Saltz, Robert F; Welker, Lara R; Paschall, Mallie J; Feeney, Maggie A; Fabiano, Patricia M
This article evaluates Western Washington University's Neighborhoods Engaging with Students project-a comprehensive strategy to decrease disruptive off-campus parties by increasing student integration into and accountability to the neighborhoods in which they live. The intervention includes increasing the number of and publicity regarding "party emphasis patrols" and collaboration with the city to develop a regulatory mechanism to reduce repeat problematic party calls to the same address. The enforcement components are complemented by campus-based, late-night expansion programming, as well as neighborhood engagement strategies including an educational Web site designed to increase students' knowledge of and skills in living safely and legally in the community, service-learning projects in the campus-contiguous neighborhoods, and a neighborhood-based conflict-resolution program. The evaluation comprised data from three public universities in Washington. In addition to the Western Washington University site, a second campus created an opportunity for a "natural experiment" because it adopted a very similar intervention in the same time frame, creating two intervention sites and one comparison site. Annual, Web-based student surveys in 2005 and 2006 included measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and student perception of alcohol control and prevention activities. Although statistical power with three campuses was limited, results using hierarchical linear modeling showed that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was significantly lower at the intervention schools (odds ratio = 0.73; N = 6,150 students). The results suggest that alcohol control measures can be effective in reducing problematic drinking in college settings. These findings strongly support conducting a replication with greater power and a more rigorous design.
Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
As the college population in the United States rapidly diversifies, leaders of successful campus suicide prevention programs are recognizing the importance of targeting specific groups of students. Recent estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that in 2008 more than one-third (36.7 percent) of college students…
Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; McCoy, Thomas P; Rhodes, Scott D; Ip, Edward H; Blocker, Jill N; Martin, Barbara Alvarez; Wagoner, Kimberly G; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Sutfin, Erin L; Mitra, Ananda; Durant, Robert H
High-risk drinking by college students continues to pose a significant threat to public health. Despite increasing evidence of the contribution of community-level and campus-level environmental factors to high-risk drinking, there have been few rigorous tests of interventions that focus on changing these interlinked environments. The Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC) assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention using a community organizing approach to implement environmental strategies in and around college campuses. The goal of SPARC was to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Ten universities in North Carolina were randomized to an Intervention or Comparison condition. Each Intervention school was assigned a campus/community organizer. The organizer worked to form a campus-community coalition, which developed and implemented a strategic plan to use environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking and its consequences. The intervention was implemented over a period of 3 years. Primary outcome measures were assessed using a web-based survey of students. Measures of high-risk drinking included number of days alcohol was consumed, number of days of binge drinking, and greatest number of drinks consumed (all in the past 30 days); and number of days one gets drunk in a typical week. Measures of alcohol-related consequences included indices of moderate consequences due to one's own drinking, severe consequences due to one's own drinking, interpersonal consequences due to others' drinking, and community consequences due to others' drinking (all using a past 30-day time frame). Measure of alcohol-related injuries included (i) experiencing alcohol-related injuries and (ii) alcohol-related injuries caused to others. We found significant decreases in the Intervention group compared with the Comparison group in severe consequences due to students' own drinking and alcohol-related injuries caused
Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; McCoy, Thomas P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Ip, Edward H.; Blocker, Jill N.; Martin, Barbara Alvarez; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mitra, Ananda; DuRant, Robert H.
Background High-risk drinking by college students continues to pose a significant threat to public health. Despite increasing evidence of the contribution of community-level and campus-level environmental factors to high risk drinking, there have been few rigorous tests of interventions that focus on changing these interlinked environments. The Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC) assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention using a community organizing approach to implement environmental strategies in and around college campuses. The goal of SPARC was to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Methods Ten universities in North Carolina were randomized to an Intervention or Comparison condition. Each Intervention school was assigned a campus/community organizer. The organizer worked to form a campus-community coalition, which developed and implemented a strategic plan to use environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking and its consequences. The intervention was implemented over a period of 3 years. Primary outcome measures were assessed using a web-based survey of students. Measures of high-risk drinking included number of days alcohol was consumed, number of days of binge drinking, and greatest number of drinks consumed (all in the past 30 days); and number of days one gets drunk in a typical week. Measures of alcohol-related consequences included indices of moderate consequences due to one’s own drinking, severe consequences due to one’s own drinking, interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking, and community consequences due to others’ drinking (all using a past 30-day timeframe). Measure of alcohol-related injuries included (1) experiencing alcohol-related injuries and (2) alcohol-related injuries caused to others. Results We found significant decreases in the Intervention group compared to the Comparison group in severe consequences due to students’ own drinking and
Virginia Tech is installing a system of warning sirens to alert the campus community to emergency events. The first test of the siren system is scheduled to occur on Wednesday, April 19, at 12:10 p.m.
The concept of reciprocity permeates the literature on campus-community partnership as a matter of principle, aspiration, and--ideally--best practice. More recently, principles and practices of sustainability have pervaded scholarly and popular discourse, emerging from and applying to environmental studies, economic development, and social justice…
Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Off- Campus Community Service Program; Notice... purpose of this program is to provide grants to institutions of higher education (IHEs) participating in...
Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin
The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…
Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.
Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who
He, S-B; Tang, W-G; Tang, W-J; Kao, X-L; Zhang, C-G; Wong, X-T
Physical activity is an effective component of depression management. However, the mechanisms by which exercise affects behavioral disorders remain unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanisms by which voluntary exercise ameliorates depression. Plasma cortisol levels and hippocampal monoamine neurotransmitters were measured. Chronic mild stress (CMS) was used to induce depression in a rat model. The rats were allowed to swim for 10 weeks as part of their exercise treatment. Depressive behavior was analyzed using an open-field test and a sucrose consumption test before and after exercise. Serum cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters in the hippocampus were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The CMS rats showed behavioral improvement after exercise. Compared with the control, serum cortisol levels were significantly increased by CMS. The serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine levels in the hippocampi were significantly increased by exercise. These findings indicate that exercise reverses and prevents the decrease in serotonin and noradrenaline, and restores dopamine in the CMS model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Objectives: Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been
Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D
Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent. Therefore, in clinical practice, preventive interventions directed at patients, healthcare providers and/or the structure of health care are often combined (complex interventions). To assess the effectiveness of complex interventions in the prevention of foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus compared with single interventions, usual care or alternative complex interventions. A complex intervention is defined as an integrated care approach, combining two or more prevention strategies on at least two different levels of care: the patient, the healthcare provider and/or the structure of health care. For the second update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 22 May 2015), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), The Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), The NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 22 May 2015), Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 21 May, 2015), Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 21 May, 2015) and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 22 May, 2015). Prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effectiveness of combinations of preventive strategies, not solely patient education, for the prevention of foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus, with single interventions, usual care or alternative complex interventions. Two review authors were assigned to independently select studies, to extract study data and to assess risk of bias of included studies, using predefined
Steinberg, Annie; Brooks, Jane; Remtulla, Tariq
Youth hate crimes are a societal problem in which young people turn extremist ideas into acts of violence. To develop methods for prevention, early identification, and intervention, mental health professionals must have an awareness and understanding of this issue. To provide a basis for developing such an understanding, the authors review the current research related to youth hate crimes. The authors review the literature primarily from the past 10 years on youth hate crimes. Studies have established that most hate crimes are committed by single or small groups of young males unaffiliated with organized hate groups. Although limited information is available about the causative factors of hatred, a variety of prevention and intervention strategies have been employed. Yet, little has been done to evaluate these various initiatives. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature available to guide mental health professionals in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of offenders, despite increasing concerns and awareness regarding the profound consequences of acts of hatred and extremism. Heightened public awareness and greater understanding of the epidemiology and nature of hate crimes is necessary if perpetrators are to be recognized and effective interventions developed. To achieve this goal, databases of juvenile hate crimes must be developed nationwide, and the success of preventive, educational, and alternative sentencing programs must be assessed. Mental health professionals play a critical role in the detection and treatment of juvenile perpetrators, and it is incumbent upon them to develop interventions for individuals and communities affected by hate crimes.
Miller, Kim S; Lasswell, Sarah M; Riley, Drewallyn B; Poulsen, Melissa N
Parent-based HIV prevention programming may play an important role in reaching youths early to help establish lifelong patterns of safe and healthy sexual behaviors. Families Matter! is a 5-session, evidence-based behavioral intervention designed for primary caregivers of children aged 9 to 12 years to promote positive parenting and effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. The program's 5-step capacity-building model was implemented with local government, community, and faith-based partners in 8 sub-Saharan African countries with good intervention fidelity and high levels of participant retention. Families Matter! may be useful in other resource-constrained settings.
Ming-Shinn Lee; Wu Zi-Pei; Leif Svanström; Koustuv Dalal
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv
This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne
Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.
Crepinsek, Maree A; Crowe, Linda; Michener, Keryl; Smart, Neil A
Despite the health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation and duration rates continue to fall short of international guidelines. Many factors influence a woman's decision to wean; the main reason cited for weaning is associated with lactation complications, such as mastitis. To assess the effects of preventive strategies for mastitis and the subsequent effect on breastfeeding duration. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 August 2012). We included randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing mastitis in postpartum breastfeeding women. We independently identified relevant studies and assessed the trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data and information as appropriate. We included five trials (involving 960 women). In three trials of 471 women, we found no significant differences in the incidence of mastitis between use of antibiotics and no antibiotics (risk ratio (RR) 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 1.61; or in one trial of 99 women comparing two doses (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.02 to 9.18). We found no significant differences for mastitis in three trials of specialist breastfeeding education with usual care (one trial); anti-secretory factor cereal (one trial); and mupirocin, fusidic acid ointment or breastfeeding advice (one trial).Generally we found no differences in any of the trials for breastfeeding initiation or duration; or symptoms of mastitis. There was insufficient evidence to show effectiveness of any of the interventions, including breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies, regarding the occurrence of mastitis or breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. While studies reported the incidence of mastitis, they all used different interventions. Caution needs to be applied when considering the findings of this review as the conclusion is based on studies, often with small sample sizes. An urgent need for further adequately powered research is
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen
Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors
Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E
Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI. Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings. MAIN RESULTS: This
P.A.C. van Lier (Pol)
textabstractKnowledge about the development of children with disruptive behaviors, leading to disruptive disorders and related poor outcomes, guides prevention research in the development and evaluation of preventive interventions. The overview of effective interventions in this chapter showed that
Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.
Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…
Wyszynski, M E
More than 1 million children are severely abused annually. Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), one example of physical abuse, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. There is a national annual incidence in the United States of 750 to 3,750 cases of SBS. Shaken baby syndrome is defined as vigorous manual shaking of an infant who is being held by the extremities or shoulders, leading to whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleeding with no external signs of head trauma. Shaken baby syndrome should be suspected in infants with a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. The classic findings of SBS are retinal hemorrhages, usually bilateral, and intracranial injury. One third of the victims of SBS survive with few or no sequelae, one third suffer permanent injury, and one third die. Parental behaviors, environmental factors, and child characteristics all may contribute to a shaking event. The nurse practitioner, in a wide variety of clinical settings, is in a strategic position for the early identification and intervention for families at risk for SBS. Prevention through parent, caregiver, and community-wide education programs is the only option for infants who are at risk for SBS.
To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.
Ginsburg, Golda S.
The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a…
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
Full Text Available Taking education outside of the classroom is an exciting, yet daunting, proposition. Community-based education can provide students exposure to the richness and complication of the world outside of academe—the people, politics and interconnections that both challenge and complement our traditional modes of teaching. These educational experiences also play many other important roles within the institution, reinforcing the mission, providing relevance within the communities the institution serves, and fulfilling the citizenship roles many colleges and universities value. This paper uses experiences and insights gained planning and staffing an annual community arts festival to develop a model of campus-community partnership that is based on a broad conception of reciprocity. Incorporating the perspectives of a faculty member, a student, a college administrator and a community partner, the paper describes the process by which the project, and an associated course, have been (and continue to be developed. We argue that applying the broader concepts of reciprocity enhance the success, sustainability and satisfaction of working in partnership.
Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H. Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D.
Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics. PMID:26516632
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...... knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth....
Full Text Available Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J.; O’Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
Shorey, Ryan C; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L
Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hopes of sparking new research on dating violence prevention programs, the current review examines possible new avenues for dating violence prevention programming among college students. We discuss clinical interventions that have shown to be effective in reducing a number of problematic behaviors, including motivational interventions, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, and bystander interventions, and how they could be applied to dating violence prevention. We also discuss methodological issues to consider when implementing dating violence prevention programs.
Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Garba, Rayyan M; Gadanya, Muktar A
To assess the role of Intervention Mapping (IM) in designing disease prevention interventions worldwide. Systematic search and review of the relevant literature-peer-reviewed and grey-was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Only five of the twenty two included studies reviewed were RCTs that compared intervention using IM protocol with placebo intervention, and provided the outcomes in terms of percentage increase in the uptake of disease-prevention programmes, and only one of the five studies provided an effect measure in the form of relative risk (RR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.08-2.34, p = 0.02). Of the five RCTs, three were rated as strong evidences, one as a medium evidence and one as a weak evidence, and they all reported statistically significant difference between the two study groups, with disease prevention interventions that have used the intervention mapping approach generally reported significant increases in the uptake of disease-prevention interventions, ranging from 9% to 28.5% (0.0001 ≤ p ≤ 0.02), On the other hand, all the 22 studies have successfully identified the determinants of the uptake of disease prevention interventions that is essential to the success of disease prevention programmes. Intervention Mapping has been successfully used to plan, implement and evaluate interventions that showed significant increase in uptake of disease prevention programmes. This study has provided a good understanding of the role of intervention mapping in designing disease prevention interventions, and a good foundation upon which subsequent reviews can be guided.
The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…
Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important public health problem worldwide. Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment packages produce best outcomes in its management. In this paper we discuss the three NICE – approved relapse prevention medications used in treatment of ...
Arun Kumar Agnihotri
ABSTRACT: Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important public health problem worldwide. Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment packages produce best outcomes in its management. In this paper we discuss the three. NICE – approved relapse prevention medications used ...
Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.
BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lee, Martha B.; Murphy, Debra A.; Futterman, Donna; Duan, Naihua; Birnbaum, Jeffrey M.; Lightfoot, Marguerita
Examined HIV transmission behaviors and health practices among HIV-infected youths over 15 months following participation in a preventive intervention that emphasized coping with HIV and reducing risky behaviors. The intervention resulted in increases in social support coping and reductions in risky sexual and lifestyle behaviors specifically…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Becker, Amariah; Eberhart, Nicole K.
To help inform the evaluation design for CalMHSA's suicide prevention and early intervention initiatives, a review of program evaluation literature was done to assess program effectiveness and identify previously used evaluation methodologies.
Introduction: Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic endemic disease in Africa, which is preventable, treatable and curable. This study aims to assess the effect of health education intervention on the knowledge, attitude, and prevention practices amongst mothers of under‑five children in a rural area of Ogun State, Nigeria.
Gutierrez, Farley L; Clements, Paul T; Averill, Jennifer
Child abuse and neglect continue to be parts of a disturbing reality in both the United States and the world. Despite significant advances in the identification and treatment of child abuse, health care professionals are still attempting to grasp the extent of the physiological and psychological effects of child maltreatment and injury. Child abuse, in all of its forms, is preventable, and more must be done to decrease its incidence. Shaken baby syndrome is one of the most deadly and devastating forms of child abuse and is characterized by a traumatic brain injury caused by the violent shaking of an infant. Recognition of high-risk families, combined with education of parents and other caregivers are key to prevention of shaken baby syndrome.
JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR
Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.
Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.
Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625
Foot ulceration is thought to affect 15% of all people with diabetes at some time during their life. To assess the effectiveness of pressure relieving interventions in the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Searches of 19 databases, hand searching of journals, bibliographies and identification of unpublished work by written communication with recognised experts in the diabetic foot. Randomised controlled trials evaluating pressure relieving interventions either in the prevention or the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. There was no restriction on articles/trials based on language or publication status. Data extraction and assessment of study quality was undertaken by two reviewers independently. Each trial was analysed separately, no pooling of results was possible due to the difference in patients, comparisons and outcomes. Prevention 4 RCTs of pressure relieving interventions were identified. Interventions for the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers indicated that in-shoe orthotics are of benefit. The relative merits of different in-shoe orthotics are unclear; cushioning and pressure redistribution appear of equal benefit. Other pressure relieving interventions such as running shoes have not been adequately evaluated and removable casts (Scotchcast or Hope) or foam inlays do not appear to have been evaluated at all in randomised controlled studies. Treatment 1 RCT of total contact casting indicated that it was effective in the treatment of diabetic ulcers although the evidence was limited. Prevention There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of orthotic interventions over removal of callus. There is some evidence evaluating the relative effectiveness of two types orthotic devices. There is very limited evidence of the effectiveness of therapeutic shoes. Treatment There is very limited evidence of the effectiveness of total contact casts in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Overall there is a need to measure the effectiveness of the range
Moore (Ki), Ida M.; Hockenberry, Marilyn J.; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R.
Background Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Procedures Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post intervention, and one year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over one year. Results Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the intervention group, 40–50 hours of the mathematics intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from baseline to post-intervention (p = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from baseline to one year follow-up (p = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics (F[2, 29] 12.47, pMathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a “virtual” delivery method more readily available to parents and children. PMID:21938763
Moore, Ida M; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R
Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post-intervention, and 1 year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over 1 year. Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the Intervention Group, 40-50 hours of the Mathematics Intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections; or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from Baseline to Post-Intervention (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from Baseline to 1 year Follow-up (P = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care Group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics [F(2,29) = 12.47, P Mathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a "virtual" delivery method more readily available to parents and children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Day, Lesley; Donaldson, Alex; Thompson, Catherine; Thomas, Margaret
To identify Department of Health programs with high potential to integrate evidence-based interventions to prevent falls among older people. Broad consultation within the Department followed by structured decision making. This work was informed by an analysis of Victorian hospital separations data and a Cochrane Systematic Review to identify relevant target groups and interventions. Ranking of the integration potential of interventions for a broad range of Department program areas was achieved through a facilitated workshop. A short list of program areas was then developed and scored, using pre-defined criteria, for their match with the interventions. The ranked order of interventions, from most to least suitable for integration, were: multifactorial risk assessment and intervention; multi-component group exercise; medication review; occupational therapy-based home safety; home-based exercise; and first eye cataract surgery. Four of six program areas had a strong match (a score of ≥75% of the maximum score) with one or more of three interventions. Two program areas (Primary Care Partnerships, and Home and Community Care) had strong matches with three interventions (group- and home-based exercise; occupational therapy-based home safety) and were selected as priority areas. The Hospital Admissions Risk Program had strong and good matches respectively with home-based exercise and medication review, and was also selected. Our systematic methods identified Department programs with strong potential for integration of proven falls prevention interventions. Matching departmental programs and evidence-based interventions for integration may lead to more efficient resource allocation for falls prevention in Victoria. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese
Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were
Inouye, Sharon; Bogardus, Sidney T.; Charpentier, Peter A.; Leo-Summers, Linda; Acampora, Denise; Theodore R Holford; Cooney, Leo M.
BACKGROUND: Since in hospitalized older patients delirium is associated with poor outcomes, we evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent strategy for the prevention of delirium. METHODS: We studied 852 patients 70 years of age or older who had been admitted to the general-medicine service at a teaching hospital. Patients from one intervention unit and two usual-care units were enrolled by means of a prospective matching strategy. The intervention consisted of standardized pro...
du Roscoät, E; Beck, F
This review focuses on interventions to prevent suicide. It excludes psychotherapy evaluations and pharmaceutical clinical trials. The aim of this article is to provide useful input to the reflection on and the development of actions for professionals who may be concerned by suicide prevention. This research is based on 41 published evaluation studies presenting results on at least one of the three following outcomes: completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideations. These studies have been classified into seven categories of preventive action. According to data from the literature selected for our analysis, the three most efficient categories of intervention seem to be the limitation of access to lethal means, the preservation of contact with the patients hospitalized for a suicide attempt after hospitalization, and the implementation of emergency call centers. The four other categories of intervention examined in this study - the training of general practitioners, the reorganization of care, programs in schools, and information campaigns - have not yet shown sufficient proof of their efficacy. Nevertheless, these interventions, under certain conditions, can also contribute significantly to the prevention of suicide. The majority of effective interventions minister to people already suffering from psychological disorders, but health promotion initiatives prior to situations of psychological disorders also deserve to be considered, in particular the implementation of services for the isolated elderly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vincent K. Her
Full Text Available The Hmong American Studies Initiative (HASI at our Midwestern university had the promise and potential to become one of the first comprehensive Hmong American, community-supported academic programs in the U.S. Through four years of work to start and develop this program (2002-2006, we have learned many lessons regardingbridges and barriers to building campus-community partnerships. Here we highlight the benefits of HASI and the underlying politics that, in our view, have determined funding decisions and influenced campus-community relations. Included in this discussion are insights gained from dozens of meetings with Hmong American community leaders andstudents, university faculty and administrators, as well as personal interviews and group planning sessions. Drawing on our experiences during this multi-year project, we will share what we have done, what we have learned and where we are now. In the process,we would like to raise a timely question: Is it possible to build an academic program that seriously, substantively takes into account the values and perspectives of an ethnic community?
Gender Sensitive Blindness Prevention Intervention in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria II: A report of a free cataract surgical service for women. ... Extra capsular cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation was performed in 185 out of the 261 eye surgeries. Of the 4239 women who presented, a total of nine hundred ...
Guralnick, Michael J.
The current status of preventive intervention programs designed to reduce the school readiness gap for young children at environmental risk is examined in the context of developmental science. A review of program effectiveness suggests that future progress in this area should be grounded in a knowledge base that adopts the framework of…
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Treatment (PMTCT) interventions, in reducing mother-to-child transmission of Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection in infants born to HIV infected women in two health centers Lusaka district (MTCT-Plus cohort) between 2002 and ...
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Calear, A.L.; Christensen, H.; Freeman, A.; Fenton, K.; Grant, J.B.; van Spijker, B.; Donker, T.
Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12–25 years.
Garvin, V; Leber, D; Kalter, N
Fifty-three fourth- and fifth grade children were tested on postdivorce adjustment immediately before and six months after participation in an eight-week preventive intervention program. At follow-up, most showed positive change, with those at special risk for adjustment problems showing substantial gains. Results did not vary with sociodemographic or divorce circumstances.
Hahn, Joan Earle; Aronow, Harriet Udin
Background: Persons with an intellectual and developmental disability frequently face barriers in accessing preventive services in community-based health care systems. As they age into middle years, they are at increased risk for functional decline. This paper presents a description of an advanced practice nurse (APN) intervention used in a pilot…
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
Grock, Shira; Ku, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Julie; Moin, Tannaz
The high prevalence of prediabetes and success of the diabetes prevention program (DPP) has led to increasing efforts to provide readily accessible, cost-effective DPP interventions to the general public. Technology-assisted DPP interventions are of particular interest since they may be easier to widely distribute and sustain as compared to traditional in-person DPP. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of currently available technology-assisted DPP interventions. This review focuses on studies that have examined the use of mobile phone text messaging, smartphone/web-based apps, and telehealth programs to help prevent or delay the onset of incident type 2 diabetes. While there is variability in the results of studies focused on technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions, there is evidence to suggest that these programs have been associated with clinically meaningful weight loss and can be cost-effective. Patients who are at risk for diabetes can be offered technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions to lower their risk of incident diabetes. Further research should determine what specific combination of intervention features would be most successful.
This paper illustrates the preventive and minimal intervention dentistry (MI) concepts with examples from cariology, but the philosophy is much wider and should have an impact across all dental specialties and the entire undergraduate curriculum. Collaboration between researchers, educators and clinical dentists is very important for the continuing improvement of dentistry. This paper considers the potential of preventive dentistry and "MI Dentistry" and then outlines a modern core cariology curriculum recently developed for use across Europe. Related initiatives from the ICDAS Foundation's ICCMS™ (International Caries Classification and Management System), the International Association for Dental Research and the Alliance for a Cavity Free Future (ACFF) are also outlined. Preventive and minimal intervention dentistry are important topics, both for the present and increasingly for the future. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dall, Timothy M; Storm, Michael V; Semilla, April P; Wintfeld, Neil; O'Grady, Michael; Narayan, K M Venkat
The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends combined diet and physical activity promotion programs for people at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, as evidence continues to show that intensive lifestyle interventions are effective for overweight individuals with prediabetes. To illustrate the potential clinical and economic benefits of treating prediabetes with lifestyle intervention to prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes and sequelae. This 2014 analysis used a Markov model to simulate disease onset, medical expenditures, economic outcomes, mortality, and quality of life for a nationally representative sample with prediabetes from the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Modeled scenarios used 10-year follow-up results from the lifestyle arm of the Diabetes Prevention Program and Outcomes Study versus simulated natural history of disease. Over 10 years, estimated average cumulative gross economic benefits of treating patients who met diabetes screening criteria recommended by the ADA ($26,800) or USPSTF ($24,700) exceeded average benefits from treating the entire prediabetes population ($17,800). Estimated cumulative, gross medical savings for these three populations averaged $10,400, $11,200, and $6,300, respectively. Published estimates suggest that opportunistic screening for prediabetes is inexpensive, and lifestyle intervention similar to the Diabetes Prevention Program can be achieved for ≤$2,300 over 10 years. Lifestyle intervention among people with prediabetes produces long-term societal benefits that exceed anticipated intervention costs, especially among prediabetes patients that meet the ADA and USPSTF screening guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gow, Rachel W; Trace, Sara E; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N=170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and caloric feedback only (via email), and 4) 6-week combined feedback and online intervention. The combined intervention group had lower BMIs at post-testing than the other three groups. This study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of an online intervention to prevent weight gain among college students.
Lütkenhaus, P; Hasler-Kufner, P; Plaum, E
Following the results of American intervention programs for children of divorce, the effects of a preventive group program for 10 to 12 year old children of divorced families were studied within a pretest-posttest design. The aim of the intervention was to decrease children's fears, increase their feelings of self-esteem and to improve the relationship to their parents. The program consists of 10 group-sessions about divorce related changes and experiences in the children families and 3 evenings for their parents. Subjects were 5 boys and 2 girls. The results show that after the intervention fears are decreased, feelings of self-esteem are increased and the subjective perception of the own family is more positive than before. The results are discussed in terms of the further development of interventions for children of divorce.
Yeoh, B; Woolfenden, S; Wheeler, D; Alperstein, G; Lanphear, B
Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioral impairment in children and many household interventions to prevent lead exposure have been trialled. To determine the effectiveness of household interventions in preventing or reducing lead exposure in children as measured by reductions in blood lead levels and/or improvements in cognitive development. Trials were identified through electronic searches of CENTRAL 2006 (Issue 1), MEDLINE 1966 to March 2006, and thirteen other electronic databases and contacting experts to find unpublished studies. Randomised and quasi randomised trials of household educational or environmental interventions to prevent lead exposure in children where at least one standardised outcome measure was reported. Two reviewers independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed study quality and extracted data. Triallists were contacted to obtain missing information. Twelve studies (2239 children) were included. All studies reported blood lead level outcomes and none reported on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes. Studies were subgrouped according to their intervention type. Meta-analysis of both continuous and dichotomous data was performed for subgroups where appropriate. Educational interventions were not effective in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: WMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.30, 0.56, I2 = 41.6; dichotomous >/= 10 microg/dL (>/= 0.48 micromol/l): RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.79, 1.30, I2 = 0); dichotomous >/= 15 microg/dL (>/=0.72 micromol/l): RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.33, 1.09, I2 = 0). Meta-analysis of the dichotomous data for the dust control subgroup found no evidence of effectiveness. The studies using soil abatement (removal and replacement) and combination intervention groups were not able to be meta-analysed due to substantial differences between studies. Currently there is no evidence of effectiveness for household interventions for education or dust control measures in reducing blood lead levels in
Tranaeus, Ulrika; Johnson, Urban; Engström, Björn; Skillgate, Eva; Werner, Suzanne
The main purpose of the study was to evaluate a psychological skills training intervention at group level aiming to prevent injuries, separated in traumatic and overuse, in male and female elite floorball players. Twenty-three teams in the premiere leagues for males and females were volunteered, and the teams were allocated to an intervention group (n = 11, males n = 94, females n = 99) and a control group (n = 12, males n = 109, females n = 99). The teams in the intervention group participated in a psychological skills training programme consisting of six meetings with each team. The control group received no substitute. All injuries were registered and documented according to the time-loss definition and classified into either traumatic or overuse. In total, 142 players (35 %) out of the 401 players sustained 197 injuries, 0.49 injury/player: in the intervention group 0.45 injury/player and in the control group 0.53 injury/player. The analyses revealed no significant differences in injuries between intervention groups and control groups. The effect size of the influence of the psychological skills training in overuse injuries was considered to be small, Cohen's d 0.2. This study comprised the whole team for a group intervention and did not screen for at-risk athletes, e.g. scoring high in anxiety or low in coping skills, which might have influenced the result. A psychological injury prevention intervention forward to a whole team might not influence the injury occurrence significantly. Thus, this psychological intervention decreased the injury incidence which is of clinical interest. Level II.
De Vos, M; Che, L; Huygelen, V; Willemen, S; Michiels, J; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C
Selection for hyperprolific sows, as a means of increasing litter size and profit, has resulted in an increased number of low-birthweight (LBW) piglets. These LBW piglets might suffer from increased morbidity and mortality during the early neonatal period. In addition, they show reduced growth performance, meat and carcass quality, which leads to an important economic loss for the farmer in the post-natal period. Therefore, nutritional interventions can be undertaken to prevent and rear LBW piglets. In the first part of this review, the preventive strategies at the sow level will be discussed. Approaches in preventing LBW piglets are to optimize the intrauterine environment via supplementing the sow during gestation. In the second part of this review, the interventions at the piglet level will be described. To increase the survival and growth rates of LBW piglets, one must focus on ensuring adequate colostrum and milk intake. Interventions include supplementing piglets, split nursing, split weaning and cross-fostering. Additional interventions increasing the probability of optimal post-natal food intake will be discussed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik
Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pSexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Sagarra, R; Costa, B; Cabré, J J; Solà-Morales, O; Barrio, F
Transferring the results from clinical trials on type 2 diabetes prevention is the objective of the Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project in Catalonia, whose cost-effectiveness analysis is now presented. A prospective cohort study was performed in primary care involving individuals without diagnosed diabetes aged 45-75 years (n=2054) screened using the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Where feasible, high-risk individuals who were identified (n=552) were allocated sequentially to standard care (n=219), a group-based (n=230) or an individual-level (n=103) intensive (structured programme of six hours using specific teaching techniques) lifestyle intervention (n=333). The primary outcome was the development of diabetes (WHO). We evaluated the cost of resources used with comparison of standard care and the intervention groups in terms of effectiveness and quality of life (15D questionnaire). After 4.2-year median follow-up, the cumulative incidences were 18.3% (14.3-22.9%) in the intensive intervention group and 28.8% (22.9-35.3%) in the standard care group (36.5% relative-risk-reduction). The corresponding 4-year HR was 0.64 (0.47-0.87; P<.004). The incremental cost induced by intensive intervention compared with the standard was 106€ per participant in the individual level and 10€ in the group-based intervention representing 746€ and 108€ per averted case of diabetes, respectively. The estimated incremental cost-utility ratio was 3243€ per quality-adjusted life-years gained. The intensive lifestyle intervention delayed the development of diabetes and was efficient in economic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Esther Quirós Abajo
Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which t...
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
Almeida, Dejanira Alexandra de
Background Legionnaires’ Disease (LD) has been recognized as a significant source of morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide. Legionella in the hospital water distribution system has been epidemiologically linked to hospital-acquired LD. Despite the several disinfection methods available the optimal method to control hospital-acquired LD has not been established yet. Objectives To assess the efficacy of interventions for preventing hospital-acquired LD in hospitalized pat...
The aim of this study is to evaluate HIV/AIDS/STD prevention intervention messages on a rural adult (25-49 years) sample in South Africa over a period of 15 months. A representative community sample of 398 adults at time 1 and 382 at time 2 (25-49 years) participated in the study using a three-stage cluster sampling ...
Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien
Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.
Esther Quirós Abajo
Full Text Available Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which the experimental group will receive the Web nursing intervention and the control group will not receive any kind of preventive intervention related to Eating Disorders. The study will be developed in six Secondary Education Institutes of the areas 9 and 10 of Madrid Community. Women at risk will be selected by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. Risk factors such as body image dissatisfaction, eating and depressive symptoms will be evaluated. Measurements will be, besides BSQ, the Body Attitudes Test (BAT, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.
Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B
Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.
Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Janaína V dos; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise P
To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation), distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet) and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary). Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.
Harden, Brenda Jones; Buhler, Andrea; Parra, Laura Jimenez
Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting. Capitalizing on research on young child maltreatment, interventions have been designed to ameliorate infant/toddler maltreatment, buffer young children against the effects of maltreatment, and promote the well-being of maltreated young children. There is a growing empirical base on interventions to address early maltreatment within the context of a public health prevention framework. Primary prevention programs aim to reduce the incidence of maltreatment and related outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families through the implementation of population-based programs, such as home visiting and early care and education programs. Secondary prevention models target families with specific risk factors associated with maltreatment, such as maternal depression. Tertiary programs generally entail involuntary services, designed to prevent maltreatment recurrence and to improve parenting skills through therapeutic approaches targeting the parent-child dyad. Empirical knowledge about maltreated young children and their families and interventions to support them can inform the design and delivery of child welfare services. © The Author(s) 2016.
Huebner, David M; Davis, Mary C; Nemeroff, Carol J; Aiken, Leona S
A growing body of research implicates internalized homophobia--the internalization of society's antihomosexual sentiments by gay and lesbian people--as a factor contributing to HIV-related sexual risk behavior in gay and bisexual men. Although accumulating evidence links internalized homophobia and sexual risk behavior, no study has explored the impact of internalized homophobia on efforts to prevent these behaviors. This paper examines the effect of internalized homophobia on gay and bisexual men's awareness of participation in, and perceptions of programs offered by a community-based HIV prevention organization. In Study 1, 595 gay and bisexual men reported their levels of awareness of and participation in HIV prevention programming offered by one community organization. Internalized homophobia was negatively related to men's awareness of the services offered by the organization. However, among the men who were aware of at least one service, internalized homophobia did not further predict service utilization. Study 2 examined 89 gay and bisexual men who participated for a single session in a group-structured, community-based HIV preventive intervention. Pre- to immediate postintervention change in perceptions of condom use self-efficacy was inversely related to internalized homophobia. Internalized homophobia was also a significant negative predictor of the extent to which participants felt similar to and related well with other members of the group. Together, these findings suggest that internalized homophobia may pose multiple barriers to community-based HIV prevention efforts.
Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R
/or electronic mail. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) with a major focus on eating disorder prevention programs for children and adolescents, where there is no known DSM-IV diagnosis of an eating disorder, are eligible for inclusion in the review. Trials must include a control group and at least one objective outcome measure (eg. BMI) or a standardised psychological measure used with the intervention and control group, pre- and post-intervention. A total of 1379 titles have been identified through the search to date. 13 studies were located that reported use of a randomised controlled trial methodology and were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Five (5) studies were excluded as data were not reported in a useable form or useable data could not be obtained from the trial authors, one dissertation could not be obtained, one study had no "true" no-treatment or usual treatment control group, and one study did not use a pre-test outcome measure. Eight (8) studies met the selection criteria outlined above. Only one of eight pooled comparisons of two or more studies using similar outcome measures and similar intervention types demonstrated the statistically significant effect of a particular type of eating disorder prevention program for children and adolescents. Combined data from two eating disorder prevention programs based on a media literacy and advocacy approach indicate a reduction in the internalisation or acceptance of societal ideals relating to appearance at a 3- to 6-month follow-up (Kusel, unpublished; Neumark-Sztainer2000) [SMD -0.28, -0.51 to -0.05, 95% CI]. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that this approach also demonstrated a significant impact on awareness of societal standards relating to appearance. There is insufficient evidence to support the effect of four programs designed to address eating attitudes and behaviours and other adolescent issues on body weight, eating disorder symptoms, associated eating disorder
DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad
In the U.S., ∼ 21 × 10(6) individuals have type 2 diabetes, and twice as many have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Approximately 40-50% of individuals with IGT will progress to type 2 diabetes over their lifetime. Therefore, treatment of high-risk individuals with IGT to prevent type 2 diabetes has important medical, economic, social, and human implications. Weight loss, although effective in reducing the conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes, is difficult to achieve and maintain. Moreover, 40-50% of IGT subjects progress to type 2 diabetes despite successful weight reduction. In contrast, pharmacological treatment of IGT with oral antidiabetic agents that improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function--the characteristic pathophysiological abnormalities present in IGT and type 2 diabetes--uniformly have been shown to prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. The most consistent results have been observed with the thiazolidinediones (Troglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [TRIPOD], Pioglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [PIPOD], Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication [DREAM], and Actos Now for the Prevention of Diabetes [ACT NOW]), with a 50-70% reduction in IGT conversion to diabetes. Metformin in the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) reduced the development of type 2 diabetes by 31% and has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for treating high-risk individuals with IGT. The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, which augment insulin secretion, preserve β-cell function, and promote weight loss, also would be expected to be efficacious in preventing the progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. Because individuals in the upper tertile of IGT are maximally/near-maximally insulin resistant, have lost 70-80% of their β-cell function, and have an ∼ 10% incidence of diabetic retinopathy, pharmacological intervention, in combination with diet plus exercise, should be instituted.
Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Williams, Corrine M.; Clear, Emily R.; DeGue, Sarah
Introduction The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention’s campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. Methods First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010–2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention had been implemented since 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two Comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014–2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010–2013). Results Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio, 0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pviolence at the community-level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. PMID:26541099
Nussbaumer-Streit, Barbara; Yeoh, Berlinda; Griebler, Ursula; Pfadenhauer, Lisa M; Busert, Laura K; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Lohner, Szimonetta; Gartlehner, Gerald
Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels. In May 2016 we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, nine other databases and two trials registers: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts to find unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of household educational or environmental interventions, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure. Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 14 studies involving 2643 children: 13 RCTs (involving 2565 children) and one quasi-RCT (involving 78 children). Children in all studies were under six years of age. Thirteen studies took place in urban areas of North America, and one was in Australia. Most studies were in areas with low socioeconomic status. Girls and boys were equally represented in all studies. The duration of the intervention ranged from 3 months to 24 months in 12 studies, while 2 studies performed interventions on a single occasion. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 48 months. Three RCTs were at low risk of bias in all assessed domains. We rated two RCTs and
Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.
George Du Toit
Full Text Available The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy.
Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy
Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety. To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included 10 trials with a total of 3417 women randomised. Seven of these trials, recruiting 2629 women, contributed data to the review. However, results for all outcomes were based on single studies. There was limited evidence for the primary outcomes of reduction of episodes of violence (physical, sexual, and/or psychological) and prevention of violence during and up to one year after pregnancy (as defined by the authors of trials). In one study, women who received the intervention reported fewer episodes of partner violence during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.88, 306 women, moderate quality). Groups did not differ for Conflict Tactics Score - the mean partner abuse scores in the first three months postpartum (mean difference (MD) 4.20 higher, 95% CI -10.74 to 19.14, one study, 46 women, very low quality). The Current
Cooper, Anna M; O'Malley, Lucy A; Elison, Sarah N; Armstrong, Rosemary; Burnside, Girvan; Adair, Pauline; Dugdill, Lindsey; Pine, Cynthia
Dental caries is one of the most common global childhood diseases and is, for the most part, entirely preventable. Good oral health is dependent on the establishment of the key behaviours of toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and controlling sugar snacking. Primary schools provide a potential setting in which these behavioural interventions can support children to develop independent and habitual healthy behaviours. To assess the clinical effects of school-based interventions aimed at changing behaviour related to toothbrushing habits and the frequency of consumption of cariogenic food and drink in children (4 to 12 year olds) for caries prevention. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 18 October 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 18 October 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 18 October 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 18 October 2012) and PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 18 October 2012). Ongoing trials were searched for using Current Controlled Trials (to 18 October 2012) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to 18 October 2012). Conference proceedings were searched for using ZETOC (1993 to 18 October 2012) and Web of Science (1990 to 18 October 2012). We searched for thesis abstracts using the Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (1950 to 18 October 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Non-English language papers were included and translated in full by native speakers. Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in primary schools (children aged 4 to 12 years at baseline) were selected. Included studies had to include behavioural interventions addressing both toothbrushing and consumption of cariogenic foods or drinks and have a primary school as a focus for delivery of the intervention. Two pairs of review authors independently extracted data related to methods
Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J
Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Michele Shelly Burdette-Taylor
Full Text Available Lower extremity wounds and falls are on the rise with the demographics and projected aging population. Diabetes and heart disease supersede cancer deaths. A basic foot exam—performed routinely on patients identified as high risk allows time for early intervention and prevention. A Certified Foot and Nail Care Nurse (CFCN who evaluates clients on a regular basis, conducts a comprehensive lower extremity exam for loss of protective sensation (LOPS and compromised peripheral blood flow is more likely to provide needed care in a timely manner. Why a nurse? Because nurses who have the level of education, expertise through acquired training, and are board certified are competent to assess, educate, provide intervention, and refer. Utilizing CFCNs is cost-effective and efficient. CFCN is utilized as a member of the multidisciplinary team. Nurses are educators and education is an effective method for prevention. Nurses, as the most trusted health care provider, communicate, establish rapport, and develop sustaining relationships. Utilizing the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses’ Credentialing Board (WOCNCB CFCN raises the standard of care substantially and reduces overall costs to life, limbs, and dollars. This innovation in practice improves outcomes, patient satisfaction, and safety while reducing hospital admissions.
Pratt, Charlotte A; Lemon, Stephenie C; Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Goetzel, Ron; Beresford, Shirley A; French, Simone A; Stevens, Victor J; Vogt, Thomas M; Webber, Larry S
This paper describes the design characteristics of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-funded studies that are testing innovative environmental interventions for weight control and obesity prevention at worksites. Seven separate studies that have a total of 114 worksites ( approximately 48,000 employees) across studies are being conducted. The worksite settings include hotels, hospitals, manufacturing facilities, businesses, schools, and bus garages located across the U.S. Each study uses its own conceptual model drawn from the literature and includes the socio-ecological model for health promotion, the epidemiological triad, and those integrating organizational and social contexts. The interventions, which are offered to all employees, include environmental- and individual-level approaches to improve physical activity and promote healthful eating practices. Environmental strategies include reducing portion sizes, modifying cafeteria recipes to lower their fat contents, and increasing the accessibility of fitness equipment at the workplace. Across all seven studies about 48% (N = 23,000) of the population is randomly selected for measurements. The primary outcome measure is change in BMI or body weight after two years of intervention. Secondary measures include waist circumference, objective, and self-report measures of physical activity, dietary intake, changes in vending machines and cafeteria food offerings, work productivity, healthcare use, and return on investment. The results of these studies could have important implications for the design and implementation of worksite overweight and obesity control programs.
Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly
Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G
Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying. To explore the effectiveness of workplace interventions to prevent bullying in the workplace. We searched: the Cochrane Work Group Trials Register (August 2014); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1); PUBMED (1946 to January 2016); EMBASE (1980 to January 2016); PsycINFO (1967 to January 2016); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus; 1937 to January 2016); International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS; 1951 to January 2016); Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; 1987 to January 2016); ABI Global (earliest record to January 2016); Business Source Premier (BSP; earliest record to January 2016); OpenGrey (previously known as OpenSIGLE-System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe; 1980 to December 2014); and reference lists of articles. Randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials of employee-directed interventions, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies of interventions of any type, aimed at preventing bullying in the workplace, targeted at an individual employee, a group of employees, or an organisation. Three authors independently screened and selected studies. We extracted data from included studies on victimisation, perpetration, and absenteeism associated with workplace bullying. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used the
Shepherd, Emily; Gomersall, Judith C; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, comparing combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (i.e. standard care), that reported on GDM diagnosis as an outcome. Quasi-RCTs were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. We planned to include RCTs comparing two or more different diet/exercise interventions, however none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and assessed quality of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes using the GRADE approach. We checked data for accuracy. In this update, we included 23 RCTs (involving 8918 women and 8709 infants) that compared combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (standard care). The studies varied in the diet and exercise programs evaluated and health outcomes reported. None reported receiving funding from a drug manufacturer or agency with interests in the results. Overall risk of bias was judged to be unclear due to the lack of methodological detail reported. Most studies were undertaken in high-income countries.For our primary review outcomes, there was a possible reduced risk of GDM in the diet and
Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia
To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in
Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease
Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Wyman, Jean F; Ping, Ryan; Wilt, Timothy J; Kane, Robert L
Urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling men affects quality of life and increases the risk of institutionalization. Observational studies and randomized, controlled trials published in English from 1990 to November 2007 on the epidemiology and prevention of UI were identified in several databases to abstract rates and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of incontinence, calculate absolute risk difference (ARD) after clinical interventions, and synthesize evidence with random-effects models. Of 1083 articles identified, 126 were eligible for analysis. Pooled prevalence of UI increased with age to 21% to 32% in elderly men. Poor general health, comorbidities, severe physical limitations, cognitive impairment, stroke (pooled OR 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.1), urinary tract infections (pooled OR 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.23), prostate diseases, and diabetes (pooled OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61) were associated with UI. Treatment with tolterodine alone (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.02-0.32) or combined with tamsulosin (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.25) resulted in greater self-reported benefit compared with placebo. Radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer compared with watchful waiting increased UI. Short-term prevention of UI with pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation after prostatectomy was not consistently seen across randomized, controlled trials. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age and functional dependency. Stroke, diabetes, poor general health, radiation, and surgery for prostate cancer were associated with UI in community-dwelling men. Men reported overall benefit from drug treatments. Limited evidence of preventive effects of pelvic floor rehabilitation requires future investigation.
Amos, Taryn; Stein, Dan J; Ipser, Jonathan C
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults following exposure to a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (to 14 February 2014). This register contains relevant reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We identified unpublished trials by searching the National Institute of Health (NIH) Reporter, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials database (mRCT) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to December 2013). We scanned the reference lists of articles for additional studies. We placed no constraints on language and setting. We restricted studies to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of PTSD in adults. Two authors (TA and JI) independently assessed trials for eligibility and inclusion based on the review selection criteria. We independently extracted sample, methodological, outcome and 'Risk of bias' data, as well as the number of side effects, from each trial and entered these into a customised data extraction form. We contacted investigators for missing information. We calculated summary statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables (if provided). We did not undertake subgroup analyses due to the small number of included studies. We included nine short-term RCTs (duration 12 weeks or less) in the analysis (345 participants
Full Text Available Lifestyle diseases particularly coronary artery disease (CAD has been noted to be the most important cause of the morbidity and mortality all over the world. India is currently passing through this epidemic so much so that it would be taking a heavy toll of Indian youth and economy to the tune of some 1.6 trillion $ during 2015-2030 . The main causative factors for CAD identified as coronary risk factors are: smoking / tobacco, physical inactivity, faulty diet, hypertension, diabetes, high level of cholesterol and stress. As most of these risk factors are lifestyle related attempt to modify them by appropriate interventions form the cornerstone of prevention of CAD epidemic. Studies done by Dean Ornish and several others prompted us to plan an interventional case control study in 640 patients of established CAD. These cases were given power point presentation regarding healthy lifestyle on one to one basis and followed up at three and six months. Primary outcomes variable were change in smoking /tobacco habits, physical activity, obesity, dietary habits, control of hypertension, diabetes and lipid profile. At the end of intervention it was possible to bring down the tobacco consumption, improve physical activity, better control of hypertension ( p< 0.03 , reduction in obesity ( p= 0. 0005 and raising HDL cholesterol ( p 0.05 significantly in test group. Taking cue from above study a five step innovative strategy was developed for effective implementation of healthy life style in coronary patients attending Cardiac Clinic at HAH Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard. This strategy included sensitizing patients to locally developed visuals , posters and pamphlets at registration desk , concurrent counseling by attending doctor at the end of clinical examination , and showing patients and their family the features of atherosclerosis during carotid ultrasound assessment . These points were again reinforced at follow up
Langer, G; Schloemer, G; Knerr, A; Kuss, O; Behrens, J
examined mixed nutritional supplements, one trial examined zinc, another the effect of proteins, and two studies compared ascorbic acid. The trials included are heterogeneous with regard to participants, interventions and outcomes; therefore it was considered inappropriate to perform a meta-analysis. It was not possible to draw any firm conclusions on the effect of enteral and parenteral nutrition on the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. Further trials of high methodological quality are necessary.
Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.
Collins, Pamela Y; Geller, Pamela A; Miller, Sutherland; Toro, Patricia; Susser, Ezra S
...) prevention to reduce vulnerability to HIV infection for women with severe mental illness. In a pilot test of the intervention, 35 women were randomly placed in the experimental intervention group or an HIV education control...
Imrie John; Newell Marie-Louise; Harrison Abigail; Hoddinott Graeme
Abstract Background In South Africa, HIV prevalence among youth aged 15-24 is among the world's highest. Given the urgent need to identify effective HIV prevention approaches, this review assesses the evidence base for youth HIV prevention in South Africa. Methods Systematic, analytical review of HIV prevention interventions targeting youth in South Africa since 2000. Critical assessment of interventions in 4 domains: 1) study design and outcomes, 2) intervention design (content, curriculum, ...
Pettigrew, Simone; Borys, Jean Michel; du Plessis, Hugues Ruault; Walter, Lea; Huang, Terry T-K; Levi, Jeffrey; Vinck, Jan
While it is acknowledged that child obesity interventions should cover multiple ecological levels (downstream, midstream and upstream) to maximize their effectiveness, there is a lack of evaluation data to guide the development and implementation of such efforts. To commence addressing this knowledge gap, the present study provides process evaluation data relating to the experiences of groups implementing the EPODE approach to child obesity prevention in various locations around the world. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to program implementation in program sites around the world to assist in developing strategies to enhance program outcomes. An online survey that included open-ended questions was distributed to the 25 EPODE programs in operation at the time of the survey (May 2012). The survey items asked respondents to comment on those aspects of program implementation that they found challenging and to suggest areas for future improvement. Eighteen programs representing 14 countries responded to the request to participate in the survey, yielding a 72% response rate. The responses were analyzed via the constant comparative method using NVivo qualitative data analysis software. The main concerns of the various EPODE programs were their ability to secure ongoing funding and their access to evidence-based intervention methods and policy advice relating to relationships with third parties. These issues were in turn impacted by other factors, including (i) access to user-friendly information relating to the range of intervention strategies available and appropriate evaluation measures; (ii) assistance with building and maintaining stakeholder relationships; and (iii) assurance of the quality, independence, and transparency of policies and practices. The findings are facilitating the ongoing refinement of the EPODE approach. In particular, standardized and tailored information packages are being made available to
Jensen, Lou E; Padilla, René
A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of interventions to prevent falls in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. Twelve research reports met inclusion criteria. Studies reported on three types of intervention: (1) exercise- and motor-based interventions, (2) nursing staff-directed interventions, and (3) multidisciplinary interventions. Strategies were offered as single or multifaceted intervention programs. All types of intervention resulted in benefit, although the evidence for effectiveness is tentative because of the studies' limitations. More research is needed to better understand appropriate dosages of intervention. No evidence was found for the effectiveness of prevention programs accessed as part of occasional respite care. Occupational therapy was seldom involved in the interventions researched. Because effective fall prevention programs are embedded in people's daily routines and encouraged participation in occupation, the contribution occupational therapy practitioners can make to the care of people with AD has yet to be fully realized.
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary
Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Bredfeldt, Christine; Wolf, Hilary; Tercyak, Kenneth P
...) may be effective for engaging adolescents with tobacco prevention resources. This novel approach could help to close a gap in tobacco prevention intervention delivery in the pediatric primary care setting...
Earl, Rachel; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Women with hyperthyroidism in pregnancy have increased risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction; and they can develop severe pre-eclampsia or placental abruption. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing or treating hyperthyroidism in pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 July 2010). We intended to include randomised controlled trials comparing antithyroid treatments in pregnant women with hyperthyroidism. Two review authors would have assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. No trials were located. As we did not identify any eligible trials, we are unable to comment on implications for practice, although early identification of hyperthyroidism before pregnancy may allow a woman to choose radioactive iodine therapy or surgery before planning to have a child. Designing and conducting a trial of antithyroid drugs for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism presents formidable challenges. Not only is hyperthyroidism a relatively rare condition, both of the two main drugs used have potential for harm, one for the mother and the other for the child. More observational research is required about the potential harms of methimazole in early pregnancy and about the potential liver damage from propylthiouracil.
Earl, Rachel; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Background Women with hyperthyroidism in pregnancy have increased risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction; and they can develop severe pre-eclampsia or placental abruption. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for preventing or treating hyperthyroidism in pregnant women. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 July 2010). Selection criteria We intended to include randomised controlled trials comparing antithyroid treatments in pregnant women with hyperthyroidism. Data collection and analysis Two review authors would have assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Main results No trials were located. Authors’ conclusions As we did not identify any eligible trials, we are unable to comment on implications for practice, although early identification of hyperthyroidism before pregnancy may allow a woman to choose radioactive iodine therapy or surgery before planning to have a child. Designing and conducting a trial of antithyroid drugs for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism presents formidable challenges. Not only is hyperthyroidism a relatively rare condition, both of the two main drugs used have potential for harm, one for the mother and the other for the child. More observational research is required about the potential harms of methimazole in early pregnancy and about the potential liver damage from propylthiouracil. PMID:20824882
Reilly, John J
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.
Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria
PURPOSE: To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS: Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS: Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....
Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.
Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Jaycox, Lisa H; Becker, Amariah; Eberhart, Nicole K
To help inform the evaluation design for CalMHSA's suicide prevention (SP) and early intervention initiatives, a review of program evaluation literature was done to assess program effectiveness and identify previously used evaluation methodologies. Using evidence from the literature review, the authors provide an overview of the epidemiology of suicides and of non-fatal self-inflicted injuries in California and present a framework for evaluating SP programs, including candidate evaluation measures. The review identified three methodological considerations that can inform the evaluation of SP programs: (1) identifying whether a SP program was effective at reducing suicide deaths is challenging because suicide is such a rare event; (2) SP programs may have differential effects on population subgroups, because suicide rates differ by age, race, and sex; and (3) SP programs may show immediate reductions in suicide attempts but their long-term effects are uncertain. The review also identified two critical gaps in the literature. First, SP evaluation research explores the effects of programs on such outcomes as reduced access to lethal means, provision of care, and crisis response; however, we need to learn more about how these programs influence suicide rates. Second, more research must address the differential effectiveness of SP programs for population subgroups vulnerable to suicide.
Lodi, Giovanni; Franchini, Roberto; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Varoni, Elena Maria; Sardella, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R; Carrassi, Antonio; MacDonald, L C I; Worthington, Helen V
participants because drop-out rates were similar between treatment and control groups. Surgical treatment for oral leukoplakia has not been assessed in an RCT that included a no treatment or placebo comparison. Nor has cessation of risk factors such as smoking been assessed. The available evidence on medical and complementary interventions for treating people with leukoplakia is very limited. We do not currently have evidence of a treatment that is effective for preventing the development of oral cancer. Treatments such as vitamin A and beta carotene may be effective in healing oral lesions, but relapses and adverse effects are common. Larger trials of longer duration are required to properly evaluate the effects of leukoplakia treatments on the risk of developing oral cancer. High-quality research is particularly needed to assess surgical treatment and to assess the effects of risk factor cessation in people with leukoplakia.
Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among
Lehtola, Marika M.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Lappalainen, Jorma; Hoonakker, Peter L. T.; Hsiao, Hongwei; Haslam, Roger A.; Hale, Andrew R.; Verbeek, Jos H.
Occupational injury rates among construction workers are the highest among the major industries. A number of injury-prevention interventions have been proposed, yet the effectiveness of these is uncertain. Thus a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of interventions for preventing
Problem statement: Cyberbullying represents the expansion of traditional bullying into the electronic realm. As the problem of cyberbullying typically occurs via the Internet, many cyberbullying prevention and intervention resources have been made available online. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine general characteristics of cyberbullying prevention and intervention websites. This study was conducted as a preliminary survey of seventeen independent ...
Conclusions: This study provided important contextual data on where the emphasis should be placed in developing the childhood obesity prevention interventions for the school children in Tehran. The findings further highlight the importance of involving a wide range of stakeholders, and including multiple components to maximise the chances of success. Keywords: Child, Obesity, Prevention, Intervention, Qualitative research, Iran
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Serwacki, Michelle L.; Brock, Stephen E.; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.; Louvar Reeves, Melissa A.
This study details a program evaluation of the "PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum" ("PREPaRE"), conducted in the United States and Canada between 2009 and 2011. Significant improvements in crisis prevention and intervention attitudes and knowledge were shown among 875 "Crisis Prevention…
Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher
This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Ehlayel, Mohammad
.... These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life...
Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun
The preschool period is a pivotal time for lifestyle interventions to begin the establishment of long-term physical activity and healthy eating habits. This systematic review sought to (a) examine the effects of prevention and management interventions on overweight/obesity among children aged 2-5 years, and (b) explore factors that may influence intervention effects. A systematic review of randomized controlled studies was conducted. Six databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Cochrane library, were searched for relevant studies. Data were extracted and checked by two reviewers. Each study was appraised based on 4 quality indicators adapted from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A narrative summary technique was used to describe the review findings. Thirty-seven articles describing 32 randomized controlled trials and 29 unique interventions were retained. Eight of 23 prevention and 4 of 6 management interventions resulted in significant weight loss, with 3 prevention and 5 management interventions showing sustained effects over 6 to 24 months. Of the 12 efficacious interventions, 10 included physical activity and nutrition components, 9 actively involved parents, and only 4 were theory-based. Interactive education was the most common strategy used for parents in prevention interventions, compared to behavioral therapy techniques in management interventions. For children, interactive education and hands-on experiences involving physical activity and healthy eating were equally used. Management interventions showed greater effects in weight loss compared to prevention interventions. Future prevention interventions in preschool children should target both parents and children, and focus on physical activity and nutrition through interactive education and hands-on experiences, although intervention effects were less than optimal. Management interventions should focus on parents as the "agents of change" for physical
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and
Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna
The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…
Schinke, Steven; Schwinn, Traci
This study developed and tested a gender-specific intervention for preventing substance abuse among adolescent girls. Delivered on CD-ROM by computer, the program was compared with a conventional substance abuse prevention program delivered live in a group setting. Seventh-grade girls in New York City middle schools completed pretests, and, by school, were randomly assigned to receive either gender-specific computer intervention (GSI) or conventional intervention, and were posttested. Analyse...
Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John
.... The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population...
Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.
test p-value 0.0005). Mixed feeding for six months was significantly associated with a positive infant HIV outcome (AOR 1.86[1.02-3.41], p-value 0.044). Conclusion: ... support for programs for the prevention of HIV infection in infants and young children. The program for. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT).
Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo
Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....
Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott
Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…
Mendelson, Tamar; Leis, Julie A; Perry, Deborah F; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Tandon, S Darius
Perinatal depression prevention trials have rarely examined proximal outcomes that may be relevant for understanding long-term risk for depression. The Mothers and Babies (MB) Course is a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention intervention, which has been shown to prevent depressive symptoms among at-risk perinatal women of color. This study examined intervention impact on three proximal outcomes that are theoretically linked with the intervention's model of change and have been empirically linked with risk for depression: mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping. The study used data from a randomized intervention trial of the MB Course with 78 low-income, predominantly African-American perinatal women enrolled at one of four home visitation programs in Baltimore City. Mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping were assessed with self-report instruments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The intervention group experienced 16 % greater growth in mood regulation from baseline to 6-month follow-up compared to the usual care group, suggesting a prevention effect. The pattern of findings was similar, although not statistically significant, for social support. Contrary to prediction, the control group experienced less growth in avoidant coping than the intervention group. Findings indicate the MB Course enhances mood regulation, which may facilitate prevention of depression over time. Assessment of intervention effects on proximal outcomes is beneficial for understanding how interventions may enhance protective factors relevant to successful long-term outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.
Wyman, Peter A
.... Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk...
Statement of the problem Preventive interventions aims at improving the psychosocial work environment within organizations. The nature of preventive interventions are therefore that it affects the context in which it is implemented. We will claim that the context also affects the implementation...... implementation actually happens. This paper investigates the promoting and inhibiting factors when implementing a preventive intervention. The majority of studies investigating promoting and inhibiting factors in relation to implementation success primarily focus on the promoting factors. Inhibiting factors...
The purpose of this thesis is to educate and provide information to promote nursing students to take action in Low Back Pain (LBP) prevention. LBP is a high risk in nursing and prevention measures are recommended prior to starting the work. LBP is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which affects all parts of the world. Prevention measures are many and this thesis aims to promote the Kettlebell training as one of them. The Kettlebell is a cast-iron ball with a handle. It has become incre...
Mikami, Amori Yee; Boucher, Margaret A; Humphreys, Keith
This project evaluated an intervention for preventing peer rejection in middle school that promoted social acceptance in the classroom environment. The systems-level and preventive focus of this intervention differed markedly from traditional interventions that target putative deficits within individual rejected children. In collaboration with 24 teachers and their classrooms, the intervention team led mixed groups of accepted and rejected children in cooperative games that required teamwork and mutual respect among all members in order to succeed. To reinforce these alliances between children, as well as to prevent future peer rejection, teachers were encouraged to use cooperative, teamwork-based group activities for academic instruction. The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control (waitlist) design. Results suggested that the intervention reduced the amount of self-reported peer rejection in classrooms. Implications for the further development and evaluation of systems-level interventions to prevent peer rejection are discussed. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The use of a systems-based prevention program shows promise for the prevention of children's perceived peer rejection. The authors demonstrate a model of university-community collaboration with a plan for sustainability and a focus on low-income and minority populations. Educators, school administrators, and researchers will be intrigued by the positive experiences of non-rejected peers and teachers in promoting a socially accepting school climate.
Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.
Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao
In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of
Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Werch, Chudley (Chad)
This paper describes the Behavior-Image Model (BIM), an emerging and innovative paradigm for planning brief interventions for adolescents that fuse the prevention of harmful behaviors with the promotion of healthy habits...
Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B; Hill, Keith D; Lord, Stephen R; Menz, Hylton B
.... The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people...
Review Of Interventions To Prevent Mother –To- Child Transmission And Seroprevalence Of Hiv Infection Among Paturients Advent To The Era Of Antiretroviral Therapy In Nigeria- Experienec From A Mission Hospital In Benin City, Nigeria.
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.
Hajela, Neerja; Nair, Gopinath B; Ganguly, Nirmal K
.... Of the various interventions, probiotics offer immense potential. The past decade has witnessed the validation of their utility for the prevention, treatment and management of a variety of infective and non infective disorders...
Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.
In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a
Reed, Monique; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael
In the U.S., overweight/obesity among African American (AA) girls has become epidemic. Since parental factors may be associated with improved weight status, it is important to understand the empirical evidence for including parents in obesity prevention interventions with AA girls. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify effectiveness and characteristics of obesity prevention interventions for AA girls (6-17 years) and their parent. Included interventions addressed physical activity (PA), dietary/eating behaviors, and body composition. Of 708 studies published through March 2014, eight met inclusion criteria. Though effects were in the intended direction for most, statistically significant effects were found only for dietary intake and eating behavior. Interventions were characterized by exclusion of girls ages 13-17, failure to link parent involvement to child outcomes, the absence of family systems theory, and modest effects. Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of daughter/parent obesity prevention interventions.
Sreevatsava, Meghana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A
Childhood obesity is on the rise worldwide and its increasing prevalence in low and middle income countries is well-known. Obesity interventions have the potential to prevent adverse health outcomes; however, large gaps in research and knowledge about the efficacy and sustainability of such interventions remain. The objectives of this article were to review the evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents, evaluate their applicability in India, and discuss the challenges to sustain such interventions. The authors reviewed published research focusing on childhood obesity interventions, especially in India and other lower-resource countries. Nine observational and 10 interventional studies were reviewed. Most studies identified were from developed countries and took place at day-care settings, schools, and after school programs. Nineteen reported studies were grouped into categories: diet (2), physical activity (4), childcare programs (2), media-based programs (2), parental involvement (2), multi-component studies (1), and screen time (6). Most interventions were effective in reducing BMI, decreasing sedentary behaviors, and increasing physical activity. Sustainability of these interventions was not evaluated. While there is no one method or simple intervention to address obesity, multi-component approaches involving home and school environments are promising and warrant evaluation in India. Literature on obesity prevention and control in India and in lower-resource countries, however, is sparse. Existing gaps in knowledge about obesity should be addressed by conducting research in India and carrying out interventions to determine what strategies will be successful and sustainable locally.
Kirshner, Howard S
Patients who suffer ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk for subsequent cerebrovascular events. Secondary prevention is essential to reduce risks of recurrence and should include lifestyle modification to improve cardiovascular health, along with strict control of blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. Recurrent stroke in ischemic stroke patients is likely to be the same subtype as the initial stroke, and treatment should be unique to the stroke subtype and patient risk factors. This article presents an overview of the recommendations for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke or TIA and a review of the evidence supporting the role of antiplatelet therapy in managing the risk of recurrent noncardioembolic stroke. Although anticoagulants are recommended preventive treatment for cardioembolic stroke, they can increase the patient's risk of bleeding complications and are not recommended for all subtypes of ischemic stroke. The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines recommend 3 antiplatelet regimens for the secondary prevention of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke: aspirin (ASA), clopidogrel, and combined ASA + extended-release (ER) dipyridamole (DP). ASA + ER-DP is recommended over ASA alone. Several studies have established the effectiveness of these 3 antiplatelet regimens as first-line options in the secondary prevention of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. Clopidogrel monotherapy is a reasonable alternative for patients who cannot tolerate ASA. ASA + ER-DP has been shown to be more effective than ASA alone and does not increase the risk of bleeding. Effective secondary prevention must also address modifiable risk factors, such as obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
Full Text Available Introduction: Radiotherapy has a pivotal role in the fight against cancer. However 85% of patients, who undergo radiotherapy, will face moderate to severe skin reactions, for the treatment of which various local products, available in the market, are used. Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review was to investigate the prevention and treatment of these skin lesions induced by radiation. Methods: For this purpose 34 articles were collected concerning materials, approved by the FDA, for the prevention and treatment of skin damage due to radiation, preclinical factors tested in animal models, factors involved in the prevention and treatment of moist desquamation and unauthorized agents or with little information about them. Results: According to the study results, the moisturizing and hydrophilic creams, herbal preparations, gels based on hyaluronic acid, and Vitamin E, heparinoid creams and formulations based on oils appear to have a positive effect in preventing dermatitis as well as in providing symptom relief. Patches are suitable for the case of moist desquamation. Vasculotide, agent EUK-207, agent RTA 408, agent ALDH2 and the agent Celecoxib are still in the preclinical stage but may become future therapeutic targets. Conclusion: Skin reactions due to radiation remain a significant problem for patients undergoing radical treatment. However, thanks to the multitude of formulations available in the market and several clinical trials it is possible that early prevention and treatment for actinic dermatitis could be achieved. In conclusion, it is crucial that health professionals are aware of the formulations indicated and contraindicated in case of skin reactions induced by radiation and adjust the treatment for the prevention and management of skin reactions in patients receiving radiation therapy.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.; Di Noia, Jennifer
This study developed and tested an Internet-based gender-specific drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. A sample of seventh, eighth, and ninth grade girls (N = 236) from 42 states and 4 Canadian provinces were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All girls completed an online pretest battery. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with a 12-session, Internet-based gender-specific drug prevention program. Girls in both groups completed the measurement ...
Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye
Background The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. Methods The two-round D...
Hajela Neerja; Nair Gopinath B; Ganguly Nirmal K
Abstract With more than 1.4 million of the 9 million child deaths being attributed to diarrhoea in 2008 and 49% of them occurring in five countries namely, India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China, there is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrhoeal diseases. Of the various interventions, probiotics offer immense potential. The past decade has witnessed the validation of their utility for the prevention, treatment and management of a variety ...
Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim
We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.
Verrotti, A; Penta, L; Zenzeri, L; Agostinelli, S; De Feo, P
Two crucial aspects of obesity prevention are early childhood and school-based interventions. The main purpose of this systematic review wass to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of school-based interventions performed in primary schools. All pertinent data from the literature have been critically examined and reviewed to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of different strategies of interventions. In particular, many studies have been performed in school-aged children. Data from literature suggest that educational interventions toward healthy eating habits and physical activity at school could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity, because it has been shown that is difficult to treat obesity in adults through changes in the lifestyle rather than during childhood. Recent advances in technology, especially web-based interventions, have been used to provide a specific content addressing healthy lifestyle with regard diet and exercise. These data suggest the opportunity to use web-interactive programs as a new challenging technique of communication in order to promote healthy behaviors. The early detection and treatment of obesity in children may be the best approach to prevent future increases in morbidity, as well as healthcare costs that will likely occur as overweight and obese children age.
McCord, Joan, Ed.; Tremblay, Richard E., Ed.
A variety of approaches to preventing antisocial behavior in children have ranged from infant schools to residential treatment centers, from social training to psychological therapies, with evaluations that have typically been little more than testimonials to current fashions. By introducing experimental approaches to the study of intervention…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…
Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul
The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between employ...... from a usual-detection area, which seemed to have facilitated vocational careers....
Fasula, Amy M; Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah; Carry, Monique; Gaiter, Juarlyn; Parker, Sharon
Incarcerated women are a critical population for targeted HIV/STI prevention programming; however, there is a dearth of evidence-based, genderspecific behavioral interventions for this population. Systematically adapting existing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) can help fill this gap. We illustrate the adaptation of the HIV/STI prevention EBI, Project Safe, for use among incarcerated women and delivery in prisons. Project POWER, the final adapted intervention, was developed using formative research with prison staff and administration, incarcerated and previously incarcerated women, and input of community advisory boards. Intervention delivery adaptations included: shorter, more frequent intervention sessions; booster sessions prior to and just after release; facilitator experience in prisons and counseling; and new videos. Intervention content adaptations addressed issues of empowerment, substance use, gender and power inequity in relationships, interpersonal violence, mental health, reentry, and social support. This illustration of the adaption process provides information to inform additional efforts to adapt EBIs for this underserved population.
Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Angela M; López, Diego M
Stress-related disorders have become one of the main problems of public health in many countries and of worldwide organizations, and they are expected to become more common in the forthcoming decades. This article aims at providing a systematic review and a descriptive evaluation of the interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress. A systematic review of five databases (EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect and IEEEXplorer) was carried out. This article provides a quantitative and qualitative description of 21 studies about occupational stress interventions supported by ICT. The following factors were considered for the analysis: impact of the intervention, design of the study, type of intervention, purpose of the intervention, type of instrument for the measurement of occupational stress, and type of ICT used. The systematic review demonstrated that interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress are scarce but effective.
This report describes the implementation and short-term results of a peer group intervention for HIV prevention on the HIV-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of primary school teachers in Malawi. The intervention, based on the social-cognitive learning model, took place in 2000 at two teacher training colleges ...
Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…
Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.
This chapter explores the critical role of crisis intervention and other support after a suicide has occurred as part of a comprehensive suicide prevention response within college and university campuses. The important components of postsuicide intervention campus crisis response and protocols and the identification of key stakeholders to…
Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.
Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…
Bry, Brenna H.; Conboy, Cathy
Research has suggested that didactic and values discussions, life skills training, social skills training, and family intervention can reduce heavy drug use. Because subjects display variability in patterns of behavior change, increased understanding of these individual differences could be beneficial to interventions. A preventive intervention…
Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner
To support students' academic, behavioral, and social needs, many schools have adopted multitiered models of prevention. Because Tier 3 interventions are costly in terms of time and resources, schools must find efficient and effective Tier 2 interventions prior to providing such intense supports. In this article, we review the literature base on…
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…
This randomized-controlled-trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-phone intervention system in preventing smoking relapse. The intervention was based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), incorporated with Motivational Interviewing strategies, and the Two-phase Model. One hundred and sixteen volunteer subjects were recruited from the…
Stable externalizing behavior in childhood places children at risk for the development of a chronic and persistent pattern of externalizing behavior problems. Preventive interventions that aim to interrupt this developmental trajectory are crucial. Until now, no evidence-based intervention for
Bradbury, Thomas N.; Lavner, Justin A.
Improving intimate relationships with preventive and educational interventions has proven to be more difficult than originally conceived, and earlier models and approaches may be reaching their limits. Basic concerns remain about the long-term effectiveness of these interventions, whether they are reaching and benefiting couples most likely to…
Lakerveld, J.; Bot, S.D.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kingo, L.; Nijpels, G.
Effective, cost-effective, safe, and feasible interventions to improve lifestyle behavior in at-risk populations are needed in primary care. In the Hoorn Prevention Study, the authors implemented a theory-based lifestyle intervention in which trained practice nurses used an innovative combination of
Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante
Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539
Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J
Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.
Landorf Karl B; Wee Elin; Fotoohabadi Mohammad R; Spink Martin J; Hill Keith D; Lord Stephen R; Menz Hylton B
Abstract Background Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. Methods The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a random...
Hart, Laura M; Cornell, Chelsea; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J
To systematically review the literature on interventions involving parents that aim to prevent body dissatisfaction or eating disorders in children, and provide directions for future research by highlighting current gaps. The literature was searched for articles using key concepts: parents, prevention and eating disorders or disordered eating or body dissatisfaction. All English language publications between 1992 and 2013 were searched across a range of academic databases. Studies were reviewed if they: (i) delivered an intervention designed to reduce eating disorders or body dissatisfaction or their risk factors, in children or adolescents; (ii) provided some intervention component for parents; and (iii) included some outcome measure of intervention effectiveness on disordered eating or body dissatisfaction. A scoring matrix based on the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) screening questions was used to assess each study's sample representativeness, relevance and data quality. From 647 novel records uncovered by the search, 20 separate studies met inclusion criteria. The CASP scoring matrix revealed eight studies provided no relevant data, four relevant and eight highly relevant data on the effects of involving parents in prevention programs. Two of four high-quality studies reported that parental involvement significantly improved child outcomes on measures of body dissatisfaction or disordered eating. Although a greater focus on engaging and retaining parents is needed, this review demonstrates that a small number of prevention studies with parents have led to significant reductions in risk of body image and eating problems, and future research is indicated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Behavioral interventions can prevent the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness and quality of available evidence of HIV prevention interventions for people living with HIV in high-income settings. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CDC Compendium of Effective Interventions. Interventions published between January, 1998 and September, 2015 were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE. Forty-six articles and 63 datasets involving 14,096 individuals met inclusion criteria. Included articles were grouped by intervention type, comparison group and outcome. Few of these had high or moderate quality of evidence and statistically significant effects. One intervention type, group-level health education interventions, were effective in reducing HIV/STI incidence when compared to attention controls. A second intervention type, comprehensive risk counseling and services, was effective in reducing sexual risk behaviors when compared to both active and attention controls. All other intervention types showed no statistically significant effect or had low or very low quality of evidence. Given that the majority of interventions produced low or very low quality of evidence, researchers should commit to rigorous evaluation and high quality reporting of HIV intervention studies.
Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Fatima A Jomha,3 Mohammad Ehlayel2,4 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon; 4Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Allergy-Immunology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source
Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter J.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Haveman-Nies, A.
Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a
Huang, Ya-Lin A; Lasry, Arielle; Hutchinson, Angela B; Sansom, Stephanie L
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus on funding HIV prevention interventions likely to have high impact on the HIV epidemic. In its most recent funding announcement to state and local health department grantees, CDC required that health departments allocate the majority of funds to four HIV prevention interventions: HIV testing, prevention with HIV-positives and their partners, condom distribution and policy initiatives. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to determine the extent of the cost-effectiveness evidence for each of those interventions. We searched for US-based studies published through October 2012. The studies that qualified for inclusion contained original analyses that reported costs per quality-adjusted life-year saved, life-year saved, HIV infection averted, or new HIV diagnosis. For each study, paired reviewers performed a detailed review and data extraction. We reported the number of studies related to each intervention and summarized key cost-effectiveness findings according to intervention type. Costs were converted to 2011 US dollars. Of the 50 articles that met the inclusion criteria, 33 related to HIV testing, 15 assessed prevention with HIV-positives and partners, three reported on condom distribution, and one reported on policy initiatives. Methodologies and cost-effectiveness metrics varied across studies and interventions, making them difficult to compare. Our review provides an updated summary of the published evidence of cost effectiveness of four key HIV prevention interventions recommended by CDC. With the exception of testing-related interventions, including partner services, where economic evaluations suggest that testing often can be cost effective, more cost-effectiveness research is needed to help guide the most efficient use of HIV prevention funds.
Kumar G Anil
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.
Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael
Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
Kersten, L.E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.
Improving depressed mothers' sensitivity is assumed to be a key element in preventing adverse outcomes for children of such mothers. This meta-analysis examines the short-term effectiveness of preventive interventions in terms of enhancing depressed mothers' sensitivity toward their child and
Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…
Lloyd, Jennifer J; Logan, Stuart; Greaves, Colin J; Wyatt, Katrina M
Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives--establish motivation, take action and stay motivated--in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time
Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity
Greaves Colin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their
Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L.; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L.
Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hop...
DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad
In the U.S., ?21 ? 106 individuals have type 2 diabetes, and twice as many have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Approximately 40?50% of individuals with IGT will progress to type 2 diabetes over their lifetime. Therefore, treatment of high-risk individuals with IGT to prevent type 2 diabetes has important medical, economic, social, and human implications. Weight loss, although effective in reducing the conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes, is difficult to achieve and maintain. Moreover, 40?...
Uijtdewilligen, L; Waters, C N; Müller-Riemenschneider, F; Lim, Y W
The rapid economic growth in Asia in the past few decades has contributed to the global increase in childhood obesity prevalence. Yet, little is known about obesity prevention efforts in this region. This systematic review provides an overview of child obesity prevention programmes in Asia. Searches were performed in six electronic databases. Out of 4,234 studies, 17 were included, among them 11 controlled trials (of which five were randomized). Only one study was published before 2007. Identified studies were predominantly conducted in China and Thailand and targeted primary school children in a school setting. Most studies implemented different programmes, frequently targeting behavioural modification through nutrition/health education lectures and/or physical activity sessions. Programme effects related to obesity outcome measures were mixed. Most substantial effects were found for outcomes such as improved health knowledge and/or favourable lifestyle practices. The relatively small number of relevant publications in Asia highlights the need for scientific evaluations of existing and future programmes. This will help ensure the implementation and dissemination of evidence-based approaches that have been proven to be effective in the Asian context. Targeting preschool settings and applying a comprehensive multisectoral approach may increase the effectiveness and sustainability of childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.
Bascuñán Gamboa, Karla Amada; Araya Quezada, Magdalena
The incidence of atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies has increased exponentially in recent decades. Although atopic diseases have a clear genetic basis, environmental factors such as the diet, seems to play an important role in its development. This article summarizes main studies exploring whether feeding practices of mothers and infants intervenes in the development of allergic diseases. The potential role of dietary practices of the mother and infants for the prevention and/or management of allergies in infants is discussed. The available evidence was analyzed for: (1) does mothers consumption of essential fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics modulates the onset of allergic disorders?, (2) Does breastfeeding and artificial formula prevent/trigger the onset of allergy symptoms? (3) Does timing of introduction of solid feeding and the selection of certain common food allergens participate in achieving oral tolerance in infants? Accumulated evidence in recent years suggest that exposure to allergens early in life may promote immune tolerance and contribute to prevent infant food sensitization. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Pigeot, I; Baranowski, T; De Henauw, S
One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention programme for primary prevention of childhood obesity. In this supplement of Obesity Reviews, a compilation of key results of the IDEFICS intervention is packaged in a series of complementary papers. This paper describes the overall design and methods of the IDEFICS intervention in order to facilitate a comprehensive reading of the supplement. In addition, some 'best practice' examples are described. The IDEFICS intervention trial was conducted to assess whether the IDEFICS intervention prevented obesity in young children aged 2 to 9.9 years. The study was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental trial with one intervention matched to one control region in each of eight participating countries. The intervention was designed following the intervention mapping framework, using a socio-ecological theoretical approach. The intervention was designed to address several key obesity-related behaviours in children, parents, schools and community actors; the primary outcome was the prevalence of overweight/obesity according to the IOTF criteria based on body mass index. The aim was to achieve a reduction of overweight/obesity prevalence in the intervention regions. The intervention was delivered in school and community settings over a 2-year period. Data were collected in the intervention and control cohort regions at baseline and 2 years later. This paper offers an introductory framework for a comprehensive reading of this supplement on IDEFICS intervention key results. © 2015 World Obesity.
Lunt, J A; Sheffield, D; Bell, N; Bennett, V; Morris, L A
No previous systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken to help occupational health professionals understand how to reliably lower the instance of occupational ill-health through reducing risk-taking behaviour. To evaluate the effectiveness and processes of occupational-based behavioural interventions for workers exposed to dermal and respiratory hazards. A systematic review was conducted. Sixteen electronic databases were searched using key words. Bibliography, health and safety websites and hand searches of key journals were also undertaken. Articles were included if they evaluated an intervention targeting workers' behavioural compliance, addressed dermal or respiratory hazards, used before and after measures with a control group comparison and used behaviour-related exposure indicators such as airborne exposure, health effects, behaviour observations and self-reported work practices. Data were extracted according to potential sources of bias, impact and behavioural change processes used. Ten of 550 articles identified as potentially relevant were included. A predominance of small effect sizes, particularly for larger samples, demonstrated limited but positive impact upon exposure. Studies contained too much heterogeneity for reliable meta-analysis. None of the studies covered the full range of behaviour change components necessary for reducing exposure risk. We conclude that future interventions could enhance their effectiveness through improving design quality, reporting and basing their content upon evidence-based behavioural change approaches. Using a comprehensive range of evidence-informed behaviour change ingredients should improve occupational health professional's ability to reliably reduce occupational ill-health where exposure cannot totally be designed out of the workplace.
Jones, David; Morrison, Joanna
Data sourcesMedline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and OpenGREY databases without language restriction until March 2016 plus manual searching of four specific journals and consideration of reference lists.Study selectionStudies evaluating different methods of periodontal treatment in Down syndrome patients measuring at least two periodontal parameters at different periods of assessment. Titles, abstracts and full texts were considered by two independent reviewers and a third where discussion did not reach consensus. Randomised controlled trials were evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The observational studies were evaluated using an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was carried out independently by two reviewers and organised into evidence tables. No meta-analysis was undertaken, however a narrative synthesis was presented.ResultsNine studies met the inclusion criteria; four longitudinal studies, one prospective case series and four clinical trials which included two cross-over studies and a controlled trial. The studies showed marked heterogeneity in terms of methodology, intervention and outcome measures. All studies, however, included assessment of different plaque and gingival indices.Three studies investigated outcomes after scaling and root planing, one of which compared surgical and non-surgical approaches. Periodontal pockets of 1-3 mm were statistically significantly improved with non-surgical treatment in comparison with pockets greater than 4 mm which showed greater reduction with surgical treatment. Six studies investigated different forms and uses of chlorhexidine, three of which investigated its use as an adjuvant to mechanical debridement and one which also included plaque disclosing as an intervention. Chlorhexidine was shown to be most effective when used daily as a 1% gel for toothbrushing. The use of a plaque disclosing tablet and fluoridated tooth paste, however, showed further
Mays, Darren; HAWKINS, KIRSTEN B.; Bredfeldt, Christine; Wolf, Hilary; Tercyak, Kenneth P.
Messages emphasizing the harms of smoking (loss-framed) or the benefits of not smoking (gain-framed) may be effective for engaging adolescents with tobacco prevention resources. This novel approach could help to close a gap in tobacco prevention intervention delivery in the pediatric primary care setting. To examine the effects of framed messages for engaging adolescents with an evidence-based smoking prevention website, adolescents ages 12 to 17 presenting for primary care well-visits were r...
Tewary, Kishor; Narchi, Hassib
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common childhood infections. Permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent UTIs, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. To prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent UTI recurrences have been tried. The most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. However it has a risk of break through infecti...
Bian, Rachel R; Piatt, Gretchen A; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa A; De Michele, Mariana L; Hafez, Dina; Czuhajewski, Christina M; Buis, Lorraine R; Kaufman, Neal; Richardson, Caroline R
Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; Ptechnology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs.
Kim, Yoon Lee; Jeong, Seok Hee
The purpose of this study was to identify which nursing interventions are the most effective in fall prevention for hospitalized patients. From 3,675 papers searched, 34 were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Number of fallers, falls, falls per 1,000 hospital-days, and injurious falls, fall protection activity, knowledge related to falls, and self-efficacy about falls were evaluated as outcome variables. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta Analysis (CMA) 2.2 Version program and the effect sizes were shown as the Odd Ratio (OR) and Hedges's g. Overall effect size of nursing interventions for fall prevention was OR=0.64 (95% CI: 0.57~0.73, pintervention ranged from 0.34 to 0.93, and the most effective nursing intervention was the education & environment intervention (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.28~0.42, pintervention (OR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.50~0.67, p=.001). Subgroup analyses showed that multifaceted interventions (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.73~0.79, pinterventions, and that activities for prevention of falls (OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.05~0.15, pFalls in hospitalized patients can be effectively prevented using the nursing interventions identified in this study. These findings provide scientific evidence for developing and using effective nursing interventions to improve the safety of hospitalized patients.
Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess
Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation.
Han, Claire Jungyoun; Lee, Young Ji; Demiris, George
Regarding cancer awareness, social media effectively promotes health and supports self-management. Given the diverse study designs, methodologies, and approaches of social media interventions in oncology, it is difficult to determine the effects of social media on cancer prevention and management. We aim to systematically review intervention studies using social media for cancer care. A systematic search, using 7 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), was conducted to identify surveys and interventions using contemporary social media tools with a focus on cancer. Of the 18 selected studies, 7 were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were conducted for all types of cancer, and some were conducted for breast cancer in the United States, with mostly white female participants. Facebook was the most frequently used platform. Most studies targeted healthy participants providing cancer prevention education. With social media platforms as part of a larger intervention, or the main component of interventions, interventions were overall feasible and showed a significant improvement in cancer prevention and management. Social media tools have the potential to be effective in delivering interventions for cancer prevention and management. However, there was a dearth of studies with rigorous study methodologies to test social media effects on various cancer-related clinical outcomes. Social media use in cancer care will facilitate improved communication and support among patients, caregivers, and clinicians and, ultimately, improved patient care. Clinicians need to carefully harness social media to enhance patient care and clinical outcomes.
Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy.
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L.; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the 9 control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and post-intervention. At post-intervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to vigorous physical activity than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means=7.46 min/day, p=.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (−27.8 min/day, p=.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852
Hudziak, Jim; Archangeli, Christopher
Preschoolers are in the most rapid period of brain development. Environment shapes the structure and function of the developing brain. Promoting brain health requires cultivation of healthy environments at home, school, and in the community. This improves the emotional-behavioral and physical health of all children, can prevent problems in children at risk, and can alter the trajectory of children already suffering. For clinicians, this starts with assessing and treating the entire family, equipping parents with the principles of parent management training, and incorporating wellness prescriptions for nutrition, physical activity, music, and mindfulness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley
Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) is prevalent, especially when the person sustains an associated physical injury. Psychological distress can exhibit as elevated anxiety and depressive mood, as well as presenting as mental disorders such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). If unmanaged, psychological distress can contribute to, or exacerbate negative outcomes such as social disengagement (e.g., loss of employment) and poor health-related quality of life, as well as contribute to higher costs to insurers. This systematic review summarises current research concerning early psychological intervention strategies aimed at preventing elevated psychological distress occurring following a MVC. A systematic review of psychological preventative intervention studies was performed. Searches of Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were used to locate relevant studies published between 1985 and September 2015. Included studies were those investigating MVC survivors who had received an early psychological intervention aimed at preventing psychological distress, and which had employed pre- and post- measures of constructs such as depression, anxiety and disorders such as PTSD. Searches resulted in 2608 records. Only six studies investigated a psychological preventative intervention post-MVC. Interventions such as injury health education, physical activity and health promotion, and therapist-assisted problem solving did not result in significant treatment effects. Another six studies investigated psychological interventions given to MVC survivors who were assessed as sub-clinically psychologically distressed prior to their randomisation. Efficacy was varied, however three studies employing cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) found significant reductions in psychological distress compared to wait-list controls. Psychological interventions aimed at preventing psychological distress post
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Kao Uyen H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Methods Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73. Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Results Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Conclusion Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to
Veniegas, Rosemary C; Kao, Uyen H; Rosales, Ricki
Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73). Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to ensure that reinventions are evaluated and consistent with the
Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C
Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Braxton, Nikia; Harvey, Jenna; Wingood, Gina
Despite the documented intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV, there is a paucity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for female survivors of intimate partner violence in the United States. This paper describes the adaptation of an effective HIV prevention intervention, Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), for women in domestic violence shelters and the steps taken to improve the adapted intervention's implementation. The adaptation process was guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework and data collected from directors, direct client service providers, and residents of two domestic violence shelters located in urban areas, as well as topical experts. Eleven of 12 shelter staff (92%) reported that HIV interventions had never been implemented at their shelter and 64% reported they had not provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Changes made to adapt SISTA for this population and enhance the implementation of the intervention included reducing the intervention's duration; adding education about the intersection of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV; and adding an HIV risk assessment and safety plan. Next steps will include implementing the adapted intervention and evaluating its perceived acceptability and efficacy, and assessing whether contextual factors influence the intervention's implementation.
Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk (CMR, also known as metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, comprises obesity (particularly central or abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Leading to death from diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the root cause of CMR is inadequate physical activity, a Western diet identified primarily by low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in saturated fat, as well as a number of yet-to-be-identified genetic factors. While the pathophysiological pathways related to CMR are complex, the universal need for adequate physical activity and a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and whole grains, while minimizing food high in added sugars and saturated fat suggests that these behaviors are the appropriate focus of intervention.
In addition to the challenges inherent to physical and cognitive impairments, children with disabilities are at high risk of exhibiting behavioral and emotional problems. Consequently, their parents are under undo stress, which in some instances may lead to child abuse. Specifically, children with disabilities are 3 to 4 times more likely to be abused than are their normally developing peers. This alarming statistic is a consequence of a set of interrelated factors that include the child, the disability, the family, and the socioeconomic environment where they live. In this installment of Ethical Crossroads, Murphy examines those factors. She ends her commentary by emphasizing the importance of recognizing the caregivers' needs. In her mind, patient-focused rehabilitation interventions fall short of the mark. Instead, providing support to the family unit is a more fitting approach to the multidisciplinary care of a child with disabilities.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana
This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee
INTRODUCTION Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders see as the causes of work disability, what the intervention should aim at to address this problem, and to what extent the intervention works in practice. METHODS A qualitative research method was used, including data-triangulation: (a) documentary materials; (b) semi-structured interviews with the deliverers and workers (n = 14); (c) participatory observations of group meetings (n = 6); (d) member-checking meetings (n = 3); (e) focus-group meetings (n = 2). A grounded theory approach, including some ethnographic methodology, was used for the data-analysis. RESULTS Stakeholders' perceptions of causes for work disability differ, as do preferred strategies for prevention. Designers proposed work-directed measures to change the workplace and work organizations, and individual-directed measures to change workers' behaviour. Deliverers targeted individual-directed measures, however, workers were mostly seeking work-directed measures. To assess how the intervention was working, designers sought a wide range of outcome measures. Deliverers focused on measurable outcomes targeted at reducing work time-loss. Workers perceived that this intervention offered short-term benefits yet fell short in ensuring sustainable return-to-work. CONCLUSION This study provides understanding of where discrepancies between stakeholders' perceptions about interventions come from. Our findings have implications for workplace disability prevention intervention development, implementation and evaluation
Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Armanasco, Ashleigh A; Miller, Yvette D; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Marshall, Alison L
Existing evidence shows that text message interventions can produce short-term health behavior change. However, understanding is limited regarding intervention characteristics moderating this effect or the long-term effectiveness of text message interventions on behavior change after contact stops. MEDLINE, PubMed Central, ERIC, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between April 2008 and December 2014 that evaluated an intervention targeting preventive health behaviors, delivered primarily by text message. Intervention development and design characteristics and research outcomes were evaluated for 51 studies. Thirty-five studies were included in a meta-analysis (conducted in 2015) examining overall effect size and moderators of effect size. The overall pooled effect of interventions was d=0.24 (95% CI=0.16, 0.32, pmaintenance period and showed a small but significant pooled maintenance effect (d=0.17, 95% CI=0.03, 0.31, p=0.017, k=7). Few variables significantly moderated intervention efficacy. Interventions that did not use a theoretic basis, used supplementary intervention components, and had a duration of 6-12 months were most effective. The specific behavior being targeted was not associated with differences in efficacy nor was tailoring, targeting, or personalization of text message content. Text message interventions are capable of producing positive change in preventive health behaviors. Preliminary evidence indicates that these effects can be maintained after the intervention stops. The moderator analysis findings are at odds with previous research, suggesting a need to examine moderators at the behavior-specific level. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Vos, Theo; Pirkis, Jane; Smit, Filip; Carter, Rob
The prevention of depression is of growing interest to researchers and policy makers. However, the question of whether interventions designed to prevent depression provide value for money at a population level remains largely unanswered. The current study assesses the cost-effectiveness of two indicated interventions designed to prevent depression: a brief psychological intervention based on bibliotherapy and a more comprehensive group-based psychological intervention following opportunistic screening for sub-syndromal depression in general practice. Economic modelling using a cost utility framework was used to assess the incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the two interventions within the Australian population context, modelled as add-ons to current practice. The perspective was the health sector and outcomes were measured using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Uncertainty was measured using probabilistic uncertainty testing and important model assumptions were tested using univariate sensitivity testing. The brief bibliotherapy intervention had an ICER of AU$8600 per DALY and the group-based psychological intervention had an ICER of AU$20 000 per DALY. The majority of the uncertainty simulations for both interventions fell below the cost-effectiveness threshold value of $50 000 per DALY. Extensive sensitivity testing showed that the results were robust to the assumptions made in the analyses. Following screening in general practice, both psychological interventions, particularly brief bibliotherapy, appear to be good value for money and worthy of further evaluation under routine care circumstances. Acceptability issues associated with such interventions, particularly to primary care practitioners as providers of the interventions and health system administrators, also need to be considered before wide-scale adoption is contemplated.
Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen A; Paiva, Andrea L; Mauriello, Leanne M; Blissmer, Bryan; Oatley, Karin; Meier, Kathryn S; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather; Prochaska, James O; Burditt, Caitlin; Fernandez, Anne C
This study examined the effectiveness of two transtheoretical model-tailored, computer-delivered interventions designed to impact multiple substance use or energy balance behaviors in a middle school population recruited in schools. Twenty middle schools in Rhode Island including sixth grade students (N=4,158) were stratified and randomly assigned by school to either a substance use prevention (decreasing smoking and alcohol) or an energy balance (increasing physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and limiting TV time) intervention group in 2007. Each intervention involved five in-class contacts over a 3-year period with assessments at 12, 24, and 36 months. Main outcomes were analyzed using random effects modeling. In the full energy balance group and in subsamples at risk and not at risk at baseline, strong effects were found for physical activity, healthy diet, and reducing TV time, for both categorical and continuous outcomes. Despite no direct treatment, the energy balance group also showed significantly lower smoking and alcohol use over time than the substance use prevention group. The energy balance intervention demonstrated strong effects across all behaviors over 3 years among middle school students. The substance use prevention intervention was less effective than the energy balance intervention in preventing both smoking and alcohol use over 3 years in middle school students. The lack of a true control group and unrepresented secular trends suggest the need for further study.
Harrison, Abigail; Newell, Marie-Louise; Imrie, John; Hoddinott, Graeme
In South Africa, HIV prevalence among youth aged 15-24 is among the world's highest. Given the urgent need to identify effective HIV prevention approaches, this review assesses the evidence base for youth HIV prevention in South Africa. Systematic, analytical review of HIV prevention interventions targeting youth in South Africa since 2000. Critical assessment of interventions in 4 domains: 1) study design and outcomes, 2) intervention design (content, curriculum, theory, adaptation process), 3) thematic focus and HIV causal pathways, 4) intervention delivery (duration, intensity, who, how, where). Eight youth HIV prevention interventions were included; all were similar in HIV prevention content and objectives, but varied in thematic focus, hypothesised causal pathways, theoretical basis, delivery method, intensity and duration. Interventions were school- (5) or group-based (3), involving in- and out-of-school youth. Primary outcomes included HIV incidence (2), reported sexual risk behavior alone (4), or with alcohol use (2). Interventions led to reductions in STI incidence (1), and reported sexual or alcohol risk behaviours (5), although effect size varied. All but one targeted at least one structural factor associated with HIV infection: gender and sexual coercion (3), alcohol/substance use (2), or economic factors (2). Delivery methods and formats varied, and included teachers (5), peer educators (5), and older mentors (1). School-based interventions experienced frequent implementation challenges. Key recommendations include: address HIV social risk factors, such as gender, poverty and alcohol; target the structural and institutional context; work to change social norms; and engage schools in new ways, including participatory learning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, HIV prevalence among youth aged 15-24 is among the world's highest. Given the urgent need to identify effective HIV prevention approaches, this review assesses the evidence base for youth HIV prevention in South Africa. Methods Systematic, analytical review of HIV prevention interventions targeting youth in South Africa since 2000. Critical assessment of interventions in 4 domains: 1 study design and outcomes, 2 intervention design (content, curriculum, theory, adaptation process, 3 thematic focus and HIV causal pathways, 4 intervention delivery (duration, intensity, who, how, where. Results Eight youth HIV prevention interventions were included; all were similar in HIV prevention content and objectives, but varied in thematic focus, hypothesised causal pathways, theoretical basis, delivery method, intensity and duration. Interventions were school- (5 or group-based (3, involving in- and out-of-school youth. Primary outcomes included HIV incidence (2, reported sexual risk behavior alone (4, or with alcohol use (2. Interventions led to reductions in STI incidence (1, and reported sexual or alcohol risk behaviours (5, although effect size varied. All but one targeted at least one structural factor associated with HIV infection: gender and sexual coercion (3, alcohol/substance use (2, or economic factors (2. Delivery methods and formats varied, and included teachers (5, peer educators (5, and older mentors (1. School-based interventions experienced frequent implementation challenges. Conclusions Key recommendations include: address HIV social risk factors, such as gender, poverty and alcohol; target the structural and institutional context; work to change social norms; and engage schools in new ways, including participatory learning.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.
Bryan, Angela; Robbins, Reuben N; Ruiz, Monica S; O'Neill, Dennis
Prisons and prison inmates present important targets for HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Inmates often have histories of high-risk behavior that place them in danger of contracting HIV/AIDS, and rates of HIV/AIDS tend to be much higher in this population. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prison-based HIV/AIDS intervention to change attitudes toward HIV prevention, norms supporting HIV prevention, perceived behavioral control (i.e., self-efficacy) for HIV prevention behaviors, and intentions to engage in HIV prevention behaviors postrelease. The intervention also had the goal of encouraging inmates to become HIV/AIDS peer educators. The intervention appeared most successful at influencing beliefs and behaviors related to peer education and somewhat successful at influencing beliefs and intentions related to condom use. Analyses also showed some significant differences in effectiveness by race/ethnicity. Results are discussed from the perspectives of both research and practice with regard to prison-based HIV prevention efforts.
Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye
The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. The two-round Delphi technique was used with a panel of 10 childhood obesity experts. The panelists were asked to rate "priority populations," "methods of intervention," "measurement of outcomes," "future intervention settings," and "duration of intervention" by using a structured questionnaire. Finally, a portfolio analysis was performed with the adequacy and feasibility indexes as the two axes. For priority populations, the panel favored "elementary," "preschool," and "middle and high school" students in this order. Regarding intervention settings, the panelists assigned high adequacy and feasibility to "childcare centers" and "home" for preschool children, "school" and "home" for elementary school children, and "school" for adolescents in middle and high school. As the age of the target population increased, the panelists scored increasing numbers of anthropometric, clinical, and intermediate outcomes as highly adequate and feasible for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention. According to the results of the Delphi survey, the highest-priority population for the research on childhood obesity prevention was that of elementary school students. Various settings, methods, outcome measures, and durations for the different age groups were also suggested.
Full Text Available “The Fire is Coming” film is an innovative HIV-prevention intervention contextualized to the Maasai people of Tanzania through use of a traditional Maasai story. The intervention was developed and implemented in partnership with Maasai Pastoralists for Education and Development (MAPED. Although there have been numerous Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP surveys conducted among the Maasai, this is the first control-group comparison study designed to measure the effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention contextualized specifically to the Maasai people of Tanzania. We will first discuss the background and context in which the intervention was developed and methods used to develop the intervention. We will then discuss the evaluation methods, results, and implications of a retrospective Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP two-village comparison survey (n=200 for “The Fire is Coming” HIV-prevention intervention among Maasai people. There was a significant effect for HIV-related attitudes, t(16 = 2.77, p 0.05. Implications: Belief in one’s ability to do something is often the pivotal point for behavior change. The results of the survey denote a highly effective intervention in changing HIV-related attitudes and behaviors. It is promising for replication among other Maasai communities and for adaptation with indigenous people groups in other regions.
Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls
Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.
Bloom, Arthur W
Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.
Tarantino, Nicholas; Goodrum, Nada; Armistead, Lisa P.; Cook, Sarah L.; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie
Our study examined factors influencing the effectiveness of a parent-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town, South Africa. Caregiver-youth dyads (N = 99) were randomized into intervention or control conditions and assessed longitudinally. The intervention improved a parenting skill associated with youth sexual risk, parent–child communication about sex and HIV. Analyses revealed that over time, intervention participants (female caregivers) who experienced recent intimate partner violence (IPV) or unsafe neighborhoods discussed fewer sex topics with their adolescent children than caregivers in safer neighborhoods or who did not report IPV. Participants with low or moderate decision-making power in their intimate relationships discussed more topics over time only if they received the intervention. The effectiveness of our intervention was challenged by female caregivers’ experience with IPV and unsafe neighborhoods, highlighting the importance of safety-related contextual factors when implementing behavioral interventions for women and young people in high-risk environments. Moderation effects did not occur for youth-reported communication outcomes. Implications for cross-cultural adaptations of parent-based HIV prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25286174
Kain, Juliana; Concha, Fernando; Moreno, Lorena; Leyton, Bárbara
To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6-8 y old low-income children (N = 1474). Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA). Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant). % class time in MVA declined (24.5-16.2) while remaining unchanged (24.8-23.7%) in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33-1.24) and increased (1.22-1.35) in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91-1.06, P = 0.024). Interaction group ∗ time was significant for boys (P < 0.0001) and girls (P = 0.004). This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.
Ash, Tayla; Agaronov, Alen; Young, Ta'Loria; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Davison, Kirsten K
A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base. Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched the PubMed, PsycIFO, and CINAHL databases to identify eligible interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity with an active family component published between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of study design, behavioral domains targeted, and sample demographics were extracted from eligible articles using a comprehensive codebook. More than 90% of the 119 eligible interventions were based in the United States, Europe, or Australia. Most interventions targeted children 2-5 years of age (43%) or 6-10 years of age (35%), with few studies targeting the prenatal period (8%) or children 14-17 years of age (7%). The home (28%), primary health care (27%), and community (33%) were the most common intervention settings. Diet (90%) and physical activity (82%) were more frequently targeted in interventions than media use (55%) and sleep (20%). Only 16% of interventions targeted all four behavioral domains. In addition to studies in developing countries, racial minorities and non-traditional families were also underrepresented. Hispanic/Latino and families of low socioeconomic status were highly represented. The limited number of interventions targeting diverse populations and obesity risk behaviors beyond diet and physical activity inhibit the development of comprehensive, tailored interventions. To ensure a broad evidence base, more interventions implemented in developing countries and targeting racial
Werb, Dan; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Richardson, Chris; Rowell, Greg; Wood, Evan
Injection drug use has been identified as a key source of morbidity and mortality, primarily from overdose and the transmission of blood-borne diseases such as HIV. Experts have therefore called for the prioritization of resources toward the prevention of injection drug use. However, these strategies have not been systematically assessed. PRISMA guidelines were used to systematically review and extract findings from the peer-reviewed literature evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to prevent injecting initiation. We searched 10 English language electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, TOXNET, AIDSLINE, AMED and ERIC), the Internet (Google, Google Scholar), and article reference lists, from database inception to June 1st, 2012. Overall, out of 384 studies identified in the initial search, eight met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated four different types of interventions: social marketing, peer-based behavior modification, treatment, and drug law enforcement. Four studies observed a significant effect of the intervention on reducing rates of injecting initiation. Peer-based behavior modification and addiction treatment interventions were found to be most effective. Two of three studies assessing the impact of drug law enforcement on patterns of injecting initiation found no impact on injecting initiation, while one study reported inconclusive results. There exists a limited scientific literature on strategies to prevent injecting initiation. Resources should be allocated toward increased research and development of effective interventions to prevent this phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L
We evaluated the impact of loan repayment programmes, revising Medicaid fee-for-service rates, and changing dental hygienist supervision requirements on access to preventive dental care for children in Georgia. We estimated cost savings from the three interventions of preventive care for young children after netting out the intervention cost. We used a regression model to evaluate the impact of changing the Medicaid reimbursement rates. The impact of supervision was evaluated by comparing general and direct supervision in school-based dental sealant programmes. Federal loan repayments to dentists and school-based sealant programmes (SBSPs) had lower intervention costs (with higher potential cost savings) than raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate. General supervision had costs 56% lower than direct supervision of dental hygienists for implementing a SBSP. Raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate by 10 percentage points would improve utilization by Loan repayment could serve almost 13 000 children for a cost of $400 000 and a potential cost saving of $176 000. The three interventions all improved met need for preventive dental care. Raising the reimbursement rate alone would marginally affect utilization of Medicaid services but would not substantially increase acceptance of Medicaid by providers. Both loan repayment programmes and amending supervision requirements are potentially cost-saving interventions. Loan repayment programmes provide complete care to targeted areas, while amending supervision requirements of dental hygienists could provide preventive care across the state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre
Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review.
Posner, B M; DeRusso, P A; Norquist, S L; Erick, M A
Risk factor screening and establishing realistic goals are key steps for the dietitian to follow in planning strategies to prevent coronary heart disease. The major risk factors that are responsive to dietary intervention include: elevated plasma total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, glucose intolerance, and obesity. The criteria used in assessing nutrition-related risk in coronary heart disease are presented. The long-term goals of preventive nutrition intervention in heart disease are discussed, with emphasis on a unified and progressive approach to diet planning.
Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel
Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C
Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed.
Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis
In recent years, an ever increasing range of technology-based applications have been developed with the goal of assisting in the delivery of more effective and efficient fall prevention interventions. Whilst there have been a number of studies that have surveyed technologies for a particular sub-domain of fall prevention, there is no existing research which surveys the full spectrum of falls prevention interventions and characterises the range of technologies that have augmented this landscape. This study presents a conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art of technology-based fall prevention systems which is derived from a systematic template analysis of studies presented in contemporary research literature. The framework proposes four broad categories of fall prevention intervention system: Pre-fall prevention; Post-fall prevention; Fall injury prevention; Cross-fall prevention. Other categories include, Application type, Technology deployment platform, Information sources, Deployment environment, User interface type, and Collaborative function. After presenting the conceptual framework, a detailed survey of the state of the art is presented as a function of the proposed framework. A number of research challenges emerge as a result of surveying the research literature, which include a need for: new systems that focus on overcoming extrinsic falls risk factors; systems that support the environmental risk assessment process; systems that enable patients and practitioners to develop more collaborative relationships and engage in shared decision making during falls risk assessment and prevention activities. In response to these challenges, recommendations and future research directions are proposed to overcome each respective challenge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Velasco, José A; Cosín, Juan; de Oya, Manuel; de Teresa, Eduardo
Secondary prevention measures for myocardial infarction are inadequate. In Spain, the earlier PREVESE studies provided preliminary data. The aim of this study was to document the results of a simple intervention program for secondary prevention, implemented during the hospital stay. We included 4174 patients (mean age 63.7 years, 73% men) discharged from 110 hospitals after myocardial infarction. Lipid profile was determined during the first 24 h after admission, and before discharge patients and relatives were informed about the disease and its prevention, and were given printed informative materials. The patients were seen again 6 months later. After 6 months, 82.9% of the patients were examined and 10% were lost to follow-up. Mean blood pressure, weight and body mass index of the sample were lower, and lifestyle variables had improved. At discharge 87% were prescribed statins, 59.4% beta blockers, 51.2% ACE inhibitors and angiotensin blockers, and 94.1% antiplatelet drugs. These prescriptions were still being used 6 months later. There were substantial improvements in lipid values. The implementation of a simple intervention program for patients with myocardial infarction and their relatives, and the determination of lipid levels within 24 hours of admission, improved the secondary prevention measures at discharge and during the 6-month follow-up period. Acceptance of the program among the patients was good.
Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda
Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388
Kiene, Susan M; Barta, William D
One objective of translational science is to identify elements of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk-reduction interventions that have been shown to be effective and find new ways of delivering these interventions to the community to ensure that they reach the widest possible audience of at-risk individuals. The current study reports the development and evaluation of a computer-delivered, theory-based, individually tailored HIV risk-reduction intervention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a custom computerized HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention at increasing HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors in a randomized trial with 157 college students. The intervention content and delivery were based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model of Health Behavior Change and used Motivational Interviewing techniques. Participants completed a baseline assessment of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills and behavior, attended two brief computer-delivered intervention sessions, and completed a follow-up assessment. As compared to the control group (a nutrition education tutorial), participants who interacted with the computer-delivered HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention exhibited a significant increase in risk reduction behavior. Specifically, participants reported a greater frequency of keeping condoms available and displayed greater condom-related knowledge at a four-week follow-up session; among sexually active participants, there was a significant increase in self-reported condom use. Delivery of brief individually tailored HIV/AIDS risk reduction interventions via computer may be an effective HIV/AIDS prevention approach for adolescents. More research is needed to further support the effectiveness of this type of intervention and determine the generalizability of these findings to economically and educationally disadvantaged adolescents.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Although bullying continues to be a growing public health concern in schools across the United States, there are considerable gaps in the American understanding of effective prevention approaches for addressing this seemingly intractable issue. This article applies a public health approach to addressing bullying through the multitiered Positive…
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly
The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.
Full Text Available Aims: To examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that are designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to young people. The review considers specific sub-questions related to the factors that might influence effectiveness, any differential effects for different sub-populations of youth, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Methods: A review of studies on the impact of interventions on young people under the age of 18 was conducted. It included interventions that were designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children and young people. The review was conducted in July 2007, and included 20 papers on access restriction studies. The quality of the papers was assessed and the relevant data was extracted. Results: The evidence obtained from the review indicates that access restriction interventions may produce significant reductions in the rate of illegal tobacco sales to youth. However, lack of enforcement and the ability of youth to acquire cigarettes from social sources may undermine the effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions: When access interventions are applied in a comprehensive manner, they can affect young people’s access to tobacco. However, further research is required to examine the effects of access restriction interventions on young people’s smoking behaviour.
Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk
Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.
Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.
Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956
Koivusalo, Saila B; Rönö, Kristiina; Klemetti, Miira M; Roine, Risto P; Lindström, Jaana; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kaaja, Risto J; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Tiitinen, Aila; Huvinen, Emilia; Andersson, Sture; Laivuori, Hannele; Valkama, Anita; Meinilä, Jelena; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G; Stach-Lempinen, Beata
To assess whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can be prevented by a moderate lifestyle intervention in pregnant women who are at high risk for the disease. Two hundred ninety-three women with a history of GDM and/or a prepregnancy BMI of ≥30 kg/m(2) were enrolled in the study at gestation and were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n = 155) or the control group (n = 138). Each subject in the intervention group received individualized counseling on diet, physical activity, and weight control from trained study nurses, and had one group meeting with a dietitian. The control group received standard antenatal care. The diagnosis of GDM was based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. A total of 269 women were included in the analyses. The incidence of GDM was 13.9% in the intervention group and 21.6% in the control group ([95% CI 0.40-0.98%]; P = 0.044, after adjustment for age, prepregnancy BMI, previous GDM status, and the number of weeks of gestation). Gestational weight gain was lower in the intervention group (-0.58 kg [95% CI -1.12 to -0.04 kg]; adjusted P = 0.037). Women in the intervention group increased their leisure time physical activity more and improved their dietary quality compared with women in the control group. A moderate individualized lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence of GDM by 39% in high-risk pregnant women. These findings may have major health consequences for both the mother and the child. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Frerichs, Leah M.; Araz, Ozgur M.; Huang, Terry T. – K.
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2–1.8% and 0.2–1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults
De Silva, Mary; Maclachlan, Malcolm; Devane, Declan; Desmond, Deirdre; Gallagher, Pamela; Schnyder, Ulrich; Brennan, Muireann; Patel, Vikram
Traumatic physical injury can result in many disabling sequelae including physical and mental health problems and impaired social functioning. To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in the prevention of physical, mental and social disability following traumatic physical injury. The search was not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases; Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP), EMBASE (Ovid SP), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), Controlled Trials metaRegister (www.controlled-trials.com), AMED (Allied & Complementary Medicine), ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), PubMed. We also screened the reference lists of all selected papers and contacted authors of relevant studies. The latest search for trials was in February 2008. Randomised controlled trials that consider one or more defined psychosocial interventions for the prevention of physical disability, mental health problems or reduced social functioning as a result of traumatic physical injury. We excluded studies that included patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of search results, reviewed the full text of potentially relevant studies, independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We included five studies, involving 756 participants. Three studies assessed the effect of brief psychological therapies, one assessed the impact of a self-help booklet, and one the effect of collaborative care. The disparate nature of the trials covering different patient populations, interventions and outcomes meant that it was not possible to pool data meaningfully across studies. There was no evidence of a protective effect of brief psychological therapy or educational booklets on preventing disability. There was evidence from one trial of a reduction in both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and
Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J.; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R.; Hubbard, Stephanie J.; Cooper, Nicola J.
Background There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a ?usual care or no intervention? which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to ...
山口, 祐子; Yamaguchi, Yuko
The present article reviews preventive intervention of depression in junior high school students utilizing the school counselor. Results of preventive intervention program in Japanese schools are not constant. ①absense of professional staff, ②criticism towards the students being supported by the intervention, ③a need to reconsider intervention contene, are the suggested challenges. Future direction as ①use of SC, ②SC offering assistance consultaion to teachers using questionnaire as a media, ...
Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gálvez-Herrer, Macarena; Tapias-Merino, Ester; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos
Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154.
Background Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. Methods/design This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Discussion Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154. PMID:24237937
Kelders, Saskia M; Pots, Wendy T M; Oskam, Maarten Jan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C
To reduce the large public health burden of the high prevalence of depression, preventive interventions targeted at people at risk are essential and can be cost-effective. Web-based interventions are able to provide this care, but there is no agreement on how to best develop these applications and often the technology is seen as a given. This seems to be one of the main reasons that web-based interventions do not reach their full potential. The current study describes the development of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression, employing the CeHRes (Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management) roadmap. The goals are to create a user-friendly application which fits the values of the stakeholders and to evaluate the process of development. The employed methods are a literature scan and discussion in the contextual inquiry; interviews, rapid prototyping and a requirement session in the value specification stage; and user-based usability evaluation, expert-based usability inspection and a requirement session in the design stage. The contextual inquiry indicated that there is a need for easily accessible interventions for the indicated prevention of depression and web-based interventions are seen as potentially meeting this need. The value specification stage yielded expected needs of potential participants, comments on the usefulness of the proposed features and comments on two proposed designs of the web-based intervention. The design stage yielded valuable comments on the system, content and service of the web-based intervention. Overall, we found that by developing the technology, we successfully (re)designed the system, content and service of the web-based intervention to match the values of stakeholders. This study has shown the importance of a structured development process of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression because: (1) it allows the development team to clarify the needs that have to be met
Xu, Tingting; He, Yasheng; Dainelli, Livia; Yu, Kai; Detzel, Patrick; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Volger, Sheri; Fang, Hai
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes which occurs during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at greater risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery, while babies born from mothers with GDM are at greater risk of post-natal complications. Using the most updated diagnosis criteria, the GDM prevalence is estimated at 9.3-25.5% worldwide and 9.3-18.9% in China. Our objective was to identify healthcare interventions aimed at GDM prevention and control in China. A best-evidence synthesis was performed based on a systematic search of literature published between 1997 and October 2015 in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wan-fang databases using keywords "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus", "GDM", "Intervention" "Medical Intervention" "Early Medical Intervention", "Dietary Intervention", "Exercise Intervention", "Lifestyle Intervention", "Therapy", "Treatment" and "China". Inclusion criteria were studies conducted in China, reporting GDM healthcare interventions, and published in either Chinese or English. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality of the studies and extracted the data. Treatment efficacy was examined with weighted pooled odds ratio (OR) meta-analyses. The search resulted in 5961 articles (published in 276 different Chinese language journals and 6 English language journals), of which 802 were included in this synthesis. While 39.4% (n = 316) failed to report the GDM diagnostic criteria used, the remaining studies classified GDM with various international (n = 5) or Chinese (n = 7) diagnostic standards. Treatment interventions were categorized into 6 types: dietary (18.6%), exercise (1.6%), medication (20.7%), health education (9.0%), psychological (2.6%) and combination (47.4%). No interventions aimed at GDM prevention were identified. Meta-analyses demonstrated a statistically significant overall benefit of GDM treatment strategies in reducing the odds of maternal and
Meri Neherta; Rizanda Machmud; Rita Damayanti; Afrizal
...: This study evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for sexual abuse prevention on knowledge and assertiveness behaviour of primary school age children, which were committed by two different...
De Lepeleere, Sara; Verloigne, Maïté; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity caused by an unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) is a prominent public health concern. Parenting practices may contribute to healthy behaviour change in children, but well-researched examples are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the systematic development of an intervention for parents to prevent childhood overweight/obesity through the improvement of parenting practices. The six steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP), a theory- and evidence-based tool to develop health-related interventions, were used as a framework to develop the 'Movie Models' programme. In Step 1, a needs assessment was performed to better understand the health problem of overweight/obesity in children and its association with diet, PA and SB. In Step 2, the programme goal (increasing the adoption of effective parenting practices) was sub-divided into performance objectives. Change objectives, which specify explicit actions required to accomplish the performance objectives, were also identified. Step 3 included the selection of theoretical methods (e.g. 'modelling' and 'images'), which were then translated into the practical strategy of online parenting videos. Step 4 comprised the development of a final intervention framework, and Step 5 included the planning of programme adoption and implementation. The final phase, Step 6, included the development of an effect- and process-evaluation plan. The IMP was used to structure the development of 'Movie Models', an intervention targeting specific parenting practices related to children's healthy diet, PA, SB, and parental self-efficacy. A clear framework for process analyses is offered, which aims to increase the potential effectiveness of an intervention and can be useful for those developing health promotion programmes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio
To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.
Astrid Ledgaard Holm
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost
Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn
Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.
Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J
There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children...
Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue
Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…
Kuntsche, S.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in
Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve
Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…
N.H.J. van Veen (Natasja); P. McNamee (McNamee); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); W.C.S. Smith (Cairns)
textabstractBackground: Prevention of disability (POD) is one of the key objectives of leprosy programmes. Recently, coverage and access have been identified as the priority issues in POD. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of POD interventions is highly relevant to understanding the barriers and
Peters, Lori J.
This fact sheet provides data on the incidence of teenage suicide and describes the stressors which can lead to suicide. Suicide as a three-step process is discussed and warning signs are identified. Counseling interventions are listed and suggestions for preventive efforts by community members, mental health professionals, school personnel,…
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul
Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.
Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…
Stokman, M A; Spijkervet, F K L; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J.P.; Roodenburg, J L N; de Vries, E. G. E.
The aim of these meta-analyses was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis in cancer patients treated with head and neck radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, with a focus on randomized clinical trials. A literature search was performed for reports of
Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…
Baker, Courtney N.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.; Willoughby, Michael T.
Preschools provide a promising setting in which to conduct preventive interventions for childhood problems, but classroom programs can only be effective if teachers are willing and able to implement them. This study is one of the first to investigate predictors of the frequency of teacher participation in a classroom-based, randomized controlled…
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Kingston, Sharon; Bat-Chava, Yael; Caldwell, Melissa B.; Calzada, Esther J.
This study evaluates school personnel perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors before and after a 36-hr training program designed to prepare early childhood school personnel for implementation of an after-school family preventive intervention for conduct problems. Participants were 40 female school personnel (22 professionals and 18…
J.M. Wielenga (Joke); K. Helder MScN (Onno); P. Mansvelt (Petri); A. van den Hoogen (Agnes)
textabstractAims: A systematic review of published studies was conducted to study the evidence supporting interventions to prevent or reduce cranial molding of the preterm infant in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Background: Incidence of cranial molding has increased over recent decades. Cranial
Winston, K.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.
BACKGROUND: Consistent identification and prevention of failure for at-risk medical students is challenging, failing courses is costly to all stakeholders, and there is need for further research into duration, timing and structure of interventions to help students in difficulty. AIMS: To verify the
Simon, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, J.M.
This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol
This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…
The thesis presents studies into the effectiveness of specific tuberculosis (TB) control interventions in the Netherlands aimed at early case finding and prevention of TB. The first study showed screening of new immigrants upon entry met the criteria for risk group screening of more than 50 per
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…
Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Objective: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral (CBT) intervention to prevent perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. Method: A sample of 217 participants, predominantly low-income Central American immigrants who met demographic and depression risk criteria, were randomized into usual…
Reeves, Melissa A.; Brock, Stephen E.
After a nationwide search, the NASP PREPaRE Workgroup recently invited Brian Lazzaro, Christina Conolly-Wilson, and Melinda Susan to join the workgroup. This was done in an attempt to meet the ever-increasing demand and associated duties that accompany the dissemination of the PREPaRE Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum. In this…
Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.
This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…
Bosch, Joop; Stradmeijer, Margreet; Seidell, Jaap
A profile will be given of the psychosocial characteristics of obese children and youngsters, as well as those of their families. Then several attempts of (particularly) preventive interventions will be sketched. Differences found between clinical and non-clinical groups of obese children and
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…
Oostdam, N.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Mechelen, W. van
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with increased risks for mother and child during pregnancy and in later life. The aim of this article is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent
Oostdam, N.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; van Mechelen, W.
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with increased risks for mother and child during pregnancy and in later life. The aim of this article is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent
Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia
This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…
Cao, Si-Fan; Hu, Wen-Long; Wu, Min-Min; Jiang, Li-Yan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrinological disorder in reproductive-age women and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome. To investigate whether exercise intervention promotes PCOS prevention, a rat model was used. Polycystic ovary syndrome was induced by letrozole administration, and animals presented with obesity, sex hormone disorder, no ovulation, large cystic follicles, and increasing fasting insulin (FINS) and leptin levels. The intervention was set at 3 different intensities of swimming exercise: low (0.5 h/d), moderate (1 h/d), and high (2 h/d), and compared with a PCOS model group (letrozole administration without exercise intervention) and a control group. The exercise intervention in the low-intensity group did not produce changes in obesity, testosterone, progesterone (P), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Moderate-intensity exercise reduced body weight, retained ovulation, and P levels were increased but remained lower than those in the control group. The FSH levels were significantly higher, and FINS and leptin levels were lower than in the model group ( P < 0.05) but not in the control group. The high-intensity group demonstrated the greatest effect of PCOS prevention. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone, FINS, and leptin levels were significantly lower in the high-intensity group, and FSH and P levels were higher compared with the model group. These results suggest that high-intensity exercise intervention can effectively prevent PCOS development.
Holtgrave, David R; Briddell, Kate; Little, Eugene; Bendixen, Arturo Valdivia; Hooper, Myrna; Kidder, Daniel P; Wolitski, Richard J; Harre, David; Royal, Scott; Aidala, Angela
The Housing and Health study examines the effects of permanent supportive housing for homeless and unstably housed persons living with HIV. While promising as an HIV prevention intervention, providing housing may be more expensive to deliver than some other HIV prevention services. Economic evaluation is needed to determine if investment in permanent supportive housing would be cost-saving or cost-effective. Here we ask -- what is the per client cost of delivering the intervention, and how many HIV transmissions have to be averted in order to exceed the threshold needed to claim cost-savings or cost-effectiveness to society? Standard methods of cost and threshold analysis were employed. Payor perspective costs range from $9,256 to $11,651 per client per year; societal perspective costs range from $10,048 to $14,032 per client per year. Considering that averting a new case of HIV saves an estimated $221,365 in treatment costs, the average cost-saving threshold across the three study cities is 0.0555. Expressed another way, if just one out of every 19 Housing & Health intervention clients avoided HIV transmission to an HIV seronegative partner the intervention would be cost-saving. The intervention would be cost-effective if it prevented just one HIV transmission for every 64 clients served.
Full Text Available Background Unfortunately, gestational diabetes with its demanding health cares and increasing economic costs is globally prevailing. Therefore, preventive measures against this difficulty are highly significant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of training interventions on behaviors of pregnant women for prevention of gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 91 pregnant women (n=45 in intervention group, n=46 in control group, whom were chosen through multi-stage random sampling, and three training sessions with weekly intervals were offered for the intervention group. The data was collected in two stages including before the intervention and three months after intervention through interview as well as filling in questionnaire forms. The collected data was analyzed through independent sample t-test and paired t-test by considering 0.05 confidence level using SPSS software (version19.0. Results The results of present study showed a direct and significant correlation between age and preventive behaviors (r=0.22, P
Atienzo, Erika E; Baxter, Susan K; Kaltenthaler, Eva
This review aims to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent youth violence in Latin America. A systematic search on 13 academic databases was conducted to locate studies evaluating a primary or secondary prevention intervention in Latin America. Studies could use any type of quantitative design to assess outcomes related to youth violence. A search of websites, references and citation searching was also carried out. The quality of each study was assessed. Nine studies were identified. Most documented positive effects of the interventions on the perception of youth violence present in the community/school. Evidence was found of a reduction in homicides and juvenile crimes in three studies, two of which evaluated a community-based intervention. There were mixed results for the self-report of participation on violent acts. The majority of the studies lacked of a rigorous design. Most of the interventions had some promising results, including the reduction of homicides within communities. Community-based programmes were the most consistent regarding an effectiveness to prevent violence. However, the evidence for Latin America is still scarce and relies on non-rigorously designed studies.
Philip J. Morgan
Full Text Available Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.
Kalichman, Seth C
Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking environments have demonstrated mixed results. Specifically, venue-based social influence models have reduced community-level risk in U.S. gay bars, but these effects have not generalized to gay bars elsewhere or to other populations. Few interventions have sought to alter the structural and physical environments of drinking places for HIV prevention. Uncontrolled program evaluations have reported promising approaches to bar-based structural interventions with gay men and female sex workers. Finally, a small number of studies have examined multilevel approaches that simultaneously intervene at both social and structural levels with encouraging results. Multilevel interventions that take environmental factors into account are needed to guide future HIV prevention efforts delivered within alcohol-serving establishments.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development of the intervention; and (ii) the assessment of its feasibility in terms of relevancy, suitability and usability. The development of the intervention was based on the Intervention Mapping structured and systematic process. First, the needs assessment conducted among the main actors within recreational volleyball revealed that an intervention was needed for injury prevention, ideally embedded prior to a volleyball activity (training or match) within the warm-up, delivered by trainers/coaches, and available in an application for smartphone/tablet or website. Second, the objective and target groups of the intervention were defined, namely to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among both young and adult recreational volleyball players. Third, preventive measures and strategies (e.g. core stability, strength and balance) were selected in order to accomplish a decrease in injury incidence. Last, the intervention 'VolleyVeilig' was finally developed, a warm-up programme including more than 50 distinct exercises and lasting 15 min. A quasi-experimental research based on a one-group post-test design was conducted over a period of 3 weeks among 41 volleyball players and five coaches from five adult recreational teams, who were asked to use the intervention. Degree of relevancy, suitability and usability of the warm-up programme 'VolleyVeilig' were measured among players and coaches on an 11-point scale (varying from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'). All groups of exercises within the warm-up programme were positively assessed with regard to their relevancy, suitability and usability, mean scores ranging from 7.7 to 8
Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose
The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.
Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer C.; Parent, Justin; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Bettis, Alexandra; Compas, Bruce E.
This study examined the role of parent depressive symptoms as a mediator of change in behaviorally observed positive and negative parenting in a preventive intervention program. The purpose of the program was to prevent child problem behaviors in families with a parent who has current or a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred and eighty parents and one of their 9-to-15-year old children served as participants and were randomly assigned to a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) intervention or a written information (WI) comparison condition. At two months after baseline, parents in the FGCB condition had fewer depressive symptoms than those in the WI condition and these symptoms served as a mediator for changes in negative, but not positive, parenting at 6 months after baseline. The findings indicate that parent depressive symptoms are important to consider in family interventions with a parent who has current or a history of depression. PMID:22612463
Tolan, Patrick; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David
Four hundred twenty-four families who resided in inner-city neighborhoods and had a child entering 1st grade were randomly assigned to a control condition or to a family-focused preventive intervention combined with academic tutoring. SAFEChildren, which was developed from a developmental-ecological perspective, emphasizes developmental tasks and community factors in understanding risk and prevention. Tracking of linear-growth trends through 6 months after intervention indicated an overall effect of increased academic performance and better parental involvement in school. High-risk families had additional benefits for parental monitoring, child-problem behaviors, and children's social competence. High-risk youth showed improvement in problem behaviors and social competence. Results support a family-focused intervention that addresses risk in low-income communities as managing abnormal challenges.
Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Gaillard, Aurélie; Stock, Susan; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Hong, Quan Nha; Vezina, Michel; Coulibaly, Youssouph; Vézina, Nicole; Berthelette, Diane
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) represent a major public health problem and economic burden to employers, workers and health insurance systems. This systematic review had two objectives: (1) to analyze the cost-benefit results of organizational-level ergonomic workplace-based interventions aimed at preventing WMSD, (2) to explore factors related to the implementation process of these interventions (obstacles and facilitating factors) in order to identify whether economic results may be due to a successful or unsuccessful implementation. Systematic review. Studies were searched in eight electronic databases and in reference lists of included studies. Companion papers were identified through backward and forward citation tracking. A quality assessment tool was developed following guidelines available in the literature. An integration of quantitative economic results and qualitative implementation data was conducted following an explanatory sequential design. Out of 189 records, nine studies met selection criteria and were included in our review. Out of nine included studies, grouped into four types of interventions, seven yielded positive economic results, one produced a negative result and one mixed results (negative cost-effectiveness and positive net benefit). However, the level of evidence was limited for the four types of interventions given the quality and the limited number of studies identified. Our review shows that among the nine included studies, negative and mixed economic results were observed when the dose delivered and received by participants was low, when the support from top and/or middle management was limited either due to limited participation of supervisors in training sessions or a lack of financial resources and when adequacy of intervention to workers' needs was low. In studies where economic results were positive, implementation data showed strong support from supervisors and a high rate of employee participation. Studies
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S
Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes an evaluation of a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention among students in twenty seven high schools in Aden, Yemen. The intervention was developed after a survey among the same population in 2005, which revealed a high level of stigma towards people living with HIV (PLWH and a low level of HIV knowledge. Methods In a quasi-experimental design students who received the peer education intervention (78.6% were compared with students who did not receive the intervention (21.4%. No systematic procedure was applied in selecting students for the intervention condition. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 2510 students from all 27 high-schools in Aden governorate. To increase internal validity, students were also compared with a cohort control sample surveyed in 2005, which was a random sample of 2274 students from the same schools. Results Sixty eight percent of students targeted by peer education had good knowledge scores, compared with 43.3% of students not targeted by peer education (χ2 = (df = 1 = 111.15, p Conclusion The school-based peer education intervention has succeeded in improving levels of knowledge on modes of transmission and prevention, and in decreasing levels of stigma and discrimination in a culturally conservative setting.
Klein, Charles H; Card, Josefina J
This study translated SiHLE (Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering), a 12-hour Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evidence-based group-level intervention for African American females 14-18 years of age, into a 2-hour computer-delivered individual-level intervention. A randomized controlled trial (n = 178) was conducted to examine the efficacy of the new Multimedia SiHLE intervention. Average condom-protected sex acts (proportion of vaginal sex acts with condoms, last 90 days) for sexually active participants receiving Multimedia SiHLE rose from M = 51% at baseline to M = 71% at 3-month follow-up (t = 2.06, p = .05); no statistically significant difference was found in the control group. Non-sexually active intervention group participants reported a significant increase in condom self-efficacy (t = 2.36, p = .02); no statistically significant difference was found in the control group. The study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of a computer-delivered adaptation of a proven HIV prevention program for African American teenage women. This is consistent with meta-analyses that have shown that computer-delivered interventions, which can often be disseminated at lower per-capita cost than human-delivered interventions, can influence HIV risk behaviors in positive fashion.
Burry, L. D.; Hutton, Brian; Guenette, M.
Background: Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however......, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium prevention is that interventions were considered in isolation and only direct evidence was used. Our......-randomized trials of critically ill adults evaluating any pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multi-component intervention for delirium prevention, administered in or prior to (i.e., peri-operatively) transfer to the ICU. Two authors will independently screen search results and extract data from eligible...
Niakan, Sharareh; Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Noori, Tayebeh; Gozali, Elahe
With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web. Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included. The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.
Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri
Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.
Pinkerton, S D; Holtgrave, D R; DiFranceisco, W; Semaan, S; Coyle, S L; Johnson-Masotti, A P
The goal of the multisite National AIDS Demonstration Research (NADR) program was to reduce the sexual and drug injection-related HIV risks of out-of-treatment injection drug users and their sex partners. Previous analyses have established that the NADR interventions were effective at changing participants' risky behaviors. This study was to determine whether the NADR program also was cost-effective. Data from eight NADR study sites were included in the analysis. A mathematical model was used to translate reported sexual and injection-related behavior changes into an estimate of the number of infections prevented by the NADR interventions and then to calculate the corresponding savings in averted HIV/AIDS medical care costs and quality-adjusted years of life, assuming United States values for these parameters. Because cost data were not collected in the original NADR evaluation, the savings in averted medical care costs were compared with the cost of implementing a similar intervention program for injection drug users. The eight NADR interventions prevented approximately 129 infections among 6629 participants and their partners. Overall, the NADR program would be cost saving (i.e. provide net economic savings) if it cost less than US$2107 per person and would be cost-effective if it cost less than US$10,264 per person. Both of these estimates are considerably larger than the US$273 per person cost of the comparison intervention. There was substantial cross-site variability. The results of this analysis strongly suggest that the NADR interventions were cost-saving overall and were, at the very least, cost-effective at all eight sites. In the United States and other developed counties, investments in HIV-prevention interventions such as these have the potential to save substantial economic resources by averting HIV-related medical care expenses among injection drug users.
Wennehorst, Katharina; Mildenstein, Klas; Saliger, Brunhild; Tigges, Corinna; Diehl, Hans; Keil, Thomas; Englert, Heike
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is continuously increasing. This chronic metabolic disorder is difficult to treat and imposes a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. In view of the fact that type 2 diabetes is primarily caused by behavioral factors, effective preventive strategies are urgently needed. We examined the effects of a holistic lifestyle intervention on clinical and laboratory parameters as well as on the long-term diabetes risk in patients at risk to develop diabetes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting in Hannover, Germany, with 83 patients diagnosed as (pre)diabetic or at risk for diabetes. CHIP Germany is a 40-hour coaching lifestyle intervention program for the primary and secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The intervention included a comprehensive nutrition and health educational program based on the American CHIP approach. The primary outcome parameter was the body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcome parameters included body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, and the FINDRISK score, which assesses long-term diabetes risk. At the final measurement after 12 months, in the intervention group the BMI was reduced by 1.4 versus 0.2 kg/m(2) in controls (p = .119). The mean sustained weight loss after 12 months was -4.1 kg in the intervention group versus -0.8 kg in controls. Furthermore, we found a trend toward a stronger reduction in blood pressure, fasting glucose, and HbA1c as well as an improved FINDRISK score in the intervention group, compared to controls. Although failing to reach statistical significance at the final assessment, this comprehensive lifestyle intervention showed a noticeable reduction in several cardiometabolic risk factors which may facilitate the prevention of diabetes.
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PTrauma TIPS Internet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization. Methods/Design HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1 a practice questionnaire, (2 GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3 patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4 physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, (5 a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6 a clinical record audit, and (7 qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the
Lerch, C; Meissner, T
Nutritional rickets is a disease of growing children leading to bone deformities, bone pain, convulsions or delayed motor development. Today, high-incidence of nutritional rickets is mainly found in low-income countries. To assess the effects of various interventions on the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and reference lists of relevant articles. We contacted authors of studies or reviews to obtain further studies. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled clinical trials, controlled clinical trials or prospective cohort studies comparing any intervention for the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children with placebo or no intervention. Minimum duration of the intervention was three months for children under 12 months or six months for children over 12 months. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Authors of studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Four studies enrolled approximately 1700 participants. Trials lasted between nine months to two years. Three studies were randomised controlled trials, two of which showed a cluster randomised design; one trial probably was a controlled trial with researcher controlled group assignment. In children up to three years of age in Turkey, Vitamin D compared to no intervention showed a relative risk of 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0 to 0.71). Despite a marked non-compliance, a Chinese trial in children up to three years of age comparing a combined intervention of supplementation of vitamin D, calcium and nutritional counseling showed a relative risk of 0.76 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.95) compared to no intervention. In two studies conducted in older children in China and in France no rickets occurred in both the intervention and control group. There a only few studies on the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Until
Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo
The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way.
Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Fogelberg, Donald; Diaz, Jesus; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence
The manualization of a complex occupational therapy intervention is a crucial step in ensuring treatment fidelity for both clinical application and research purposes. Towards this latter end, intervention manuals are essential for assuring trustworthiness and replicability of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) that aim to provide evidence of the effectiveness of occupational therapy. In this paper, literature on the process of intervention manualization is reviewed. The prescribed steps are then illustrated through our experience in implementing the University of Southern California/Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center’s collaborative Pressure Ulcer Prevention Project (PUPP). In this research program, qualitative research provided the initial foundation for manualization of a multifaceted occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce incidence of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with SCI. PMID:22214116
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether preschool children can learn how to interpret dogs' behaviours, with the purpose of helping avoid dog bites. Three- to five-year-old children (N = 70 were tested on their ability to answer questions about dogs' emotional states before and after participating in either an educational intervention about dog behaviour (intervention group or an activity about wild animals (control group. Children who had received training about dog behaviour (intervention group were significantly better at judging the dogs' emotional states after the intervention compared to before. The frequency with which they referred to relevant behaviours in justifying their judgements also increased significantly. In contrast, the control group's performance did not differ significantly between the two testing times. These results indicate that preschool children can be taught how to correctly interpret dogs' behaviours. This implies that incorporating such training into prevention programmes may contribute to reducing dog bite incidents.
Lakestani, Nelly; Donaldson, Morag L
This study aimed to investigate whether preschool children can learn how to interpret dogs' behaviours, with the purpose of helping avoid dog bites. Three- to five-year-old children (N = 70) were tested on their ability to answer questions about dogs' emotional states before and after participating in either an educational intervention about dog behaviour (intervention group) or an activity about wild animals (control group). Children who had received training about dog behaviour (intervention group) were significantly better at judging the dogs' emotional states after the intervention compared to before. The frequency with which they referred to relevant behaviours in justifying their judgements also increased significantly. In contrast, the control group's performance did not differ significantly between the two testing times. These results indicate that preschool children can be taught how to correctly interpret dogs' behaviours. This implies that incorporating such training into prevention programmes may contribute to reducing dog bite incidents.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…
Awungafac, George; Delvaux, Therese; Vuylsteke, Bea
The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. The Systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2000 and 22 July 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529). We considered cohort interventions, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional surveys of SW programmes. A framework was used in the description and mapping of intervention to desired outcomes. Twenty-six papers(reporting on 25 studies) were included. A strategy that empowered peer educator leaders to steer community activities showed a twofold increase in coverage of behaviour change communication and utilisation of health facility among SW. Brief alcohol harm reduction effort demonstrated a significant effect on sexual violence and engagement in sex trading. A risk reduction counselling intervention among drug-injecting SW showed an effect on alcohol, substance use and engagement in sex work. No study on a promising intervention like PrEP among SWs was found. We observed that interventions that combined some structural components, biomedical and behavioural strategies tend to accumulate more desired outcomes. The evidence base that can be considered in intervention designs to prevent HIV in SW in SSA is vast. The health sector should consider interventions to reduce binge alcohol intake and intravenous drug use among sex workers. Programmes should staunchly consider multicomponent approaches that explore community-based structural approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Landorf Karl B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. Methods The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i foot orthoses, (ii footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Results Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%, footwear (54% and home-based exercise (72%. Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Conclusions Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials
Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B; Hill, Keith D; Lord, Stephen R; Menz, Hylton B
Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392.
Cairns, Matthew; Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Diallo, Diadier; Konate, Amadou T; Dicko, Alassane; Chandramohan, Daniel; Greenwood, Brian; Milligan, Paul
Event dependence, the phenomenon in which future risk depends on past disease history, is not commonly accounted for in the statistical models used by malaria researchers. However, recently developed methods for the analysis of repeated events allow this to be done, while also accounting for heterogeneity in risk and nonsusceptible subgroups. Accounting for event dependence allows separation of the primary effect of an intervention from its total effect, which is composed of its primary effect on risk of disease and its secondary effect mediated by event dependence. To illustrate these methods and show the insights they can provide, we have reanalyzed 2 trials of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in Boussé, Burkina Faso, and Kati, Mali, in 2008-2009, as well as a trial of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants in Navrongo, Ghana, in 2000-2004. SMC completely protects a large fraction of recipients, while intermittent preventive treatment in infants provides modest partial protection, consistent with the rationale of these 2 different chemopreventive approaches. SMC has a primary effect that is substantially greater than the total effect previously estimated by trials, with the lower total effect mediated by negative event dependence. These methods contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of protection from these interventions and could improve understanding of other tools to control malaria, including vaccines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Design We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. Study sample We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. Results One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI – 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed. PMID:24564697
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica
Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adair, Linda S
Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel
To explore cultural appropriateness of a transported parenting intervention in Panama. Panamanian parents (n = 25) were interviewed after participation in an Australian parenting intervention. A thematic analysis was conducted to interpret qualitative data. Three themes emerged; cultural context, appropriateness of the intervention, and development of support networks. In terms of cultural context, parents described economic difficulties, living in a dangerous world, struggling to balance parenting and work, and using aggressive communication patterns. In terms of appropriateness of the intervention, they rated materials as appropriate, although suggested modifications to its delivery by including children and teachers in the training. Finally, parents commented that the intervention prompted the development of social networks within their communities. Overall, parents considered a transported parenting intervention as appropriate to their local needs. This study might be useful to local governments and international funders in charge of deciding whether transporting parenting interventions North to South as a strategy for violence prevention would be respectful of local needs. Our findings cannot be generalized beyond Panama, but the methodology can be replicated to answer this question in other settings.
Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June
BACKGROUND Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. METHODS A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. RESULTS Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. CONCLUSIONS The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. PMID:18937268
Howells, Lara; Musaddaq, Besma; McKay, Ailsa J; Majeed, Azeem
To review the clinical outcomes of combined diet and physical activity interventions for populations at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Overview of systematic reviews (search dates April-December 2015). Any level of care; no geographical restriction. Adults at high risk of diabetes (as per measures of glycaemia, risk assessment or presence of risk factors). Combined diet and physical activity interventions including ≥2 interactions with a healthcare professional, and ≥12 months follow-up. Primary: glycaemia, diabetes incidence. Secondary: behaviour change, measures of adiposity, vascular disease and mortality. 19 recent reviews were identified for inclusion; 5 with AMSTAR scores vascular disease and mortality outcome data were infrequently reported, and evidence of the impact of intervention on these outcomes was minimal. Evidence for age effect was mixed, and sex and ethnicity effect were little considered. Relatively long-duration lifestyle interventions can limit or delay progression to diabetes under trial conditions. However, outcomes from more time-limited interventions, and those applied in routine clinical settings, appear more variable, in keeping with the findings of recent pragmatic trials. There is little evidence of intervention impact on vascular outcomes or mortality end points in any context. 'Real-world' implementation of lifestyle interventions for diabetes prevention may be expected to lead to modest outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O
Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. © 2014 World Obesity.
Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary
Full Text Available Introduction. Depression in adolescents and young people is associated with reduced social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning, increases in suicide and self-harm behaviours, and problematic substance use. Age-appropriate, evidence-based treatments are required to provide optimal care. Methods. “Evidence mapping” methodology was used to quantify the nature and distribution of the extant high-quality research into the prevention and treatment of depression in young people across psychological, medical, and other treatment domains. Results. Prevention research is dominated by cognitive-behavioral- (CBT- based interventions. Treatment studies predominantly consist of CBT and SSRI medication trials, with few trials of other psychological interventions or complementary/alternative treatments. Quality studies on relapse prevention and treatment for persistent depression are distinctly lacking. Conclusions. This map demonstrates opportunities for future research to address the numerous evidence gaps for interventions to prevent or treat depression in young people, which are of interest to clinical researchers, policy makers, and funding bodies.
Fox, Jeremy K.; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller
The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent–child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent–child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3–5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children’s anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children’s ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent–child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety. PMID:22331442
La Greca, Annette M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Adolescents (N=14; 13-18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths' clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention ( M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed.
Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.
Pérez Fernández, María Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José María; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Román
The aim of this study is to determine whether an educational intervention in perimenopausal women in rural environments achieves significant changes in risk behaviors related to osteoporosis. Randomized clinical trials of parallel groups: 216 women (45-54 years old) of a rural Primary Healthcare service. Pre- and post- intervention were covered: body mass index (BMI), densitometry and blood test (calcium [Ca], parathormone [PTH]). Intervention group (n1=110): 2 interactive workshops on the prevention of osteoporosis. Control group (n2=106): information by post. After the educational intervention, the intervention group maintained its BMI, increased its bone mineral density (BMD) (P<.001) and decreased the Ca (P ≤.048) and PTH (P<.001) levels. The control group increased its BMI (P<.001) and its BMD (P ≤.048), maintained its Ca levels and decreased the PTH values (P=.01). The improvement in the objective parameters related to osteoporosis indicates the importance of health education as a preventive measure in this group of women. It would be interesting to analyze the repercussions of this improvement on a long-term basis in terms of reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D
Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).
Ayalon, Liat; Lev, Sagit; Green, Ohad; Nevo, Uziel
elder maltreatment is a major risk for older adults' mental health, quality of life, health, institutionalisation and even mortality. to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to prevent or stop elder abuse. Studies that were posted between January 2000 and December 2014, written in English, specifically designed to prevent or stop elder maltreatment were included. overall, 24 studies (and four records reporting on the same participants) were kept for the systematic review and the meta-analysis. Studies were broadly grouped into three main categories: (i) interventions designed to improve the ability of professionals to detect or stop elder maltreatment (n = 2), (ii) interventions that target older adults who experience elder maltreatment (n = 3) and (iii) interventions that target caregivers who maltreat older adults (n = 19). Of the latter category, one study targeted family caregivers, five targeted psychological abuse among paid carers and the remaining studies targeted restraint use. The pooled effect of randomised controlled trials (RCTs)/cluster-RCTs that targeted restraint use was significant, supporting the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing restraint use: standardised mean difference: -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.38 to -0.09. the most effective place to intervene at the present time is by directly targeting physical restraint by long-term care paid carers. Specific areas that are still lacking evidence at the present time are interventions that target (i) elder neglect, (ii) public awareness, (iii) older adults who experience maltreatment, (iv) professionals responsible for preventing maltreatment, (v) family caregivers who abuse and (vi) carers who abuse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Claro, Juan Carlos; Candia, Roberto; Rada, Gabriel; Baraona, Fernando; Larrondo, Francisco; Letelier, Luz M
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the main causes of cardiac death. There are two main strategies to prevent it: managing cardiovascular risk factors and reducing the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) constitute the standard therapy for both primary and secondary prevention; however, they are not widely available in settings with limited resources. The antiarrhythmic amiodarone has been proposed as an alternative to ICD. To evaluate the effectiveness of amiodarone for primary or secondary prevention in SCD compared with placebo or no intervention or any other antiarrhythmic drugs in participants at high risk (primary prevention) or who have recovered from a cardiac arrest or a syncope due to Ventricular Tachycardia/Ventricular Fibrillation, or VT/VF (secondary prevention). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO) and LILACS on 26 March 2015. We reviewed reference lists of included studies and selected reviews on the topic, contacted authors of included studies, screened relevant meetings and searched in registers for ongoing trials. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the efficacy of amiodarone versus placebo, no intervention, or other antiarrhythmics in adults. For primary prevention we considered participants at high risk for SCD. For secondary prevention we considered participants recovered from cardiac arrest or syncope due to ventricular arrhythmias. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial authors for missing data. We performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three studies included more than one comparison. We included 24 studies (9,997 participants). Seventeen studies evaluated amiodarone for primary prevention and six
Willich, Stefan N.
Full Text Available Objectives: The recently published HTA-report “Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking” detects a lack of high-quality publications considering the national prevention structures. Included publications do not give any information regarding current interventions in Germany. The goal of this addendum is to give an overview of the federal prevention system and associated measures for behavioural smoking prevention. Methods: Firstly, relevant tobacco prevention structures with associated tasks and activities were identified. Further, a survey of available project information was conducted in December 2007. This procedure based on systematic analysis in PrevNet-network as well as on manual search on the web sites of primary network centres (PrevNet-Knotenpunkte or other relevant federal state organisations. A written, postal questionnaire was conducted among network centres, federal state organisations and selected health insurance funds. Results: Interventions regarding primary prevention of smoking cover a variety of activities and campaigns issued by the Federal Government, several national organisations, federal and local authorities as well as health insurance funds. Institutions such as the German Ministry of Health, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZGA, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ contribute to smoking prevention on national level. Diverse professional associations, workshops or authorities set up the organisational framework for coordination and planning of tobacco prevention on federal state level. Even on communal level institutional structures in terms of local professional departments and committees are established. The health insurance companies and their associations also play a major role in prevention of smoking uptake. “Rauchfrei”, “Be smart, don´ t start”, “Klasse 2000”, “ALF” or “Just be smokefree” are among the most well
Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the pathways through which a preventive intervention targeting young low-SES disruptive boys could result in lower crime involvement during adulthood. Method: The preventive intervention was implemented when the children were between 7 and 9 years and included three components (i.e. social skills, parental…
Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich
To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....
Apostolo, Joao; Cooke, Richard; Bobrowicz-Campos, Elzbieta; Santana, Silvina; Marcucci, Maura; Cano, Antonio; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Holland, Carol
The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of the interventions in preventing progression of pre-frailty and frailty in older adults. More specifically, the review questions are: - What is the effectiveness of interventions in preventing or reducing frailty in older adults? - How
Merry, S; McDowell, H; Hetrick, S; Bir, J; Muller, N
Depression is the fourth most important disease in the estimation of the burden of disease Murray 1996 and is a common problem with prevalence rates estimated to be as high as 8% in young people. Depression in young people is associated with poor academic performance, social dysfunction, substance abuse, suicide attempts, and completed suicide (NHMRC 1997). This has precipitated the development of programmes aimed at preventing the onset of depression. This review evaluates evidence for the effectiveness of these prevention programmes. To determine whether psychological and/or educational interventions (both universal and targeted) are effective in reducing risk of depressive disorder by reducing depressive symptoms immediately after intervention or by preventing the onset of depressive disorder in children and adolescents over the next one to three years. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials register (August 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to December Week 3 2002), EMBASE (1980 to January Week 2 2003), PsychInfo (1886 to January Week 2 2003) and ERIC (1985 to December 2002) were searched. In addition, conference abstracts, the reference lists of included studies, and other reviews were searched and experts in the field were contacted. Each identified study was assessed for possible inclusion by two independent reviewers based on the methods sections. The determinants for inclusion were that the trial include a psychological and/or educational prevention programme for young people aged 5 to 19 years-old, who did not meet DSM or ICD criteria for depression and/or did not fall into the clinical range on standardised, validated, and reliable rating scales of depression. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed by two independent reviewers according to a list of pre-determined criteria, which were based on quality ratings devised by Moncrieff and colleagues (Moncrieff 2001). Outcome data was extracted and entered into Revman 4.2. Means
Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children’s neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children’s lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. PMID:27044699
Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Steiker, Lori K Holleran; Dustman, Patricia
The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model of methods used to develop culturally focused interventions. We describe a continuum of approaches ranging from non-adapted/surface-structure adapted programs to culturally grounded programs, and present recent examples of interventions resulting from the application of each of these approaches. The model has implications for categorizing culturally focused prevention efforts more accurately, and for gauging the time, resources, and level of community engagement necessary to develop programs using each of the different methods. The model also has implications for funding decisions related to the development and evaluation of programs, and for planning of participatory research approaches with community members.
Winters, Georgia M; Greene-Colozzi, Emily; Jeglic, Elizabeth L
Suicide is one of the leading causes of inmate deaths in correctional settings. Furthermore, there is heightened risk for suicide among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) who present in jails and prisons. In the present article, the authors review suicide risk factors associated with SMI, with emphasis on incarcerated individuals, and discuss the best practices in assessing risk for suicide. The authors review interventions designed to prevent suicide among individuals with SMI in forensic settings. The article also points to the need for continued research to inform the development of assessment tools and intervention strategies for this population.
Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gladstone, Tracy G; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Rothberg, Phyllis; Nidetz, Jennifer; Diehl, Anne; DeFrino, Daniela T; Harris, Mary; Ching, Eumene; Eder, Milton; Canel, Jason; Bell, Carl; Beardslee, William R; Brown, C Hendricks; Griffiths, Kathleen; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W
The high prevalence of major depressive disorder in adolescents and the low rate of successful treatment highlight a pressing need for accessible, affordable adolescent depression prevention programs. The Internet offers opportunities to provide adolescents with high quality, evidence-based programs without burdening or creating new care delivery systems. Internet-based interventions hold promise, but further research is needed to explore the efficacy of these approaches and ways of integrating emerging technologies for behavioral health into the primary care system. We developed a primary care Internet-based depression prevention intervention, Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training (CATCH-IT), to evaluate a self-guided, online approach to depression prevention and are conducting a randomized clinical trial comparing CATCH-IT to a general health education Internet intervention. This article documents the research framework and randomized clinical trial design used to evaluate CATCH-IT for adolescents, in order to inform future work in Internet-based adolescent prevention programs. The rationale for this trial is introduced, the current status of the study is reviewed, and potential implications and future directions are discussed. The current protocol represents the only current, systematic approach to connecting at-risk youth with self-directed depression prevention programs in a medical setting. This trial undertakes the complex public health task of identifying at-risk individuals through mass screening of the general primary care population, rather than solely relying on volunteers recruited over the Internet, and the trial design provides measures of both symptomatic and diagnostic clinical outcomes. At the present time, we have enrolled N = 234 adolescents/expected 400 and N = 186 parents/expected 400 in this trial, from N = 6 major health systems. The protocol described here provides a model
Paiva, V; Garcia, J; Rios, L F; Santos, A O; Terto, V; Munõz-Laboy, M
Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people's sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights training of 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles.
Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.
Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192
Allaouat, Sara; Roustaei, Zahra; Verbeek, Jos; Ruotsalainen, Jani
The objective of the study was to develop quality indicators for preventive effectiveness and to evaluate their use with Cochrane Reviews of primary preventive interventions. Based on the quality of care framework, we searched the literature to develop a set of quality indicators. Two authors applied the quality indicators independently to a sample of Cochrane systematic reviews of primary prevention. Five quality indicators were developed: sample size, directness of evidence, adherence, harm, and costs. We applied the quality indicators to a random sample of 84 of a total of 264 Cochrane reviews of primary preventive interventions. Only 70% reviews (n = 59) complied with the indicator sample size, whereas 61% (n = 51) complied with directness of the outcome, 48% (n = 40) with adherence, 76% (n = 64) with harm, and 46% (n = 39) with the indicator cost. Applying the five quality indicators is feasible. The quality of evidence in reviews of primary prevention can be substantially improved. Trialists and review authors should provide more information especially on adherence, costs, and indirectness of the outcome. Methodological research is needed on how to incorporate cost information in systematic reviews and how to better deal with indirectness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fischer Walker, Christa L; Friberg, Ingrid K; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E
Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015.
Christa L Fischer Walker
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. CONCLUSION: Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4 by 2015.
Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Friberg, Ingrid K.; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E.
Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. Methods and Findings We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Conclusion Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21445330
Ockene, Ira S.; Tellez, Trinidad L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Reed, George W.; Mordes, John; Merriam, Philip A.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Handelman, Garry; Nicolosi, Robert
Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of a community-based, literacy-sensitive, and culturally tailored lifestyle intervention on weight loss and diabetes risk reduction among low-income, Spanish-speaking Latinos at increased diabetes risk. Methods. Three hundred twelve participants from Lawrence, Massachusetts, were randomly assigned to lifestyle intervention care (IC) or usual care (UC) between 2004 and 2007. The intervention was implemented by trained Spanish-speaking individuals from the community. Each participant was followed for 1 year. Results. The participants’ mean age was 52 years; 59% had less than a high school education. The 1-year retention rate was 94%. Compared with the UC group, the IC group had a modest but significant weight reduction (−2.5 vs 0.63 lb; P = .04) and a clinically meaningful reduction in hemoglobin A1c (−0.10% vs −0.04%; P = .009). Likewise, insulin resistance improved significantly in the IC compared with the UC group. The IC group also had greater reductions in percentage of calories from total and saturated fat. Conclusions. We developed an inexpensive, culturally sensitive diabetes prevention program that resulted in weight loss, improved HbA1c, and improved insulin resistance in a high-risk Latino population. PMID:22390448
Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen
About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents
Safdar, Nasia; Abad, Cybéle
Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Education of healthcare providers is a fundamental measure to prevent HCAI. To perform a systematic review to determine the effect of educational strategies of healthcare providers for reducing HCAI. Multiple computerized databases for the years 1966 to November 1, 2006, supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles. English-language controlled studies and randomized trials that included an educational intervention and provided data on the incidence of one or more kinds of HCAIs were included. Data were extracted on study design, patient population, type of intensive care unit, details of the educational intervention, target group for intervention, incidence of HCAI, duration of follow-up, and costs of intervention. Both investigators abstracted data using a standard data abstraction form; study quality was also assessed. A total of 26 studies used a number of different educational programs targeting varied study populations of healthcare providers to determine their effect on HCAI rates. Most were pre-post intervention studies and were implemented in the intensive care setting. There was a statistically significant decrease in infection rates after intervention in 21 studies, with risk ratios ranging from 0 to 0.79. The beneficial effect of education was apparent in teaching and nonteaching institutions and in lesser-developed countries and developed nations. Only English language studies were included. Because of the study designs and limitations of the individual studies, a causal association between educational interventions and reduced HCAI rates cannot be made. The implementation of educational interventions may reduce HCAI considerably. Cluster randomized trials using validated educational interventions and costing methods are recommended to determine the independent effect of education on reducing HCAI and the cost-savings that may be realized with
Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M
To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa
Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.
Manuel, D G; Ho, T H; Harper, S; Anderson, G M; Lynch, J; Rosella, L C
Most individual preventive therapies potentially narrow or widen health disparities depending on the difference in community effectiveness across socioeconomic position (SEP). The equity tipping point (defined as the point at which health disparities become larger) can be calculated by varying components of community effectiveness such as baseline risk of disease, intervention coverage and/or intervention efficacy across SEP. We used a simple modelling approach to estimate the community effectiveness of diabetes prevention across SEP in Canada under different scenarios of intervention coverage. Five-year baseline diabetes risk differed between the lowest and highest income groups by 1.76%. Assuming complete coverage across all income groups, the difference was reduced to 0.90% (144 000 cases prevented) with lifestyle interventions and 1.24% (88 100 cases prevented) with pharmacotherapy. The equity tipping point was estimated to be a coverage difference of 30% for preventive interventions (100% and 70% coverage among the highest and lowest income earners, respectively). Disparities in diabetes risk could be measurably reduced if existing interventions were equally adopted across SEP. However, disparities in coverage could lead to increased inequity in risk. Simple modelling approaches can be used to examine the community effectiveness of individual preventive interventions and their potential to reduce (or increase) disparities. The equity tipping point can be used as a critical threshold for disparities analyses.
Burgermaster, Marissa; Koroly, Jenna; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Gray, Heewon L.
Background: Schools are frequent settings for childhood obesity prevention; however, intervention results are mixed. Classroom context may hold important clues to improving these interventions. Methods: We used mixed methods to examine classroom context during a curriculum intervention taught by trained instructors in fifth grade classrooms. We…
Achana, Felix A; Sutton, A.J.; Kendrick, D.; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R.; Hubbard, Stephanie J.; Cooper, Nicola
There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a “usual care or no intervention” which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase pr...
Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia
Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.
Porchia, B R; Baldasseroni, A; Dellisanti, C; Lorini, C; Bonaccorsi, G
The prevention of road traffic accidents should be considered a serious public health concern, since they are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the main cause of death for young people aged 15-29. Evidences from many countries show that successes in preventing road traffic injuries can be achieved through concerted efforts at national level. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of two interventions to prevent road traffic accidents: the introduction of graduated driver licensing (GDL) and the interventions to improve pedestrian and cyclist visibility. Our search started with a scoping review on the interventions to prevent road traffic accidents to allow the development of a logical framework of traffic accidents. Specific and answerable questions formulated according to PICO scheme and combinations of keywords were used to perform a systematic search in the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Evidence, Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) and Google. References of selected papers were searched. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible. No temporal limits or linguistic filters were applied. 160 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were found for the question of the introduction of GDL program and 188 on the improvement of visibility in cyclists and pedestrians. After selection, four papers were included in qualitative synthesis for each question. All included studies underwent quality evaluation. GDL programs seem to be effective in reducing crash rates among young drivers, in particular in 16 year-old. Programs with more restrictions seem also to reduce fatal events. To improve visibility of pedestrians and cyclists, street lighting has been suggested as an intervention able to improve driver's visual capabilities and ability to detect roadway hazards and to prevent car crashes. Visibility aids (fluorescent
Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C
In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.
Sanders, M R
This paper presents a model for the development of a comprehensive, multilevel, preventively-oriented parenting and family support strategy to reduce family risk factors associated with drug abuse in young people. If parenting interventions are to make a significant impact at a population level on the prevalence of dysfunctional parenting practices, there is a need for an ecological approach to parenting support. Such an approach needs to target a variety of social contexts that are in a position to provide parents with access to evidence-based parenting interventions. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is discussed as an example of such an approach to illustrate the distinguishing features of a population level strategy. The core constructs underpinning the Triple P system include the promotion of parental self-regulation (self-sufficiency, self-efficacy, self-management, personal agency, and problem solving), through making parenting programs of adequate intensity widely available in the community through flexible delivery modalities (individual, group, telephone assisted and self-directed). The system comprises a tiered continuum of increasingly intensive parenting interventions ranging from media interventions with wide reach, to intensive behavioural family interventions with narrow reach for high-risk families where parenting problems are complicated by other factors including marital conflict, parental mood disturbance, and lack of social support. The scientific basis of the system of intervention and possible directions for future research is discussed.
Cavallo, David N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; McQueen, Amy; Ramirez, Amelie; Riley, William T
Social media are now used by a majority of American internet users. Social media platforms encourage participants to share information with their online social connections and exchange user-generated content. Significant numbers of people are already using social media to share health-related information. As such, social media provide an opportunity for "user-generated" cancer control and prevention interventions that employ users' behavior, knowledge, and existing social networks for the creation and dissemination of interventions. These interventions also enable novel data collection techniques and research designs that will allow investigators to examine real-time behavioral responses to interventions. Emerging social media-based interventions for modifying cancer-related behaviors have been applied to such domains as tobacco use, diet, physical activity, and sexual practices, and several examples are discussed for illustration purposes. Despite some promising early findings, challenges including inadequate user engagement, privacy concerns, and lack of internet access among some groups need to be addressed in future research. Recommendations for advancing the field include stronger partnerships with commercial technology companies, utilization of rapid and adaptive designs to identify successful strategies for user engagement, rigorous and iterative efficacy testing of these strategies, and inclusive methods for intervention dissemination. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Hajar Naji-Esfahani; Mahsa Zamani; Seyed Mohamad Marandi; Vahid Shaygannejad; Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard
Background: Migraine is a neurovascular disorder and any interventions improving endothelial function may contribute to its treatment and prevention of vascular complications like ischemic stroke. Yoga has been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems. However, no randomized controlled studies to date have investigated its effects on endothelial function of migraineurs. Methods: A total of 42 women patients with migraine were enrolled and randomized into either a...
Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, V?nio Andr?; Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Moreira, Patr?cia Sousa dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C.; Reis, Mitermayer Galv?o; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro,Guilherme Sousa
Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by ...
Velicer, Wayne F.; Redding, Colleen A.; Paiva, Andrea L.; Mauriello, Leanne M.; Blissmer, Bryan; Oatley, Karin; Meier, Kathryn S.; Babbin, Steven F.; McGee, Heather; Prochaska, James O.; Burditt, Caitlin; Fernandez, Anne C.
This study examined the effectiveness of two transtheoretical model-tailored, computer-delivered interventions designed to impact multiple substance use or energy balance behaviors in a middle school population recruited in schools. Twenty middle schools in Rhode Island including sixth grade students (N = 4,158) were stratified and randomly assigned by school to either a substance use prevention (decreasing smoking and alcohol) or an energy balance (increasing physical activity, fruit and veg...
Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia.We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel.An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600.A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.
Marc, Isabelle; Toureche, Narimane; Ernst, Edzard; Hodnett, Ellen D; Blanchet, Claudine; Dodin, Sylvie; Njoya, Merlin M
Anxiety during pregnancy is a common problem. Anxiety and stress could have consequences on the course of the pregnancy and the later development of the child. Anxiety responds well to treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and/or medication. Non-pharmacological interventions such as mind-body interventions, known to decrease anxiety in several clinical situations, might be offered for treating and preventing anxiety during pregnancy. To assess the benefits of mind-body interventions during pregnancy in preventing or treating women's anxiety and in influencing perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), MEDLINE (1950 to 30 November 2010), EMBASE (1974 to 30 November 2010), the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (1 December 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov (December 2010) and Current Controlled Trials (1 December 2010), searched the reference lists of selected studies and contacted professionals and authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, involving pregnant women of any age at any time from conception to one month after birth, comparing mind-body interventions with a control group. Mind-body interventions include: autogenic training, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, imagery, meditation, prayer, auto-suggestion, tai-chi and yoga. Control group includes: standard care, other pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions, other types of mind-body interventions or no treatment at all. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion all assessed risk of bias for each included study. We extracted data independently using an agreed form and checked it for accuracy. We included eight trials (556 participants), evaluating hypnotherapy (one trial), imagery (five trials), autogenic training (one trial) and yoga (one trial). Due to the small number of studies per intervention and to the diversity of outcome measurements, we performed no meta
Finch, Linda; Janda, Monika; Loescher, Lois J; Hacker, Elke
Print-based health promotion interventions are being phased out to bring forth more appealing and assessable new technology applications. This review aimed to evaluate the current literature on the use of mobile text messaging and similar electronic technology interventions in the area of skin cancer prevention. A search of studies guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was conducted on mobile technology interventions for improving skin cancer prevention in the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. Overall, 136 articles were screened for eligibility between 2001 (earliest relevant article found) and November 2015. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, five were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), two were controlled clinical trials, and one was a cohort study. Five studies used text messages as an intervention, two used mobile phone applications, and another used electronic messages via email. All studies resulted in self-reported behaviour change in at least one of their outcome measures (e.g., sunscreen application, seeking shade). While the behaviour change outcomes are promising, the lack of change in more objective measures such as sunburn indicates a need to further improve mobile phone technology-delivered interventions in order to have a greater impact on skin cancer prevention. Future studies may consider the use of objective outcome measures (e.g., sunscreen weight), electronic diaries, or behavioural outcomes in social networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Moran, Lisa J; Harrison, Paul; Huang, Terry T-K; Teede, Helena; Skouteris, Helen
Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic. In order to address this problem, we propose that just like all successful public health approaches seeking to change behaviour, individual lifestyle interventions must be provided in the context of a supportive environment that enables, incentivises and rewards healthy changes. Future research should focus on a systems approach that integrates the needs of individuals with the context within which they exist. Borrowing from the social marketing principle of 'audience segmentation', we also need to truly understand the needs of individuals to design appropriately tailored interventions. This approach should also be applied to the preconception period for comprehensive prevention approaches. Additionally, relevant policy needs to reflect the changing evidence-based climate. Interventions in the clinical setting need to be integrally linked to multipronged obesity prevention efforts in the community, so that healthy weight goals are reinforced throughout the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LaCroix, Jessica M; Snyder, Leslie B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Johnson, Blair T
This meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize evaluations of mass media-delivered HIV prevention interventions, assess the effectiveness of interventions in improving condom use and HIV-related knowledge, and identify moderators of effectiveness. We systematically searched electronic databases, relevant Web sites, related journals, and reference lists of previous reviews and included studies. Studies that quantitatively evaluated the effectiveness of mass media-delivered HIV prevention using pre-/post-campaign assessments, targeted the general population, reported outcomes of interest, and were available as of September 30, 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Raters coded report, intervention, and sample characteristics. The standardized mean difference, d, comparing pretest and posttest assessments was calculated for each study sample. Effect sizes were analyzed incorporating random-effects assumptions. Of the 433 obtained and screened reports, 54 reports containing evaluations of 72 interventions using 93 samples (N = 142,196) met the selection criteria and were included. Campaigns were associated with increases in condom use [d+ = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.18 to 0.21], transmission knowledge (d+ = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.41), and prevention knowledge (d+ = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.52). Increases in condom use were larger for longer campaigns and in nations that scored lower on the human development index. Increases in transmission knowledge were larger to the extent that respondents reported greater campaign exposure, for more recent campaigns, and for nations that scored lower on the human development index. Mass media interventions may be useful in reducing global HIV/AIDS disparities because of their reach and effectiveness.
Full Text Available Too often basic research on etiological processes that contribute to substance use outcomes is disconnected from efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming. Substance use on college campuses is an area of concern where translational efforts that bring together basic scientists and prevention/intervention practitioners have potential for high impact. We describe an effort at a large, public, urban university in the United States to bring together researchers across the campus with expertise in college behavioral health with university administration and health/wellness practitioners to address college student substance use and mental health. The project Spit for Science examines how genetic and environmental influences contribute to behavioral health outcomes across the college years. We argue that findings coming out of basic research can be used to develop more tailored prevention and intervention programming that incorporates both biologically and psychosocially influenced risk factors. Examples of personalized programming suggest this may be a fruitful way to advance the field and reduce risky substance use.
Linda J Cobiac
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite many decades of declining mortality rates in the Western world, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In this research we evaluate the optimal mix of lifestyle, pharmaceutical and population-wide interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a discrete time Markov model we simulate the ischaemic heart disease and stroke outcomes and cost impacts of intervention over the lifetime of all Australian men and women, aged 35 to 84 years, who have never experienced a heart disease or stroke event. Best value for money is achieved by mandating moderate limits on salt in the manufacture of bread, margarine and cereal. A combination of diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor and low-cost statin, for everyone with at least 5% five-year risk of cardiovascular disease, is also cost-effective, but lifestyle interventions aiming to change risky dietary and exercise behaviours are extremely poor value for money and have little population health benefit. CONCLUSIONS: There is huge potential for improving efficiency in cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia. A tougher approach from Government to mandating limits on salt in processed foods and reducing excessive statin prices, and a shift away from lifestyle counselling to more efficient absolute risk-based prescription of preventive drugs, could cut health care costs while improving population health.
Cobiac, Linda J; Magnus, Anne; Lim, Stephen; Barendregt, Jan J; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo
Despite many decades of declining mortality rates in the Western world, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In this research we evaluate the optimal mix of lifestyle, pharmaceutical and population-wide interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In a discrete time Markov model we simulate the ischaemic heart disease and stroke outcomes and cost impacts of intervention over the lifetime of all Australian men and women, aged 35 to 84 years, who have never experienced a heart disease or stroke event. Best value for money is achieved by mandating moderate limits on salt in the manufacture of bread, margarine and cereal. A combination of diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor and low-cost statin, for everyone with at least 5% five-year risk of cardiovascular disease, is also cost-effective, but lifestyle interventions aiming to change risky dietary and exercise behaviours are extremely poor value for money and have little population health benefit. There is huge potential for improving efficiency in cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia. A tougher approach from Government to mandating limits on salt in processed foods and reducing excessive statin prices, and a shift away from lifestyle counselling to more efficient absolute risk-based prescription of preventive drugs, could cut health care costs while improving population health.
Young, Sean D; Cumberland, William G; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas
Social media technologies offer new approaches to HIV prevention and promotion of testing. We examined the efficacy of the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. In this cluster randomised controlled trial, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima (including Callao) who had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were 18 years of age or older, were HIV negative or serostatus unknown, and had a Facebook account or were willing to create one (N=556) were randomly assigned (1:1) by concealed allocation to join intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. For the intervention, Peruvian MSM were trained and assigned to be HIV prevention mentors (peer-leaders) to participants in Facebook groups. The interventions period lasted 12 weeks. Participants in control groups received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru and participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants also completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviours and social media use at baseline and 12 week follow-up. The primary outcome was the number of participants who received a free HIV test at a local community clinic. The facebook groups were analysed as clusters to account for intracluster correlations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01701206. Of 49 peer-leaders recruited, 34 completed training and were assigned at random to the intervention Facebook groups. Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted
Bregnhøj, Anne; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
for this study and delivered by teachers specially trained in the prevention of hand eczema; the other half received normal training and served as a control group. All apprentices completed self-administered questionnaires including questions regarding hand eczema, use of gloves and degree of wet work, and were......ObjectivesTo investigate whether an evidence-based intervention could reduce the incidence of hand eczema in a cohort of Danish hairdressing apprentices during their training, as hairdressing apprentices are known to have a high risk of developing hand eczema.MethodsThis study was a clinically...... controlled, prospective intervention study. Within 2 weeks of starting their training, 502 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in the study on occupational hand eczema. Approximately half of the apprentices were assigned to an intervention group and received an evidence-based training program developed...
Croker, Helen; Beeken, Rebecca J
Obesity presents a challenge for practitioners, policy makers, researchers and for those with obesity themselves. This review focuses on psychological approaches to its management and prevention in children and adults. Through exploring the work of the late Professor Jane Wardle, we look at the earliest behavioural treatment approaches and how psychological theory has been used to develop more contemporary approaches, for example incorporating genetic feedback and habit formation theory into interventions. We also explore how Jane has challenged thinking about the causal pathways of obesity in relation to eating behaviour. Beyond academic work, Jane was an advocate of developing interventions which had real-world applications. Therefore, we discuss how she not only developed new interventions but also made these widely available and the charity that she established.
Donati, Maria Anna; Primi, Caterina; Chiesi, Francesca
This study aimed at testing the efficacy of an integrative intervention to prevent adolescent problem gambling acting on a multidimensional set of factors including gambling related knowledge and misconceptions, economic perception of gambling, and superstitious thinking. A pre- and post-test design was performed with 181 Italian adolescents (64% boys; Mean age = 15.95) randomly assigned to two groups (Training and No Training). Results revealed that the intervention was effective in improving correct knowledge about gambling and reducing misconceptions, perception of gambling's profitability, and superstitious thinking. Except for misconceptions, these effects were obtained both in participants who were classified as Non-problem and At-Risk/Problem gamblers at the beginning of the intervention. Findings attested also that the training effects were stable over time, and that some changes in gambling behavior were produced. Findings were discussed referring to indications for future research aiming at confirming and extending the present results.
Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew
Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F P; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl
Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. The marketing plan focused on "resiliency building" rather than "depression intervention" and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1-10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care.
Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.
Heydari, Naveed; Larsen, David A; Neira, Marco; Beltrán Ayala, Efraín; Fernandez, Prissila; Adrian, Jefferson; Rochford, Rosemary; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21%) of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people's decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness.
Winston, Flaura K; Jacobsohn, Lela
Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research to practice through the presentation of a practical, systematic, six-step approach that borrows from established frameworks in health promotion and disease prevention. Central to the approach is the creation of a programme theory that links a theoretically grounded, empirically tested behaviour change model to intervention components and their evaluation. Serving as a compass, a programme theory allows for systematic focusing of resources on the likely most potent behavioural intervention components and directs evaluation of intervention impact and implementation. For illustration, the six-step approach is applied to the creation of a new peer-to-peer campaign, Ride Like a Friend/Drive Like You Care, to promote safe teen driver and passenger behaviours.
Heydari, Naveed; Larsen, David A.; Neira, Marco; Beltrán Ayala, Efraín; Fernandez, Prissila; Adrian, Jefferson; Rochford, Rosemary; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. aegypti control in resource-limited communities. We surveyed residents from 40 households in a high-risk community at the urban periphery in the city of Machala, Ecuador, on dengue perceptions, vector control interventions, household expenditures, and factors influencing purchasing decisions. The results of this study show that households spend a monthly median of US$2.00, or 1.90% (range: 0.00%, 9.21%) of their family income on Ae. aegypti control interventions. Households reported employing, on average, five different mosquito control and dengue prevention interventions, including aerosols, liquid sprays, repellents, mosquito coils, and unimpregnated bed nets. We found that effectiveness and cost were the most important factors that influence people’s decisions to purchase a mosquito control product. Our findings will inform the development and deployment of new Ae. aegypti control interventions by the public health and private sectors, and add to prior studies that have focused on the economic burden of dengue-like illness. PMID:28212349
Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.
Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308
Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Byrne, Nuala M; Lingwood, Barbara E; Rowlands, Ingrid J; Foxcroft, Katie; McIntyre, H David
To examine the feasibility of an individualized exercise program to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in obese pregnant women. The study was a pilot randomized controlled trial with obese pregnant women (intervention group, individualized exercise program [n = 25]; control group, usual care [n = 25]). Average weekly energy expenditure (MET hours per week and kilocalories per week) of exercise-specific activity was assessed during pregnancy using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Fasting glucose and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed at baseline and 20, 28, and 36 weeks' gestation. Of the women in the intervention group, 16 of 22 (73%) achieved more than 900 kcal/week of exercise-based activity at 28 weeks compared with 8 of 19 women in the control group (42%), P = 0.047. However, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) did not differ between the groups. This intervention was feasible and prompted a modest increase in physical activity. However, we are not confident that this intervention would be sufficient to prevent GDM.
Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research to practice through the presentation of a practical, systematic, six-step approach that borrows from established frameworks in health promotion and disease prevention. Central to the approach is the creation of a programme theory that links a theoretically grounded, empirically tested behaviour change model to intervention components and their evaluation. Serving as a compass, a programme theory allows for systematic focusing of resources on the likely most potent behavioural intervention components and directs evaluation of intervention impact and implementation. For illustration, the six-step approach is applied to the creation of a new peer-to-peer campaign, Ride Like a Friend/Drive Like You Care, to promote safe teen driver and passenger behaviours. PMID:20363817
Luchsinger, José A; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A; Florez, Hermes; Golden, Sherita H; Hazuda, Helen; Crandall, Jill; Venditti, Elizabeth; Watson, Karol; Jeffries, Susan; Manly, Jennifer J; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier
We examined the association of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention arms (lifestyle intervention, metformin, and placebo) with cognition in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We also examined metformin use, incident type 2 diabetes, and glycemia as exposures. The DPP lasted 2.8 years, followed by a 13-month bridge to DPPOS. Cognition was assessed in DPPOS years 8 and 10 (12 and 14 years after randomization) with the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (SEVLT), letter fluency and animal fluency tests, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a composite cognitive score. A total of 2,280 participants (749 lifestyle, 776 metformin, and 755 placebo) aged 63.1 ± 10.7 years underwent cognitive assessments; 67.7% women, 54.6% non-Hispanic white, 20.7% non-Hispanic black, 14.6% Hispanic, 5.5% American Indian, and 4.6% Asian; 26.6% were homozygous or heterozygous for APOE-ε4. At the time of cognitive assessment, type 2 diabetes was higher in the placebo group (57.9%; P cognition across intervention arms. Type 2 diabetes was not related to cognition, but higher glycated hemoglobin at year 8 was related to worse cognition after confounder adjustment. Cumulative metformin exposure was not related to cognition. Exposure to intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin was not related to cognition among DPPOS participants. Higher glycemia was related to worse cognitive performance. Metformin seemed cognitively safe among DPPOS participants. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.
Halli, Shiva S; Buzdugan, Raluca; Ramesh, B M; Gurnani, Vandana; Sharma, Vivek; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F
To develop a model for prioritizing economic sectors for HIV preventive intervention programs in the workplace. This study was undertaken in Karnataka state, India. A 3-stage survey process was undertaken. In the first stage, we reviewed secondary data available from various government departments, identified industries in the private sector with large workforces, and mapped their geographical distribution. In the second stage, an initial rapid risk assessment of industrial sectors was undertaken, using key-informant interviews conducted in relation to a number of enterprises, and in consultation with stakeholders. In the third stage, we used both quantitative (polling booth survey) and qualitative methods (key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions) to study high-risk sectors in-depth, and assessed the need and feasibility of HIV workplace intervention programs. The highest risk sectors were found to be mining, garment/textile, sugar, construction/infrastructure, and fishing industries. Workers in all sectors had at best partial knowledge about HIV/AIDS, coupled with common misconceptions about HIV transmission. There were intersector and intrasector variations in risk and vulnerability across different geographical locations and across different categories of workers. This has implications for the design and implementation of workplace intervention programs. There is tremendous scope for HIV preventive interventions in workplaces in India. Given the variation in HIV risk across economic sectors and limited available resources, there will be increased pressure to prioritize intervention efforts towards high-risk sectors. This study offers a model for rapidly assessing the risk level of economic sectors for HIV intervention programs.
Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN
Ruusunen, A; Voutilainen, S; Karhunen, L; Lehto, S M; Tolmunen, T; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Eriksson, J; Tuomilehto, J; Uusitupa, M; Lindström, J
To assess the effect of lifestyle intervention on depressive symptoms during a 36-month randomized clinical trial designed to prevent Type 2 diabetes. A total of 522 middle-aged participants, who were overweight or obese and had impaired glucose tolerance, were randomized to the lifestyle intervention or control group in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. The intervention group received individualized counselling aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory among a subgroup of 140 participants. On study entry, the mean Beck Depression Inventory scores ± sd were 6.8 ± 5.6 in the intervention group and 6.7 ± 5.5 in the control group. Beck Depression Inventory scores reduced during the intervention study: the mean ± sd (95% CI) reduction was 0.90 ± 4.54 (-1.99 to -0.19) scores in the intervention group and 0.75 ± 4.47 (-1.80 to 0.31) in the control group, with no difference between the groups. In a stepwise linear multivariate regression analysis, the variables with the strongest associations with the change in Beck Depression Inventory scores were baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores, marital status, weight change and change of total energy intake (R(2) = 0.209, P depression scores, with no specific group effect. Among the lifestyle changes, particularly successful reduction of body weight was associated with the greater reduction of depressive symptoms. Thus, regardless of the intensity of the treatment, the success in executing alterations in one's lifestyle and behaviour is associated with beneficial changes in mood. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.
Ohrig, E; Geiss, H C; Haas, G M; Schwandt, P
We describe the design and baseline data of the Prevention Education Program (PEP), a home-based and family oriented intervention program, aimed to assess and improve cardiovascular risk factors in school children and their families during an intervention period of 10 y. At study entry all participants were randomized either to an intervention group (screening and intervention program) or to a control group (risk screening, general advice). Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, elevated lipids, smoking, obesity) as well as dietary behaviour are evaluated yearly using structured interview, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and seven-day dietary protocol. During the years 1993-1998, 3547 adults (age 36.2+/-7 y) and 3495 children (age 6.5+/-2 y) were recruited. Adults show a high prevalence of risk factors: hypertension 21%; active smoking 39%, elevated LDL-cholesterol 19%; and obesity 42%. Children exhibit these risk factors in comparable frequency: hypertension 20%; passive smoking 44%; elevated LDL-cholesterol 17%; and obesity 19%. The analysis of the dietary protocols (1926 adults, 1569 children) shows that both generations adhere to a diet exceeding the recommended fat intake (adults 38% of total energy, children 38%), while carbohydrate intake (adults 43% of total energy intake, children 50%) is reduced compared to NCEP-(step I)-guidelines. The finding, that children show a prevalence of risk factors which is comparable to that found in adults, supports the need for an early beginning of intervention. Since both generations adhere to an unhealthy diet which contributes to cardiovascular risk, dietary intervention may be a promising method in primary prevention of cardiovascular risk.
Hsu, Justine; Zinsou, Cyprien; Parkhurst, Justin; N'Dour, Marguerite; Foyet, Léger; Mueller, Dirk H
Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a
Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea
The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.
Soletti Asha; Guilamo-Ramos Vincent; Burnette Denise; Sharma Shilpi; Bouris Alida
Abstract Background Despite the centrality of family in Indian society, relatively little is known about family-based communication concerning sexual behaviour and HIV/AIDS in rural Indian families. To date, very few family-based adolescent HIV-prevention interventions have been developed for rural Indian youth. This study conducted formative research with youth aged 14 to18 years and their parents in order to assess the feasibility of conducting a family-based HIV-prevention intervention for...
Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.
Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J. Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R.
The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:23226912
Kolko, Rachel P; Emery, Rebecca L; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D
Most women who quit smoking during pregnancy will relapse postpartum. Interventions for sustained postpartum abstinence can benefit from understanding prenatal characteristics associated with treatment response. Given that individuals with psychiatric disorders or elevated depressive symptoms have difficulty quitting smoking and that increases in depressive symptoms prenatally are common, we examined the relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, prenatal depressive symptoms, and stress to postpartum relapse prevention intervention response. Pregnant women (N = 300) who quit smoking during pregnancy received intervention (with specialized focus on mood, weight, and stress [STARTS] or a comparison [SUPPORT]) to prevent postpartum relapse. As previously published, nearly one-third and one-quarter of women achieved biochemically-confirmed sustained abstinence at 24- and 52-weeks postpartum, with no difference in abstinence rates between the interventions. Women completed psychiatric interviews and questionnaires during pregnancy. Smoking was assessed in pregnancy, and 24- and 52-weeks postpartum. Psychiatric disorders did not predict sustained abstinence or treatment response. However, treatment response was moderated by end-of-pregnancy depressive symptoms (χ2 = 9.98, p = .002) and stress (χ2 = 6.90, p = .01) at 24- and 52-weeks postpartum and remained significant after including covariates. Women with low distress achieved higher abstinence rates in SUPPORT than in STARTS (37% vs. 19% for depressive symptoms; 36% vs. 19% for stress), with no difference for women with high symptoms. Prenatal depressive symptoms and stress predicted differential treatment efficacy in women with low symptoms, not in women with high symptoms. Diagnostic history did not predict treatment differences. Future research to address prenatal distress may help tailor postpartum relapse prevention interventions. We examined prenatal history of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric distress as
Bell, Jennifer M; Shields, Michael D; Watters, Janet; Hamilton, Alistair; Beringer, Timothy; Elliott, Mark; Quinlivan, Rosaline; Tirupathi, Sandya; Blackwood, Bronagh
Corticosteroid treatment is considered the 'gold standard' for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, it is also known to induce osteoporosis and thus increase the risk of vertebral fragility fractures. Good practice in the care of those with DMD requires prevention of these adverse effects. Treatments to increase bone mineral density include bisphosphonates and vitamin D and calcium supplements, and in adolescents with pubertal delay, testosterone. Bone health management is an important part of lifelong care for patients with DMD. To assess the effects of interventions to prevent or treat osteoporosis in children and adults with DMD taking long-term corticosteroids; to assess the effects of these interventions on the frequency of vertebral fragility fractures and long-bone fractures, and on quality of life; and to assess adverse events. On 12 September 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus to identify potentially eligible trials. We also searched the Web of Science ISI Proceedings (2001 to September 2016) and three clinical trials registries to identify unpublished studies and ongoing trials. We contacted correspondence authors of the included studies in the review to obtain information on unpublished studies or work in progress. We considered for inclusion in the review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs involving any bone health intervention for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and fragility fractures in children, adolescents, and adults with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD. The interventions might have included oral and intravenous bisphosphonates, vitamin D supplements, calcium supplements, dietary calcium, testosterone, and weight-bearing activity. Two review authors independently assessed reports and selected potential studies for inclusion, following standard Cochrane methodology. We contacted study authors to obtain further information for clarification on published
Conley, Colleen S; Durlak, Joseph A; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Zahniser, Evan
The uses of technology-delivered mental health treatment options, such as interventions delivered via computer, smart phone, or other communication or information devices, as opposed to primarily face-to-face interventions, are proliferating. However, the literature is unclear about their effectiveness as preventive interventions for higher education students, a population for whom technology-delivered interventions (TDIs) might be particularly fitting and beneficial. This meta-analytic review examines technological mental health prevention programs targeting higher education students either without any presenting problems (universal prevention) or with mild to moderate subclinical problems (indicated prevention). A systematic literature search identified 22 universal and 26 indicated controlled interventions, both published and unpublished, involving 4763 college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, the overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for both universal (0.19) and indicated interventions (0.37) were statistically significant and differed significantly from each other favoring indicated interventions. Skill-training interventions, both universal (0.21) and indicated (0.31), were significant, whereas non-skill-training interventions were only significant among indicated (0.25) programs. For indicated interventions, better outcomes were obtained in those cases in which participants had access to support during the course of the intervention, either in person or through technology (e.g., email, online contact). The positive findings for both universal and indicated prevention are qualified by limitations of the current literature. To improve experimental rigor, future research should provide detailed information on the level of achieved implementation, describe participant characteristics and intervention content, explore the impact of potential moderators and mechanisms of success, collect post-intervention and follow-up data regardless of
Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J
There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison
Felix A Achana
Full Text Available There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i Medicines only, ii Other household products only, iii Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines, iv Poisonous plants; and v Possession of poison control centre (PCC telephone number in households with children.Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model.28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00 while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13, safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50 and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10. No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants.The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel
The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.
Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping
Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis.
Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks
Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.
Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks
Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald et al, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on “joining,” which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached .83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022
Werch, Chudley Chad
This paper describes the Behavior-Image Model (BIM), an emerging and innovative paradigm for planning brief interventions for adolescents that fuse the prevention of harmful behaviors with the promotion of healthy habits. We discuss the components of the BIM as a new paradigm for creating multiple behavior health interventions, as well as the empirical and conceptual underpinnings of the model, and present Project Sport as an illustration of how the BIM may be applied to construct a brief multi-behavior intervention. The BIM posits that selected salient images of others and ourselves may be used to cast gain- and loss-framed messages coupling and motivating health-promoting and health-risk behaviors within single interventions. This content in turn activates prototypes and future self-images through the processes of social and self-comparison, leading to improvements in risk and protective factors and subsequent change in targeted health-promoting and health-risk behaviors. Recommendations are offered for conducting future research integrating health-risk and health-promoting behaviors in both brief and non-brief interventions for adolescents and adults.
Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Galanti, Giorgio; Cala', Piergiuseppe; Calabrese, Maria
The aim of this study was to review current evidence on interventional studies aimed at the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Asian population with lifestyle interventions. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes sharply increased in most Asian countries during the last decades. This issue has now also relevant implication for Europe where different surveys are also consistently revealing an higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other and major CVD risk factors among subjects originating from Asian Countries than in the native population. Nutrition and lifestyle transition seem to play a role in disclosing the predisposition for the development of type 2 diabetes and great interest is now shown toward the possibility to intervene with lifestyle intervention on at risk populations. A meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials showed that lifestyle interventions are highly effective also in the Asian population. All studies were, however, conducted with an individual approach based on the identification of high-risk individuals. When ethnic minority groups have to be addressed, an approach directed to the community rather than to the individual might, however, be more effective. This review reinforces the importance for policy-makers to consider the involvement of the whole community of minority immigrant groups with lifestyle intervention programs.
Pelleboer-Gunnink, Hannah A; Van der Valk, Inge E; Branje, Susan J T; Van Doorn, Muriel D; Deković, Maja
Children of divorced parents have an increased risk of a variety of problems in comparison to children from intact families. Therefore, several intervention programs have been developed directed at children of divorced parents. Yet, empirical data on the effectiveness of these interventions are limited. This study evaluated the school-based, child-directed prevention program Kids In Divorce Situations (KIDS) using a randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 156 children randomly assigned at the school level into an experimental (80 children) and control condition (76 children). In addition, 131 mothers and 76 fathers participated in the study. Four assessments took place: a pretest, a posttest, and two follow-up assessments conducted 6 months and 1 year after finishing KIDS. Latent growth analyses demonstrated that the intervention significantly reduced child-reported emotional problems and enhanced child-reported communication with the father and mother-reported communication with the child. The effect sizes ranged from .30-.63. Few moderation effects of gender, time since divorce, or perceived parental conflict on the intervention effects were found. After parental divorce, a limited school-based intervention for children can be efficacious in promoting children's emotional well-being and parent-child communication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background : There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Method : We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37 or to a waiting list (assessment only group (n=37. Results : In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions : A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure.
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked with several acute maternal health risks and long-term development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Intrauterine exposure to GDM similarly increases offspring risk of early life health complications and later disease. GDM recurrence is common, affecting 40–73% of women, and augments associated maternal/fetal/child health risks. Modifiable and independent risk factors for GDM include maternal excessive gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Lifestyle interventions that target diet, activity, and behavioral strategies can effectively modify adiposity. Randomized clinical trials testing the effects of lifestyle interventions during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain have generally shown mixed effects on reducing GDM incidence. Trials testing the effects of postpartum lifestyle interventions among women with a history of GDM have shown reduced incidence of diabetes and improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, the long-term effects of inter-pregnancy or pre-pregnancy lifestyle interventions on subsequent GDM remain unknown. Future adequately powered and well-controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of lifestyle interventions to prevent GDM and identify pathways to effectively reach reproductive-aged women across all levels of society, before, during, and after pregnancy. PMID:27487229
Wisanskoonwong, Peeranan; Fahy, Kathleen; Hastie, Carolyn
Preterm birth is a significant global health problem with serious short and long term consequences. This paper reviews the research literature to answer the question how effective are the medical interventions that aim to reduce the rates of preterm birth? A systematic search was carried out in CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline and Embase in relation to following medical treatments aimed at preventing preterm births: anti-infective medications, tocolytics, progesterone and cervical cerclage. The research underpinning each type of intervention is critically analysed in order to establish the validity of knowledge claims that are made for each type of intervention. In relation to reducing the rates of preterm births, anti-infectives are only effective in the presence of known infection. Screening for infections during pregnancy is ineffective. Tocolytic agents are not effective in decreasing the preterm birth rates. Progesterone seems to be effective in a select group of pregnant women at higher risk of preterm birth. Cervical cerclage plays a small and an occasional role in preventing some preterm births. This literature review demonstrates that medical interventions aimed at preventing, not just delaying, preterm birth, are not effective at a population level. Providing holistic, antenatal midwifery care for women living in socio-economic disadvantage and/or with an increased risk of preterm birth seems to be a promising strategy to address the negative effects of the social determinants of disease and thus to reduce the rate of preterm births at an individual and a population level. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.
Feng, Yu Yang; Jarde, Alexander; Seo, Ye Rin; Powell, Anne; Nwebube, Nwachukwu; McDonald, Sarah D
This study sought to determine the proportions of women at risk of preterm birth who received progesterone, elective and rescue cerclage, or pessary to prevent preterm birth, by using medical records. The authors also sought to determine whether these proportions differed among primary-, secondary-, and tertiary-level centres. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study and extracted data from consecutive medical charts of women with an estimated date of confinement over 3 months in primary-, secondary-, and tertiary-level centres in Southern Ontario. The study identified women with a previous spontaneous preterm birth or a short cervix and determined whether they were offered and whether they received a preventive intervention for preterm birth. Descriptive statistics and Fisher exact tests were calculated. The authors reviewed 1024 consecutive charts at primary, secondary, and tertiary centres and identified 31 women with a previous spontaneous preterm birth or a short cervix. Of these women, less than one half (42%) received progesterone or cerclage for prevention of preterm birth, and none received pessary. One in four women (26%) were not referred to an obstetrician or maternal-fetal medicine specialist in time for an intervention, and among those referred before 24 weeks of gestation, an intervention was offered to 57% of the women. Less than half of women at risk of spontaneous preterm birth received progesterone, cerclage, or pessary, attesting to the importance of improving knowledge translation methods to encourage timely referral and use of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.
SUMMARY Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth’s best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex. This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D
Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these
Sara A. Freedman
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.
Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James
The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.
Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon
Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI have higher rates of depression than the general population. However, few researchers have assessed the impact of depression on the secondary prevention of CHD in China.The main purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between depression and secondary prevention of CHD in Chinese patients after PCI.This descriptive, cross-sectional one-site study recruited both elective and emergency PCI patients one year after discharge. Data from 1934 patients were collected in the clinic using questionnaires and medical history records between August 2013 and September 2015. Depression was evaluated by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Secondary prevention of CHD was compared between depression and non-depression groups.We found that depression affected secondary prevention of CHD in the following aspects: lipid levels, blood glucose levels, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, and rates of medication use.Depressive patients with CHD are at increased risk of not achieving the lifestyle and risk factor control goals recommended in the 2006 AHA guidelines. Screening should focus on patients after PCI because treating depression can improve outcomes by improving secondary prevention of CHD.
Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0
Hooven, Carole; Pike, Kenneth; Walsh, Elaine
We examined data from 162 families who participated in the prevention program Parents and Youth with Schools, which targeted at-risk high school youth and parents, to understand parent retention in the 15-session Parents as Partners program. We obtained reports from youth, parents and parent interventionists, which included both time-invariant and time-varying data regarding demographic factors; parent, youth and family characteristics; and parents' response to intervention. Utilizing event history analysis, we examined data sequentially in order to determine those variables that predicted continued parent attendance. In the model examining all areas simultaneously, the predictors of parent retention across the full program were parent minority status and age, teen anger and parent-teen conflict over school attendance, as well as parents' reports of group support and interventionists' report of parents' commitment. Overall, the analyses indicated that participants' characteristics, as well as their measureable response to the intervention, can alert researchers to potential program disengagement. Monitoring indicators of disengagement will help researchers focus resources early in the intervention process in order to maximize parent attendance and increase the success of prevention programs.
Suzuki, Rie; Peterson, Jana J; Weatherby, Amanda V; Buckley, David I; Walsh, Emily S; Kailes, June Isaacson; Krahn, Gloria L
This article describes the development of Promoting Access to Health Services (PATHS), an intervention to promote regular use of clinical preventive services by women with physical disabilities. The intervention was developed using intervention mapping (IM), a theory-based logical process that incorporates the six steps of assessment of need, preparation of matrices, selection of theoretical methods and strategies, program design, program implementation, and evaluation. The development process used methods and strategies aligned with the social cognitive theory and the health belief model. PATHS was adapted from the workbook Making Preventive Health Care Work for You, developed by a disability advocate, and was informed by participant input at five points: at inception through consultation by the workbook author, in conceptualization through a town hall meeting, in pilot testing with feedback, in revision of the curriculum through an advisory group, and in implementation by trainers with disabilities. The resulting PATHS program is a 90-min participatory small-group workshop, followed by structured telephone support for 6 months.
Martin, Lily; Oepen, Renate; Bauer, Katharina; Nottensteiner, Alina; Mergheim, Katja; Gruber, Harald; Koch, Sabine C
Stress is one of the world's largest health problems, leading to exhaustion, burnout, anxiety, a weak immune system, or even organ damage. In Germany, stress-induced work absenteeism costs about 20 billion Euros per year. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Central Federal Association of the public Health Insurance Funds in Germany ascribes particular importance to stress prevention and stress management as well as health enhancing measures. Building on current integrative and embodied stress theories, Creative Arts Therapies (CATs) or arts interventions are an innovative way to prevent stress and improve stress management. CATs encompass art, music, dance/movement, and drama therapy as their four major modalities. In order to obtain an overview of CATs and arts interventions' efficacy in the context of stress reduction and management, we conducted a systematic review with a search in the following data bases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Medline, Psyndex, PsycINFO and SocINDEX. Studies were included employing the PICOS principle and rated according to their evidence level. We included 37 studies, 73% of which were randomized controlled trials. 81.1% of the included studies reported a significant reduction of stress in the participants due to interventions of one of the four arts modalities.
Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick
Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Matthew J; Whitaker, Robert C; Yu, Daohai; Ackermann, Ronald T
Educational attainment is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but it is unknown whether education impacts individuals' diabetes prevention efforts. We examined the comparative efficacy of intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin by educational attainment among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an ongoing U.S. multi-site trial beginning in 1996. We studied 2,910 DPP participants randomized to receive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Stratifying by educational attainment, diabetes incidence and relative risk reductions by treatment assignment were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. 47% of participants had completed college and 53% had not. Compared to placebo, lifestyle participants who had completed college demonstrated a 68% reduction in diabetes incidence (95% CI=56, 77), whereas those with less education experienced a 47% risk reduction (95% CI=29, 61). For metformin participants, college graduates experienced a 49% relative risk reduction (95% CI=33, 62), compared to 23% (95% CI=1, 41) among those with lower educational attainment. There was a statistically significant education-by-treatment interaction with incident diabetes (p=0.03). Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin have greater efficacy among highly educated individuals. Future efforts to deliver these treatments and study their dissemination may be more effective if tailored to individuals' educational background. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel
The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence.
Amy M. Hernandez
Full Text Available Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in North Carolina with increasing incidence of HIV infection. Gender roles, cultural expectations, and acculturation of women may explain some of Hispanic women’s risks. The perspectives of Hispanic female immigrants and community-based providers were sought to identify services they offer, understand HIV risk factors, and support the adaptation of a best-evidence HIV behavioural intervention for Hispanic women. Two sets of focus groups were conducted to explicate risks and the opportunities to reach women or couples and the feasibility to conduct HIV prevention in an acceptable manner. Salient findings were that Hispanic female immigrants lacked accurate HIV/AIDS and STI knowledge and that traditional gender roles shaped issues surrounding sexual behaviour and HIV risks, as well as condom use, partner communication, and multiple sexual partnerships. Intervention implications are discussed such as developing and adapting culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanics that address gender roles and partner communication.
Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.
Full Text Available Gut health of nursery pigs immediately after weaning is tightly associated with their growth performance and economic values. Postweaning diarrhea (PWD is one of the major concerns related to gut health of nursery pigs which often is caused by infections of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, mainly including F4 (K88+ and F18+ E. coli. The main virulence factors of ETEC are adhesins (fimbriae or pili and enterotoxins. The common types of fimbriae on ETEC from PWD pigs are F18+ and F4+. Typically, PWD in pigs is associated with both F18+ and F4+ ETEC infections whereas pre-weaning diarrhea in pigs is associated with F4+ ETEC infection. Enterotoxins including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT and heat-stable peptide toxins (ST are associated with causing diarrhea in pigs. At least 109 to 1010 ETEC are required to induce diarrhea in nursery pigs typically lasting 1 to 5 days after ETEC infection. Antibiotics used to be the most effective way to prevent PWD, however, with the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, alternatives to the use of antibiotics are urgently needed to prevent PWD. Immunopropylaxis and nutritional intervention of antimicrobial minerals (such as zinc oxide and copper sulfate, organic acids, functional feedstuffs (such as blood plasma and egg yolk antibodies, direct fed microbials, phytobiotics, and bacteriophage can potentially prevent PWD associated with ETEC. Some other feed additives such as nucleotides, feed enzymes, prebiotic oligosaccharides, and clay minerals can enhance intestinal health and thus indirectly help with preventing PWD. Numerous papers show that nutritional intervention using selected feed additives can effectively prevent PWD.
Stoll, Ryan; Pina, Armando; Gary, Kevin; Amresh, Ashish
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric problems in youth, fail to spontaneously remit, and place some youth at risk for additional behavioral and emotional difficulties. Efforts to target anxiety have resulted in evidence-based interventions but the resulting prevention effects are relatively small, often weakening over time. Mobile health (mHealth) tools could be of use to strengthen the effects of anxiety prevention efforts. Although a large number of mHealth apps have been developed, few have been evaluated in terms of usability prior to clinical effectiveness testing. Because usability is one of the main barriers to mHealth usage and adoption, the objective of this research was to evaluate the usability of a smartphone application (app) corresponding to an indicated prevention and early intervention targeting youth anxiety. To accomplish this, 132 children (M age = 9.65; 63% girls) and 45 service providers (M age = 29.13, 87% female) rated our app along five established dimensions of usability (ease of use, ease of learning, quality of support information, satisfaction, and stigma) using a standardized group-based testing protocol. Findings showed that the app was highly and positively rated by both youth and providers, with some variations (lower ratings when errors occurred). Path analyses findings also showed that system understanding was significantly related to greater system satisfaction, but that such relation occurred through the quality of support information offered by the app.
Browne, Kevin D; Jackson, Vicki
The Government in England has recognized the importance of early intervention to promote positive child development and prevent maltreatment. In doing so, efforts have been made to increase the implementation of the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) to target a greater number of families who require intensive secondary intervention. This paper presents an argument that the FNP can be targeted more effectively to yield a greater return on investment. This is based on the re-analysis of data collected by the largest cohort study carried out into risk factors for child maltreatment in England. Currently, around 315 health visitors are estimated to be implementing this programme, projected to increase to around 585 health visitors in 2015. However, targeting the programme towards first-time, young vulnerable mothers with low socio-economic status means that around 1350 health visitors would be needed. Critically, targeting only this population is estimated to prevent only 10% of cases of child abuse and neglect. By targeting risk factors which are less common in the general population but which are more prevalent amongst abusive families, fewer specialist health visitors would be needed to prevent a higher percentage of child maltreatment.
Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wolfers, Mireille E G; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno
There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in the daily practice of the MPHS
van den Hoek Caty
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS, the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives" and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using
Kuo Christina L
Full Text Available Abstract Background A practice intervention must have its basis in an understanding of the physician and practice to secure its benefit and relevancy. We used a formative process to characterize primary care physician attitudes, needs, and practice obstacles regarding primary prevention. The characterization will provide the conceptual framework for the development of a practice tool to facilitate routine delivery of primary preventive care. Methods A focus group of primary care physician Opinion Leaders was audio-taped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed to identify emergent themes that described physicians' perceptions of prevention in daily practice. Results The conceptual worth of primary prevention, including behavioral counseling, was high, but its practice was significantly countered by the predominant clinical emphasis on and rewards for secondary care. In addition, lack of health behavior training, perceived low self-efficacy, and patient resistance to change were key deterrents to primary prevention delivery. Also, the preventive focus in primary care is not on cancer, but on predominant chronic nonmalignant conditions. Conclusions The success of the future practice tool will be largely dependent on its ability to "fit" primary prevention into the clinical culture of diagnoses and treatment sustained by physicians, patients, and payers. The tool's message output must be formatted to facilitate physician delivery of patient-tailored behavioral counseling in an accurate, confident, and efficacious manner. Also, the tool's health behavior messages should be behavior-specific, not disease-specific, to draw on shared risk behaviors of numerous diseases and increase the likelihood of perceived salience and utility of the tool in primary care.
Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian
Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as
Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Jamalzadeh, Fiesal; Latifi, Marzieh
One of the most obvious forms of violence in today's society is violence against women. In Iran, along with other countries, violence against women has become a problematic issue. The present research aims to investigate the impact of educational intervention based on empowerment model in preventing violent behaviors against women. The present study is an intervention research done through the random selection of 91 women under the aegis of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation in Gorgan. Tools for data gathering included demographics checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, general self-efficacy, awareness and attitude questionnaires. Three ninety-minute educational sessions were held for each group to enhance their awareness, change their attitudes, and train them life skills to increase self-esteem so that they can express their vicarious experiences to increase their self-efficacy toward violent behavior. Following the post-test, data were analyzed with SPSS software (version 20). Tests for analyzing data included descriptive and analytical tests (chi-square, Pearson's correlation, independent samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and paired t test). Results indicated that the frequency of domestic violence against participating women was significant after educational intervention, as compared to pre-intervention period. Paired t-test showed that average scores of awareness, attitude, self-esteem, and self-efficacy constructs, and total power were statistically higher after educational intervention as compared to the period prior to intervention. As one of the manifestations and the moving force of empowerment, education is the first major strategy in codifying, designing, and implementing empowerment programs. For women to be empowered, the active participation of all people in education is required.
Chi, Ching-Chi; Wang, Shu-Hui; Delamere, Finola M; Wojnarowska, Fenella; Peters, Mathilde C; Kanjirath, Preetha P
Herpes simplex labialis (HSL), also known as cold sores, is a common disease of the lips caused by the herpes simplex virus, which is found throughout the world. It presents as a painful vesicular eruption, forming unsightly crusts, which cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. There is no cure available, and it recurs periodically. To assess the effects of interventions for the prevention of HSL in people of all ages. We searched the following databases up to 19 May 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Oral Health Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, Airiti Library, and 5 trial registers. To identify further references to relevant randomised controlled trials, we scanned the bibliographies of included studies and published reviews, and we also contacted the original researchers of our included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for preventing HSL in immunocompetent people. Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. A third author was available for resolving differences of opinion. This review included 32 RCTs, with a total of 2640 immunocompetent participants, covering 19 treatments. The quality of the body of evidence was low to moderate for most outcomes, but was very low for a few outcomes. Our primary outcomes were 'Incidence of HSL' and 'Adverse effects during use of the preventative intervention'.The evidence for short-term (≤ 1 month) use of oral aciclovir in preventing recurrent HSL was inconsistent across the doses used in the studies: 2 RCTs showed low quality evidence for a reduced recurrence of HSL with aciclovir 400 mg twice daily (risk ratio (RR) 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.51; n = 177), while 1 RCT testing aciclovir 800 mg twice daily and 2 RCTs testing 200 mg 5
Sabina B. Gesell
Full Text Available Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N=79 completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children’s mean age was 4.2 years (SD=0.9, and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI≥85th percentile. Parents were predominantly mothers (97%, with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD=5.4, and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25. Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t=2.08; P<.05. This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.
Gesell, Sabina B; Bess, Kimberly D; Barkin, Shari L
Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.
Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L
The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup'ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science.
Garst, J; L'Heveder, R; Siminerio, L M; Motala, A A; Gabbay, R A; Chaney, D; Cavan, D
This study identifies the barriers and enablers for sustainability of interventions in primary and secondary prevention of diabetes. In the context of translational research, sustainability is defined as the continued use of program components and activities for the continued achievement of desirable program and population outcomes. In this study, eleven translational research projects, supported by the BRIDGES program of the International Diabetes Federation, were investigated. By theoretically-informed semi-structured interviews and analyses of project reports, qualitative data was collected on the sustainability outcomes and the barriers and enablers. The sustainability outcomes can be grouped in three main areas: (1) sustainability at the intervention site(s); (2) diffusion to the wider community; and (3) replication of the intervention at other site(s). Each of the outcomes has their own set of enablers and barriers, and thus requires consideration for a different sustainability strategy. This study is the first international study that relates the sustainability outcomes of translational research project to specific barriers and enablers, and develops an evidence-based framework which provides practical advice on how to ensure the sustainability of health interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Scharff, Darcell; LaRose, Jessi; Dougherty, Nikole Lobb; Hessel, Amy Stringer; Brownson, Ross C.
Bridging the gap between research and practice requires more than evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in controlled studies. To bridge this gap, evidence needs to be defined in different ways, and opportunities need to be provided for practice-based evidence to be replicated and disseminated. Community-based interventions are often not conducted or evaluated in controlled settings, yet they provide more real-world context and have the potential to have a greater effect on population health than findings from controlled studies that are limited in generalizability. The purpose of this article is to describe an approach to identify community-based programs and interventions that have the potential for replication and dissemination. In our study, such interventions met criteria in 3 primary domains: innovativeness, effectiveness, and sustainability. The criteria and tool developed were applied to 2 obesity-prevention programs to demonstrate the usefulness of the tool for identifying potential programs for replication and dissemination, contributing to practice-based evidence. Funders, practitioners, and researchers can apply these criteria to identify programs, environmental changes, or policies that may be replicated and disseminated. PMID:24331279
Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents.
Munro, Cindy L; Cairns, Paula; Ji, Ming; Calero, Karel; Anderson, W McDowell; Liang, Zhan
Explore the effect of an automated reorientation intervention on ICU delirium in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Delirium is common in ICU patients, and negatively affects outcomes. Few prevention strategies have been tested. Thirty ICU patients were randomized to 3 groups. Ten received hourly recorded messages in a family member's voice during waking hours over 3 ICU days, 10 received the same messages in a non-family voice, and 10 (control) did not receive any automated reorientation messages. The primary outcome was delirium free days during the intervention period (evaluated by CAM-ICU). Groups were compared by Fisher's Exact Test. The family voice group had more delirium free days than the non-family voice group, and significantly more delirium free days (p = 0.0437) than the control group. Reorientation through automated, scripted messages reduced incidence of delirium. Using identical scripted messages, family voice was more effective than non-family voice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schilling, Katharine; Person, Bobbie; Faith, Sitnah H; Otieno, Ronald; Quick, Robert
Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world.
Hayes, Martina; Allen, Edith; da Mata, Cristiane; McKenna, Gerald; Burke, Francis
Ten million people in the UK today are aged over 65. The latest projections estimate that there will be 5 1/2 million more people aged 65 and older in the next 20 years. This projected pattern of population ageing will have profound consequences for dentistry. Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is a modern evidence-based approach to caries management in dentate patients that uses the 'medical model' whereby disease is controlled by the 'oral physician'. This approach offers considerable benefits over conventional dentistry for older patients. It encourages patients to be responsible for their oral health through the provision of both knowledge and motivation. MID encompasses risk assessment for dental disease, early detection and control of disease processes, and minimally invasive treatment. Clinical Relevance: Risk assessment tools can aid the general dental practitioner and the patient to develop a suitable caries prevention programme for that individual and reduce the need for future operative intervention.