, even with unfavorable cervix is possible under continuous FHR monitoring, in favorable obstetric situations and in the absence of severe fetal hemodynamic disturbances. Instrumental delivery and routine episiotomy are not recommended. For caesarean section under spinal anesthesia, an adequate anesthetic management must ensure the maintenance of basal blood pressure. Compared with appropriate for gestational age fetus, IUGR fetus is at increased risk of metabolic acidosis or perinatal asphyxia during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    . The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  19. A new subspecies of Typhlosaurus lineatus Boulenger 1887 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-10-01

    Oct 1, 1986 ... totale ventrale skubteliings. Geografiese afsondering is oak duidelik. Introduction. The genus TyphlosauTlls Wiegmann. 1834 has recently been revised by Broadley (1968). He lists 12 species and subspecies including three subspecies of Tlinealus. One of these, T. I. subtaenialus Broadley. differs from the.

  20. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  1. The original descriptions of reptiles and their subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetz, Peter; Stylianou, Alexandrea

    2018-01-24

    By August 2017 an estimated 13,047 species and subspecies of extant reptiles have been described by a total of 6,454 papers and books which are listed in a supplementary file. For 1,052 species a total of 2,452 subspecies (excluding nominate subspecies) had been described by 2017, down from 1,295 species and 4,411 subspecies in 2009, due to the elevation of many subspecies to species. Here we summarize the history of these taxon description beginning with Linnaeus in 1758. While it took 80 years to reach the first 1,000 species in 1838, new species and subspecies descriptions since then have been added at a roughly constant rate of 1000 new taxa every 12-17 years. The only exception were the decades during World Wars I and II and the beginning of this millennium when the rate of descriptions increased to now about 7 years for the last 1,000 taxa. The top 101 most productive herpetologists (in terms of "taxon output") have described more than 8,000 species and subspecies, amounting to over 60% of all currently valid taxa. More than 90% of all species were described in either English (68.2%), German (12.7%) or French (9.3%).

  2. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon L. Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the

  3. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joon L.; Ng, Kee P.; Ong, Chia S.; Ngeow, Yun F.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii) are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a) recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b) recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c) the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the diversification

  4. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Class 1 integrons and plasmid-mediated multiple resistance genes of the Campylobacter species from pediatric patient of a university hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Tien, Ni; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Wang, I-Kuan

    2017-01-01

    The Campylobacter species usually causes infection between humans and livestock interaction via livestock breeding. The studies of the Campylobacter species thus far in all clinical isolates were to show the many kinds of antibiotic phenomenon that were produced. Their integrons cause the induction of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species in the Campylobacter species. The bacterial strains from the diarrhea of pediatric patient which isolated by China Medical University Hospital storage bank. These isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The anti-microbial susceptibility test showed that Campylobacter species resistant to cefepime, streptomycin, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (all C. jejuni and C. coli isolates), ampicillin (89% of C. jejuni ; 75% of C. coli ), cefotaxime (78% of C. jejuni ; 100% of C. coli ), nalidixic acid (78% of C. jejuni ; 100% of C. coli ), tetracycline (89% of C. jejuni ; 25% C. coli ), ciprofloxacin (67% of C. jejuni ; 50% C. coli ), kanamycin (33% of C. jejuni ; 75% C. coli ) and the C. fetus isolate resisted to ampicillin, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin by disc-diffusion method. The effect for ciprofloxacin and tetracycline of the Campylobacter species was tested using an E-test. The tet, erm , and integron genes were detected by PCR assay. According to the sequencing analysis (type I: dfr12 - gcuF - aadA2 genes and type II: dfrA7 gene), the cassette type was identified. The most common gene cassette type (type I: 9 C. jejuni and 2 C. coli isolates; type II: 1 C. coli isolates) was found in 12 class I integrase-positive isolates. Our results suggested an important information in the latency of Campylobacter species with resistance genes, and irrational antimicrobial use should be concerned.

  6. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  7. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from domestic and wild mammals in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O; Gondrosen, B; Kapperud, G; Underdal, B

    1983-10-01

    A total of 1,262 domestic and wild mammals from Norway were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the five species of domestic mammals examined, the highest isolation rate was recorded among swine (100.0%), followed by sheep (8.1%) and cows (0.8%). No strains were recovered from horses or goats. Among wild mammals, C. jejuni was isolated from 1 of 23 hares, and no isolated were obtained from three species of cervids and three species of rodents. Of the 133 Campylobacter strains isolated, 114 were classified as C. coli, 18 were C. jejuni biotype 1, and 1 belonged to C. jejuni biotype 2. All 114 strains from swine were C. coli. Milk samples from 113 domestic animals with clinically diagnosed mastitis (106 cows, 5 sheep, 1 horse, and 1 pig) were negative for campylobacters.

  9. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  10. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community.

  11. Multilocus sequence typing reveals a novel subspeciation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Kana; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Currently, the species Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into four subspecies, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. indicus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. These classifications were based mainly on phenotypic identification methods and few studies have used genotypic identification methods. As a result, these subspecies have not yet been reliably delineated. In this study, the four subspecies of L. delbrueckii were discriminated by phenotype and by genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] methods. The MLST method developed here was based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes (fusA, gyrB, hsp60, ileS, pyrG, recA and recG). The MLST method had good discriminatory ability: the 41 strains of L. delbrueckii examined were divided into 34 sequence types, with 29 sequence types represented by only a single strain. The sequence types were divided into eight groups. These groups could be discriminated as representing different subspecies. The results of the AFLP and MLST analyses were consistent. The type strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, YIT 0080(T), was clearly discriminated from the other strains currently classified as members of this subspecies, which were located close to strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. The MLST scheme developed in this study should be a useful tool for the identification of strains of L. delbrueckii to the subspecies level.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  13. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, antimicrobial agents are recommended for extraintestinal infections and for treating immunocompromised persons. ... The in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing for all organisms was performed by employing the Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method.

  14. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    However, antimicrobial resistance to clinically important drugs used for treatment (especially macrolides and fluoroquinolones) is increasingly reported for campylobacters (9). There is growing scientific evidence that the use of antibiotics in food animals, particularly in developed countries, leads to the development of.

  15. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  16. Isolation and molecular characterization of Campylobacter coli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campylobacter coli is prevalent among trade pigs in Kafanchan, Nigeria and is distributed across four of the five states from which trade pigs were sourced. Adequate hand hygiene is recommended for farmers, traders and Veterinary professionals handling pigs to prevent the transmission of this zoonosis to humans.

  17. Selective medium for aerobic incubation of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted on the formulation of a selective medium that could be used to isolate Campylobacter from mixed bacterial cultures using aerobic incubation. A non-selective, basal broth medium was prepared and supplemented with Bolton, Cefex, or Skirrow antibiotic mixtures. The ability of pur...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni & Inflammation : Grilling the pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Yet, little is known about how this pathogen causes intestinal inflammation. The clinical pathology during human infection points to invasive bacterial behavior accompanied by the induction of potent pro-inflammatory

  19. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  20. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  1. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  2. Nonculturability Might Underestimate the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Helmy, Yosra A; Kathayat, Dipak; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loic; Huang, Huang-Chi; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the contribution of litter to the occurrence of Campylobacter on three broiler farms, which were known to have low (LO) and high (HI-A and HI-B) Campylobacter prevalence. For this purpose, we collected litter samples (n = 288) during and after two rearing cycles from each farm. We evaluated the occurrence of Campylobacter (using selective enrichment and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [q-PCR] analysis) in the litter samples as well as the litter's pH and moisture content. Ceca from each flock (n = 144) were harvested at slaughter age and used to quantify Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFUs). Campylobacter was only retrieved from 7 litter samples that were collected from HI-A and HI-B during the growing period, but no Campylobacter was isolated from LO farms. The q-PCR analysis detected Campylobacter in pooled litter samples from all three farms. However, in litter collected during the same rotation, Campylobacter levels were significantly higher (p litter samples in comparison to those in LO. Cecal samples from HI-A and HI-B yielded relatively high numbers of Campylobacter CFUs, which were undetectable in LO samples. Litter's pH and moisture did not affect the overall occurrence of Campylobacter in litter and ceca on any of the farms. Our data suggest that Campylobacter was generally more abundant in litter that was collected from farms with highly colonized flocks. Therefore, better approaches for assessing the occurrence of Campylobacter in litter might be warranted in order to reduce the dissemination of these pathogens on and off poultry farms.

  3. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  4. The effects of Campylobacter numbers in caeca on the contamination of broiler carcasses with Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Felix; Atanassova, Viktoria; Haunhorst, Eberhard; Klein, Günter

    2008-09-30

    For the presence and number of Campylobacter, 18 broiler flocks were sampled over a period of 18 months. A total of 70% of the flocks were positive for Campylobacter, with higher prevalence found in summer and autumn, compared to winter and spring. Positive flocks showed contamination rates above 90%, in negative flocks this was lower, mostly below 50%. The enumeration showed a decrease in Campylobacter during processing of positive flocks. The numbers were highest in carcasses after scalding/defeathering (mean 5.9 log10 cfu/carcass) and dropped by 0.7 log10 cfu/carcass after chilling. A positive correlation was observed between the number of Campylobacter present in the caeca and the number of bacteria present on carcasses and cut products. When a negative flock was slaughtered after Campylobacter positive flocks, the number of positive samples was higher compared to the case when a negative flock had been slaughtered previously. C. jejuni was isolated from 73.6% of the poultry samples.

  5. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delivery Introduction to Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Amniotic Fluid Embolism Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Fetal Distress Inverted Uterus Labor That ...

  6. Identification and epidemiological typing of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subspecies by phenotypic and genotypic methods and description of novel subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephan L.W.; Vandamme, P.

    1997-01-01

    of this taxon. Two novel, distinct groups of C. hyointestinalis-like bacteria, originally isolated from the cloacae of Canada geese and human diarrhoeic stools, were also identified by each of the methods used. This appears to be the first report confirming the presence of C. hyointestinalis-like strains from...

  7. Infeções alimentares por Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Carlota Duarte Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Após o isolamento bem-sucedido em fezes na década de setenta do século passado (1972), Campylobacter tornou-se rapidamente a espécie bacteriana mais comumente associada a doenças diarreicas em todo o mundo. A infeção por Campylobacter provoca um espectro de doenças, incluindo enterite aguda, infeções extra-gastrointestinais e complicações pós-infeciosas. A doença gastrointestinal autolimita...

  8. Use of UV absorption for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spomer, G.G.; Henderson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of UV absorption spectra for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. was investigated by analyzing the relative optical densities of alcohol extracts from herbarium and fresh plant material at 240 nm, 250 nm, and 265 nm. In all but 1 comparison, mean relative optical densities were significantly different (p=0.95) between subspecies, but intraplant and intrasubspecies variation and overlap was found to be too large to permit use of UV absorbance alone for identifying individual specimens. These results held whether dry or fresh leaves were extracted, or whether methanol or ethanol was used as the extracting solvent. (author)

  9. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  10. Evaluation of the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Campylobacter Microplate Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcin, Rita; LaSalvia, Margaret M.; Kirkley, Barbara A.; Vetter, Emily A.; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Procop, Gary W.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated stool specimens known to contain or be free of Campylobacter by traditional culture, using the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Ramsey, Minn.). This rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Campylobacter-specific antigens demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity and is an acceptable alternative method of Campylobacter detection. PMID:11015419

  11. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Campylobacter jejuni in poultry processed in slaughterhouses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mícková, V

    1987-09-01

    The frequency of occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni germs in dressed poultry was studied for a year. The samples--smears from the body cavities of chickens--were collected during the technological dressing of the chickens; 101 strains of Campylobacter jejuni (i. e. 28.69%) were isolated from the 352 samples analyzed. The occurrence of the germs exhibited a considerable seasonal variance with peak rates in spring and summer. The use of a suitable culture medium, the technique of cultivation and the properties of the isolated strains were studied at the same time. The culture medium (Agar no. 3 IMUNA enriched with supplement C, horse blood and ingredients increasing the aerotolerance of the germs--sodium pyruvate and iron sulphate) used during the investigation was found to be suitable. The technique of cultivation by means of an anaerostat manufactured by the Development Station in Brno, atmosphere regulation (5% CO2) and with a pre-set cultivation temperature (43 degrees C) was found to be suitable for the screening of the Campylobacter jejuni germs.

  13. Simultaneous presence of multiple Campylobacter species in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, M.G.J.; Houwers, D.J.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Duim, B.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of coinfection of Campylobacter species in dogs was determined using four isolation methods. In 26% of the positive-testing stools, multiple Campylobacter species were identified. The use of multiple isolation methods as well as the time lapse between sampling and processing are

  14. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  15. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. The...

  16. Antibiotic profiles of bacteria isolated on selective campylobacter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine antibiotic profiles of non-Campylobacter bacteria recovered on selective Campylobacter media. Broiler carcasses were obtained from a processing facility, and whole-carcass rinses were performed by shaking carcasses in plastic bags with 200 mL of distilled...

  17. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  18. Campylobacter pylori as possible factor in peptic ulcer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the literature up to 1988 about the close association of Campylobacter pylori with chronic active gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer disease. No firm data however demonstrate that Campylobacter pylori causes duodenal ulcer but long term eradication of this bacterium prevents

  19. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  20. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  1. Preventing Campylobacter at the Source: Why Is It So Difficult?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; French, N.P.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive

  2. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  3. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2013-02-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.

  6. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  7. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  8. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  9. Relationship between aerobic bacteria, salmonellae and Campylobacter on broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, J A; Bailey, J S; Stern, N J; Whittemore, A D; Cox, N A

    1997-07-01

    Broiler carcasses were removed from commercial processing lines immediately after defeathering, before chilling, and after chilling to determine whether any relationship exists between aerobic bacteria and the human enteropathogens salmonellae and Campylobacter. In two experiments, a whole carcass rinse procedure was used to sample 30 carcasses after defeathering, 90 carcasses before chilling, and 90 carcasses after chilling, for a total of 210 different carcasses. Aerobic bacteria and Campylobacter spp. were enumerated and the incidence of salmonellae was determined. Salmonellae and Campylobacter incidences were 20 and 94%, respectively, for all carcasses sampled. After picking, neither salmonellae-positive nor Campylobacter-positive carcasses had mean aerobic most probable number (MPN) values that were different from carcasses negative for those organisms. Immediately before chilling, aerobic and Campylobacter counts were 7.12 and 5.33 log10 cfu per carcass, respectively. Immersion chilling reduced aerobic counts by approximately 1.8 log and Campylobacter by 1.5 log, with no change in salmonellae-positive carcasses. There was no difference in aerobic or Campylobacter counts between carcasses that were positive or negative for salmonellae at any of the sampling locations, nor was any correlation found between levels of aerobic organisms and Campylobacter. Carcasses with aerobic counts above the mean or more than one standard deviation above the mean also failed to show any correlation. Discriminant analysis indicated error rates as high as 50% when numbers of aerobic bacteria were used to predict incidence of salmonellae or Campylobacter on individual carcasses. Aerobic bacteria are not suitable as index organisms for salmonellae or Campylobacter on broiler carcasses.

  10. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  11. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ......Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude...... that the sensitivity of detection of Campylobacter in air is comparable to that in other sample materials. Profiling of airborne particles in six poultry houses revealed that the aerodynamic conditions were dependent on the age of the chickens and very comparable among different poultry houses, with low proportions...

  12. Comparative genomic fingerprinting for the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Thermophilic campylobacters, especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are the most important causes of bacterial diarrhea in developed and developing countries. The disease can occur as a sporadic infection or as large and small outbreaks. Phenotyping and genotyping methods are in use to determine similarities between strains as well their possible common origin. The goal of the study was to compare discriminatory power of biotyping tests and comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF 40 (100%, as well as a combination of the two tests in detection of clonality or epidemiological relatedness between the studied strains. Methods. We investigated 23 Campylobacter strains using biotyping and CGF typing. Results. We found that biotyping was a more discriminatory method for C. coli, and CGF for C. jejuni strains. In the discrimination of C. jejuni strains, CGF had better discriminatory power [Simpson’s index of diversity (ID was 0.879] over the discrimination of C. coli strains (Simpson’s ID was 0.389. Conclusion. Biotyping and CGF can be complementary methods in detection of similarity, relatedness and possible common origin between strains since the combination of biotyping and CGF methods gives more precise data about diversity within C. coli and C. jejuni strains. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34008

  13. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. ...

  14. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp...

  16. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Broiler Isolates by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Guillermo; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Ronco, Troels

    2017-01-01

    -associated genes studied related to motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, and invasion. Interestingly, the wlaN gene involved in the Guillain–Barré syndrome was found in two isolates. The results underline the power of WGS for investigation of virulence, clonality, and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter....

  17. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  19. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  20. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Campylobacter upsaliensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Campylobacter upsaliensis 名詞 一般 *... * * * Campylobacter upsaliensis ... MeSH D044885 200906036434053162 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Campylobacter upsaliensis

  1. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  2. Campylobacter in chicken livers and their destruction by pan frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, R; Hudson, J A; Graham, C

    2006-12-01

    To enumerate Campylobacter spp. on the external surface and internal portions of chicken livers, and to assess the cooking required to inactivate naturally present cells. Of 30 livers tested all yielded Campylobacter spp. on their surfaces and 90% were found to contain the organism in internal tissue. Four (13%) livers contained >10(4) MPN campylobacters, and an additional seven (23%) contained >10(3) MPN campylobacters per liver. The internal temperature of pan-fried livers under the conditions used reached a maximum of 70-80 degrees C, and maintaining this temperature for 2-3 min was necessary to inactivate naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. All isolates identified were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Chicken livers represent a potential source of human campylobacteriosis as they contained >10(4) MPN per liver in 13% of the samples tested. Pan-frying can produce an acceptable product that is safe to eat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THIS STUDY: The data provided can be used in exposure assessments of Campylobacter in poultry products in terms of both quantitative data and assessing pan-frying and its ability to destroy campylobacters.

  3. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  5. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods......, and other advantages can be a high possibility of automation and detection of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The strength of rapid methods lies in their ability to screen large numbers of samples, identify the negative ones, allowing resources to be focused on confirming and culturing of presumptive...

  6. Fetus in fetu: A very rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Fetus in fetu” is a condition seen rarely in the literature, less than 200 cases reported till now. It is a calcified mass or an encapsulated pendunculated tumor thought to be due to unequal division of totipotent cells of a blastocyst, resulting in a small cellular mass in a more mature embryo thus forming a monozygotic, diamniotic twin pregnancy.

  7. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  8. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes...... of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Results Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni...

  9. Ubiquity of Polynucleobacter necessarius subspecies asymbioticus results from ecological diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Brandt, Ulrike; Hahn, Martin W

    2011-01-01

    The subspecies Polynucleobacter necessarius asymbioticus (> 99% 16S rRNA similarity) has a cosmopolitan distribution and a ubiquitous occurrence in lentic freshwater habitats. We tested if the observed ubiquity of these free-living planktonic freshwater bacteria results from a euryoecious (generalist) adaptation of P. n. asymbioticus strains, or from ecological diversification within the subspecies. We developed a reverse line blot hybridization assay enabling the cultivation-independent detection of 13 groups within the subspecies in environmental samples. A set of 121 lentic freshwater habitats, spanning a broad variety of habitat types (e.g. pH levels ranging from 3.8 to 8.5) was investigated for the presence of these 13 P. n. asymbioticus groups. Statistical analyses of the reverse line blot hybridization detections revealed pronounced differences in habitat preferences of several of the groups. Their preferences differed regarding pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen concentration of habitats. For some groups, differences in environmental preferences resulted even in complete niche separation between them. The revealed differences in habitat preferences suggest that the previously reported ubiquity of P. n. asymbioticus results from ecological diversification within the taxon and not from generalist adaptation of strains. PMID:21208356

  10. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  11. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    ,816 flies captured from farm surroundings. Each individual fly was macerated, preenriched in Bolton broth for 24 h at 42 degrees C, streaked onto modified Campylobater blood-free selective agar and incubated under microaerobic conditions for 48 h at 42 degrees C. Second, the influx of insects to broiler...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... without other livestock, the prevalence was constantly below 1.0%. The average influx of insects per broiler rotation was estimated to be 30,728 +/- 2,443 SE (range 2,233 to 180,300), of which 21.4% were flies. The influx of insects correlated with the flow (m(3)/h) of ventilation air (P

  12. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    at 4 mg/liter, and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter, Additionally, with respect to the C. upsaliensis transmission potential of poultry, a chicken cloacal swab sample from each of 100 different broiler flocks was included in the study for comparison, We found 21 (29%) of the puppies positive......Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...

  13. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been

  14. Preventing Campylobacter at the source: why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; French, Nigel P; Havelaar, Arie H

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis, and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome) contribute considerably to the disease burden. Attribution studies identified poultry as the reservoir responsible for up to 80% of the human Campylobacter infections. In the European Union, an estimated 30% of the human infections are associated with consumption and preparation of poultry meat. Until now, interventions in the poultry meat production chain have not been effectively introduced except for targeted interventions in Iceland and New Zealand. Intervention measures (eg, biosecurity) have limited effect or are hampered by economic aspects or consumer acceptance. In the future, a multilevel approach should be followed, aiming at reducing the level of contamination of consumer products rather than complete absence of Campylobacter.

  15. Carry-over of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between sequential and adjacent poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Thomas; Weber, Rita Margarete; Hamedy, Ahmad; Glünder, Gerhard

    2011-01-10

    Nineteen flocks of four poultry species were monitored at a veterinary field station to investigate the distribution and spread of Campylobacter genotypes between sequential and adjacent flocks. Caecal and liver samples were obtained at frequent intervals from birds of all flocks and examined for Campylobacter. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed to genotype Campylobacter isolates. Of the 1643 caecal and liver samples investigated, 452 (27.5%) caecal samples and 11 (0.7%) liver samples contained Campylobacter. Of the caecal isolates 76.3% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 23.7% were identified as Campylobacter coli. Poultry flocks were largely colonized by more than one AFLP type and an intense exchange of Campylobacter genotypes between different poultry flocks occurred. These findings indicate that multiple genotypes can constitute the Campylobacter population within single poultry flocks, hinting to different sources of exposure and/or genetic drifts within the Campylobacter population. Nevertheless, in most flocks single Campylobacter genotypes predominated. Some strains superseded others resulting in colonization by successive Campylobacter genotypes during the observation period. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the large genetic diversity of Campylobacter must be considered in epidemiological evaluations and microbial risk assessments of Campylobacter in poultry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.......Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  17. Detection and survival of Campylobacter in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, O; Kobalka, P; Zhang, Q

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne human pathogen, is widespread in poultry; however, the sources of infection and modes of transmission of this organism on chicken farms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine if vertical transmission of C. jejuni occurs via eggs. Using a temperature differential method, it was shown that Campylobacter had limited ability to penetrate the eggshell. When C. jejuni was directly inoculated into the egg yolk and the eggs were stored at 18 degrees C, the organism was able to survive for up to 14 days. However, viability of C. jejuni was dramatically shortened when injected into the albumen or the air sac. When freshly laid eggs from Campylobacter-inoculated specific pathogen-free (SPF) layers were tested, C. jejuni-contamination was detected in three of 65 pooled whole eggs (5-10 eggs in each pool) via culture and PCR. However, the organism was not detected from any of the 800 eggs (80 pools), collected from the same SPF flock, but kept at 18 degrees C for 7 days before testing. Likewise, Campylobacter was not recovered from any of 500 fresh eggs obtained from commercial broiler-breeder flocks that were actively shedding Campylobacter in faeces. Also, none of the 1000 eggs from broiler breeders obtained from a commercial hatchery were positive for Campylobacter. These results suggest that vertical transmission of C. jejuni through the egg is probably a rare event and does not play a major role in the introduction of Campylobacter to chicken flocks. Control of Campylobacter transmission to chicken flocks should focus on sources of infection that are not related to eggs.

  18. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  19. Growth Patterns of Fetal Lung Volumes in Healthy Fetuses and Fetuses With Isolated Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Rodrigo; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sananes, Nicolas; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Deter, Russell L

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate fetal lung growth using 3-dimensional sonography in healthy fetuses and those with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Right and total lung volumes were serially evaluated by 3-dimensional sonography in 66 healthy fetuses and 52 fetuses with left-sided CDH between 20 and 37 weeks' menstrual age. Functions fitted to these parameters were compared for 2 groups: (1) healthy versus those with CDH; and (2) fetuses with CHD who survived versus those who died. Fetal right and total lung volumes as well as fetal observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were significantly lower in fetuses with CDH than healthy fetuses (Pvolume ratios did not vary with menstrual age in healthy fetuses or in those with CDH (independent of outcome). Lung volume rates were lower in fetuses with left-sided CDH compared to healthy fetuses, as well as in fetuses with CDH who died compared to those who survived. The observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were relatively constant throughout menstrual age in fetuses with left-sided CDH, suggesting that the origin of their lung growth abnormalities occurred before 20 weeks and did not progress. The observed-to-expected ratios may be useful in predicting the outcome in fetuses with CDH independent of menstrual age. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  1. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  2. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  3. [A nutrient medium for the isolation and cultivation of Campylobacter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temirkhanova, Z U; Gashimova, P Sh; Safonova, N V; Moroz, A F; Khazenson, L V

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter agar, nutrient medium intended for the isolation of bacteria of the genus Campylobacter from clinical material, has been developed. The composition of the medium includes sprat hydrolysate, aerotolerant additive (ferric sulfate--oxide, sodium pyruvate, sodium pyrosulfite), sodium glutaminate, agar. The selective properties of the medium are ensured by introducing the mixture of antibiotics consisting of polymyxin B, rifampicin, amphotericin B, ristomycin. The balanced composition of Campylobacter agar ensures the aerotolerance of Campylobacter organisms and gives the optimal conditions for their growth when the inoculated material is cultivated in the atmosphere made up of the mixture of three gases (5% of oxygen, 10% of carbon dioxide, 85% of nitrogen), as well as under the conditions of a "candle vessel". The medium suppresses the development of the associative microflora diluted 10(-1). As shown in the trial of the quality of Campylobacter agar by the inoculation of material taken from patients with acute enteric infections, agricultural animals and monkeys, the medium has pronounced selective, properties with regard to extraneous microflora, while ensuring the isolation of Campylobacter on the level of the control medium.

  4. Risk factors and likelihood of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Kuana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter was investigated in cecal droppings, feces, and cloacal swabs of 22 flocks of 3 to 5 week-old broilers. Risk factors and the likelihood of the presence of this agent in these flocks were determined. Management practices, such as cleaning and disinfection, feeding, drinkers, and litter treatments, were assessed. Results were evaluated using Odds Ratio (OR test, and their significance was tested by Fisher's test (p<0.05. A Campylobacter prevalence of 81.8% was found in the broiler flocks (18/22, and within positive flocks, it varied between 85 and 100%. Campylobacter incidence among sample types was homogenous, being 81.8% in cecal droppings, 80.9% in feces, and 80.4% in cloacal swabs (230. Flocks fed by automatic feeding systems presented higher incidence of Campylobacter as compared to those fed by tube feeders. Litter was reused in 63.6% of the farm, and, despite the lack of statistical significance, there was higher likelihood of Campylobacter incidence when litter was reused. Foot bath was not used in 45.5% of the flocks, whereas the use of foot bath associated to deficient lime management increased the number of positive flocks, although with no statiscal significance. The evaluated parameters were not significantly associated with Campylobacter colonization in the assessed broiler flocks.

  5. [Prevalence and antimicrobial behavior of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in children with diarrhea in Loja city, Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaluiza, Rosa; Toledo, Zorayda; Fernández, Heriberto

    2018-04-01

    Campylobacter is an important agent of diarrhea in humans. In Ecuador, the information on Campylobacter is scarce and there are not antecedents about antimicrobial susceptibility. To describe Campylobacter prevalence in children with diarrhea and their behavior against five antimicrobials in vitro. We studied 253 children with diarrhea aging 7 months to 9 years who consulted for diarrhea in two hospitals in the city of Loja. Fecal samples were cultured and identification by tests by phenotypic tests and multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to 5 antibiotics was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Campylobacter was found in 16 (6.3%) children, being C. jejuni the most frequent one (5.1%), followed by C. coli (1.2%). All strains were susceptible to gentamicin and ampicillin/clavulanic acid, being found low resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin and high resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  6. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  7. A Monocephalus Diprosopus Fetus: Antenatal Sonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kavak, Ebru Celik; Coskun, Berna; Ilhan, Rasit; Orak, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Monocephalus Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twins. The etiology of this anomaly is stil obscure. We herein report a monocephalus diprosopus case that was diagnosed in week 19 of pregnancy was presented due to its rarity and the significance of its prenatal diagnosis. Recommended a pregnancy termination since it does not have a definitive treatment today, prenatal diagnosis made for such fetuses at an early stage bears importance in terms of lowering the severity of psychological t...

  8. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant 11). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter...

  9. The burden of Campylobacter-associated disease in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M. J J; Havelaar, A. H.; Haagsma, J. A.; Kretzschmar, M. E E

    2016-01-01

    Background Foodborne pathogens cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Economic evaluations of interventions for Campylobacter are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of disease associated with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway,

  10. Bone metabolism in the fetus and neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2014-05-01

    During embryonic development most of the skeleton begins as a cartilaginous scaffold that is progressively resorbed and replaced by bone. Such endochondral bone development does not cease until the growth plates fuse during puberty. Growth and mineralization of the skeleton are dependent upon the adequate delivery of mineral. During fetal development, the placenta actively transports calcium, magnesium and phosphorus from the maternal circulation. After birth, the role of mineral transport is assumed by the intestines. The limited data currently available on fetal humans are largely based on cord blood samples from normal fetuses and pathological specimens from fetuses which died in utero or at birth. Consequently, much of our understanding of the regulation of fetal mineral and bone homeostasis comes from the study of animal fetuses that have been manipulated surgically, pharmacologically and genetically. Animal and human data indicate that fetal mineral homeostasis requires parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein-but not vitamin D/calcitriol, calcitonin or sex steroids. In the days to weeks after birth, intestinal calcium absorption becomes an active process, which necessitates that the infant depends upon vitamin D/calcitriol. However, even this postnatal function of calcitriol can be bypassed by increasing the calcium content of the diet or by administering calcium infusions.

  11. Investigating the Association Between the Caecal Microbiomes of Broilers and Campylobacter Burden

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Sakaridis; Richard J. Ellis; Shaun A. Cawthraw; Arnoud H. M. van Vliet; Dov J. Stekel; Johanna Penell; Mark Chambers; Mark Chambers; Roberto M. La Ragione; Alasdair J. Cook

    2018-01-01

    One of the major transmission routes for the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter is undercooked poultry meat, contaminated from intestinal contents during processing. In broilers, Campylobacter can grow to very high densities in the caeca, and is often considered to be a commensal or an opportunistic pathogen in poultry. Reduction of caecal loads of Campylobacter may assist in lowering incidence rates of Campylobacter food poisoning. To achieve this, there needs to be a better understa...

  12. Investigating the association between the caecal microbiomes of broilers and Campylobacter burden

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaridis, Ioannis; Ellis, R; Cawthraw, S; van Vliet, Arnoud; Stekel, D; Penell, J; Chambers, Mark; La Ragione, Roberto; Cook, Alasdair

    2018-01-01

    One of the major transmission routes for the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter is undercooked poultry meat, contaminated from intestinal contents during processing. In broilers, Campylobacter can grow to very high densities in the caeca, and is often considered to be a commensal or an opportunistic pathogen in poultry. Reduction of caecal loads of Campylobacter may assist in lowering incidence rates of Campylobacter food poisoning. To achieve this, there needs to be a better understa...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Liver Cirrhosis Patient and Review of Literature: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin Gu; Lee, Saem Na; Hyun, Hak Jun; Choi, Min Joo; Jeon, Ji Ho; Jung, Eunju; Kang, Seonghui; Kim, Jeeyong; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter infection causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. Occasionally, Campylobacter bacteremia affects immunocompromised patients; however, serious outcomes are known to be rare. Here, we present a case of a patient with Campylobacter bacteremia who had underlying liver cirrhosis. The patient had fever and diarrhea. These symptoms subsided after treatment with cefotaxime. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in the blood culture after 10 days. In addition, pr...

  14. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    six among the subspecies of chimpanzees. We found the CD4 receptor to be conserved in individuals belonging to the P. t. verus subspecies and divergent from the other three subspecies, which harbored highly variable CD4 receptors. The CD4 receptor of chimpanzees differed from that of humans. We...... question whether the observed diversity can explain the species-specific differences in susceptibility to and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV....

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10 0 C, at 0-5 0 C, and at 30 +/- 10 0 C. Irradiation at -30 0 C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D 10 value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D 10 values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures

  16. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M; Beever, Erik A; Chambers, Steven M; Draheim, Hope M; Dugger, Bruce D; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B; Kesler, Dylan C; Knaus, Brian J; Lopes, Iara F; Loschl, Pete; Mullins, Thomas D; Sheffield, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  17. Differentiation of Melipona quadrifasciata L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini subspecies using cytochrome b PCR-RFLP patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério O. Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and M. quadrifasciata anthidioides are subspecies of M. quadrifasciata, a stingless bee species common in coastal Brazil. These subspecies are discriminated by the yellow stripe pattern of the abdominal tergites. We found Vsp I restriction patterns in the cytochrome b region closely associated to each subspecies in 155 M. quadrifasciata colonies of different geographical origin. This mitochondrial DNA molecular marker facilitates diagnosis of M. quadrifasciata subspecies matrilines and can be used to establish their natural distribution and identify hybrid colonies.

  18. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Guillermo; Troncoso, Miriam; López, Cristián; Rivas, Patricia; Toro, Magaly

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates) in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during eviscerat...

  19. Variations on standard broiler processing in an effort to reduce Campylobacter numbers on postpick carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on br...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Sommer, H.M.; Nauta, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter

  1. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  2. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  3. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008, Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A European Union-wide baseline survey on Campylobacter in broiler batches and on Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses was carried out in 2008. A total of 10,132 broiler batches were sampled from 561 slaughterhouses in 26 European Union Member States and two countries not belonging......-contaminated broiler carcasses was 75.8%. The Member State prevalence varied from 2.0% to 100.0% and from 4.9% to 100.0%, for caecal contents and carcasses, respectively. The results of the counts of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses showed substantial variation among the countries in contamination levels. About two......-thirds of the Campylobacter isolates from the pooled caecal contents as well as from the broiler carcasses were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, while one-third was Campylobacter coli. Twenty-two Member States and one non-Member State isolated Salmonella on the broiler carcasses, with a Community prevalence of 15...

  4. Natural epigenetic variation within and among six subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyahi, Sepand; Vilatersana, Roser; Schrey, Aaron W; Ghorbani Node, Hassan; Aliabadian, Mansour; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications can respond rapidly to environmental changes and can shape phenotypic variation in accordance with environmental stimuli. One of the most studied epigenetic marks is DNA methylation. In the present study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to investigate the natural variation in DNA methylation within and among subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus We focused on five subspecies from the Middle East because they show great variation in many ecological traits and because this region is the probable origin for the house sparrow's commensal relationship with humans. We analysed house sparrows from Spain as an outgroup. The level of variation in DNA methylation was similar among the five house sparrow subspecies from the Middle East despite high phenotypic and environmental variation, but the non-commensal subspecies was differentiated from the other four (commensal) Middle Eastern subspecies. Further, the European subspecies was differentiated from all other subspecies in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that variation in DNA methylation does not strictly follow subspecies designations. We detected a correlation between methylation level and some morphological traits, such as standardized bill length, and we suggest that part of the high morphological variation in the native populations of the house sparrow is influenced by differentially methylated regions in specific loci throughout the genome. We also detected 10 differentially methylated loci among subspecies and three loci that differentiated between commensal or non-commensal status. Therefore, the MSAP technique detected larger scale differences among the European and non-commensal subspecies, but did not detect finer scale differences among the other Middle Eastern subspecies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Spinal subspecialization in post-graduate neurosurgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2004-05-01

    The growing science and technology of various neurosurgical areas fosters subspecialization. The transmission of this expanding knowledge base to the neurosurgical resident becomes an increasing challenge. A survey of neurosurgical residency program directors was undertaken to evaluate their response to the budding subspecialization of spine surgery within general neurosurgery. A survey requesting background data, educational infrastructure and prevailing opinion was distributed to all 13 neurosurgical program directors in Canada. The responses were tabulated and results recorded. It is upon these results that conclusions and proposed directions are based. The current practice of the overwhelming majority of Canadian academic neurosurgical centers is to have neurosurgical spinal subspecialists working under the umbrella of the general neurosurgical division. A large percentage of neurosurgical program directors in Canada believe that the management of spinal disease, including both intradural procedures and instrumentation, is and should remain an integral part of general neurosurgical training. A consensus statement regarding the requirements of neurosurgical training in spinal disorders is the expressed desire of almost all program directors. A proposed direction and resolution is discussed.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance and Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Poultry Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saadatmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Campylobacter is a common type of bacteria in humans and poultry, which generally accounts for various diseases in humans, such as gastroenteritis. The poultry digestive system contains a high level of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in the poultry liver packed for marketing and determine the antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the spring of 2016 in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A total of 80 samples of packed chicken liver were collected from the stores supplying meat and poultry products in Hamadan. The enrichment of the liver samples was performed in brucella broth; subsequently, separation was carried out on Campylobacter selective agar. The presence of bacteria was confirmed by the implementation of chemical diagnostic tests and direct microscopic observation. Finally, the antibiotic resistance of the isolates was tested using disk diffusion method. Results: According to the results, Campylobacter had a prevalence rate of 90%, 73.61% and 26.39% of which were C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Out of the 12 antibiotic discs used in this study, the highest resistance (79% and sensitivity (99% rates were observed for cotrimoxazole (10 µg and gentamycin (10 µg, respectively. Conclusion: The packed poultry liver in Hamadan had a relatively high prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli. Therefore, the consumers should be careful about the cooking time and using this food. Accordingly, they can prevent the dissemination of this bacteria by cooking the liver at a temperature of above 70°C for 20 min and properly washing the devices before cooking this product. Additionally, the elderly, children, and those with immunodeficiency are recommended to avoid eating poultry liver.

  7. Broiler carcass contamination with Campylobacter from feces during defeathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Dickens, J A

    2001-12-01

    Three sets of experiments were conducted to explore the increase in recovery of Campylobacter from broiler carcasses after defeathering. In the first set of experiments, live broilers obtained from a commercial processor were transported to a pilot plant, and breast skin was sampled by a sponge wipe method before and after defeathering. One of 120 broiler breast skin samples was positive for Campylobacter before defeathering, and 95 of 120 were positive after defeathering. In the second set of experiments, Campylobacter-free flocks were identified, subjected to feed withdrawal, and transported to the pilot plant. Carcasses were intracloacally inoculated with Campylobacter (10(7) CFU) just prior to entering the scald tank. Breast skin sponge samples were negative for Campylobacter before carcasses entered the picker (0 of 120 samples). After defeathering, 69 of 120 samples were positive for Campylobacter, with an average of log10 2.7 CFU per sample (approximately 30 cm2). The third set of experiments was conducted using Campylobacter-positive broilers obtained at a commercial processing plant and transported live to the pilot plant. Just prior to scalding, the cloacae were plugged with tampons and sutured shut on half of the carcasses. Plugged carcasses were scalded, and breast skin samples taken before and after defeathering were compared with those collected from control broilers from the same flock. Prior to defeathering, 1 of 120 breast skin sponge samples were positive for the control carcasses, and 0 of 120 were positive for the plugged carcasses. After passing through the picker, 120 of 120 control carcasses had positive breast skin sponge samples, with an average of log10 4.2 CFU per sample (approximately 30 cm2). Only 13 of 120 plugged carcasses had detectable numbers of Campylobacter on the breast skin sponge, with an average of log10 2.5 CFU per sample. These data indicate that an increase in the recovery of Campylobacter after defeathering can be related

  8. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  9. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  10. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore...... of the implemented control strategy....

  12. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    on the Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0......% carriers at 1 year of age, whereafter the carriage rate decreased to 67% at 24 months of age. The PFGE types showed that individual dogs were often colonized by unique strains of C. upsaliensis for several months, up to 21 months or longer. These C. upsaliensis strains were either clonal (or underwent...

  13. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Langenberg, M. L.; Rauws, E. A.; Oudbier, J.; Weterings, E.; Zanen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by

  14. Fetus in Fetus in the Sacral Sac: Report of Surgical Management Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Berdi Taneh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetus-In-Fetu (FIF is a rare congenital malformation, which consists of a fetus mixed with a distinct tissue that is from the other fetus of twin. FIF is defined as a mass containing a vertebral axis often associated with other organs or limbs around this central axis.Case report: The patient was a two day old girl infant who due to a mass in a sacrum area measuring 8.5 x 12.5 cm with soft consistency containing a normal skin color fluid with blood streaks and hemorrhagic and bruise colored patches since birt, was admitted at the Taleghani children's Pediatric Center of Gorgan. The results of the mother's ultrasound in the fourth month of pregnancy had identified the cyst for the fetus. In the primary results of imaging, the first the diagnosis was type 2 sacrocoxigeal teratoma. However, results of post-birth graphy confirmed the presence of fetal bone structure in the infants's sacrum, so FIF was diagnosed for the infant.Conclusion: In the present study, FIF has been seen in sacrum, which is a very rare case in FIF.

  15. A comprehensive review of non-enterica subspecies of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alexandre; Miranda, José Manuel; Regal, Patricia; Vázquez, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen with a complex nomenclature. This genus is composed of two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is divided into six subspecies. S. enterica subspecies enterica is composed of more than 1500 serotypes with some of great importance, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. S. enterica subsp. enterica is responsible of more than 99% of human salmonellosis and therefore it is widely studied. However, the non-enterica subspecies of S. enterica have been little studied. These subspecies are considered to be related to cold-blooded animals and their pathogenicity is very limited. Phenotype and genotype information generated from different studies of non-enterica subspecies reveal poor ability to invade host cells and the absence or modification of important virulence factors. Also, the great majority of human infections due to non-enterica subspecies are related to a previous depressed immune system. Therefore, we propose to treat these subspecies only as opportunistic pathogens. For establish this premise, the present review evaluated, among other things, the genomic characteristics, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and reported human cases of the non-enterica subspecies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 73769 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... genetic data and morphological features. The candidate status for the nine Washington subspecies of Mazama... time) genetic data and morphological features and based on the presumption that this subspecies was a... natural or manmade factors, including low genetic diversity, small or isolated populations, low...

  17. Magnetoencephalographic signatures of numerosity discrimination in fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleger, Franziska; Landerl, Karin; Muenssinger, Jana; Draganova, Rossitza; Reinl, Maren; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Weiss, Magdalene; Wacker-Gußmann, Annette; Huotilainen, Minna; Preissl, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Numerosity discrimination has been demonstrated in newborns, but not in fetuses. Fetal magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive investigation of neural responses in neonates and fetuses. During an oddball paradigm with auditory sequences differing in numerosity, evoked responses were recorded and mismatch responses were quantified as an indicator for auditory discrimination. Thirty pregnant women with healthy fetuses (last trimester) and 30 healthy term neonates participated. Fourteen adults were included as a control group. Based on measurements eligible for analysis, all adults, all neonates, and 74% of fetuses showed numerical mismatch responses. Numerosity discrimination appears to exist in the last trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & Strategies Peer Review Small Business Programs Training & Career ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share ...

  19. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...

  20. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  1. Fate of Campylobacter jejuni in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Berg, D E

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis was associated with a restaurant in Louisiana during the summer of 1995. Thirty cases were identified, and four required hospitalization. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the patients, and epidemiologic studies revealed illness associated with eating garlic butter served at the restaurant. Three batches of garlic butter prepared by the restaurant associated with the outbreak and a C. jejuni isolate obtained from a patient involved in the outbreak were used for studies to determine the fate of C. jejuni in garlic butter. Studies also were done to determine the efficacy of the heat treatment used by the restaurant to prepare garlic bread to kill C. jejuni. Garlic butter was inoculated with approximately 10(4) and 10(6) CFU/g of C. jejuni and held at 5 or 21 degrees C. Results revealed that the survival of C. jejuni differed greatly, depending on the presence or absence of garlic. At 5 degrees C, C. jejuni populations decreased to an undetectable level (days in butter with no garlic. At 21 degrees C, C. jejuni populations decreased to an undetectable level within 5 h for two batches and to 50 CFU/g in 5 h for another batch. In contrast, C. jejuni was detected at 500 CFU/g at 28 h after inoculation but was undetectable at 3 days in butter with no garlic held at 21 degrees C. The heating procedure (135 degrees C, 4 min) used to make garlic bread by the implicated restaurant was determined not to be sufficient for killing C. jejuni, with the internal temperature of the buttered bread after heating ranging from 19 to 22 degrees C. This study revealed that C. jejuni can survive for many days in refrigerated butter, but large populations (10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g) are killed within a few hours in butter that contains garlic. Furthermore, the heat treatment used by the restaurant to melt garlic butter in making garlic bread was not adequate to kill C. jejuni.

  2. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C. T.; Brondsted, L.O.; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is therefore essential for implementation of this method. Recently, a collection of Campylobacter bacteriophages has been established. The phages were isolated from faeces from broilers and ducks and it was shown by transmission electron microscopy that they all belong to the family of Myoviridae...... investigated with the aim of selecting a model phage suitable for whole genome sequencing. These studies included examining the phages ability to form visible plaques and allowing phage propagation to high numbers, looking at the protein profiles of the phages by gel electrophoresis, and determining...

  4. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  5. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  7. Morphological changes in the kidney of fetuses with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Desogus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of renal and urological abnormalities have been reported in subjects with Down syndrome (DS. With increased longevity, it appears that a growing number of these subjects presents chronic renal failure. Definition of underlying cause of renal failure could lead to the prevention of progressive renal dysfunction in these patients. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the morphological changes that occur in the kidney of fetuses with DS. Methods: To this end, 25 subjects were examined. Kidney sections were stained with H&E and digitally scanned. Subjects were subdivided into two groups: fetuses with DS (DS-fetuses, n = 11 with a gestational age ranging from 13 up to 21 weeks, and healthy fetuses (N-fetuses, n = 14 with a gestational age ranging from 9 up to 22 weeks. Results: DS-fetuses showed slightly larger glomeruli as compared to N-fetuses. Moreover, glomeruli in DS-fetuses group were characterized by an enlarged Bowman’s space as compared to glomeruli in N-fetuses (p = 0.0028. Differences in the nephrogenic zone width were also observed; DS-fetuses showed a greater width of this zone as compared with N-fetuses. Discussion: In conclusion, we found relevant morphological differences, which suggests delayed renal maturation. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in glomerular area and several glomeruli were morphologically abnormal. These harmful changes in the glomerular structure may result in a nephron deficit, which may be associated with development of renal diseases and hypertension later in life.Conclusions: We hypothesize that the observed morphological anomalies could have significant implications for both the short- and long-term renal health of subjects with DS.

  8. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  9. Testing the embryo, testing the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, K; Farsides, B; Williams, C; Scott, Rosamund

    2007-12-01

    This paper stems from an ethnographic, multidisciplinary study that explored the views and experiences of practitioners and scientists on social, ethical and clinical dilemmas encountered when working in the area of PGD for serious genetic disorders. We focus here on staff perceptions and experiences of working with embryos and helping women/couples to make choices that will result in selecting embryos for transfer and disposal of 'affected' embryos, compared to the termination of affected pregnancies following PND. Analysis and discussion of our data led us to consider the possible advantages of PGD and whether a gradualist account of the embryo's and fetus's moral status can account for all of these, particularly since a gradualist account concentrates on the significance of time (developmental stage) and makes no comment as to the significance of place (in-vitro, in-utero).

  10. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: managing the mother, fetus, and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  11. The legal status of the fetus: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, John

    2002-08-01

    The article examines the way that courts and legislatures in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia have answered questions regarding the legal status of a fetus. These questions have arisen in a variety of legal situations: the article deals with succession, criminal, child protection and negligence law. The conclusion offered is that a fetus has a value and an existence that the law should recognise. This does not mean, however, that in all circumstances the law should protect the interests of the fetus. Law-makers will respond differently to claims made on behalf of a fetus, depending on the context. The fetus does not have a uniform value or character in the eyes of the law. The law makes choices as to the situations in which it will take account of actual or threatened antenatal harm.

  12. Two cases of a fetus with sirenomelia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Tsuguhiro; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Tatematsu, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Akiko; Unno, Nobuya

    2005-09-01

    We report two cases of a fetus with sirenomelia sequence which showed oligohydramnios and a single umbilical artery. The first case was of a single fetus with symelia apus and only one leg. Prenatal diagnosis of this case was possible. The second case was of a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy in which one fetus had symelia dipus with two fused lower extremities. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition was not made. In both cases, the fetuses died shortly after birth from respiratory distress due to severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Absence of urinary tract, imperforate anus, and spine deformity were confirmed in both cases. Although prenatal diagnosis of symelia dipus seems difficult, this condition must be considered in a fetus with severe oligohydramnios.

  13. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Eckhart, Vincent M; Geber, Monica A

    2015-09-01

    Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors "native phenotypes" in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies' exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted that in the arid, pollinator-scarce eastern region, selection favors phenotypes of the native subspecies parviflora: small leaves, slow leaf growth, early flowering, and diminutive flowers. In the wetter, pollinator-rich, western range of subspecies xantiana, we expected selection for opposite phenotypes. We investigated pollinator contributions to selection by comparing naturally pollinated and pollen-supplemented individuals. For reproductive traits and for subspecies xantiana, selection generally matched expectations. The contact zone sometimes showed distinctive selection, and in ssp. parviflora selection sometimes favored nonnative phenotypes. Pollinators influenced selection on flowering time but not on flower size. Little temporal variation in selection occurred, possibly because of plastic trait responses across years. Though there were exceptions and some causes of selection remain obscure, phenotypic differentiation between subspecies appears to reflect spatially variable selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. A Molecular Method for the Identification of Honey Bee Subspecies Used by Beekeepers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y.; Borodachev, Anatoly V.; Kokina, Anastasia V.; Popov, Vasily N.

    2018-01-01

    Apis mellifera L. includes several recognized subspecies that differ in their biological properties and agricultural characteristics. Distinguishing between honey bee subspecies is complicated. We analyzed the Folmer region of the COX1 gene in honey bee subspecies cultivated at bee farms in Russia and identified subspecies-specific SNPs. DNA analysis revealed two clearly distinct haplogroups in A. mellifera mellifera. The first one was characterized by multiple cytosine-thymine (thymine–cytosine) transitions, one adenine-guanine substitution, and one thymine–adenine substitution. The nucleotide sequence of the second haplogroup coincided with sequences from other subspecies, except the unique C/A SNP at position 421 of the 658-bp Folmer region. A. mellifera carnica and A. mellifera carpatica could be distinguished from A. mellifera mellifera and A. mellifera caucasica by the presence of the A/G SNP at position 99 of the 658-bp Folmer region. The G/A SNP at position 448 was typical for A. mellifera carnica. A. mellifera caucasica COX1 sequence lacked all the above-mentioned sites. We developed a procedure for rapid identification of honey bee subspecies by PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using mutagenic primers. The developed molecular method for honey bee subspecies identification is fast and inexpensive. PMID:29382048

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...

  16. Wild, insectivorous bats might be carriers of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; Lina, Peter H C; de Boer, Albert G; Bosch, Thijs; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Beumer, Rijkelt R

    2018-01-01

    The transmission cycles of the foodborne pathogens Campylobacter and Salmonella are not fully elucidated. Knowledge of these cycles may help reduce the transmission of these pathogens to humans. The presence of campylobacters and salmonellas was examined in 631 fresh fecal samples of wild insectivorous bats using a specially developed method for the simultaneous isolation of low numbers of these pathogens in small-sized fecal samples (≤ 0.1 g). Salmonella was not detected in the feces samples, but thermotolerant campylobacters were confirmed in 3% (n = 17) of the bats examined and these pathogens were found in six different bat species, at different sites, in different ecosystems during the whole flying season of bats. Molecular typing of the 17 isolated strains indicated C. jejuni (n = 9), C. coli (n = 7) and C. lari (n = 1), including genotypes also found in humans, wildlife, environmental samples and poultry. Six strains showed unique sequence types. This study shows that insectivorous bats are not only carriers of viral pathogens, but they can also be relevant for the transmission of bacterial pathogens. Bats should be considered as carriers and potential transmitters of Campylobacter and, where possible, contact between bats (bat feces) and food or feed should be avoided.

  17. Genome sequence of a urease-positive Campylobacter lari strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter lari is frequently isolated from shore birds and can cause illness in humans. Here we report the draft whole genome sequence of an urease-positive strain of C. lari that was isolated in estuarial water on the coast of Delaware, USA....

  18. Campylobacter concisus and Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: Lack of Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmanne, Anne; Martiny, Delphine; Hallin, Marie; Cornelius, Angela; Wautier, Magali; Quach, Caroline; Lepage, Philippe; Vandenberg, Olivier

    2018-03-29

    The role of Campylobacter concisus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains to be demonstrated. This prospective study includes 184 cases and 176 controls. It shows no evidence that C. concisus plays a role in AGE. Considering the very low prevalence in cases and controls, if there is an etiological link, it would be moderate and difficult to demonstrate.

  19. Campylobacter pylori and its role in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    In almost all patients with genuine nondrug-induced duodenal or gastric ulcer there is evidence of gastric Campylobacter pylori colonization and concomitant inflammation. C. pylori is only demonstrable in the duodenal cap when there is "gastric mucus metaplasia." Suppression or eradication of C.

  20. Risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meirion R; Northey, Gemma; Sarvotham, Tinnu S; Hopkins, A Lynne; Rigby, Christine J; Thomas, Daniel Rh

    2009-08-01

    To identify risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in both travel-related and domestically acquired Campylobacter infection. Case-comparison study of patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible Campylobacter infection conducted in Wales during 2003 and 2004. Foreign travel was the major risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant infection [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 24.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12.6-45.9]. Among travellers, case patients were five times more likely to drink still bottled water (adjOR 4.7, 95% CI 1.0-21.7), whilst among non-travellers, case patients were three times more likely to drink sparkling bottled water (adjOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.4). There was no increased risk associated with eating poultry or prior quinolone use. Foreign travel remains the most important risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection. The possible association of both domestic- and travel-related ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection with bottled water needs to be further explored.

  1. Adaptation of respiration and metabolism in Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, however also one of the least understood enteropathogens.Instead of being a pathogen for humans, C. jejuni is part of the commensal microbiota in many warm-blooded animals, especially poultry.The

  2. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  3. Milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to

  4. Discriminative power of Campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alexandra; Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Miller, William G; De Zutter, Lieven; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of Campylobacter in food. Campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and Campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), flagellin gene A restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaA-RFLP), antimicrobial resistance profiling (AMRp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for C. jejuni, the determination of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) class. Discriminatory power was calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (SID) and the congruence was measured by the adjusted Rand index and adjusted Wallace coefficient. MLST was individually the most discriminative typing method for both C. jejuni (SID=0.981) and C. coli (SID=0.957). The most discriminative combination with a SID of 0.992 for both C. jejuni and C. coli was obtained by combining MLST with flaA-RFLP. The combination of MLST with flaA-RFLP is an easy and feasible typing method for short-term monitoring of Campylobacter in broiler meat carcass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days,

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  7. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  8. Invasive behavior of Campylobacter jejuni in immunosuppressed chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, Mahdi M.; Keestra-Gounder, A.M.; Zoete, de Marcel R.; Koene, Miriam G.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, van Jos P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of gastroenteritis in humans but rather harmless in chickens. The basis of this difference is unknown. We investigated the effect of the chicken immune defense on the behavior of C. jejuni using glucocorticoid (GC)-treated and mock-treated 17-day old Ross

  9. Het relatieve belang van Campylobacter transmissieroutes op basis van blootstellingsschatting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers EG; Fels HJ van der; Nauta MH; Schijven JF; Havelaar AH; MGB

    2004-01-01

    In this exploratory investigation for determining the relative importance of transmission routes for Campylobacter, we estimated human exposure via each transmission route. Thirty-one routes were considered, of which 19 occur via ingestion of food, 9 via direct contact (e.g. pet animals) and 3 via

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni 11168H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Sarah E.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Dorrell, Nick; Wren, Brendan W.; Blake, Damer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world. The reference and original sequenced strain C. jejuni NCTC11168 has low levels of motility compared to clinical isolates. Here, we describe the draft genome of the laboratory derived hypermotile variant named 11168H. PMID:28153902

  11. Role of Rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming,

  12. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Sofía; Oyama, Ken

    2010-03-01

    The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno) is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNAGlu and tRNAPhe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly showed two groups

  13. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  14. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  15. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1, and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84 ± 0.37 to 1.65 ± 1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01. Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98 ± 0.69 to 2.71 ± 2.93 ppm. Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96 ± 1.84 ppm fw was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25 ± 2.24-6.77 ± 3.51 ppm; P ≤ 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure.

  16. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  18. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of Campylobacter in the

  19. Pernicious anaemia and Campylobacter like organisms; is the gastric antrum resistant to colonisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Flejou, J F; Bahame, P; Smith, A C; Stockbrugger, R W; Rode, J; Price, A B

    1989-01-01

    Gastric biopsies from 86 patients with pernicious anaemia were examined for Campylobacter like organisms with particular attention to those showing an antral gastritis in addition to the usual pattern of body gastritis. All the patients had chronic atrophic gastritis in the body but Campylobacter like organisms were found at this site in only three patients. Thus the Type A pattern of gastritis (autoimmune) seen in patients with pernicious anaemia is only rarely associated with Campylobacter ...

  20. Laboratorní diagnostika infekcí způsobených Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    MRKVIČKOVÁ, Renáta

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor´s thesis deals with problematics of bacterial Campylobacter species, their distribution, and increase in resistence to antibiotics. It also deals with campylobacteriosis prevention, diagnosis and identification of individual species of bacteria. The theoretical part focuses on the general characteristics of the genus Campylobacter, resources, and transmission of infection and possible prevention. This section comprises methods for the identification and diagnosis of Campylobacter spp...

  1. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Beatriz N.

    2001-01-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation

  2. Els fetus pateixen els efectes de la nicotina

    OpenAIRE

    García Algar, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    El consum de tabac durant l'embaràs exposa al fetus a possibles efectes deleteris de la nicotina que poden afectar els resultats perinatals i la salut del nen. La nicotina sembla afectar el desenvolupament neurològic normal del fetus al principi de la vida. A més, s'ha observat que l'exposició del fetus dins de l'úter al consum de tabac per part de la mare podria induir una síndrome d'abstinència neonatal a la nicotina.

  3. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. Teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. However, the novobiocin-resistant species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus gallinarum were less susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 2 to 8 micrograms/ml) than most of the novobiocin-susceptible species were (MIC, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to teicoplanin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were moderately susceptible (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 70% were oxacillin resistant. For Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 11% were resistant (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) and 21% were moderately susceptible to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 95% were oxacillin resistant, No strains of S. epidermidis or S. haemolyticus were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin. Teicoplanin appears to be less active in vitro against oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus. However, teicoplanin is an effective antimicrobial agent against many Staphylococcus species. PMID:1835340

  4. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, and Staphylococcus gallinarum) had an intrinsic intermediate susceptibility (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Fleroxacin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the novobiocin-susceptible species (MIC, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to fleroxacin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were resistant (MIC, greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Of these strains, 77% were resistant to oxacillin and 50% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-four percent of the Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical strains were resistant to fleroxacin, and 9% had intermediate susceptibility. Of the resistant strains, 95% were resistant to oxacillin and 77% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 23% had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Fleroxacin is an effective antimicrobial agent against most staphylococci. PMID:1759838

  5. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  6. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  7. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  8. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Waldschmidt; Everaldo G. de Barros; Lucio A.O. Campos

    2000-01-01

    The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M....

  9. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Tim J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Sridhar, Saranya; Linedale, Richard; Dierkes, Nicola; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2007-11-28

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are needed. The present vaccine proved to be highly

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from chicken carcasses during processing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, E; Momtaz, H; Ameri, M; Ghasemian-Safaei, H; Ali-Kasemi, M

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken carcasses during different stages of broiler processing in a major commercial poultry processing plant in southwestern Iran. Overall, 84 chicken carcasses were sampled from 4 sites along the processing line during a total of 7 visits. In addition, 14 water samples from the chiller tank were taken. Using the cultural method, 186 of 336 (55.4%) carcasses were positive for Campylobacter. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequently isolated (89.4%) than Campylobacter coli (10.6%). The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcasses was 54.8% after defeathering, 51.2% after evisceration, 69.0% 20 min after the chilling period started, and 46.4% 24 h after the chilling period completed. Campylobacter was positive in 85.7% of the samples taken from the chilling water. The frequency of Campylobacter spp.-positive carcasses was reduced in complete chilled chickens but not during the slaughtering process. Susceptibilities of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion method. Of the 198 Campylobacter isolates tested, 92.9% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (78.3%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (62.1%), nalidixic acid (58.6%), and enrofloxacin (44.4%).

  11. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  12. Lack of evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter spp. in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, Kenneth A; Friethriksdóttir, Vala; Reiersen, Jarle; Lowman, Ruff; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Berndtson, Eva; Hiett, Kelli L; Needleman, David S; Stern, Norman J

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the industrial world. There is evidence that C. jejuni is present in eggs and hatchery fluff, opening the possibility for vertical transmission from hens to progeny. Poultry operations in Iceland provide an excellent opportunity to study this possibility, since breeding flocks are established solely from eggs imported from grandparent flocks in Sweden. This leaves limited opportunity for grandparents and their progeny to share isolates through horizontal transmission. While Campylobacter was not detected in all grandparent flocks, 13 of the 16 egg import lots consisted of eggs gathered from one or more Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. No evidence of Campylobacter was found by PCR in any of the 10 relevant quarantine hatchery fluff samples examined, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the parent birds through 8 weeks, while they were still in quarantine rearing facilities. After the birds were moved to less biosecure rearing facilities, Campylobacter was isolated, and 29 alleles were observed among the 224 isolates studied. While three alleles were found in both Sweden and Iceland, in no case was the same allele found both in a particular grandparent flock and in its progeny. We could find no evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter to the approximately 60,000 progeny parent breeders that were hatched from eggs coming from Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. If vertical transmission is occurring, it is not a significant source for the contamination of chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp.

  13. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  14. Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus musculus subspecies: potential candidates involved in speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Davidson, Amanda J.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Smadja, Carole M.; Ganem, Guila

    2017-01-01

    When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations. Mass spectrometric characterisation identified novel MUPs in both subspecies involving mostly new combinations of amino acid changes previously observed in M.m.domesticus. The subspecies expressed distinct MUP signatures, with most MUPs expressed by only one subspecies. Expression of at least eight MUPs showed significant subspecies divergence both in allopatry and contact zone. Another seven MUPs showed divergence in expression between the subspecies only in the contact zone, consistent with divergence by reinforcement. These proteins are candidates for the semiochemical barrier to hybridisation, providing an opportunity to characterise the nature and evolution of a putative species recognition signal. PMID:28337988

  15. Phylogenetic and Diversity Analysis of Dactylis glomerata Subspecies Using SSR and IT-ISJ Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Defei; Zhao, Xinxin; Cheng, Yajuan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2016-10-31

    The genus Dactylis , an important forage crop, has a wide geographical distribution in temperate regions. While this genus is thought to include a single species, Dactylis glomerata , this species encompasses many subspecies whose relationships have not been fully characterized. In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of nine representative Dactylis subspecies were examined using SSR and IT-ISJ markers. In total, 21 pairs of SSR primers and 15 pairs of IT-ISJ primers were used to amplify 295 polymorphic bands with polymorphic rates of 100%. The average polymorphic information contents (PICs) of SSR and IT-ISJ markers were 0.909 and 0.780, respectively. The combined data of the two markers indicated a high level of genetic diversity among the nine D. glomerata subspecies, with a Nei's gene diversity index value of 0.283 and Shannon's diversity of 0.448. Preliminarily phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the 20 accessions could be divided into three groups (A, B, C). Furthermore, they could be divided into five clusters, which is similar to the structure analysis with K = 5. Phylogenetic placement in these three groups may be related to the distribution ranges and the climate types of the subspecies in each group. Group A contained eight accessions of four subspecies, originating from the west Mediterranean, while Group B contained seven accessions of three subspecies, originating from the east Mediterranean.

  16. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  17. Explanatory variables associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  18. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, Anders L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    , there were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a cost of 0.025 £/chicken) and reward system 1 (based on similar gross profits in relation to Campylobacter levels) under the specific...... assumptions considered in the UK model. In contrast, significant reductions in expected Campylobacter numbers and substantial associated expected financial gains were obtained from this model when considering the reward system 2 (based on quite different gross profits in relation to Campylobacter levels...... than one reward system and consequently, diverse potential solutions for the control of Campylobacter may be considered. Cost-effective Campylobacter control strategies that can significantly reduce the probability of Campylobacter introduction into a flock and/or the numbers of Campylobacter...

  19. First case report of myopericarditis linked to Campylobacter coli enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Moloi, Soniah B; Kennedy, Karina J

    2017-01-05

    Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. Although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. Such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely Campylobacter jejuni. We report the first case of myopericarditis following Campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female. A 51-yo female was admitted to a cardiology unit with a 3-days history of chest pain. The woman had no significant medical history or risk factors for cardiac disease, nor did she report any recent overseas travel. Four days prior to the commencement of chest pain the woman had reported onset of an acute gastrointestinal illness, passing 3-4 loose stools daily, a situation that persisted at the time of presentation. Physical examination showed the woman's vital signs to be essentially stable, although she was noted to be mildly tachycardic. Laboratory testing showed mildly elevated C-reactive protein and a raised troponin I in the absence of elevation of the serum creatinine kinase. Electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated concave ST segment elevations, and PR elevation in aVR and depression in lead II. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed normal biventricular size and function with no significant valvular abnormalities. There were no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities. No pericardial effusion was present but the pericardium appeared echodense. A diagnosis of myopericarditis was made on the basis of chest pain, typical ECG changes and troponin rise. The chest pain resolved and she was discharged from hospital after 2-days of observation, but with ongoing diarrhoea. Following discharge, a faecal sample taken during the admission, cultured Campylobacter spp. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (Bruker) confirmed the cultured isolate as C. coli

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, ... Institutes of Health and four research institutions. The fetal surgical procedure also increases the chances that a ...

  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  2. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest follow us on YouTube ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  4. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Directory Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest ... on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  5. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Premarathne, Jayasekara M. K. J. K.; Anuar, Aimi S.; Thung, Tze Young; Satharasinghe, Dilan A.; Jambari, Nuzul Noorahya; Abdul-Mutalib, Noor-Azira; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang F.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen frequently associated with human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. A total of 340 samples consisting of cattle feces (n = 100), beef (n = 120) from wet markets and beef (n = 120) from hypermarkets were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was 17.4%, consisting of 33% in cat...

  6. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  7. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  8. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating the Association Between the Caecal Microbiomes of Broilers and Campylobacter Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sakaridis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the major transmission routes for the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter is undercooked poultry meat, contaminated from intestinal contents during processing. In broilers, Campylobacter can grow to very high densities in the caeca, and is often considered to be a commensal or an opportunistic pathogen in poultry. Reduction of caecal loads of Campylobacter may assist in lowering incidence rates of Campylobacter food poisoning. To achieve this, there needs to be a better understanding of the dynamics of Campylobacter colonization in its natural niche, and the effect of the local microbiome on colonization. Previous studies have shown that the microbiome differed between Campylobacter colonized and non-colonized chicken intestinal samples. To characterize the microbiome of Campylobacter-colonized broilers, caecal samples of 100 randomly selected birds from four farms were analyzed using amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bacterial taxonomic analysis indicated that inter-farm variation was greater than intra-farm variation. The two most common bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes which were present in all samples and constituted 29.7–63.5 and 30.2–59.8% of the bacteria present, respectively. Campylobacter was cultured from all samples, ranging from 2 to 9 log10 CFU g-1. There was no clear link between Campylobacter counts and Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, or Tenericutes levels in the 16S rRNA operational taxonomic unit (OTU-based analysis of the caecal microbiome, but samples with high Campylobacter counts (>9 log CFU g-1 contained increased levels of Enterobacteriaceae. A decrease in Lactobacillus abundance in chicken caeca was also associated with high Campylobacter loads. The reported associations with Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae match changes in the intestinal microbiome of chickens and mice previously reported for Campylobacter infection, and raises the question about temporality and causation; as to

  13. Variations on standard broiler processing in an effort to lessen Campylobacter numbers on post-pick carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter numbers increase on broiler carcasses during defeathering due to leakage of gut contents through the vent. We tested several processing modifications designed to interfere with the transfer of Campylobacter from gut contents to carcass surface. Numbers of Campylobacter detected on brea...

  14. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  15. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 o C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 o C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  16. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  17. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schulz

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5 CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs. Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  18. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...... exposure; however, the response was mainly associated with ion transport processes. C. jejuni NCTC11168 nhaA1 (Cj1655c) and nhaA2 (Cj1654c), which encode orthologues to the Escherichia coli NhaA cation/proton antiporter, were able to partially restore TSP, alkaline, and sodium resistance phenotypes to an E....... coli cation/proton antiporter mutant. In addition, inhibition of resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) multidrug efflux pumps by the inhibitor PaβN (Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride) decreased tolerance to sublethal TSP. Therefore, we propose that NhaA1/NhaA2 cation/proton antiporters...

  19. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    The development of diagnostic metagenomics is driven by the need for universal, culture-independent methods for detection and characterization of pathogens to substitute the time-consuming, organism-specific, and often culture-based laboratory procedures for epidemiological source-tracing. Some...... of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU...... Campylobacter in all the clinical samples. Sensitivity in diagnostic metagenomics is improving and has reached a clinically relevant level. There are still challenges to overcome before real-time diagnostic metagenomics can replace quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or culture-based surveillance...

  20. Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni contamination on chicken carcasses in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duqué, Benjamin; Daviaud, Samuel; Guillou, Sandrine; Haddad, Nabila; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Highly prevalent in poultry, Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which remains the primary cause of enteritis in humans. Several studies have determined prevalence and contamination level of this pathogen throughout the food chain. However it is generally performed in a deterministic way without considering heterogeneity of contamination level. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using probabilistic tools, the contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on chicken carcasses after air-chilling step in several slaughterhouses in France. From a dataset (530 data) containing censored data (concentration contamination level (3 log 10 or more), strengthening the probabilistic analysis and facilitating result interpretation. The sampling period and sampling area (neck/leg) had a significant effect on Campylobacter contamination level. More precisely, two "seasons" were distinguished: one from January to May, another one from June to December. During the June-to-December season, the mean Campylobacter concentration was estimated to 2.6 [2.4; 2.8] log 10 (CFU/g) and 1.8 [1.5; 2.0] log 10 (CFU/g) for neck and leg, respectively. The probability of having >1000CFU/g (higher limit of European microbial criterion) was estimated to 35.3% and 12.6%, for neck and leg, respectively. In contrast, during January-to-May season, the mean contamination level was estimated to 1.0 [0.6; 1.3] log 10 (CFU/g) and 0.6 [0.3; 0.9] log 10 (CFU/g) for neck and leg, respectively. The probability of having >1000CFU/g was estimated to 13.5% and 2.0% for neck and leg, respectively. An accurate quantification of contamination level enables industrials to better adapt their processing and hygiene practices. These results will also help in refining exposure assessment models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of rodents in transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Meerburg, Dr BG; Kijlstra, Prof dr A

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are generally regarded as the most important food-borne pathogens in the world. Reduction or elimination of these pathogens in the first part of the food chain (on the farm) is important to prevent disease among consumers of animal products. In organic farming, elimination becomes more difficult, as food animals are allowed outdoors and have easy access to potential sources of hazardous pathogens. Whilst rodents are often associated by organic farmers with infr...

  2. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  3. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  4. The significance of Campylobacter jejuni infection in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S M

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter is a significant cause of enterocolitis in consumers of undercooked poultry meat. Campylobacter jejuni is the most significant of the three thermophilic Campylobacter species, and is responsible for intestinal colonization in poultry and food-borne enteritis in humans. Generally, C. jejuni is apathogenic in poultry, although newly hatched chicks and turkeys may develop a transient diarrhoea following infection. Modern intensive poultry production favours the introduction of infection into commercial growing units, resulting in intestinal colonization during the second to fourth weeks inclusive. Routes of infection include contaminated fomites, infected water supply, rodents, insects, and free-living birds. Vertical transmission is considered unlikely. Contamination of poultry meat is enhanced by deficiencies in transport and processing of broilers and turkeys. Scalding, defeathering and evisceration represent the significant points of cross-contamination during processing. Epidemiological correlation has been established between consumption of contaminated chicken and outbreaks of human campylobacteriosis. Amelioration of infection by application of improved standards of hygiene and decontamination is possible in the context of commercial poultry production. Improvement in washing of carcasses, and the application of chemical disinfectants and gamma irradiation have the potential to reduce the prevalence of C. jejuni contamination in poultry meat. These innovations, together with improved storage and handling of meat products, will reduce the risk of campylobacteriosis to consumers.

  5. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  6. Prevalenza di Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel periodo 5 febbraio-15 dicembre 2008, in applicazione della Decisione 516/2007/CE, sono state eseguite le attività di campionamento e analisi previste dal relativo Piano di sorveglianza. Tra gli obiettivi, la rilevazione dell’entità di contaminazione da Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso allevato in Italia. Sono stati selezionati 48 mattatoi avicoli, distribuiti in undici regioni italiane, in cui sono stati prelevati intestini ciechi e carcasse di pollo da ingrasso appartenenti a 393 lotti di macellazione. In 284 lotti (72,3% è stato isolato Campylobacter spp.: il 52,1% è risultato contaminato da C. jejuni, il 55,6% da C. coli e l’1,1% da C. lari. Nel 13,0% di quelli positivi (37 lotti sono stati rilevati contemporaneamente C. jejuni e C. coli. Dall’esame degli intestini ciechi, Campylobacter spp. è risultato presente in 251 lotti di macellazione (63,9%, in particolare, C. jejuni nel 48,2%, C. coli nel 50,6% e C. lari nell’1,2%. Le carcasse appartenenti a 182 lotti (46,3% sono risultate contaminate da C. jejuni nel 40,7% e C. coli nel 57,7% dei lotti positivi, C. lari non è stato isolato. I livelli di contaminazione riscontrati nelle carcasse sono risultati compresi tra 10 e 1,6 × 107 UFC/g.

  7. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  8. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...... is evaluated with 50 type, reference, and well-characterised field strains. Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints comprised over 60 bands detected in the size range 35-500 bp. Groups of outbreak strains, replicate subcultures, and 'genetically identical' strains from humans, poultry and cattle......, proved indistinguishable by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, but were differentiated fi-om unrelated isolates. Previously unknown relationships between three hippurate-negative C. jejuni strains, and two C. coil var, hyoilei strains, were identified. These relationships corresponded...

  9. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P polycarbonate filter is superior...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick

    2014-02-13

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.

  11. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  12. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship. PMID:20208027

  13. Influence of refuse sites on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella serovars in seagulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  14. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected...

  15. Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Kristensen, K.; Hald, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) may transmit Campylobacter to broiler flocks. We assessed the retention lime of house flies for Campylobacter jejuni at five temperatures and three doses. Flies were inoculated individually at their proboscis with 1.6 x 10(7) CFU (colony forming units) of C...

  16. Campylobacter multi-locus sequence typing subtypes detected on chicken livers available at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. It is not known what prevalence of Campylobacter to expect on fresh chicken livers available at retail. The objectives of this study were to measure prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and d...

  17. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain; Estimation of intervention costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Poppe, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter infections are a serious public health problem in the Netherlands. As a part of the CARMA project, this study focus on the estimation of the potential direct costs related to the implementation of various intervention measures to control campylobacters in the chicken meat chain. Costs

  18. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early colon...

  19. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  20. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  1. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms

  2. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary...

  3. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  4. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  5. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  6. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  7. Responses to playback of different subspecies songs in the Reed Bunting (Emberiza s. schoeniclus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pilastro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in the western Palearctic are classified in two major subspecies groups according to morphology: northern migratory schoeniclus and Mediterranean resident intermedia. Songs of the two groups differ mainly in complexity and syllable structure......, with intermedia songs being more complex. We explored the possibilities of song as a subspecies isolating mechanism by testing if male schoeniclus Reed Buntings reacted differently to field playbacks of songs from their own subspecies group, from the foreign subspecies group and from a control species...

  8. Oral Campylobacter Species Involved in Extraoral Abscess: a Report of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang Y.; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; Rice, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Oral Campylobacter species are rarely reported to cause extraoral infections. Here we present three cases of extraoral abscess caused by an oral Campylobacter sp. and a Streptococcus sp. The Campylobacter species were all isolated anaerobically and identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The cases included a breast abscess caused by Campylobacter rectus and a non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with lymphoma, a liver abscess caused by Campylobacter curvus and an alpha-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with complicated ovarian cancer, and a postobstructive bronchial abscess caused by C. curvus and group C beta-hemolytic Streptococcus constellatus in a patient with lung cancer. The abscesses were drained or resected, and the patients were treated with antibiotics with full resolution of the lesions. The C. curvus cases are likely the first reported infections by this organism, and the C. rectus case represents the second such reported extraoral infection. PMID:15872299

  9. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective......Various animal species, wild birds, rodents and pets are the main source of Campylobacter contamination in broiler farms. However, little is known about the ability of these bacteria to survive outside the host and their role in the colonisation of broilers. Therefore, in this study we aimed...... medium and selective enrichment into Exeter broth. Campylobacter isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broilers and the environment was examined by PCR-based restriction fragment length...

  10. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, B.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, H. S.

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  12. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0–0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates...... flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0......, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest....

  13. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  14. Subspecies distribution and macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance genetics of Mycobacterium abscessus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Sung, H; Park, J-S; Choi, S-H; Shim, T-S; Kim, M-N

    2016-01-01

    Treating Mycobacterium abscessus infections with antimicrobials remains difficult, possibly due to drug resistance. To investigate the subspecies distribution of M. abscessus and its correlation with antibiotic susceptibility and the genetics of antibiotic resistance, focusing on macrolides and fluoroquinolones, in the Republic of Korea. A total of 53 M. abscessus isolates were identified to the subspecies level by sequencing of hsp65 and erm(41). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin (CLM) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) were determined using Sensititre™ RAPMYCO plates. The rrl, gyrA and gyrB genes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. Isolates included 22 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 31 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. erm(41) sequences showing subspecies-specific deletions and sequence variations in the 28th nucleotide were concordant with inducible CLM resistance; however, mutations in rrl were not detected. Low- and high-level CFX resistance was observed in respectively 19 (35.8%) and 10 (18.9%) of the 53 clinical isolates, regardless of subspecies. However, no non-synonymous mutations were detected in gyrA or gyrB. Sequencing of the erm gene and subspeciation of M. abscessus may be used to predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. Further studies of the relationship between specific mutations in gyrA or gyrB to MIC change are required.

  15. Comprehensive genomic characterization of campylobacter genus reveals some underlying mechanisms for its genomic diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhuang Zhou

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus.

  16. Prenatal exome sequencing in anomalous fetuses: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta L; Powell, Bradford; Brandt, Alicia; Strande, Natasha; Hardisty, Emily; Gilmore, Kelly; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Bizon, Chris; Reilly, Jason; Owen, Phil; Powell, Cynthia M; Skinner, Debra; Rini, Christine; Lyerly, Anne D; Boggess, Kim A; Weck, Karen; Berg, Jonathan S; Evans, James P

    2017-11-01

    PurposeWe investigated the diagnostic and clinical performance of exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities with normal karyotype and microarray and, in some cases, normal gene-specific sequencing.MethodsExome sequencing was performed on DNA from 15 anomalous fetuses and from the peripheral blood of their parents. Parents provided consent to be informed of diagnostic results in the fetus, medically actionable findings in the parents, and their identification as carrier couples for significant autosomal recessive conditions. We assessed the perceptions and understanding of exome sequencing using mixed methods in 15 mother-father dyads.ResultsIn seven (47%) of 15 fetuses, exome sequencing provided a diagnosis or possible diagnosis with identification of variants in the following genes: COL1A1, MUSK, KCTD1, RTTN, TMEM67, PIEZO1 and DYNC2H1. One additional case revealed a de novo nonsense mutation in a novel candidate gene (MAP4K4). The perceived likelihood that exome sequencing would explain the results (5.2 on a 10-point scale) was higher than the approximately 30% diagnostic yield discussed in pretest counseling.ConclusionExome sequencing had diagnostic utility in a highly select population of fetuses where a genetic diagnosis was highly suspected. Challenges related to genetics literacy and variant interpretation must be addressed by highly tailored pre- and posttest genetic counseling.

  17. Exome sequencing for prenatal diagnosis of fetuses with sonographic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne; Williams, Hywel; Trump, Natalie; Boustred, Christopher; Lench, Nicholas; Scott, Richard H; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-10-01

    In the absence of aneuploidy or other pathogenic cytogenetic abnormality, fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT ≥ 3.5 mm) and/or other sonographic abnormalities have a greater incidence of genetic syndromes, but defining the underlying pathology can be challenging. Here, we investigate the value of whole exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities but normal microarray analysis. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from chorionic villi or amniocytes in 24 fetuses with unexplained ultrasound findings. In the first 14 cases sequencing was initially performed on fetal DNA only. For the remaining 10, the trio of fetus, mother and father was sequenced simultaneously. In 21% (5/24) cases, exome sequencing provided definitive diagnoses (Milroy disease, hypophosphatasia, achondrogenesis type 2, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and Baraitser-Winter Syndrome). In a further case, a plausible diagnosis of orofaciodigital syndrome type 6 was made. In two others, a single mutation in an autosomal recessive gene was identified, but incomplete sequencing coverage precluded exclusion of the presence of a second mutation. Whole exome sequencing improves prenatal diagnosis in euploid fetuses with abnormal ultrasound scans. In order to expedite interpretation of results, trio sequencing should be employed, but interpretation can still be compromised by incomplete coverage of relevant genes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone.

  19. Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies by MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Welker, Martin; Knudsen, Nanna Reumert

    2015-01-01

    phenotypic and sequence similarity between three subspecies their discrimination remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a novel, Superspectra based, MALDI-TOF MS approach for reliable, rapid and cost-effective identification of SEE and SEZ, the most frequent S. equi subspecies.......3±7.5%). This result may be attributed to the highly clonal population structure of SEE, as opposed to the diversity of SEZ seen in horses. Importantly strains with atypical colony appearance both within SEE and SEZ did not affect correct identification of the strains by MALDI-TOF MS. Atypical colony variants...... are often associated with a higher persistence or virulence of S. equi, thus their correct identification using the current method strengthens its potential use in routine clinical diagnostics. In conclusion, reliable identification of S. equi subspecies was achieved by combining a MALDI-TOF MS method...

  20. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Subspecies composition and founder contribution of the captive U.S. chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John J; Dye, Brent; Frels, William I; Fritz, Jo; Gagneux, Pascal; Khun, Henry H; Switzer, William M; Lee, D Rick

    2005-10-01

    Chimpanzees are presently classified into three subspecies: Pan troglodytes verus from west Africa, P.t. troglodytes from central Africa, and P.t. schweinfurthii from east Africa. A fourth subspecies (P.t. vellerosus), from Cameroon and northern Nigeria, has been proposed. These taxonomic designations are based on geographical origins and are reflected in sequence variation in the first hypervariable region (HVR-I) of the mtDNA D-loop. Although advances have been made in our understanding of chimpanzee phylogenetics, little has been known regarding the subspecies composition of captive chimpanzees. We sequenced part of the mtDNA HVR-I region in 218 African-born population founders and performed a phylogenetic analysis with previously characterized African sequences of known provenance to infer subspecies affiliations. Most founders were P.t. verus (95.0%), distantly followed by the troglodytes schweinfurthii clade (4.6%), and a single P.t. vellerosus (0.4%). Pedigree-based estimates of genomic representation in the descendant population revealed that troglodytes schweinfurthii founder representation was reduced in captivity, vellerosus representation increased due to prolific breeding by a single male, and reproductive variance resulted in uneven representation among male P.t.verus founders. No increase in mortality was evident from between-subspecies interbreeding, indicating a lack of outbreeding depression. Knowledge of subspecies and their genomic representation can form the basis for phylogenetically informed genetic management of extant chimpanzees to preserve rare genetic variation for research, conservation, or possible future breeding. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Bull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. METHODS: We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium

  3. The definition of harmonious development of fetus by ultrasound method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Sokolovska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a very important problem of determining the harmonious development of the fetus during determining the tactics of delivery breech presentation. The aim of the study was to determine the ratio of the harmonious development of the fetus at different gestational periods. Methods and results. For all study groups determined biparietal, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, shoulder length, thigh length. For all investigated values of the ratio it was uneven and deviates from the standard distribution. Conclusion. Some pregnant women who have not deviations from the standard deviation, or have only one indicator increases with gestational age.

  4. Dose absorbed in the fetus by radioactive drugs prescribed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Di Trano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This work aims to review existing guidelines on the hypothesis that must be taken into account when calculating impact from the dose on the fetus for widely employed radioactive drugs. Recent research is added giving data on placenta transference linked to pregnancy term. The most widely used diagnostic and therapeutic practices are analyzed comparing the dose impact on the fetus with limits internationally accepted. This will allow having the necessary tools to answer questions concerning radiological risks due to the administration of radioactive drugs to pregnant women

  5. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two subspecies (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus) of the greater horseshoe bat (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.

  6. Mitochondrial genome diversity and population structure of two western honey bee subspecies in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L; Ellis, James D

    2018-01-22

    Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz and A.m. scutellata Lepeletier are subspecies of western honey bees that are indigenous to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Both subspecies have invasive potential and are organisms of concern for areas outside their native range, though they are important bees to beekeepers, agriculture, and the environment where they are native. The aim of the present study was to examine genetic differentiation among these subspecies and estimate their phylogenetic relationships using complete mitochondrial genomes sequences. We used 25 individuals that were either assigned to one of the subspecies or designated hybrids using morphometric analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenome sequences by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference identified a monophyletic RSA clade, subdivided into two clades. A haplotype network was consistent with the phylogenetic trees. However, members of both subspecies occurred in both clades, indicating that A.m. capensis and A.m. scutellata are neither reciprocally monophyletic nor do they exhibit paraphyly with one subspecies nested within the other subspecies. Furthermore, no mitogenomic features were diagnostic to either subspecies. All bees analyzed from the RSA expressed a substantial level of haplotype diversity (most samples had unique haplotypes) but limited nucleotide diversity. The number of variable codons across protein-coding genes (PCGs) differed among loci, with CO3 exhibiting the most variation and ATP6 the least.

  7. Descriptions of a new species and subspecies of Halysidota Hübner, [1819] from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Vincent; Michel Laguerre

    2017-01-01

    A new species and subspecies of the genus Halysidota are described from Mexico and Guadeloupe respectively: Halysidota witti sp. nov. and Halysidota leda guadulpensis ssp. nov. Details of the new species and subspecies descriptions are based upon morphological and molecular characters as well as distributional data.

  8. Structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; Bijlsma, R.; Osterhaus, ADME; van Delden, W.; van de Zande, L.

    The structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies Phoca vitulina richarhsi (Alaska, East Pacific) is clearly separated from the other

  9. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  10. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Guillermo; Troncoso, Miriam; López, Cristián; Rivas, Patricia; Toro, Magaly

    2009-05-15

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates) in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during evisceration and following chiller processing were compared. The overall slaughterhouse contamination with thermotolerant Campylobacter was 54%. Differences were evident when the results from each plant were compared (plant A and plant B was 72% and 36%, respectively). The sampling points with the greatest contamination rates in both plants were after evisceration (90% and 54%, for plants A and B respectively). The decrease of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination after chilling was significant (2 and 1.6 logs for plant A and B respectively P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that chilling process has a limited effect in the final products Campylobacter contamination because poultry enter the slaughter processing with high counts of contamination. This may represent a health risk to consumers, if proper cooking practices are not employed. The levels and frequencies of Campylobacter found during the processing of Chilean poultry appear to be similar to those reported elsewhere in the world.

  11. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during evisceration and following chiller processing were compared. Results The overall slaughterhouse contamination with thermotolerant Campylobacter was 54%. Differences were evident when the results from each plant were compared (plant A and plant B was 72% and 36%, respectively. The sampling points with the greatest contamination rates in both plants were after evisceration (90% and 54%, for plants A and B respectively. The decrease of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination after chilling was significant (2 and 1.6 logs for plant A and B respectively P Conclusion Our findings indicate that chilling process has a limited effect in the final products Campylobacter contamination because poultry enter the slaughter processing with high counts of contamination. This may represent a health risk to consumers, if proper cooking practices are not employed. The levels and frequencies of Campylobacter found during the processing of Chilean poultry appear to be similar to those reported elsewhere in the world.

  12. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P water samples from the Eastern Townships were also tested. Five (10%) of 53 samples from private surface wells were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, of which only 2 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  13. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility, Genetic Diversity, and the Presence of Toxin Producing Genes in Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Choi, Yukyung; Oh, Hyemin; Seo, Kunho; Yoon, Yohan; Lee, Soomin

    2017-11-17

    This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken ( n = 152) and duck ( n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLab TM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin ( cdt ) genes. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45 poultry samples out of 306 poultry samples (14.7%) and the average levels of Campylobacter contamination were 22.0 CFU/g and 366.1 CFU/g in chicken and duck samples, respectively. Moreover, more than 90% of the isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Genetic correlation analysis showed greater than 95% similarity between 84.4% of the isolates, and three cdt genes ( cdtA , cdtB , and cdtC ) were present in 71.1% of Campylobacter isolates. These results indicate that Campylobacter contamination should be decreased to prevent and treat Campylobacter foodborne illness.

  15. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  17. Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter in Organically and Conventionally Raised Layer Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Kehinde, Olugbenga; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens. Here, we showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic and conventional layer farms was statistically similar (p > 0.05). However, the average number of Campylobacter jejuni-positive organically grown hens was lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to conventionally grown hens. Campylobacter isolated from both production systems carried antimicrobial resistance genes. The tet(O) and cmeB were the most frequently detected genes, while the occurrence of aph-3-1 and blaOXA-61 was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Farming practices appeared to have an effect on the antimicrobial resistance phenotype, because the isolates from organically grown hens on two farms (OF-2 and OF-3) exhibited significantly lower resistance (p < 0.05) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tylosin. However, on one of the sampled organic farms (OF-1), a relatively high number of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter were isolated. We conclude that organic farming can potentially impact the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. Nevertheless, this impact should be regularly monitored to avoid potential relapses.

  18. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  19. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.......This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...

  1. Campylobacter gastritis simulating Menetrier's disease by upper gastrointestinal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, J.C.; Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Within this decade it has been determined that primary gastritis in both children and adults is frequently associated with infection of the gastric mucosa with Campylobacter pylori. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in which the mucosa of the gastric antrum is typically most severely involved. Other regions of the stomach may be involved and associated peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenal bulb are frequent. A case of C. pylori gastritis is reported in which involvement of the gastric fundus and body produced severe rugal hypertrophy that resembled Menetrier's disease. (orig.)

  2. [Prevalence of emerging foodborne pathogens and illness: Campylobacter and Listeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Anna Maria; Damiani, Gianfranco; Neve, Caterina Bianca; Bianchi, Aurora; Ronconi, Alessandra; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the proportion of food samples, examined by the Italian Istituti Zooprofilattici Sperimentali (Experimental Zooprophylactic Institutes) in the years 2000-2005, positive for Campylobacter and Listeria. A correlation was found between food samples found positive for Listeria in the years 2002-2005 and the number of hospitalisations for Listeria illness in the same years (as reported in hospital discharge abstract forms). This confirms that attention should be given in the evaluation of phenomena known to be under reported and for which data are collected and analysed by different methods.

  3. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  4. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...

  5. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  6. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  7. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock...... at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply...

  8. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start...... that batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  9. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bohemen, C G; Langenberg, M L; Rauws, E A; Oudbier, J; Weterings, E; Zanen, H C

    1989-01-15

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by positive biopsy cultures, all possessed statistically raised serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp during a longitudinal period of observation of 15 months. Treatment with the antibiotics amoxycillin (clamoxyl) or colloidal bismuth subcitrate (denol) eliminated Cp within one month. Associated with this, serum IgG ELISA titers were found to decrease sharply and rapidly. Tagamet and spiramycin had little effect. Although the data are preliminary, they support the assumed Cp involvement in chronic gastritis and suggest that specific serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp are useful parameters in monitoring disease status, exceeding bacteriological culture of biopsy specimens in speed and convenience.

  10. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Vieiralves, Rodrigo; Bernardo, Fabio O; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2017-01-01

    To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS) to normal controls. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5- μ m thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert's solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U test ( p < 0.005). Quantitative analysis documented no differences ( p = 0.4) in number of seminiferous tubules (ST) in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD = 1.59), when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD = 2.99) and no differences ( p = 0.8) in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85  μ m, SD = 1.58) when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17  μ m, SD = 1.55), but we did observe a lower number ( p = 0.0002) of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD = 3.697) when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD = 2.986). Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an NIH study reported ... Owner Office of Communications Last Reviewed Date 3/9/2011 Contact Us Publications Sitemap Español facebook twitter ...

  12. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digital Media Join NICHD Listservs About NICHD Organization History Accomplishments Leadership & Other Staff Profiles Budget & Appropriations Advisory Groups Jobs at NICHD Partnering & Donating Freedom of Information Act Director's Corner Contact Us Home Newsroom News Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces ...

  13. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  14. Identification of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations in fetuses with increased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leung, Tak Yeung; Vogel, Ida; Lau, Tze Kin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) is assessed by ultrasound as a screening tool for aneuploidy at 11-13+6 weeks’ gestation. Fetuses with increased NT but apparently normal karyotyping result are still at higher risk of structural abnormality and a range of genetic syndromes, which may be ...

  15. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  16. MASA syndrome : ultrasonographic evidence in a male fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomili, G; Donti, GV; Carrozza, LA; Ardisia, C; Servidio, F; Hofstra, RMW; Gilardi, G; Donti, E

    2000-01-01

    The recent identification of a common etiology among MASA syndrome (McKusick 303300), X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS) (McKusick 307000) and other related neurological disorders, which had previously been considered distinct nosological entities, allowed us to diagnose MASA syndrome in a male fetus in

  17. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  18. Strontium-85 in the fetuses of pregnant rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyskowova, Z.; Josifko, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant SPF Wistar rats and ICR/Swiss albino mice were injected in the tail vein with 85 SrCl 2 with 0.05mM inactive carrier (SrCl 2 ) given in volumes of 0.1 ml. The activity in the injected volume.was about 14 MBq per kg of rat and 13 MBq per kg of mouse. The animals were injected on day 3 or 13 of gestation. Activity retained by the fetuses was quantitatively determined at three stages of the fetal intrauterine development: in rats on days 14, 16 and 21 of gestation, in mice on days 14, 16 and 20 of gestation. The activity of fetuses and/or placentas with fetal membranes was measured using a TESLA automatic gamma counter. The results indicate that the fetuses of mice retained a significantly (P<0.01) greater proportion of strontium activity than the fetuses of rats. The highest specific activities (the percentage of total activity retained per gram of fetal tissue) were found in the late pregnancy period on (day 21 of gestation in rats and on day 20 of gestation in mice) in animals that were injected with the radionuclide on day 13 of gestation. (author)

  19. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new subspecies of Phascolion Theel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saiz, J.I.; Bustamante, M.; Tajadura, J.; Vijapure, T.; Sukumaran, S.

    , vol.3931(3); 2015; 433-437 A new subspecies of Phascolion Théel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters JOSÉ I. SAIZ1, MARIA BUSTAMANTE1, JAVIER TAJADURA1, TEJAL VIJAPURE2 & SONIYA SUKUMARAN2 1 Universidad del País Vasco / EHU, 48080...

  2. Genetic and environmental effects on seed weight in subspecies of big sagebrush: Applications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Hector G. Ortiz; Stephanie L. Carlson; Deidre M. Jaeger; Nancy L. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The sagebrush steppe is a patchwork of species and subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches across the intermountain regions of western North America. These ecosystems face degradation from disturbances and exotic weeds. Using sagebrush seed that is matched to its appropriate niche is a critical component to successful restoration, improving habitat for the...

  3. Subspecies identification of captive Orang Utan in Melaka based on D-loop mitochondria DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Siti Norsyuhada; Yaakop, Salmah; Idris, Wan Mohd Razi; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of Bornean Orang Utan populations suggests that there are three different subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus; Sarawak & Northwest Kalimantan, P. p. wurmbii; Southern West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, P. p. morio; East Kalimantan and Sabah). The subspecies of Orang Utans in captivity are difficult to determine through morphological observation. Thus, misidentification by ranger or zoo staffs leads to unwanted consequences especially towards conservation efforts of Orang Utan. The main objective of this study was to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of 10 Orang Utans in Zoo Melaka and A' Famosa by using partial mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences. DNA of all individuals was extracted from FTA Card. Data analyses were performed using Maximum Parsimony, MP and Neighbor Joining, NJ. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that all the samples likely belong to one species of Sumatran Orang Utan (P. abelii) and three different subspecies of Bornean Orang Utans (P. p. pygmaeus, P. p. morio, and P. p. wurmbii). The results obtained in this study indirectly help the management of zoos in term of conservation and visitor's education.

  4. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recombinant proteins modulate antimycobacterial functions of bovine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...

  5. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.) : Genetic evidence for revision of subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North

  6. Molecular variation of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies as revealed by AFLP fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbo, E.E.C.; Majiwa, P.A.O.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2002-01-01

    Genetic analysis of Trypanosoma spp. depends on the detection of variation between strains. We have used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to develop a convenient and reliable method for genetic characterization of Trypanosome (sub)species. AFLP accesses multiple

  7. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...

  8. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-12

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses.  Created: 6/12/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/3/2013.

  9. Interest in Providing Multiple Sclerosis Care and Subspecializing in Multiple Sclerosis Among Neurology Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie; Kane, Heather L.; Frost, A. Corey; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although detailed knowledge regarding treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is largely limited to neurologists, shortages in the neurologist workforce, including MS subspecialists, are predicted. Thus, MS patients may have difficulties in gaining access to appropriate care. No systematic evaluation has yet been performed of the number of neurology residents planning to pursue MS subspecialization. This study identifies factors affecting interest in providing MS patient care or MS subspecialization among current neurology residents. Methods: We randomly selected half of all Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education–certified neurology residency programs in the continental United States to receive the neurology resident survey. Completed surveys were received from 218 residents. Results: Residents were significantly more likely to have increased interest in MS care when they participated in MS research, were interested in teaching, and indicated that the “ability to improve patient outcomes and quality of life” was a positive factor influencing their desire to provide MS patient care. Residents who were interested in providing MS care, interested in teaching, and indicated that “research opportunities” was a positive factor for providing MS patient care were significantly more likely to express interest in MS subspecialization. Conclusions: Increasing opportunities to interact with MS patients, learn about MS care, and participate in MS research may increase interest in MS care and subspecialization among neurology residents. Opportunities to educate residents regarding MS patient care may affect residents’ attitudes. PMID:24688352

  10. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  11. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  12. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Mochizuki, Matsuto

    1989-01-01

    The fetus central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for CNS anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. The most considerable disadvantage of MRI in the diagnosis of a fetus CNS anomaly is the poor information about spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US was routinely used, and the multidimensional slices were useful for screening the CNS abnormalies. Some of the fetus brain lesions, such as intracranial hematomas, had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies, each modality has different diagnostic advantages and disadvantages. Improvement can be expected when these diagnostic imaging modalities are complementary, depending upon the nature of the anatomy. (J.P.N.)

  13. Mathematical models for calculating radiation dose to the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of radiation dose from radionuclides inside the body are calculated on the basis of energy deposition in mathematical models representing the organs and tissues of the human body. Complex models may be used with radiation transport codes to calculate the fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed in a target tissue even at a distance from the source. Other models may be simple geometric shapes for which absorbed fractions of energy have already been calculated. Models of Reference Man, the 15-year-old (Reference Woman), the 10-year-old, the five-year-old, the one-year-old, and the newborn have been developed and used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (absorbed fractions of energy per unit mass) for several different photon energies and many different source-target combinations. The Reference woman model is adequate for calculating energy deposition in the uterus during the first few weeks of pregnancy. During the course of pregnancy, the embryo/fetus increases rapidly in size and thus requires several models for calculating absorbed fractions. In addition, the increases in size and changes in shape of the uterus and fetus result in the repositioning of the maternal organs and in different geometric relationships among the organs and the fetus. This is especially true of the excretory organs such as the urinary bladder and the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Several models have been developed for calculating absorbed fractions of energy in the fetus, including models of the uterus and fetus for each month of pregnancy and complete models of the pregnant woman at the end of each trimester. In this paper, the available models and the appropriate use of each will be discussed. (Author) 19 refs., 7 figs

  14. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  15. Responsiveness of rat fetuses to sibling motor activity: Communication in utero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Michele R; Hoagland, Riana; Truong, Melissa; Robinson, Scott R

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that fetuses detect and respond to extrauterine stimuli such as maternal movement and speech, but little attention has been cast on how fetuses may directly influence and respond to each other in the womb. This study investigated whether motor activity of E20 rat fetuses influenced the behavior of siblings in utero. Three experiments showed that; (a) contiguous siblings expressed a higher frequency of synchronized movement than noncontiguous siblings; (b) fetuses that lay between two siblings immobilized with curare showed less movement relative to fetuses between saline or uninjected controls; and (c) fetuses between two siblings behaviorally activated by the opioid agonist U50,488 also showed less activity and specific behavioral changes compared to controls. Our findings suggest that rat fetuses are directly impacted by sibling motor activity, and thus that a rudimentary form of communication between siblings may influence the development of fetuses in utero. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... of processing, 24% of the flocks were positive. The species distribution was 87% Campylobacter jejuni, 8% Campylobacter coli and 5% Campylobacter lari, The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors: lack of a hygiene barrier (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 1.1

  17. Spatial genetic structure across a hybrid zone between European rabbit subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula is the only region in the world where the two existing subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus naturally occur and hybridize. In this study we explore the relative roles of historical and contemporary processes in shaping the spatial genetic structure of the rabbit across its native distribution range, and how they differently affect each subspecies and the hybrid zone. For that purpose we obtained multilocus genotypes and mitochondrial DNA data from 771 rabbits across most of the distribution range of the European rabbit in Spain. Based on the nuclear markers we observed a hierarchical genetic structure firstly comprised by two genetic groups, largely congruent with the mitochondrial lineages and subspecies distributions (O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus, which were subsequently subdivided into seven genetic groups. Geographic distance alone emerged as an important factor explaining genetic differentiation across the whole range, without the need to invoke for the effect for geographical barriers. Additionally, the significantly positive spatial correlation up to a distance of only 100 km supported the idea that differentiation at a local level is of greater importance when considering the species overall genetic structure. When looking at the subspecies, northern populations of O. c. cuniculus showed more spatial genetic structure and differentiation than O. c. algirus. This could be due to local geographic barriers, limited resources, soil type and/or social behavior limiting dispersal. The hybrid zone showed similar genetic structure to the southern populations but a larger introgression from the northern lineage genome. These differences have been attributed to selection against the hybrids rather than to behavioral differences between subspecies. Ultimately, the genetic structure of the rabbit in its native distribution range is the result of an ensemble of factors, from geographical and ecological

  18. Investigating concordance among genetic data, subspecies circumscriptions and hostplant use in the nymphalid butterfly Polygonia faunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullasa Kodandaramaiah

    Full Text Available Subspecies are commonly used taxonomic units to formally describe intraspecific geographic variation in morphological traits. However, the concept of subspecies is not clearly defined, and there is little agreement about what they represent in terms of evolutionary units, and whether they can be used as reliably useful units in conservation, evolutionary theory and taxonomy. We here investigate whether the morphologically well-characterized subspecies in the North American butterfly Polygonia faunus are supported by genetic data from mitochondrial sequences and eight microsatellite loci. We also investigate the phylogeographic structure of P. faunus and test whether similarities in host-plant use among populations are related to genetic similarity. Neither the nuclear nor the mitochondrial data corroborated subspecies groupings. We found three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to California, Arizona and (New Mexico+Colorado. There was little structuring among the remaining populations, probably due to gene flow across populations. We found no support for the hypothesis that similarities in host use are related to genetic proximity. The results indicate that the species underwent a recent rapid expansion, probably from two glacial refugia in western North America. The mitochondrial haplotype network indicates at least two independent expansion phases into eastern North America. Our results clearly demonstrate that subspecies in P. faunus do not conform to the structuring of genetic variation. More studies on insects and other invertebrates are needed to better understand the scope of this phenomenon. The results of this study will be crucial in designing further experiments to understand the evolution of hostplant utilization in this species.

  19. Analysis of renal blood flow and renal volume in normal fetuses and in fetuses with a solitary functioning kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, An; Raaijmakers, Anke; Levtchenko, Elena; Allegaert, Karel; De Catte, Luc

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate renal blood flow and renal volume for the prediction of postnatal renal function in fetuses with solitary functioning kidney (SFK). Seventy-four SFK fetuses (unilateral renal agenesis [12], multicystic dysplastic kidney [36], and severe renal dysplasia [26]) were compared with 58 healthy fetuses. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) of the renal artery (RA) were measured; 2D and 3D (VOCAL) volumes were calculated. Renal length and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were obtained in SFK children (2 years). Compared with the control group, the PSV RA was significantly lower in nonfunctioning kidneys and significantly higher in SFK. Volume measurements indicated a significantly larger volume of SFK compared with healthy kidneys. All but 4 children had GFR above 70 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and compensatory hypertrophy was present in 69% at 2 years. PSV RA and SFK volume correlated with postnatal renal hypertrophy. No correlation between prenatal and postnatal SFK volume and GFR at 2 years was demonstrated. Low PSV RA might have a predictive value for diagnosing a nonfunctioning kidney in fetuses with a SFK. We demonstrated a higher PSV RA and larger renal volume in the SFK compared with healthy kidneys. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined to...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared...

  2. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...

  3. Application of TRiMiCri for the evaluation of risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter on broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two appr...... of microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in the EU is discussed. TRiMiCri provides user friendly software to evaluate the available data and can help risk managers in establishing risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat.......A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two...

  4. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    ’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision...... about vaccination needs to be made usually before Campylobacter is introduced in the flock. In fact, there is uncertainty regarding the introduction of Campylobacter into the flock that needs to be taken into account in the decision making process. Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) integrate......, epidemiological and economic factors (cost-reward functions) have been included in the models. The final outcome of the models is presented in probabilities of expected level of Campylobacter and financial terms influenced by the decision on vaccination. For example, if the best decision seems to be to vaccinate...

  5. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    through physical decontamination of the meat. The current study was conducted to compare the Campylobacter-reducing ability of three physical decontamination techniques, forced air chilling, crust freezing, and steam-ultrasound, performed in the plant with naturally contaminated broiler chickens....... The effects of all three techniques were evaluated and compared with the effect of freezing. Mean reductions obtained were 0.44 log CFU per carcass, 0.42 log CFU per sample, and 2.51 log CFU per carcass, respectively. All techniques resulted in significant reductions of the Campylobacter concentration...... on the carcasses (P freezing based on reductions in Campylobacter counts and on adverse effects. The increase in Campylobacter counts on carcasses following visceral rupture during the evisceration operation also was examined. Visceral rupture resulted...

  6. Non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter infections among HIV-positive patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.K.; Gradel, Kim Oren; Helms, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance Re...... population. Moreover our study suggests that there is an increased incidence of Campylobacter-related illness among homosexual men in the HIV-positive population.......Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter are common causes of diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. To investigate if incidence has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we combined data from The Danish Surveillance...... Registry for Enteric Pathogens and The Danish National Hospital Registry. We found that the incidences of NTS- and Campylobacter-related illness among HIV-positive patients in Denmark have declined since the introduction of HAART, although the incidences remained higher compared to the background...

  7. Hazards of Healthy Living: Bottled Water and Salad Vegetables as Risk Factors for Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. Donald; Salmon, Roland L.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, yet the etiology of this infection remains only partly explained. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared 213 sporadic campylobacter case-patients with 1,144 patients with negative fecal samples. Information was obtained on food history, animal contact, foreign travel, leisure activities, medical conditions, and medication use. Eating chicken, eating food from a fried chicken outlet, eating salad vegetables, drinking bottled water, and direct contact with cows or calves were all independently associated with infection. The population-attributable fractions for these risk factors explained nearly 70% of sporadic campylobacter infections. Eating chicken is a well-established risk factor, but consuming salad and bottled water are not. The association with salad may be explained by cross-contamination of food within the home, but the possibility that natural mineral water is a risk factor for campylobacter infection could have wide public health implications. PMID:14609455

  8. The complete genome sequence and analysis of the human pathogen Campylobacter lari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, WG; Wang, G; Binnewies, Tim Terence

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter lari is a member of the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant Campylobacter group, a clade that includes the human pathogen C. jejuni. Here we present the complete genome sequence of the human clinical isolate, C. lari RM2100. The genome of strain...... RM2100 is approximately 1.53 Mb and includes the 46 kb megaplasmid pCL2100. Also present within the strain RM2100 genome is a 36 kb putative prophage, termed CLIE1, which is similar to CJIE4, a putative prophage present within the C. jejuni RM1221 genome. Nearly all (90%) of the gene content...... in strain RM2100 is similar to genes present in the genomes of other characterized thermotolerant campylobacters. However, several genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and energy metabolism, identified previously in other Campylobacter genomes, are absent from the C. lari RM2100 genome. Therefore, C...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 12567 a livestock-associated clade representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter jejuni strain 12567, a member of a C. jejuni livestock-associated clade that expresses glycoconjugates linked to improved gastrointestinal tract persistence....

  10. Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. We reviewed the medical records and microbiological results of patients with bacteraemia due to Streptococcus bovis during the period 2000-2012. Species and subspecies identification of isolates originally classified as S. bovis was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution method. Of the 172 S. bovis complex isolates obtained from 172 patients (age range, Streptococcus infantarius. The majority (n = 104, 60%) of patients were male and had underlying malignancies (n = 87, 51%). Bacteraemia due to S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus was significantly associated with endocarditis while S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus was more likely to be associated with malignancies of the digestive tract, including gastric, pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. Septic shock at presentation was the only factor associated with mortality among patients with bacteraemia due to either subspecies of S. bovis. Isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus had higher rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin than isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus. Extensive diagnostic work-up for digestive tract malignancies and trans-esophageal echocardiogram should be investigated in patients with bacteraemia caused by S. gallolyticus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of the potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel Jimmy; Haddad, Nabila; Taminiau, Bernard; Poezevara, Typhaine; Quesne, Ségolène; Amelot, Michel; Daube, Georges; Chemaly, Marianne; Dousset, Xavier; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel

    2017-04-17

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in the EU since 2005. As chicken meat is the main source of contamination, reducing the level of Campylobacter in broiler chicken will lower the risk to consumers. The aim of this project was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers and to investigate the mechanisms that could be involved. Thirty broilers artificially contaminated with C. jejuni were treated by oral gavage with MRS broth or a bacterial suspension (10 7 CFU) of Lb. salivarius SMXD51 (SMXD51) in MRS broth. At 14 and 35days of age, Campylobacter and Lb. salivarius loads were assessed in cecal contents. The impact of the treatment on the avian gut microbiota at day 35 was also evaluated. At day 14, the comparison between the control and treated groups showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) of 0.82 log. After 35days, a significant reduction (P<0.001) of 2.81 log in Campylobacter loads was observed and 73% of chickens treated with the culture exhibited Campylobacter loads below 7log 10 CFU/g. Taxonomic analysis revealed that SMXD51 treatment induced significant changes (P<0.05) in a limited number of bacterial genera of the avian gut microbiota and partially limited the impact of Campylobacter on Anaerotruncus sp. decrease and Subdoligranulum sp. increase. Thus, SMXD51 exhibits an anti-Campylobacter activity in vivo and can partially prevent the impact of Campylobacter on the avian gut microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle M; Nielsen, Niels L; Christensen, Bjarke B

    2006-04-25

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant II). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter positive prior to slaughter were investigated at four sampling locations within each slaughter plant. Quantification of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 neck skin samples per flock per sampling location showed that the evisceration operation in Plant I led to a significant increase in the Campylobacter concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant I) and water chilling (Plant II), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant I), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air chilling. Enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 intestinal samples per flock showed that in two of the six flocks examined the within flock colonization was very low (defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken carcasses may also be obtained by interventions aimed at reducing the concentration of Campylobacter in the intestines of the living birds.

  13. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... broiler meat. Still this initiative has been successful in significantly reducing the occurrence of Campylobacter in fresh meat available on the Danish retail market....

  14. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  15. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain; Estimation of intervention costs

    OpenAIRE

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Poppe, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter infections are a serious public health problem in the Netherlands. As a part of the CARMA project, this study focus on the estimation of the potential direct costs related to the implementation of various intervention measures to control campylobacters in the chicken meat chain. Costs were estimated using a second-order stochastic simulation model. Treating only positively tested flocks is far cheaper than treating all flocks. The implementation of equipment to reduce faecal lea...

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  17. Campylobacter radicidation of poultry meat by means of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjan, Veronika

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the number of sprouts of pathogenic Campylobacter was studied in the function of time, storage temperature and radiation dose. Culture-media and minced poultry meat treated with isolated bacteria were irradiated by sup(60)Co up to a dose of 1 kGy. It would be established that low irradiation doses of 3-5 kGy used to eliminate Salmonella infection satisfactorily destroy Campylobacter in chilled meat. (V.N.)

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  19. Campylobacter genotypes from poultry transportation crates indicate a source of contamination and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R; Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Maiden, M C J; Sheppard, S K

    2011-01-01

    Crates used to transport live poultry can be contaminated with Campylobacter, despite periodic sanitization, and are potential vectors for transmission between flocks. We investigated the microbial contamination of standard and silver ion containing crates in normal use and the genetic structure of associated Campylobacter populations. Bacteria from crates were enumerated by appropriate culture techniques, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the genetic structure of Campylobacters isolated from standard and silver ion containing crates. Compared to standard crates, counts of bacteria, including Campylobacter, were consistently lower on silver ion containing crates throughout the decontamination process. In total, 16 different sequence types were identified from 89 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from crates. These were attributed to putative source population (chicken, cattle, sheep, the environment, wild bird) using the population genetic model, structure. Most (89%) were attributed to chicken, with 22% attribution to live chicken and 78% to retail poultry meat. MLST revealed a progressive shift in allele frequencies through the crate decontamination process. Campylobacter on crates survived for at least 3 h after sanitization, a period of time equivalent to the journey from the processing plant to the majority of farms in the catchment, showing the potential for involvement of crates in transmission. Inclusion of a silver ion biocide in poultry transportation crates to levels demonstrating acceptable antibacterial activity in vitro reduces the level of bacterial contamination during normal crate use compared to standard crates. Molecular analysis of Campylobacter isolates indicated a change in genetic structure of the population with respect to the poultry-processing plant sanitization practice. The application of a sustainable antimicrobial to components of poultry processing may contribute to reducing the levels of Campylobacter

  20. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  1. Novel molecular markers differentiate Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarki (cutthroat trout) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 26 PCR-based markers was developed that differentiates rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). The markers also differentiated rainbow from other cutthroat trout subspecies (O. clarki), and several of the markers differentiated between cutthroat trout subspecies. This system has numerous positive attributes, including: nonlethal sampling, high species-specificity and products that are easily identified and scored using agarose gel electrophoresis. The methodology described for developing the markers can be applied to virtually any system in which numerous markers are desired for identifying or differentiating species or subspecies.

  2. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all broiler flocks sampled. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Pernicious anaemia and Campylobacter like organisms; is the gastric antrum resistant to colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flejou, J F; Bahame, P; Smith, A C; Stockbrugger, R W; Rode, J; Price, A B

    1989-01-01

    Gastric biopsies from 86 patients with pernicious anaemia were examined for Campylobacter like organisms with particular attention to those showing an antral gastritis in addition to the usual pattern of body gastritis. All the patients had chronic atrophic gastritis in the body but Campylobacter like organisms were found at this site in only three patients. Thus the Type A pattern of gastritis (autoimmune) seen in patients with pernicious anaemia is only rarely associated with Campylobacter like organisms. Forty four of these patients had biopsies from body and antrum, 16 showed an antral gastritis of whom only one had Campylobacter like organism present. Twenty five of this latter group of patients were rebiopsied after five years. There was no change in the pattern of gastritis, and the same single patient remained colonised. The frequency of an antral gastritis in patients with pernicious anaemia was 36% yet the frequency of antral colonisation by Campylobacter like organisms was very low (6%). These results show that, as in the body, Campylobacter like organisms are not associated with gastritis when it occurs at this site in pernicious anaemia. The antral gastritis that may accompany body gastritis in pernicious anaemia seems more likely therefore to be an extension of primary type A body gastritis (autoimmune) rather than a secondary type B (chronic) gastritis and, it is argued, the antrum may exhibit resistance to colonisation. PMID:2920929

  4. Frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler chickens during industrial processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, P R; Ogliari, P J; Batista, C R V

    2007-04-01

    1. The frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases was determined during processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse. Samples were collected after defeathering, evisceration, water chilling and freezing. In addition, samples were obtained from the water of the chiller tank and from the surface of equipment in direct contact with the chicken. 2. Samples (335) were analysed and 71.3% were positive for Campylobacter. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcases rinsed in BPW and skin samples from carcases was 49 of 72 (68.0%) after defeathering, 50 of 72 (69.4%) after evisceration, 61 of 72 (84.7%) after chilling, and 46 of 72 (63.9%) after freezing. Campylobacter was positive for 21 of 23 (91.3%) samples in the chilling water and for 12 of 24 (50.0%) samples on the table surface. 3. The frequency of qualitative analysis for Campylobacter spp. was reduced in frozen chickens, but not during the slaughtering process. The use of drinking water alone as a decontaminant to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter spp. during slaughter is therefore not sufficient. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, chickens must be cooked properly before consuming.

  5. Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari; Satharasinghe, Dilan Amila; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-12-12

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

  6. The occurrence of Campylobacter in river water and waterfowl within a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, M I; Morton, V K; McLellan, N L; Huck, P M

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative PCR and a culture method were used to investigate Campylobacter occurrence over 3 years in a watershed located in southern Ontario, Canada that is used as a source of drinking water. Direct DNA extraction from river water followed by quantitative PCR analysis detected thermophilic campylobacters at low concentrations (seagulls, ducks and geese) were detected at a similar rate using PCR (32%) and culture-based (29%) methods, and although Campylobacter jejuni was isolated most frequently, C. lari ssp. concheus was also detected. Campylobacter were frequently detected at low concentrations in the watershed. Higher prevalence rates using quantitative PCR was likely because of the formation of viable but nonculturable cells and low recovery of the culture method. In addition to animal and human waste, waterfowl can be an important contributor of Campylobacter in the environment. Results of this study show that Campylobacter in surface water can be an important vector for human disease transmission and that method selection is important in determining pathogen occurrence in a water environment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Campylobacter contamination in broiler carcasses and correlation with slaughterhouses operational hygiene inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Dierick, Katelijne; Van Huffel, Xavier; Speybroeck, Niko; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates factors associated with Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses, using survey data collected from nine Belgian slaughterhouses in 2008 in accordance with a European Union baseline study. Campylobacter were detected in 51.9% (202/389) (95% confidence interval, 46.8%-56.9%) of broiler carcasses. Campylobacter concentration was Food Chain, and the concluded inspection scores were used as a general numerical indicator for the status of operational hygiene and quality of management in the slaughterhouses. Ranking of slaughterhouses based on their inspection scores was statistically correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.857) with their ranking based on prevalence of Campylobacter. In the present study we demonstrate how the outcomes from a routine baseline survey could be coupled with other readily available data from national control authorities in order to enable a better insight over Campylobacter contamination status in broiler slaughterhouses. Findings from this work call for subsequent in-depth investigations on technical and hygiene management factors that could impact Campylobacter contamination across broiler slaughterhouses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella strains isolated from decoys and raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Tarifa, E; Torralbo, A; Borge, C; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ayats, T; Carbonero, A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the leading causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds can act as reservoirs of both pathogens. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The overall prevalence detected for Campylobacter was 5.9% (18/306; CI95%: 3.25-8.52) in decoys and 2.3% (9/387; CI95%: 0.82-3.83) in wild raptors. Isolates were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari in both bird groups. Salmonella was isolated in 3.3% (10/306; CI95%: 2.3-4.3) and 4.6% (18/394; CI95%: 3.5-5.6) of the decoys and raptors, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium were the most frequently identified serovars, although Salmonella serovars Anatum, Bredeney, London and Mikawasima were also isolated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates showed higher genetic diversity within Campylobacter species compared to Salmonella serovars. Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, while resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was found in Salmonella isolates. The results indicate that both decoys and raptors can act as natural carriers of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Spain, which may have important implications for public and animal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative genomic characterization of Francisella tularensis strains belonging to low and high virulence subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia D Champion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a geographically widespread, severely debilitating, and occasionally lethal disease in humans. It is caused by infection by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. In order to better understand its potency as an etiological agent as well as its potential as a biological weapon, we have completed draft assemblies and report the first complete genomic characterization of five strains belonging to the following different Francisella subspecies (subsp.: the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC033, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC257 and FSC022, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida GA99-3548 and GA99-3549 strains. Here, we report the sequencing of these strains and comparative genomic analysis with recently available public Francisella sequences, including the rare F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain isolate from the Central Asian Region. We report evidence for the occurrence of large-scale rearrangement events in strains of the holarctica subspecies, supporting previous proposals that further phylogenetic subdivisions of the Type B clade are likely. We also find a significant enrichment of disrupted or absent ORFs proximal to predicted breakpoints in the FSC022 strain, including a genetic component of the Type I restriction-modification defense system. Many of the pseudogenes identified are also disrupted in the closely related rarely human pathogenic F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain, including modulator of drug activity B (mdaB (FTT0961, which encodes a known NADPH quinone reductase involved in oxidative stress resistance. We have also identified genes exhibiting sequence similarity to effectors of the Type III (T3SS and components of the Type IV secretion systems (T4SS. One of the genes, msrA2 (FTT1797c, is disrupted in F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and has recently been shown to mediate bacterial pathogen survival in host organisms. Our findings suggest that in addition to the duplication of

  10. The ethics of abortions for fetuses with congenital abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2010-10-01

    Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  12. [Fatal thrombotic microangiopathy in the mother and fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardy, M; Telek, B; Kiss, A; Flóra Nagy, M; Mikó, T; Rák, K

    1990-04-14

    The appearance of thrombotic microangiopathy (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, haemolytic uraemic syndrome) could have been documented in a 23 years old pregnant woman, who had been treated previously for immune-thrombocytolytic purpura. The disturbing anamnestic data caused significant delay in correct diagnosis and in starting of fresh-frozen plasma therapy, so the woman and her fetus (in utero) had been died. The specific histological microangiopathic lesions could have been well documented by the autopsy of the mother, however no such alterations could have been detected in the fetus and placenta. This latter intriguing observation might be remarkable in the evaluation of several concepts dealing with the aetiopathogenesis of thrombotic microangiopathy. The short review of literature of thrombotic microangiopathy in pregnancy and puerperial period is also given.

  13. Assessment of stabilized hydrogen peroxide as an antimicrobial agent for use in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and levels on chicken broiler wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service requires samples of raw broiler parts for performance standard verification for the detection of Campylobacter. Poultry processors must maintain process controls with Campylobacter prevalence levels below 7.7%. Establishments utilize antimicrobial processi...

  14. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS to normal controls. Materials and Methods. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert’s solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney U test (p<0.005. Results. Quantitative analysis documented no differences (p=0.4 in number of seminiferous tubules (ST in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD=1.59, when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD=2.99 and no differences (p=0.8 in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85 μm, SD=1.58 when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17 μm, SD=1.55, but we did observe a lower number (p=0.0002 of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD=3.697 when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD=2.986. Conclusions. Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  15. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivi...

  16. Hobi-like pestivirus in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds.

  17. Anatomohistological characteristics of Meckel's diverticulum in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meckel's diverticulum (MD is the most frequent anomaly of the small intestine. It appears after incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric or viteline duct which normally obliterates and disappears by the 9th week of gestation. The majority of MD do not give rise to any clinical symptoms and are encounted either incidentally, at examination or intervention, or due to complications which may occur (obstruction, hemorrhagy, rupture, and are described in many clinical reports. The aim of the study was to find out the incidence of MD in fetuses when the development of the alimentary tract is already finished. Methods. The investigation was performed on 150 human fetuses of different sex and gastational age, using microdissection method. The cases with MD were photographed, described, their positions and dimensions were registered. The samples of MD taken for histological investigation were dyed with hematoksilin eosin method. Results. Meckel's diverticulum was found in five fetuses (three male and two female; in one case the fibrous band was found. All of them were located on animesenteric margine of the small intestine at the average distance of 92.5 mm from the ileocecal junction. They were of different shape and dimensions, but of the normal constitution of the small intestine. Conclusion. The incidence of MD was 3.3%, and 4% of all the anomalies of the intestines connected to the disappearance of the viteline duct. It was more frequent in the male, located on antimesenteric margine of the small intestine, at the destination which highly correlated to the age of the fetus. Meckel's diverticule were of different shapes and dimensions but of the typical constitution of the small intestine. .

  18. Fetus -in -fetu in a 6-month-old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a malformed parasitic monozygotic diamniotic twin found inside the body of the living child or adult. We report a case of lumbar mass having superficial rudimentary phallus, labioscrotal fold, testes, pedunculated thumb-like digit and rudimentary pelvis in addition to bowel loops in a 6-month-old Nigerian girl. The mass was excised and the baby did well. We propose based on these that dizygotic parasitic foetiform twin could exist.

  19. Ultrasound evaluation of cortical brain development in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelli, Caterina; de Wit, Charlotte; Visser, Gerard H A; Pistorius, Lourens R

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: We evaluated the ultrasound appearance of brain volume and cortical development in fetuses with early growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods: We examined a cohort of 20 fetuses with severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and evidence of placental insufficiency by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound between 24 and 34 weeks. We graded cortical development and measured the supratentorial intracranial volume. The cortical grading and volume were compared to data obtained from a reference population of 28 adequate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses. Results: Ultrasound examinations were performed in 20 fetuses with IUGR. The biometry and brain volume were significantly reduced in IUGR fetuses. There was evidence of accelerated cortical development in IUGR fetuses. Conclusion: This study confirms that the smaller brain volume in IUGR fetuses, with normal or accelerated cortical maturation as previously depicted with postnatal MRI examination, can be demonstrated by prenatal 3D ultrasound.

  20. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies: Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii subsp. nov. and Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, W E; Wolfshohl, J F

    1991-04-01

    Two major subspecies of Staphylococcus cohnii, namely S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, from humans, and S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, from humans and other primates, are described on the basis of a study of 14 to 25 strains and 18 to 33 strains, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in our laboratory in 1983 (W. E. Kloos and J. F. Wolfshohl, Curr. Microbiol. 8:115-121, 1983) demonstrated that strains representing the different subspecies were significantly divergent. S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum can be distinguished from S. cohnii subsp. cohnii on the basis of its greater colony size; pigmentation; positive urease, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase activities; delayed alkaline phosphatase activity; ability to produce acid aerobically from alpha-lactose; and fatty acid profile. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii is ATCC 29974, the designated type strain of S. cohnii Schleifer and Kloos 1975b, 55. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum is ATCC 49330.

  1. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  2. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong non......-monotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous vs. non-synonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on non-synonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we...... infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human...

  3. Contamination of meat with Campylobacter jejuni in Saitama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K; Yamamoto, K

    1999-03-15

    To determine the source of food contamination with Campylobacter jejuni, we investigated retail meat, a chicken processing plant and a broiler farm. C. jejuni was found in domestic retailed poultry (45.8%) and imported poultry (3.7%), but not in beef or pork. In the poultry processing plant, there is significant contamination with C. jejuni in chicken carcasses, equipment and workers' hands. This contamination increases during the defeathering and evisceration processes. RAPD analysis shows that contamination with C. jejuni is of intestinal origin. In a broiler farm, C. jejuni was first isolated from a faecal sample of broiler chicken after the 20th day of age. Two weeks later, all birds in this farm became C. jejuni positive. RAPD analysis indicated that C. jejuni spread rapidly from one broiler flock to the other flocks on the farm.

  4. [Clinico-endoscopic characteristics of gastroduodenal Campylobacter infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovina, N A; Levitskaia, S V; Bokser, G V; Spirina, T S; Girshovich, E S

    1989-01-01

    During diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 104 children aged 6 months to 14 years were subjected to spot biopsy of the mucous membrane of the antral part of the stomach and duodenal bulb with a purpose of subsequent studies for Campylobacter pyloris (C. P.) including primary microscopy, the screening-urease test and culture isolation followed by its identification according to all the necessary biochemical tests. C. P. were detected in 50% of the children examined including 9 out of 12 patients suffering from ulcer disease of the duodenum. It was shown that the C. P. incidence noticeably rose with an increase of the period of the gastroenterologic anamnesis. The characteristic clinical and endoscopic signs of the illness were defined, associated with most or less probable C. P. isolation. It has been established that the findings of the screening-urease test cannot form the basis for the final diagnosis of pyloric campylobacteriosis in children.

  5. Estimation of on-farm interventions to control Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Before making risk management decisions to control Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, it is useful to identify effective interventions. A given risk factor may seem to have a large effect, but in practice interventions related to this risk factor may have only limited effect due...... to a relative small proportion of the farms that can actually be intervened for the given risk factors. We present a novel tool for risk assessors to obtain such estimates of the effect of interventions before it is implemented at the farms. A statistical method was developed in order to estimate the flock...... population. In the present study risk factor estimates from a European study was used and the reference population consisted of data from the risk factor study plus extra data from a large questionnaire survey to improve the representativeness of the reference population. The results showed that some...

  6. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... of slaughter, the prevalence is most likely to be either very low (95%). In evaluating control strategies, all models find a negligible effect of logistic slaughter, the separate processing of positive and negative flocks. Also, all risk assessments conclude that the most effective intervention measures aim...... processing, consumer food preparation,and the close-response relationship. The modelling approaches vary between the models, and this has supported the progress of risk assessment as a research discipline. The risk assessments are not only used to assess the human incidence of campylobacteriosis due...

  7. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy......Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered...... to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency...

  8. Campylobacter jejuni transducer like proteins: Chemotaxis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Kassem, Issmat I; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-07-04

    Chemotaxis, a process that mediates directional motility toward or away from chemical stimuli (chemoeffectors/ligands that can be attractants or repellents) in the environment, plays an important role in the adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to disparate niches. The chemotaxis system consists of core signal transduction proteins and methyl-accepting-domain-containing Transducer like proteins (Tlps). Ligands binding to Tlps relay a signal to chemotaxis proteins in the cytoplasm which initiate a signal transduction cascade, culminating into a directional flagellar movement. Tlps facilitate substrate-specific chemotaxis in C. jejuni, which plays an important role in the pathogen's adaptation, pathobiology and colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of Tlps in C. jejuni's host tissue specific colonization, physiology and virulence remains not completely understood. Based on recent studies, it can be predicted that Tlps might be important targets for developing strategies to control C. jejuni via vaccines and antimicrobials.

  9. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid.

  10. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid

  11. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... particular species. Species' History We listed four of the six subspecies of island fox endemic to the... consistent with long-term viability; and 2. Land managers are able to respond in a timely fashion to...

  12. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rønn; Skive, Bolette; Christoffersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing...

  13. Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wings by chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-04-01

    Eight chemicals, including glycerol monolaurate, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, lactic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium chlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium hydroxide, were tested individually or in combination for their ability to inactivate Campylobacter jejuni at 4 degrees C in suspension. Results showed that treatment for up to 20 min with 0.01% glycerol monolaurate, 0.1% sodium benzoate, 50 or 100 mM sodium chlorate, or 1% lactic acid did not substantially (5 log CFU/ml within 2 min. A combination of 0.5% acetic acid plus 0.05% potassium sorbate or 0.5% acetic acid plus 0.05% sodium benzoate reduced C. jejuni populations by >5 log CFU/ml within 1 min; however, substituting 0.5% lactic acid for 0.5% acetic acid was not effective, with a reduction of C. jejuni of 5 log CFU/ml within 1 min. All chemicals or chemical combinations for which there was a >5-log/ml reduction of C. jejuni in suspension were further evaluated for C. jejuni inactivation on chicken wings. Treatments at 4 degrees C of 2% acetic acid, 100 mM sodium carbonate, or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide for up to 45 s reduced C. jejuni populations by ca. 1.4, 1.6, or 3.5 log CFU/g, respectively. Treatment with ACS-LA at 4 degrees C for 15 s reduced C. jejuni by >5 log CFU/g to an undetectable level. The ACS-LA treatment was highly effective in chilled water at killing C. jejuni on chicken and, if recycled, may be a useful treatment in chill water tanks for poultry processors to reduce campylobacters on poultry skin after slaughter.

  14. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone

    OpenAIRE

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 y...

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  16. Evidence for Bergmann's Rule and Not Allopatric Subspeciation in the Threatened Kaka (Nestor meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nic; Sainsbury, James; Moorhouse, Ron; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Species of conservation concern characterized by small and declining populations greatly benefit from proactive management approaches such as population translocations. Because they often show intra-specific genetic and phenotypic variation, which can result from drift or differential selective pressures between habitats, understanding the distribution of such variation and its underlying processes is a prerequisite to develop effective management guidelines. Indeed, translocations among genetically differentiated populations potentially locally adapted are discouraged in order to avoid outbreeding depression, while translocations among populations characterized by high gene flow with no evidence for local adaptation are encouraged. Here, we first test whether 2 recognized subspecies, the North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) and South Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis meridionalis) of New Zealand fit a scenario of allopatric subspeciation following the separation of the North and South Islands at the end of the Pleistocene using 1 mtDNA (n = 96) and 9 microsatellite markers (n = 126). We then test whether morphological differences among the 2 subspecies support a pattern of local adaptation, comparing phenotypic divergence (P ST) and the level of divergence by drift alone (F ST) among populations. We find little population structure between islands, ruling out allopatric subspeciation in kaka. Further, P ST exceeds F ST, supporting an adaptive latitudinal size cline consistent with Bergmann's rule. These results therefore suggest that using neutral genetic diversity alone can be misleading when identifying management units and that the nature of phenotypic variation should be considered in translocations efforts. We finally discuss North and South Island management units but suggest that cross-island translocation be allowed. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  18. A new subspecies of Celastrus (Celastraceae from the Palni hills of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Britto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ssp. angladeanus S.J. Britto, B. Mani and S. Thomas new subspecies from the Palni hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India is described and illustrated. The new ssp. is similar to Celastrus paniculatus ssp. aggregatus but differs in flame-coloured branchlets, terminal, erect and stiff panicles exceeding leaves, prominent gibbous and oblique capsules, flowers polygamous but predominantly pistillate and 3-seeded capsules.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in human beings which are transmitted mostly via food originating from animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail raw meats in Iran. From June 2008 to June 2009, a total of 722 raw meat samples from camel (n = 107), beef (n = 190), lamb (n = 225), and goat (n = 180) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Isfahan and Yazd, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. In this study, 50 of the 722 meat samples (6.9%) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in lamb meat (12.0%), followed by goat meat (9.4%), beef meat (2.4%), and camel meat (0.9%). The most prevalent Campylobacter spp. isolated from the meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (84.0%); the remaining isolates were Campylobacter coli (16.0%). Susceptibilities of 50 Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk-diffusion assay. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (68.0%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (46.0%) and nalidixic acid (40.0%). All of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p meat samples taken in spring (20.0%) and summer (18.9%). To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from raw camel, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

  20. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  1. Chimpanzee subspecies and ‘robust’ australopithecine holotypes, in the context of comments by Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparative anatomy (including chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates, Darwin1 suggested that Africa was the continent from which ‘progenitors’ of humankind evolved. Hominin fossils from this continent proved him correct. We present the results of morphometric analyses based on cranial data obtained from chimpanzee taxa currently recognised as distinct subspecies, namely Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, as well as Pan paniscus (bonobo. Our objective was to use a morphometric technique2 to quantify the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, in the context of a statistical (probabilistic definition of a species.3–5 Results obtained from great apes, including two subspecies of chimpanzee, were assessed in relation to same-scale comparisons between the holotypes of ‘robust’ australopithecine (Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa which have traditionally been distinguished at a species level, notably Paranthropus robustus from South Africa, and Paranthropus (Australopithecus/ Zinjanthropus boisei from East Africa. The question arises as to whether the holotypes of these two taxa, TM 1517 from Kromdraai6 and OH 5 from Olduvai,7 respectively, are different at the subspecies rather than at the species level.

  2. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.: genetic evidence for revision of subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick I Archer

    Full Text Available There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus: B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ~16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic--including the Mediterranean Sea--and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12 form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42. The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species.

  3. Infection with Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae and Vibrio harveyi in snapper, Pagrus auratus with bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, F J; Raidal, S R; Buller, N; Jones, B

    2006-05-01

    To diagnose the cause of chronic, low mortality associated with bloat in tanks of snapper at an aquaculture facility. A clinical, pathological and microbiological investigation into the cause of a low number of ongoing mortalities associated with bloat in snapper at an aquaculture facility is outlined. Necropsy, histology, microbiology and a comparison of haematology and water analysis from affected and unaffected fish and holding tanks, respectively were conducted. Affected moribund fish were found in lateral or dorsal recumbency floating on the water surface within 24 hours of death. Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae was isolated from intestinal contents and Vibrio harveyi from the blood of affected fish and both were isolated from culture water. Both V harveyi and P damselae subspecies damselae isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Environmental parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen were similar in tanks of affected and unaffected fish. Affected fish had gas distended swimbladders, anaemia, and the intestines were diffusely distended with a clear, pale yellowish fluid. Livers were mottled tan and green in a zonal pattern. Histologically the intestines of fish from tanks suffering mortality had a moderate granulocytic enteritis with oedema and infiltrations with eosinophilic granule cells that were also present as an infiltrate in the gills. There were elevated numbers of melanomacrophage centres and haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, kidney and liver of affected fish. Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae infection should be recognised as potential pathogens of snapper held in water of less than optimal quality.

  4. Spatiotemporal variation in the reproductive ecology of two parapatric subspecies of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Villagra, Cristian A; Raguso, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    • Flowering plants that rely on pollinators for most of their reproduction may experience unpredictable and inconsistent availability of effective pollinators throughout their reproductive lifetime. We investigated the reproductive ecology of two subspecies of the tufted evening primrose, Oenothera cespitosa, which occupy geographically and edaphically distinct habitats in western North America: O. cespitosa subsp. navajoensis inhabits sandstone soils on open sites or rocky slopes in the Colorado Plateau and O. cespitosa subsp. cespitosa grows in clay soils on talus slopes and exposed rocky ridges in the western Great Plains and northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. • Pollen augmentation and selfing experiments, floral visitor observations, and single-visit effectiveness experiments were conducted over 4 years to examine the breeding system and spatiotemporal variation in pollinator behavior, assemblage, and abundance at different populations for each subspecies. • Both subspecies of O. cespitosa were self-incompatible and pollen-limited, suggesting that the relative abundance, effectiveness, and movement patterns of different insects as pollinators influenced the quality and quantity of seed production in these plants. Medium-sized vespertine hawkmoths (Hyles lineata, Sphinx vashti) were effective pollinators when present, as were large matinal bees (Anthophora affabilis, A. dammersi, Xylocopa tabaniformis androleuca), whereas small oligolectic Lasioglossum bees primarily functioned as pollen thieves in the evening and morning. • These findings highlight the importance of variability of pollinator composition and abundance in the evolution of plant breeding systems and reproductive success at varying spatial and temporal scales.

  5. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  6. Building a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: what about the subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.

  7. Building a DNA Barcode Reference Library for the True Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: What about the Subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity. PMID:24282514

  8. Building a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies (Lepidoptera of Peninsula Malaysia: what about the subspecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-James Wilson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92% and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%. In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.

  9. Effects of meat juice on biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Feng, Jinsong; Ma, Lina; de la Fuente Núñez, César; Gölz, Greta; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-07-17

    Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, vastly harboured by raw meat as their common food reservoir. Both microbes are prevalent in meat processing environments in the form of biofilms that contribute to cross-contamination and foodborne infection. This study applied raw meat juice (chicken juice and pork juice) as a minimally processed food model to study its effects on bacterial biofilm formation. Meat juice was collected during the freeze-thaw process of raw meat and sterilized by filtration. In 96-well polystyrene plates and glass chambers, supplementation of over 25% meat juice (v/v) in laboratory media led to an increase in biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. During the initial attachment stage of biofilm development, more bacterial cells were present on surfaces treated with meat juice residues compared to control surfaces. Meat juice particulates on abiotic surfaces facilitated biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella under both static and flow conditions, with the latter being assessed using a microfluidic platform. Further, the deficiency in biofilm formation of selected Campylobacter and Salmonella mutant strains was restored in the presence of meat juice particulates. These results suggested that meat juice residues on the abiotic surfaces might act as a surface conditioner to support initial attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. This study sheds light on a possible survival mechanism of Campylobacter and Salmonella in meat processing environments, and indicates that thorough cleaning of meat residues during meat production and handling is critical to reduce the bacterial load of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE RAPID DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. IN MEAT OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Bataeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern approach to quality assurance of food products based on the ISO 9000 standards indicates the need for the implementation of quality management systems in processing plants. According to the analysis of scientific publication databases (Science Direct and Web of Science, it is established that only 0.5–1.7% of publications are related to studying meat of slaughter animals (except for birds concerning the presence of Campylobacter. The priority method of investigation is PCR. Ready-to-use PCR test system was developed for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on the basis of selected gene-specific primers to bacteria of Campylobacter genus. Specificity of the test system is established for Gram-negative bacteria of Salmonella, Escherichia, and Proteus genera, and for oxidase-positive Aeromonas. Gene-specific primers for Campylobacter were selected and ready-to-use PCR test system was developed on their basis. It was found that the selected primers have 100% convergence to the genome of Campylobacter genus bacteria, the PCR efficiency is not less than 95%, and the detection limit is not more than 1× 104 CFU/g. When estimating the specificity of the primers, it was taken into account that the bacteria of Campylobacter genus may be incorporated in a consortium with intestine microbiome, mainly with Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. However, Bolton’s enrichment medium is selective and, during the cultivation process, suppresses the growth of Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria. It was found that the selected primers were 100% specific and did not give false positive reactions with this group of microorganisms. The developed test system was successfully validated in a cycle of qualitative tests in the FEPAS system and implemented into laboratory practice. It was proved that the developed test system may be used both in screening at the stages of Campylobacter enrichment and in identification of pure culture of the

  11. Campylobacter spp. contamination of chicken carcasses during processing in relation to flock colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V M; Bull, S A; Corry, J E L; Domingue, G; Jørgensen, F; Frost, J A; Whyte, R; Gonzalez, A; Elviss, N; Humphrey, T J

    2007-01-01

    The presence and numbers of campylobacters on chicken carcasses from 26 slaughter groups, originating from 22 single-house flocks and processed in four UK plants, were studied in relation to the level of flock colonisation determined by examining the caecal contents of at least ten birds per group. The prevalence of campylobacters on carcasses from five campylobacter-negative flocks processed just after other negative flocks was low (8.0 log(10) cfu) than carcasses originating from low prevalence flocks (average of 2.3 log(10) cfu; range: defeathering and evisceration areas but not in the chillers. This was the case even when campylobacters were not isolated from the target flock. Campylobacters on carcasses from two partly colonised flocks were either the same subtype, as determined by speciation, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and flaA Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing, as those in the fully colonised flocks processed previously, although not necessarily the most prevalent ones; or were the same subtypes as those found in the caeca of the flock itself. The prevalences of the different campylobacter subtypes found on carcasses from two fully colonised flocks did not closely reflect those found in the caeca. MLST combined with flaA RFLP provided a good method for ascertaining the relatedness of strains isolated from carcasses and caecal contents. This study showed that carcass contamination is related to the within-flock prevalence of campylobacter colonisation, but that contamination from previously processed flocks was also significant, especially on carcasses from low prevalence flocks. Forced dry air cooling of carcasses reduced contamination levels.

  12. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  13. Diversity of Campylobacter in retail meat and liver of lambs and goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazou, Thomai; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Houf, Kurt; Soultos, Nikolaos; Iossifidou, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    The presence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Campylobacter spp. in retail lamb and goat kid carcasses were assessed. A total of 200 samples consisting of 100 meat and 100 liver surface swabs were collected from 47 lamb and 53 goat kid carcasses at 23 retail markets in Northern Greece, and 125 Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 32 meat surfaces (32%) and 44 liver surfaces (44%). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis specified Campylobacter coli as the most frequently detected species (59.2%) followed by C. jejuni (40.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied in order to typify a subset of randomly selected isolates (n=80). SmaI-PFGE successfully clustered the 80 isolates in 38 SmaI-PFGE types, indicating high heterogeneity among the analyzed Campylobacter isolates, and provided data regarding the dissemination of Camplobacter among carcasses stored in the same retail market. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter isolates, assessed by the disk-diffusion method, indicated that 31 isolates (24.8%) were multidrug resistant, and the most common profile was the concurrent resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Overall, 56.8% of isolates (n=71, multidrug-resistant isolates included) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial (tetracycline 34.4%, quinolones 27.2%, and streptomycin 20.8%). However, all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and gentamicin. The findings of this study verify the contamination of retail lamb and goat kid carcasses with a heterogeneous population of thermotolerant campylobacters. These data underscore the fact that retail meat and liver of small ruminants could serve as vehicles for consumer contamination with Campylobacter and that further investigation is necessary in order to evaluate the risk imposed by such products within the epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis cases.

  14. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Malin E; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine; Hofshagen, Merete

    2012-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. A recent report states that between 50% and 80% of the human campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to broiler as a reservoir. The current study was conducted to investigate associations between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002-2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply, presence of other livestock farms within a distance of 2 km, presence of other broiler farms within a distance of 4 km with flocks positive for Campylobacter spp. within 30 days prior to slaughter, heavy rainfall 11-30 days prior to slaughter, region and year. Daily mean temperature below 0°C reduced the probability. The study emphasises the importance of the farm environment and the climate for the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks. The farm environment is probably a part of the Campylobacter spp. pathway into and between broiler flocks where farmyard run-off and humans or flies entering the houses might constitute vehicles transporting the organism. Fly activity is temperature-driven and flies might be a part of the explanation of the increased risk for Campylobacter spp. related to increased temperature demonstrated in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of Campylobacter and Salmonella in cattle before, during, and after the slaughter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abley, Melanie J; Wittum, Thomas E; Zerby, Henry N; Funk, Julie A

    2012-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause a significant number of human illnesses globally, most of which are food related. Cattle can be asymptomatic carriers of both of these pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the association between the concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter pre- and postharvest in cattle. Samples were collected from each of 98 individually identified cattle during the periharvest and postharvest period. For each animal, four different phases were sampled: on farm (fecal sample), poststunning and exsanguination (hide sponge and rectal content sample [lairage]), prechilling (carcass sponge), and final product (ground meat). Salmonella and Campylobacter were cultured and quantified at each stage by using the direct dilution and most probable number (MPN) method. Salmonella was not isolated from any sample. The proportion (%) of samples that were Campylobacter positive was 77, 82, 97, 55, and 12 for farm, rectal content, hide, carcass, and meat samples respectively. The mean Campylobacter concentration for each sample was as follows: fecal sample from farm, 3.7×10(4) cfu/g; rectal content sample from lairage, 1.6×10(5) cfu/g; hide sponge, 0.9 cfu/cm(2); carcass sponge, 8.7 cfu/half carcass; and meat, 1.1 cfu/g. There were no associations between Campylobacter concentrations for any two sample types. This lack of association could indicate that there is an environmental reservoir that can contaminate the final meat product, or since the majority of animals were positive entering the slaughter process, that the process itself reduces the load of Campylobacter regardless of the initial concentration. In addition, contamination of beef may be more strongly associated with periharvest practices than animal carriage rates.

  16. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  17. Optimisation of the PCR Method for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Samples of Ready-to-Eat Chicken Meals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Zdeňka; Demnerová, K.; Pazlarová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2008), s. 291-297 ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : polymerase chain reaction * internal control * Campylobacter spp. Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  18. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. While sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the US are generally attributed to poultry, outbreaks (defined as 2 or more affected people) are commonly associated with dairy products, particularly nonpasteurize...

  19. Incidence, species and antimicrobial resistance of naturally occurring Campylobacter isolates from quail carcasses sampled in a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the published information about the presence of Campylobacter on processed poultry is from studies with chickens and turkeys; therefore there is a paucity of published material about the presence of Campylobacter on commercially processed quail (Coturnix coturnix). The objective of this stud...

  20. Re-evaluation of broiler carcass scalding protocols for impact on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin after defeathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research re-evaluated the impact of scalding protocols on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin following defeathering after preliminary processing trials detected Campylobacter from breast skin for 4/8 carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured prior to scalding. Published research...

  1. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasekara M. K. J. K. Premarathne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen frequently associated with human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. A total of 340 samples consisting of cattle feces (n = 100, beef (n = 120 from wet markets and beef (n = 120 from hypermarkets were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was 17.4%, consisting of 33% in cattle fecal samples, 14.2% in raw beef from wet market and 7.5% in raw beef from the hypermarket. The multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR identified 55% of the strains as C. jejuni, 26% as C. coli, and 19% as other Campylobacter spp. A high percentage of Campylobacter spp. were resistant to tetracycline (76.9% and ampicillin (69.2%, whilst low resistance was exhibited to chloramphenicol (7.6%. The MAR Index of Campylobacter isolates from this study ranged from 0.09 to 0.73. The present study indicates the potential public health risk associated with the beef food system, hence stringent surveillance, regulatory measures, and appropriate interventions are required to minimize Campylobacter contamination and prudent antibiotic usage that can ensure consumer safety.

  2. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara M K J K; Anuar, Aimi S; Thung, Tze Young; Satharasinghe, Dilan A; Jambari, Nuzul Noorahya; Abdul-Mutalib, Noor-Azira; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang F; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen frequently associated with human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. A total of 340 samples consisting of cattle feces ( n = 100), beef ( n = 120) from wet markets and beef ( n = 120) from hypermarkets were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was 17.4%, consisting of 33% in cattle fecal samples, 14.2% in raw beef from wet market and 7.5% in raw beef from the hypermarket. The multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified 55% of the strains as C. jejuni , 26% as C. coli , and 19% as other Campylobacter spp. A high percentage of Campylobacter spp. were resistant to tetracycline (76.9%) and ampicillin (69.2%), whilst low resistance was exhibited to chloramphenicol (7.6%). The MAR Index of Campylobacter isolates from this study ranged from 0.09 to 0.73. The present study indicates the potential public health risk associated with the beef food system, hence stringent surveillance, regulatory measures, and appropriate interventions are required to minimize Campylobacter contamination and prudent antibiotic usage that can ensure consumer safety.

  3. Distribution of serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni and C-coli from Danish patients, poultry, cattle and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Engberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    The number of human cases of enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli is increasing in Denmark and other European countries. No systematic typing has earlier been performed on Campylobacter isolates of Danish origin. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a serotype distribu...

  4. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...

  5. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler f...

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, C.lari and C.coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldenstrom, J.; Broman, T.; Carlsson, I.; Hasselquist, D.; Achterberg, R.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Olsen, B.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based

  7. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new

  8. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  9. Genome Reduction for Niche Association in Campylobacter Hepaticus, A Cause of Spotty Liver Disease in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Petrovska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term “spotty liver disease” (SLD has been used since the late 1990s for a condition seen in the UK and Australia that primarily affects free range laying hens around peak lay, causing acute mortality and a fall in egg production. A novel thermophilic SLD-associated Campylobacter was reported in the United Kingdom (UK in 2015. Subsequently, similar isolates occurring in Australia were formally described as a new species, Campylobacter hepaticus. We describe the comparative genomics of 10 C. hepaticus isolates recovered from 5 geographically distinct poultry holdings in the UK between 2010 and 2012. Hierarchical gene-by-gene analyses of the study isolates and representatives of 24 known Campylobacter species indicated that C. hepaticus is most closely related to the major pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. We observed low levels of within-farm variation, even between isolates collected over almost 3 years. With respect to C. hepaticus genome features, we noted that the study isolates had a ~140 Kb reduction in genome size, ~144 fewer genes, and a lower GC content compared to C. jejuni. The most notable reduction was in the subsystem containing genes for iron acquisition and metabolism, supported by reduced growth of C. hepaticus in an iron depletion assay. Genome reduction is common among many pathogens and in C. hepaticus has likely been driven at least in part by specialization following the occupation of a new niche, the chicken liver.

  10. Occurrence of Campylobacter on carcasses of slaughtered animals between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Kinga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2668 swabs from poultry (n = 2166, pig (n = 311, and cattle (n = 191 carcasses were collected in slaughterhouses all over Poland and tested for the presence of Campylobacter. It was found that 1319 (49.4% of them were contaminated with these bacteria. The percentages of the positive samples were different in each year of the study and the highest proportion of Campylobacter contaminated samples occurred in 2009, when 64.1% of investigated carcasses were positive. On the other hand, the lowest prevalence of Campylobacter was observed in 2013, in the last year of the survey. In all kind of carcass samples both C. jejuni and C. coli were identified, although the pork meat was more contaminated with C. coli (75.3% of positive samples than with C. jejuni (24.7%, whereas poultry was nearly equally positive for C. jejuni and C. coli (50.6% and 49.4% respectively. The analysis of seasonal contamination of the carcasses revealed that more positive results were found during the second half of year than between January and June. The prevalence of Campylobacter showed that in all provinces, except one (Pomorskie, the mean percentage of the positive samples was above 40%. The most contaminated samples were identified in Lubelskie (69.3% and Zachodniopomorskie (66.3% regions. The obtained results showed that slaughtered animals in Poland, especially broilers, were often contaminated with Campylobacter, either C. jejuni or C. coli.

  11. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. PMID:25927478

  12. Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits: a risk factor for Campylobacter infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L; Jansen, H A P M; in 't Veld, P H; Beumer, R R; Zwietering, M H; van Leusden, F M

    2011-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits at retail level in the Netherlands, and to estimate its implications on the importance of vegetables and fruits as risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Thirteen of the 5640 vegetable and fruit samples were Campylobacter positive, resulting in a prevalence of 0.23% (95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.12-0.39%). The prevalence of packaged products (0.36%, 95% Cl: 0.17-0.66) was significantly higher than of unpackaged products (0.07; 95% Cl: 0.01-0.27). No statistical differences were found between seasons. Combining the mean prevalence found in this study with data on the consumption of vegetables and fruits, an exposure of 0.0048 campylobacters ingested per person per day in the Netherlands by transmission via vegetables and fruits, was calculated. This exposure, as input in a Beta-Poisson dose-response model, resulted in an estimated number of 5.3×10⁵ cases of infection with Campylobacter per year for the whole Dutch population. This constitutes the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits, especially when packaged, to be a risk factor for Campylobacter infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  14. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-04-28

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log₁₀ CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers.

  15. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Hutchison

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers.

  16. Presence and survival of culturable Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in a temperate urban estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schang, Christelle; Lintern, Anna; Cook, Perran L M; Osborne, Catherine; McKinley, Anand; Schmidt, Jonathon; Coleman, Rhys; Rooney, Graham; Henry, Rebekah; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2016-11-01

    Urban estuaries throughout the world typically contain elevated levels of faecal contamination, the extent of which is generally assessed using faecal indicator organisms (FIO) such as Escherichia coli. This study assesses whether the bacterial FIO, E. coli is a suitable surrogate for Campylobacter spp., in estuaries. The presence and survival dynamics of culturable E. coli and Campylobacter spp. are compared in the water column, bank sediments and bed sediments of the Yarra River estuary (located in Melbourne, Australia). The presence of E. coli did not necessarily indicate detectable levels of Campylobacter spp. in the water column, bed and bank sediments, but the inactivation rates of the two bacteria were similar in the water column. A key finding of the study is that E. coli and Campylobacter spp. can survive for up to 14days in the water column and up to 21days in the bed and bank sediments of the estuary. Preliminary data presented in this study also suggests that the inactivation rates of the two bacteria may be similar in bed and bank sediments. This undermines previous hypotheses that Campylobacter spp. cannot survive outside of its host and indicates that public health risks can persist in aquatic systems for up to three weeks after the initial contamination event. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Salmonella and Campylobacter biofilm formation: a comparative assessment from farm to fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alexandre; Regal, Patricia; Vázquez, Beatriz; Miranda, José M; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2018-02-09

    It takes several steps to bring food from the farm to the fork (dining table), and contamination with food-borne pathogens can occur at any point in the process. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are the main microorganisms responsible for foodborne disease in the EU. These two pathogens are able to persist throughout the food supply chain thanks to their ability to form biofilms. Owing to the high prevalence of Salmonella and especially of Campylobacter in the food supply chain and the huge efforts of food authorities to reduce these levels, it is of great importance to fully understand their mechanisms of persistence. Diverse studies have evaluated the biofilm-forming capacity of foodborne pathogens isolated at different steps of food production. Nonetheless, the principal obstacle of these studies is to reproduce the real conditions that microorganisms encounter in the food supply chain. While there are a wide number of Salmonella biofilm studies, information on Campylobacter biofilms is still limited. A comparison between the two microorganisms could help to develop new research in the field of Campylobacter biofilms. Therefore, this review evaluates relevant work in the field of Salmonella and Campylobacter biofilms and the applicability of the data obtained from these studies to real working conditions. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  19. Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Hudson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases (n = 1248 revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution.

  20. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  1. Teratogenic effect of yogurt in mice fetus (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dwisari Dillasamola; Almahdy A; Amirah Desri; Skunda Diliarosta

    2018-01-01

    Yogurt is one of the dairy products made from lactic acid fermentation by using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A study on teratogenic effects of yogurt on the white female mice fetus (Mus musculus) has been carried out. Pregnant mice used were 20 which divided into 4 groups : the control group, D1, D2, and D3. The treatments giveThe mice were Distidelled water (control), 0.52 yogurt (D1), 1.04  yogurt (D2), and 2.08 g yogurt (D3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANO...

  2. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    and screening for fetal malformations is carried out. Our cohort includes all fetuses in Western Denmark (2.9 million inhabitants) screened in between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, diagnosed with any structural, non-syndromic congenital heart disease either during pregnancy or up to 6 months after......Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with neuro-developmental disorders. The influence of CHD on the brain may be present in the fetus. We hypothesize that fetal cerebral growth is impaired as early as 2nd trimester. Aim: To investigate if fetal cerebral growth is associated...... birth. Results 276 fetuses with CHD were identified. 114 (41%) were genetically screened primarily by chromosomal microarray analysis (n=82). Fetuses with identified chromosomal abnormalities were excluded as were multiple gestation fetuses and fetuses with major extra cardiac malformations. Data from...

  3. Evaluation of different selective media and culturing techniques for the quantification of Campylobacter ssp. from broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, A S; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2010-08-01

    Poultry is a major reservoir for Campylobacter, the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, but how broilers become initially colonized is still under debate. Broiler litter is a potential source, but the best technique for quantifying Campylobacter from litter is still unknown. Therefore, our objectives were to determine if certain media are more selective for quantifying Campylobacter and if enrichment allows for the detection of stressed or viable but nonculturable cells from broiler litter samples. In this trial, 5 media and 2 culturing techniques were used to enumerate Campylobacter from broiler litter. The media used were campy-Line agar (CLA), campy-cefex agar (CCA), modified CCA, Campylobacter agar plates (CAP), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. Litter samples were obtained from a commercial broiler house. Each sample was equally divided and diluted 10-fold into peptone, for direct plating, or 4-fold into Campylobacter enrichment broth. Samples diluted in peptone were direct-plated onto each media and incubated under microaerophilic conditions for 48 h at 42 degrees C. Samples diluted in enrichment broth were incubated under the same conditions for 24 h, then further diluted to 10-fold before plating. Plates from enriched samples were incubated for an additional 24 h after plating. After incubation, all plates (direct and enriched) were counted and presumptive positive colonies were confirmed using a Campylobacter latex agglutination kit. Results indicated that there was no difference in the ability of any of the selective media tested to grow Campylobacter. Direct-plated samples had a higher Campylobacter isolation rate compared with enriched samples. The CLA and CAP were able to suppress total bacterial growth better than modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate, modified CCA, and CCA. The CLA and CAP were the only media able to detect total bacterial population shifts over time. In conclusion, it is important

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in calves with and without diarrhea in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Alispahic, M; Sofka, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M; Hilbert, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter in feces of calves with and without diarrhea on dairy farms and to survey farm characteristics and management practices to define risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter. Fifty dairy farms were chosen based on the presence of calf diarrhea, and 50 farms in which calves were free from diarrhea served as a standard of comparison. In total, fecal samples were taken from 382 calves. Farm data and management practices were surveyed using a questionnaire on farm. Campylobacter were isolated from fecal samples and colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Campylobacter spp., mainly Campylobacter jejuni (93% of isolated species), were detected on 33% of the farms and in 14.9% of the calves. Detection of Campylobacter did not differ between farms or between calves with and without diarrhea, although we found a tendency for calves suffering from diarrhea to shed Campylobacter more often. Calves may act as a reservoir of Campylobacter and may therefore lead to infections of other animals and humans. To define control strategies to reduce Campylobacter in calves, we identified on-farm risk factors. The presence of poultry on the farm, the time of cow-calf separation following birth, the use of an individual bucket for each calf, the feeding of waste milk, and the duration of individual housing were variables significantly associated with the appearance or absence of Campylobacter. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Threatened and endangered subspecies with vulnerable ecological traits also have high susceptibility to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Benscoter

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple interacting threats to biodiversity and the increasing rate of species extinction make it critical to prioritize management efforts on species and communities that maximize conservation success. We implemented a multi-step approach that coupled vulnerability assessments evaluating threats to Florida taxa such as climate change, sea-level rise, and habitat fragmentation with in-depth literature surveys of taxon-specific ecological traits. The vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and ecological traits of 12 threatened and endangered subspecies were compared to non-listed subspecies of the same parent species. Overall, the threatened and endangered subspecies showed high vulnerability and low adaptive capacity, in particular to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation. They also exhibited larger home ranges and greater dispersal limitation compared to non-endangered subspecies, which may inhibit their ability to track changing climate in fragmented landscapes. There was evidence for lower reproductive capacity in some of the threatened or endangered taxa, but not for most. Taxa located in the Florida Keys or in other low coastal areas were most vulnerable to sea level rise, and also showed low levels of adaptive capacity, indicating they may have a lower probability of conservation success. Our analysis of at-risk subspecies and closely related non-endangered subspecies demonstrates that ecological traits help to explain observed differences in vulnerability and adaptive capacity. This study points to the importance of assessing the relative contributions of multiple threats and evaluating conservation value at the species (or subspecies level when resources are limited and several factors affect conservation success.

  6. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsier, N; Wiart, J; Dahdouh, S; Angelini, E D; Bloch, I; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  7. Four stages of hepatic hematopoiesis in human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, D; Angotzi, F; Lai, F; Gerosa, C; Senes, G; Fanos, V; Faa, G

    2018-03-01

    The liver is a major hematopoietic organ during embryonic and fetal development in humans. Its hematopoietic activity starts during the first weeks of gestation and continues until birth. During this period the liver is colonized by undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that gradually differentiate and once mature, enter the circulatory system through the hepatic sinusoids, this process is called hepatic hematopoiesis. The morphology of hepatic hematopoiesis, has been studied in humans through the years, and led to a characterization of all the cell types that make up these phenomena. Studies on murine models also helped to describe the extent of hepatic hematopoiesis at different gestational ages. Using this knowledge, we attempted to describe how hepatic hematopoiesis morphologically evolves as gestation progresses, in human embryos and fetuses. Thus, we observed a total of 32 tissue specimens obtained from the livers of embryos and fetuses at different gestational ages. Basing our observations on the four stages of liver hematopoiesis identified by Sasaki and Sonoda in mice, we also described four consecutive stages of liver hematopoiesis in humans, which resulted to be highly similar to those described in murine models.

  8. Anatomy and variations of palmaris longus in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albay, S; Kastamoni, Yadigar; Sakalli, Büşra; Tunali, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the absence of the palmaris longus, the proportion of the lengths of tendon and muscle belly, the development of the tendon and the belly during the fetal period, look for any difference between sides and gender. Fifty-eight spontaneously aborted human fetuses (26 female, 32 male, 116 upper extremities) were studied. The presence or absence of the palmaris longus was determined. The lengths of the belly and tendon were measured, and belly/tendon length ratio was calculated. Correlation with gestational age, body side and gender were studied. The muscle was absent in 44 forearms (37.93%; 20 right side, 34.48%; 24 left side, 41.38%); being bilateral in 19 of 58 fetuses (32.76%) and unilateral in six (10.34%). The unilateral absence rate was higher on the left side with a statistically significant difference. The absence of palmaris longus was more common in females, and the difference was statistically significant. The belly/tendon length ratio was 1.04 ± 0.35 on the right side and 1.09 ± 0.3 on the left. It did not show any difference according the fetal age. A sound knowledge on the anatomy and variations of palmaris longus is of great importance during surgical interventions; because it is the first choice for tendon grafts, by the virtue of its structure and function. Thus, this study is of academic interest for anatomists and hand surgeons alike.

  9. Complex Trajectories of Brain Development in the Healthy Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andescavage, Nickie N; du Plessis, Adre; McCarter, Robert; Serag, Ahmed; Evangelou, Iordanis; Vezina, Gilbert; Robertson, Richard; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    This study characterizes global and hemispheric brain growth in healthy human fetuses during the second half of pregnancy using three-dimensional MRI techniques. We studied 166 healthy fetuses that underwent MRI between 18 and 39 completed weeks gestation. We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the brain and calculated volumes for left and right cortical gray matter (CGM), fetal white matter (FWM), deep subcortical structures (DSS), and the cerebellum. We calculated the rate of growth for each tissue class according to gestational age and described patterns of hemispheric growth. Each brain region demonstrated major increases in volume during the second half of gestation, the most pronounced being the cerebellum (34-fold), followed by FWM (22-fold), CGM (21-fold), and DSS (10-fold). The left cerebellar hemisphere, CGM, and DSS had larger volumes early in gestation, but these equalized by term. It has been increasingly recognized that brain asymmetry evolves throughout the human life span. Advanced quantitative MRI provides noninvasive measurements of early structural asymmetry between the left and right fetal brain that may inform functional and behavioral laterality differences seen in children and young adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis: the irresistible rise of the 'visible fetus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwy, Ilana

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was developed in the 1970s, a result of a partly contingent coming together of three medical innovations-amniocentesis, the study of human chromosomes and obstetrical ultrasound-with a social innovation, the decriminalization of abortion. Initially this diagnostic approach was proposed only to women at high risk of fetal malformations. Later, however, the supervision of the fetus was extended to all pregnant women. The latter step was strongly favoured by professionals' aspiration to prevent the birth of children with Down syndrome, an inborn condition perceived as a source of suffering for families and a burden on public purse. Experts who promoted screening for 'Down risk' assumed that the majority of women who carry a Down fetus will decide to terminate the pregnancy, and will provide a private solution to a public health problem. The generalization of screening for Down risk increased in turn the frequency of diagnoses of other, confirmed or potential fetal pathologies, and of dilemmas linked with such diagnoses. Debates on such dilemmas are usually limited to professionals. The transformation of prenatal diagnosis into a routine medical technology was, to a great extent, an invisible revolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  12. Low-cost monitoring of campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Löfström, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain......The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two...... standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100...

  13. Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli contamination of broiler carcasses across the slaughter line in Danish slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    data confirm that less faecal contamination throughout processing, and/or less Campylobacter in the gut at the point of slaughter will lead to less Campylobacter contamination on the meat and thereby improve food safety. Exchange of information between slaughterhouses on best hygiene practices......) and after chilling (AC). Results showed distinct differences between slaughterhouses. For slaughterhouse I the contamination level was high AP and decreased AE while for slaughterhouse II the contamination level was low AP and increased AE. For slaughterhouse III the contamination level varied...... insignificantly across the processes. Results also showed differences in contamination levels of E. coli and Campylobacter between slaughterhouses. Mean counts of the two organisms increased or decreased concurrently from after plucking to after evisceration within slaughterhouses; however, after chilling counts...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2016-01-01

    interventions on broiler farms in six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and United Kingdom. The cost-effectiveness ratio of an intervention was the estimated costs of the intervention divided by the estimated public health benefits due to the intervention, and was expressed......Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter...... in euro per avoided disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Interventions were selected on the basis of a European risk factor study and other risk factor research. A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention, if it would be implemented on all...

  15. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni from an outbreak of enteritis implicating chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, J A; Arnold, G J; Davey, G R; Archer, R S; Woods, W H

    1985-09-01

    An outbreak of campylobacter enteritis involving 7 of 17 people over a period of 5 days followed a dinner at a restaurant. A chicken casserole dish was implicated with a food-specific attack rate of 58%. Campylobacter jejuni Penner serotype 18/21/29, resistant to metronidazole, was isolated from 3 of 4 symptomatic patients and from three raw fresh chicken samples closely associated with the implicated chicken. Numbers of C. jejuni in the chicken ranged from 5.3 X 10(1) to 7.5 X 10(2) colony forming units per square centimeter of surface area. This is the first outbreak of campylobacter enteritis reported in Australia in which C. jejuni has been isolated from both human and food sources and the isolates serologically confirmed as identical.

  16. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.

    2006-01-01

    subtypes that were also found in food as opposed to 31% of travel-associated infections. The results showed differences in the various Campylobacter populations, e.g. the Danish population as reflected in the domestically acquired infections and the Danish-produced food was more uniform than the isolates......The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat......-stable serotyping and automated ribotyping (RiboPrinting). C. jejuni was the dominating species, but C. coli was more prevalent among food and chicken isolates (16%) compared to human isolates (4%). In total, 356 different combined sero-ribotypes (subtypes) were found. A large subtype overlap was seen between human...

  17. The other Campylobacters: Not innocent bystanders in endemic diarrhea and dysentery in children in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Ruthly; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Rouhani, Saba; Siguas Salas, Mery; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Pisanic, Nora; Burga, Rosa; Meza, Rina; Meza Sanchez, Graciela; Gregory, Michael J; Houpt, Eric R; Platts-Mills, James A; Kosek, Margaret N

    2018-02-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni. Recent studies conducted in developing countries and using novel diagnostic techniques have generated evidence of the increasing burden and importance of other Campylobacter species, i.e. non-C. coli/jejuni. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the prevalence of C. coli/jejuni and other Campylobacter in children with clinical dysentery and severe diarrhea as well as without diarrhea to better understand the clinical importance of infections with Campylobacter species other than C. coli/jejuni. Our nested case-control study of 439 stool samples included dysenteric stools, stools collected during severe diarrhea episodes, and asymptomatic stools which were systematically selected to be representative of clinical phenotypes from 9,160 stools collected during a birth cohort study of 201 children followed until two years of age. Other Campylobacter accounted for 76.4% of the 216 Campylobacter detections by qPCR and were more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all clinical groups. Other Campylobacter were also more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all age groups, with older children bearing a higher burden of other Campylobacter. Biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and injury (methylene blue, fecal occult test, myeloperoxidase or MPO) showed a strong association with dysentery, but mixed results with infection. MPO levels were generally higher among children infected with C. coli/jejuni, but Shigella-infected children suffering from dysentery recorded the highest levels (26,224 ng/mL); the lowest levels (10,625 ng/mL) were among asymptomatic children infected with other Campylobacter. Adjusting for age, sex, and Shigella infection, dysentery was significantly associated with C. coli/jejuni but not with other Campylobacter, whereas severe diarrhea was

  18. The other Campylobacters: Not innocent bystanders in endemic diarrhea and dysentery in children in low-income settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthly François

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is one of the main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni. Recent studies conducted in developing countries and using novel diagnostic techniques have generated evidence of the increasing burden and importance of other Campylobacter species, i.e. non-C. coli/jejuni. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the prevalence of C. coli/jejuni and other Campylobacter in children with clinical dysentery and severe diarrhea as well as without diarrhea to better understand the clinical importance of infections with Campylobacter species other than C. coli/jejuni.Our nested case-control study of 439 stool samples included dysenteric stools, stools collected during severe diarrhea episodes, and asymptomatic stools which were systematically selected to be representative of clinical phenotypes from 9,160 stools collected during a birth cohort study of 201 children followed until two years of age. Other Campylobacter accounted for 76.4% of the 216 Campylobacter detections by qPCR and were more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all clinical groups. Other Campylobacter were also more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all age groups, with older children bearing a higher burden of other Campylobacter. Biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and injury (methylene blue, fecal occult test, myeloperoxidase or MPO showed a strong association with dysentery, but mixed results with infection. MPO levels were generally higher among children infected with C. coli/jejuni, but Shigella-infected children suffering from dysentery recorded the highest levels (26,224 ng/mL; the lowest levels (10,625 ng/mL were among asymptomatic children infected with other Campylobacter. Adjusting for age, sex, and Shigella infection, dysentery was significantly associated with C. coli/jejuni but not with other Campylobacter, whereas severe

  19. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Solórzano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNA Glu and tRNA Phe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly

  20. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.