Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
As the college population in the United States rapidly diversifies, leaders of successful campus suicide prevention programs are recognizing the importance of targeting specific groups of students. Recent estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that in 2008 more than one-third (36.7 percent) of college students…
Zakocs, Ronda C; Tiwari, Rashmi; Vehige, Tamara; DeJong, William
A campus-community partnership can be an effective vehicle for launching environmental strategies to prevent college alcohol-related problems. In this study, the authors' primary aim was identifying key factors that facilitate or impede colleges' efforts to build campus-community partnerships. From fall 2004 to summer 2006, administrators at five 4-year colleges participated in a multisite case study. Level of partnership development was the primary outcome. Three interrelated factors facilitated higher-developed partnerships: college staff assigned to facilitate the partnerships who worked as community organizers, higher-level college administrators who served as aggressive champions, and community initiation of the partnership. The authors did not observe this trio of factors among the less-developed partnerships. A lack of administrative support made it more difficult for a champion to emerge, a college administrator who staunchly advocated for a campus-community partnership, and for those assigned to facilitate the partnership to carry out their work. Colleges should appoint higher-level administrators to serve as champions, while also ensuring that those assigned to facilitate a partnership can apply community organizing skills.
The concept of reciprocity permeates the literature on campus-community partnership as a matter of principle, aspiration, and--ideally--best practice. More recently, principles and practices of sustainability have pervaded scholarly and popular discourse, emerging from and applying to environmental studies, economic development, and social justice…
Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin
The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…
Kuster Dale, Kimberly
This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…
Rivera-Ramos, Zully A.; Oswald, Ramona F.; Buki, Lydia P.
In response to the call for new and innovative methods of assessing campus climate (Worthington, 2008), the current study is the first to examine the readiness of a Latina/o campus community to address lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns. Using the Community Readiness Model, data were collected through individual interviews with a total of…
Summerbell, C D; Waters, E; Edmunds, L D; Kelly, S; Brown, T; Campbell, K J
Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or lifestyle and social support. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched from 1990 to February 2005. Non-English language papers were included and experts contacted. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials with minimum duration twelve weeks. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-two studies were included; ten long-term (at least 12 months) and twelve short-term (12 weeks to 12 months). Nineteen were school/preschool-based interventions, one was a community-based intervention targeting low-income families, and two were family-based interventions targeting non-obese children of obese or overweight parents. Six of the ten long-term studies combined dietary education and physical activity interventions; five resulted in no difference in overweight status between groups and one resulted in improvements for girls receiving the intervention, but not boys. Two studies focused on physical activity alone. Of these, a multi-media approach appeared to be effective in preventing obesity. Two studies focused on nutrition education alone, but neither were effective in preventing obesity. Four of the twelve short-term studies focused on interventions to increase physical activity levels, and two of these studies resulted in minor reductions in overweight status in favour of the intervention. The other eight studies combined advice on diet and physical activity, but none had a significant impact. The studies were heterogeneous in terms of study design
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12......-17 year olds, using experimental or quasi-experimental research designs and focusing on effects in terms of disruptive or criminal behavior. The review provides detailed descriptions of all identified studies, and the characteristics and effectiveness of the interventions is analyzed. This report has been...
Ruotsalainen, J H; Sellman, J; Lehto, L; Jauhiainen, M; Verbeek, J H
Poor voice quality due to a voice disorder can lead to a reduced quality of life. In occupations where voice use is substantial it can lead to periods of absence from work. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent voice disorders in adults. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed, 1950 to 2006), EMBASE (1974 to 2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2006), CINAHL (1983 to 2006), PsychINFO (1967 to 2006), Science Citation Index (1986 to 2006) and the Occupational Health databases OSH-ROM (to 2006). The date of the last search was 05/04/06. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of interventions evaluating the effectiveness of treatments to prevent voice disorders in adults. For work-directed interventions interrupted time series and prospective cohort studies were also eligible. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. We identified two randomised controlled trials including a total of 53 participants in intervention groups and 43 controls. One study was conducted with teachers and the other with student teachers. Both trials were poor quality. Interventions were grouped into 1) direct voice training, 2) indirect voice training and 3) direct and indirect voice training combined.1) Direct voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct voice training compared to no intervention.2) Indirect voice training: One study did not find a significant decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for indirect voice training when compared to no intervention.3) Direct and indirect voice training combined: One study did not find a decrease of the Voice Handicap Index for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no intervention. The same study did however find an improvement in maximum phonation time (Mean Difference -3.18 sec; 95 % CI -4.43 to -1.93) for direct and indirect voice training combined when compared to no
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Objectives: Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been
Smith, M; Martin, F
Domestic violence is a significant social and health problem that has received intensive recent publicity in the lay media. Nurses should play a major role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. Intensified health promotion and public policy initiatives can reduce the incidence of domestic violence in the future.
Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.
Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To
Benwell, Ann Fenger
A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....
Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanstr?m, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv
This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
Background Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wout; Sorgdrager, Bas
BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing
van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H
Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be
White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne
Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lasswell, Sarah M.; Riley, Drewallyn B.; Poulsen, Melissa N.
Parent-based HIV prevention programming may play an important role in reaching youths early to help establish lifelong patterns of safe and healthy sexual behaviors. Families Matter! is a 5-session, evidence-based behavioral intervention designed for primary caregivers of children aged 9 to 12 years to promote positive parenting and effective parent–child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. The program’s 5-step capacity-building model was implemented with local government, community, and faith-based partners in 8 sub-Saharan African countries with good intervention fidelity and high levels of participant retention. Families Matter! may be useful in other resource-constrained settings. PMID:24028229
Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen
Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors
Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E
Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI. Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings. MAIN RESULTS: This
Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.
Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…
To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention for migrants in China and to identify factors associated with intervention ...
Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D
Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
Edwards, Katie M; Littleton, Heather L; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Crossman, Annie L; Craig, Meghan
This paper provides an overview of a conceptual model that integrates theories of social ecology, minority stress, and community readiness to better understand risk for and outcomes of intimate partner violence (IPV) among LGBTQ+ college students. Additionally, online survey data was collected from a sample of 202 LGBTQ+ students enrolled in 119 colleges across the United States to provide preliminary data on some aspects of the proposed model. Results suggested that students generally thought their campuses were low in readiness to address IPV; that is, students felt that their campuses could do more to address IPV and provide IPV services specific to LGBTQ+ college students. Perceptions of greater campus readiness to address IPV among LGBTQ+ college students was significantly and positively related to a more favorable LGBTQ+ campus climate and a greater sense of campus community. Additionally, IPV victims were more likely to perceive higher levels of campus community readiness than non-IPV victims. There was no association between IPV perpetration and perceptions of campus community readiness. Greater sense of community was marginally and inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration. Sense of community and LGBTQ+ campus climate also varied to some extent as a function of region of the country and type of institution. Implications for further development and refinement of the conceptual model, as well as future research applying this model to better understand IPV among sexual minority students are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria ... programme documents and services records in the Federal Capital Territory, ... and funding for better response to NCD prevention in primary care.
Garba, Rayyan M; Gadanya, Muktar A
To assess the role of Intervention Mapping (IM) in designing disease prevention interventions worldwide. Systematic search and review of the relevant literature-peer-reviewed and grey-was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Only five of the twenty two included studies reviewed were RCTs that compared intervention using IM protocol with placebo intervention, and provided the outcomes in terms of percentage increase in the uptake of disease-prevention programmes, and only one of the five studies provided an effect measure in the form of relative risk (RR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.08-2.34, p = 0.02). Of the five RCTs, three were rated as strong evidences, one as a medium evidence and one as a weak evidence, and they all reported statistically significant difference between the two study groups, with disease prevention interventions that have used the intervention mapping approach generally reported significant increases in the uptake of disease-prevention interventions, ranging from 9% to 28.5% (0.0001 ≤ p ≤ 0.02), On the other hand, all the 22 studies have successfully identified the determinants of the uptake of disease prevention interventions that is essential to the success of disease prevention programmes. Intervention Mapping has been successfully used to plan, implement and evaluate interventions that showed significant increase in uptake of disease prevention programmes. This study has provided a good understanding of the role of intervention mapping in designing disease prevention interventions, and a good foundation upon which subsequent reviews can be guided.
Meijel, Berno van
This thesis describes a study into the development and testing of a nursing intervention with a view to preventing psychotic relapses in patients suffering from schizophrenia or a related disorder. The purpose of the intervention is to recognise the early signs of an oncoming psychotic relapse. If
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was used to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme in a cohort of patients referred to the service at a London hospital. Quantitative data analysis provided evidence of effectiveness of participation in CR in reduced hospital readmission rates and use of recognised pharmacological management strategies. Self-reported physical activity levels and quality of life (QOL) in individuals who participated in the cardiac rehabilitation programme were qualitatively measured with questionnaires. Results provided evidence of benefit in continued participation in exercise. However, there was no evidence of benefit to QOL status post participation at 1 year. A p-value of 0.001 provided significant statistical evidence supporting the hypothesis of benefit in continued participation in exercise in participants following attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation programme. QOL status; a statistically significant p-value of 0.001 rejected the hypothesis (H1) of benefit. This would imply that participation CR programmes does not appear to provide sustained benefits in QOL. A number of moderating variables were suggested as explaining the finding such as homogeneity of respondents, age, mood bias and the timeframe of 1 year between participation in rehabilitation and self-reporting. CR appears to be an effective but time-limited intervention in relation to improvements in QOL. Collaborative working partnerships between specialist interventions, such as CR with chronic disease management strategies may provide greater sustainability of benefits gained from participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.
Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625
Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.
Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice
As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention. PMID:22742594
Sowden, A; Arblaster, L; Stead, L
Decisions to smoke are made within a broad social context. Community interventions use co-ordinated, widespread, multi-component programmes to try and influence behaviour. To determine the effectiveness of community interventions in preventing the uptake of smoking in young people. The Tobacco Addiction group specialised register, Medline and other health, psychology and public policy electronic databases were searched, the bibliographies of identified studies were checked and contact was made with content area specialists. Searches were updated in September 2002. Randomised and non randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of multi-component community interventions compared to no intervention or to single component or school-based programmes only. Reported outcomes had to include smoking behaviour in young people under the age of 25 years. Information relating to the characteristics and the content of community interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the study was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Studies were combined using qualitative narrative synthesis. Seventeen studies were included in the review, 46 studies did not meet all of the inclusion criteria. All studies used a controlled trial design, with six using random allocation of schools or communities. Of thirteen studies which compared community interventions to no intervention controls, two, which were part of cardiovascular disease prevention programmes, reported lower smoking prevalence. Of three studies comparing community interventions to school-based programmes only, one found differences in reported smoking prevalence. One study reported a lower rate of increase in prevalence in a community receiving a multi-component intervention compared to a community exposed to a mass media campaign alone. One study reported a significant difference in smoking prevalence between a group receiving a media, school and homework intervention compared to a group
Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don
Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941
Barnes, Caren M
Nosocomial and ventilator associated pneumonias that plague critically ill, elderly and long-term care residents could be reduced with effective oral hygiene practices facilitated collaboratively between nurses and dental hygienists. Nosocomial pneumonias, specifically aspiration pneumonias and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the elderly and infirm have become a major health care issue, The provision of oral care in hospital and hospital-like facilities presents challenges that can prevent patients from receiving optimal oral care One sequela can be aspiration pneumonia which ranks first in mortality and second in morbidity among all nosocomial infections. Since aspiration pneumonia is linked to the colonization of oral bacteria in dental plaque and biofilm, it is time to look for creative solutions to integrating the expertise of dental hygienists into health care teams in these institutional settings. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding the etiology and prevalence of health care related pneumonias. Evidence describing the challenges and barriers that the nurses, nursing staff, and dental hygienists face in the provision of oral care in hospitals and long-term care facilities is provided. Intercollaborative solutions to providing optimal oral care in hospitals and long-term care facilities are suggested. Dental hygienists have the expertise and practice experience to provide oral care in hospitals, long-term care and residential facilities. They can contribute to solving oral care challenges through intercollaboration with other health care team members. Yet, there are long-standing systemic barriers that must be addressed in order to provide this optimal care. Dental hygienists becoming better assimilated within the total health care team in hospital and residential facilities can positively impact the suffering, morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Ida M; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R
Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post-intervention, and 1 year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over 1 year. Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the Intervention Group, 40-50 hours of the Mathematics Intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections; or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from Baseline to Post-Intervention (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from Baseline to 1 year Follow-up (P = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care Group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics [F(2,29) = 12.47, P Mathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a "virtual" delivery method more readily available to parents and children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mohamed Belhaj; Nataliya Klimenko
Early regulator interventions into problem banks are one of the key suggestions of Basel II. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: continuous regulator intervention and random audits. Random audit technologies differ as to quality and cost. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through...
The act of immigration brings with it numerous major life changes and requires considerable social readjustment. Immigrants are, however, seldom offered specific training in how to effectively interact in a new culture. This paper describes an initial preventive groupwork effort to help English-speaking immigrants living in an Israeli absorption center to adjust successfully to life in a new culture. Suggestions for future preventive interventions with immigrants are considered.
Vincent K. Her
Full Text Available The Hmong American Studies Initiative (HASI at our Midwestern university had the promise and potential to become one of the first comprehensive Hmong American, community-supported academic programs in the U.S. Through four years of work to start and develop this program (2002-2006, we have learned many lessons regardingbridges and barriers to building campus-community partnerships. Here we highlight the benefits of HASI and the underlying politics that, in our view, have determined funding decisions and influenced campus-community relations. Included in this discussion are insights gained from dozens of meetings with Hmong American community leaders andstudents, university faculty and administrators, as well as personal interviews and group planning sessions. Drawing on our experiences during this multi-year project, we will share what we have done, what we have learned and where we are now. In the process,we would like to raise a timely question: Is it possible to build an academic program that seriously, substantively takes into account the values and perspectives of an ethnic community?
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of
Slavkin, Michael L.
Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…
Calear, A.L.; Christensen, H.; Freeman, A.; Fenton, K.; Grant, J.B.; van Spijker, B.; Donker, T.
Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12–25 years.
van Meijel, B.; Kruitwagen, C.; van der Gaag, M.; Kahn, R.S.; Grypdonck, M.H.E.
Purpose: To determine whether the use of relapse prevention plans (RPPs) in nursing practice is an effective intervention in reducing relapse rates among patients with schizophrenia. Design and Methods: Experimental design. Patients with schizophrenia (or a related psychotic disorder) and nurses
Ginsburg, Golda S
The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis
Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.
Grock, Shira; Ku, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Julie; Moin, Tannaz
The high prevalence of prediabetes and success of the diabetes prevention program (DPP) has led to increasing efforts to provide readily accessible, cost-effective DPP interventions to the general public. Technology-assisted DPP interventions are of particular interest since they may be easier to widely distribute and sustain as compared to traditional in-person DPP. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of currently available technology-assisted DPP interventions. This review focuses on studies that have examined the use of mobile phone text messaging, smartphone/web-based apps, and telehealth programs to help prevent or delay the onset of incident type 2 diabetes. While there is variability in the results of studies focused on technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions, there is evidence to suggest that these programs have been associated with clinically meaningful weight loss and can be cost-effective. Patients who are at risk for diabetes can be offered technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions to lower their risk of incident diabetes. Further research should determine what specific combination of intervention features would be most successful.
Dall, Timothy M; Storm, Michael V; Semilla, April P; Wintfeld, Neil; O'Grady, Michael; Narayan, K M Venkat
The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends combined diet and physical activity promotion programs for people at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, as evidence continues to show that intensive lifestyle interventions are effective for overweight individuals with prediabetes. To illustrate the potential clinical and economic benefits of treating prediabetes with lifestyle intervention to prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes and sequelae. This 2014 analysis used a Markov model to simulate disease onset, medical expenditures, economic outcomes, mortality, and quality of life for a nationally representative sample with prediabetes from the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Modeled scenarios used 10-year follow-up results from the lifestyle arm of the Diabetes Prevention Program and Outcomes Study versus simulated natural history of disease. Over 10 years, estimated average cumulative gross economic benefits of treating patients who met diabetes screening criteria recommended by the ADA ($26,800) or USPSTF ($24,700) exceeded average benefits from treating the entire prediabetes population ($17,800). Estimated cumulative, gross medical savings for these three populations averaged $10,400, $11,200, and $6,300, respectively. Published estimates suggest that opportunistic screening for prediabetes is inexpensive, and lifestyle intervention similar to the Diabetes Prevention Program can be achieved for ≤$2,300 over 10 years. Lifestyle intervention among people with prediabetes produces long-term societal benefits that exceed anticipated intervention costs, especially among prediabetes patients that meet the ADA and USPSTF screening guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Decisions to intervene in a foreign country to prevent genocide and mass atrocities are among the most challenging and controversial choices facing national leaders. Drawing on techniques from decision analysis, psychology, and negotiation analysis, we propose a structured approach to these difficult choices that can provide policy makers with additional insight, consistency, efficiency, and defensibility. We propose the use of a values-based framework to clarify the key elements of these complex choices and to provide a consistent structure for comparison of the likely benefits, risks, and tradeoffs associated with alternative intervention strategies. Results from a workshop involving Ambassadors and experienced policy makers provide a first test of this new method for clarifying intervention choices. A decision-aiding framework is shown to improve the clarity and relevance of intervention deliberations, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive and clearer understanding of the threats and opportunities associated with various intervention options.
The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.
Weine, Stevan Merrill
In refugee resettlement, positive psychosocial outcomes for youth and adults depend to a great extent on their families. Yet refugee families find few empirically based services geared toward them. Preventive mental health interventions that aim to stop, lessen, or delay possible negative individual mental health and behavioral sequelae through improving family and community protective resources in resettled refugee families are needed. This paper describes 8 characteristics that preventive mental health interventions should address to meet the needs of refugee families, including: Feasibility, Acceptability, Culturally Tailored, Multilevel, Time Focused, Prosaicness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability. To address these 8 characteristics in the complex environment of refugee resettlement requires modifying the process of developmental research through incorporating innovative mental health services research strategies, including: resilience framework, community collaboration, mixed methods with focused ethnography, and the comprehensive dynamic trial. A preventive intervention development cycle for refugee families is proposed based on a program of research on refugees and migrants using these services research strategies. Furthering preventive mental health for refugee families also requires new policy directives, multisystemic partnerships, and research training. 2011 © FPI, Inc.
Izard, Carroll E
Scientific advances in the field of emotions suggest a framework for conceptualizing the emotion-related aspects of prevention programs that aim to enhance children's socioemotional competence and prevent the emergence of behavior problems and psychopathology. A conception of emotions as inherently adaptive and motivational and the related empirical evidence from several disciplines and specialities suggest 7 principles for developing preventive interventions: the utilization of positive and negative emotions, emotion modulation as a mediator of emotion utilization, emotion patterns in states and traits, different processes of emotion activation, emotion communication in early life, and the development of connections for the modular and relatively independent emotions and cognitive systems. Each principle's practical implications and application in current prevention programs are discussed.
Karacabeyli, D; Allender, S; Pinkney, S; Amed, S
Multi-setting, multi-component community-based interventions have shown promise in preventing childhood obesity; however, evaluation of these complex interventions remains a challenge. The objective of the study is to systematically review published methodological approaches to outcome evaluation for multi-setting community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions and synthesize a set of pragmatic recommendations. MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 6 July 2017. Papers were included if the intervention targeted children ≤18 years, engaged at least two community sectors and described their outcome evaluation methodology. A single reviewer conducted title and abstract scans, full article review and data abstraction. Directed content analysis was performed by three reviewers to identify prevailing themes. Thirty-three studies were included, and of these, 26 employed a quasi-experimental design; the remaining were randomized control trials. Body mass index was the most commonly measured outcome, followed by health behaviour change and psychosocial outcomes. Six themes emerged, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of active vs. passive consent, quasi-experimental vs. randomized control trials, longitudinal vs. repeat cross-sectional designs and the roles of process evaluation and methodological flexibility in evaluating complex interventions. Selection of study designs and outcome measures compatible with community infrastructure, accompanied by process evaluation, may facilitate successful outcome evaluation. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan
We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pSexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Rossi, J S; Blais, L M; Redding, C A; Weinstock, M A
Sun exposure is the only major causative factor for skin cancer for which prevention is feasible. Both individual and community-based interventions have been effective in changing sun exposure knowledge and attitudes but generally have not been effective in changing behaviors. An integrative model of behavior change is described that has been successful in changing behavior across a wide range of health conditions. This model holds promise for developing a rational public health approach to skin cancer prevention based on sound behavioral science.
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien
Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.
Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara
Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach.
Bain, Emily; Crane, Morven; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their babies in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. To assess the effects of combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health consequences for women and their babies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We updated the search in February 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated and are awaiting classification. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the effects of interventions that included diet and exercise components. We included studies where combined diet and exercise interventions were compared with no intervention (i.e. standard care).We planned to also compare diet and exercise interventions with alternative diet and/or exercise interventions but no trials were identified for this comparison. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. We included 13 randomised controlled trials (involving 4983 women and their babies). We assessed the included trials as being of moderate risk of bias overall.When comparing women receiving a diet and exercise intervention with those receiving no intervention, there was no clear difference in the risk of developing GDM (average risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 1.23; 11 trials, 3744 women), caesarean section (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.01; seven trials, 3246 women), or large-for-gestational age (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.05; 2950 infants). Only one trial reported on perinatal mortality, and found no clear difference in the risk of stillbirth (RR 0.99, 95
Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G
Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying. To explore the effectiveness of workplace interventions to prevent bullying in the workplace. We searched: the Cochrane Work Group Trials Register (August 2014); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1); PUBMED (1946 to January 2016); EMBASE (1980 to January 2016); PsycINFO (1967 to January 2016); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus; 1937 to January 2016); International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS; 1951 to January 2016); Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; 1987 to January 2016); ABI Global (earliest record to January 2016); Business Source Premier (BSP; earliest record to January 2016); OpenGrey (previously known as OpenSIGLE-System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe; 1980 to December 2014); and reference lists of articles. Randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials of employee-directed interventions, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies of interventions of any type, aimed at preventing bullying in the workplace, targeted at an individual employee, a group of employees, or an organisation. Three authors independently screened and selected studies. We extracted data from included studies on victimisation, perpetration, and absenteeism associated with workplace bullying. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used the
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A
Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological (antibiotics) or non-pharmacological (cranberry products, acupuncture, probiotics and behavioural modifications). So far little is known about the best way to prevent RUTI in pregnant women. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in pregnant women.The primary maternal outcomes were RUTI before birth (variously defined) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks). The primary infant outcomes were small-for-gestational age and total mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (8 June 2012) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, clustered-randomised trials and abstracts of any intervention (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for preventing RUTI during pregnancy (compared with another intervention, placebo or with usual care). Two review authors independently evaluated the one identified trial for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. The review included one trial involving 200 women. The trial compared a daily dose of nitrofurantoin and close surveillance (regular clinic visit, urine cultures and antibiotics when a positive culture was found) with close surveillance only. No significant differences were found for the primary outcomes: recurrent pyelonephritis (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31 to 2.53, one study, 167 women), recurrent urinary tract infection before birth (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.38; one study 167 women) and preterm birth (before 37 weeks) (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.42 to 3.35; one study 147 women). The
Sagarra, R; Costa, B; Cabré, J J; Solà-Morales, O; Barrio, F
Transferring the results from clinical trials on type 2 diabetes prevention is the objective of the Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project in Catalonia, whose cost-effectiveness analysis is now presented. A prospective cohort study was performed in primary care involving individuals without diagnosed diabetes aged 45-75 years (n=2054) screened using the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Where feasible, high-risk individuals who were identified (n=552) were allocated sequentially to standard care (n=219), a group-based (n=230) or an individual-level (n=103) intensive (structured programme of six hours using specific teaching techniques) lifestyle intervention (n=333). The primary outcome was the development of diabetes (WHO). We evaluated the cost of resources used with comparison of standard care and the intervention groups in terms of effectiveness and quality of life (15D questionnaire). After 4.2-year median follow-up, the cumulative incidences were 18.3% (14.3-22.9%) in the intensive intervention group and 28.8% (22.9-35.3%) in the standard care group (36.5% relative-risk-reduction). The corresponding 4-year HR was 0.64 (0.47-0.87; Pdiabetes, respectively. The estimated incremental cost-utility ratio was 3243€ per quality-adjusted life-years gained. The intensive lifestyle intervention delayed the development of diabetes and was efficient in economic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R
/or electronic mail. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) with a major focus on eating disorder prevention programs for children and adolescents, where there is no known DSM-IV diagnosis of an eating disorder, are eligible for inclusion in the review. Trials must include a control group and at least one objective outcome measure (eg. BMI) or a standardised psychological measure used with the intervention and control group, pre- and post-intervention. A total of 1379 titles have been identified through the search to date. 13 studies were located that reported use of a randomised controlled trial methodology and were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Five (5) studies were excluded as data were not reported in a useable form or useable data could not be obtained from the trial authors, one dissertation could not be obtained, one study had no "true" no-treatment or usual treatment control group, and one study did not use a pre-test outcome measure. Eight (8) studies met the selection criteria outlined above. Only one of eight pooled comparisons of two or more studies using similar outcome measures and similar intervention types demonstrated the statistically significant effect of a particular type of eating disorder prevention program for children and adolescents. Combined data from two eating disorder prevention programs based on a media literacy and advocacy approach indicate a reduction in the internalisation or acceptance of societal ideals relating to appearance at a 3- to 6-month follow-up (Kusel, unpublished; Neumark-Sztainer2000) [SMD -0.28, -0.51 to -0.05, 95% CI]. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that this approach also demonstrated a significant impact on awareness of societal standards relating to appearance. There is insufficient evidence to support the effect of four programs designed to address eating attitudes and behaviours and other adolescent issues on body weight, eating disorder symptoms, associated eating disorder
Morales, Eduardo S
Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association
Ruby, Alexander; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W
The transition through adolescence places adolescents at increased risk of depression, yet care-seeking in this population is low, and treatment is often ineffective. In response, we developed an Internet-based depression prevention intervention (CATCH-IT) targeting at-risk adolescents. We explore CATCH-IT program costs, especially safety costs, in the context of an Accountable Care Organization as well as the perceived value of the Internet program. Total and per-patient costs of development were calculated using an assumed cohort of a 5,000-patient Accountable Care Organization. Total and per-patient costs of implementation were calculated from grant data and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and were compared to the willingness-to-pay for CATCH-IT and to the cost of current treatment options. The cost effectiveness of the safety protocol was assessed using the number of safety calls placed and the percentage of patients receiving at least one safety call. The willingness-to-pay for CATCH-IT, a measure of its perceived value, was assessed using post-study questionnaires and was compared to the development cost for a break-even point. We found the total cost of developing the intervention to be USD 138,683.03. Of the total, 54% was devoted to content development with per patient cost of USD 27.74. The total cost of implementation was found to be USD 49,592.25, with per patient cost of USD 597.50. Safety costs accounted for 35% of the total cost of implementation. For comparison, the cost of a 15-session group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention aimed at at-risk adolescents was USD 1,632 per patient. Safety calls were successfully placed to 96.4% of the study participants. The cost per call was USD 40.51 with a cost per participant of USD 197.99. The willingness-to-pay for the Internet portion of CATCH-IT had a median of USD 40. The break-even point to offset the cost of development was 3,468 individuals. Developing Internet
Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.
Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of
Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.
Reza Rahimi Moghaddam
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.
Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J
Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking
Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W; Gillespie, Lesley D
Overuse soft-tissue injuries occur frequently in runners. Stretching exercises, modification of training schedules, and the use of protective devices such as braces and insoles are often advocated for prevention. This is an update of a review first published in 2001. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2011); The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4; MEDLINE (1966 to January 2011); EMBASE (1980 to January 2011); and international trial registries (17 January 2011). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating interventions to prevent lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias (relating to sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data) and extracted data. Data were adjusted for clustering if necessary and pooled using the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We included 25 trials (30,252 participants). Participants were military recruits (19 trials), runners from the general population (three trials), soccer referees (one trial), and prisoners (two trials). The interventions tested in the included trials fell into four main preventive strategies: exercises, modification of training schedules, use of orthoses, and footwear and socks. All 25 included trials were judged as 'unclear' or 'high' risk of bias for at least one of the four domains listed above.We found no evidence that stretching reduces lower limb soft-tissue injuries (6 trials; 5130 participants; risk ratio [RR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.65 to 1.12). As with all non-significant results, this is compatible with either a reduction or an increase in soft-tissue injuries. We found no evidence to support a training regimen of conditioning exercises to improve strength, flexibility and coordination (one trial; 1020 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.87).We found no
Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Shepherd, Emily; Gomersall, Judith C; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, comparing combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (i.e. standard care), that reported on GDM diagnosis as an outcome. Quasi-RCTs were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. We planned to include RCTs comparing two or more different diet/exercise interventions, however none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and assessed quality of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes using the GRADE approach. We checked data for accuracy. In this update, we included 23 RCTs (involving 8918 women and 8709 infants) that compared combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (standard care). The studies varied in the diet and exercise programs evaluated and health outcomes reported. None reported receiving funding from a drug manufacturer or agency with interests in the results. Overall risk of bias was judged to be unclear due to the lack of methodological detail reported. Most studies were undertaken in high-income countries.For our primary review outcomes, there was a possible reduced risk of GDM in the diet and
Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia
To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.
Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine
Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and
Langer, Gero; Fink, Astrid
ulcer development (pooled RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.00; P value 0.05; I(2) = 13%, random effects). This outcome is at unclear or high risk of bias.Fourteen trials evaluated the effects of nutritional supplements on the healing of existing pressure ulcers: seven trials examined mixed nutritional supplements, three the effects of proteins, two trials examined zinc, and two studies examined ascorbic acid. The included trials were heterogeneous with regard to participants, interventions, comparisons and outcomes and meta-analysis was not appropriate. There was no clear evidence of an improvement in pressure ulcer healing from the nutritional supplements evaluated in any of these individual studies. There is currently no clear evidence of a benefit associated with nutritional interventions for either the prevention or treatment of pressure ulcers. Further trials of high methodological quality are necessary.
Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori
Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention re...
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in
Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease
Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L
Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.
Grais, Rebecca F.; Isanaka, I; Langendorf, C; Roederer, T
Full text: Blanket interventions for MAM prevention (Blanket supplementary feeding programming (BSFP)) provide a supplementary food ration often accompanied by a basic medical treatment and prevention package to a vulnerable population for a defined period in a defined geographic location. There is little strong evidence on the impact of BSFP on rates of malnutrition and mortality, and scare guidance on program monitoring and evaluation to improve the implementation of specific programs. Assessing the impact of BSFP has been fraught with difficulty. Their isolated impact is difficult, if not often impossible to disentangle from larger care and prevention packages, the objectives of BSFP may vary by context, implementing agency, time and geography. Various and often multiple co-morbidities among children in the targeted group complicate matters further with respect to impact assessment. This leads to difficulties in generalizing results from one context to another and the need for more complex metrics to guide operational decision-making. Ideally, impact or effectiveness of BSFP should be addressed in a research framework where appropriate and complete data is collected in order to address specific questions. The gold standard is the conduct of randomized studies including a control group. These studies have been scarce as they may be perceived as either rarely feasible or not ethical or both. However, as generating evidence on impact of BSFP is essential to provide operational guidance, these studies should be encouraged through a diversity of robust, yet creative and pragmatic, methodological approaches. As a case study, a series of studies conducted over the past decade are reviewed in the same location in Niger highlighting the lessons learned. (author)
Amos, Taryn; Stein, Dan J; Ipser, Jonathan C
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults following exposure to a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (to 14 February 2014). This register contains relevant reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We identified unpublished trials by searching the National Institute of Health (NIH) Reporter, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials database (mRCT) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to December 2013). We scanned the reference lists of articles for additional studies. We placed no constraints on language and setting. We restricted studies to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of PTSD in adults. Two authors (TA and JI) independently assessed trials for eligibility and inclusion based on the review selection criteria. We independently extracted sample, methodological, outcome and 'Risk of bias' data, as well as the number of side effects, from each trial and entered these into a customised data extraction form. We contacted investigators for missing information. We calculated summary statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables (if provided). We did not undertake subgroup analyses due to the small number of included studies. We included nine short-term RCTs (duration 12 weeks or less) in the analysis (345 participants
Full Text Available Lifestyle diseases particularly coronary artery disease (CAD has been noted to be the most important cause of the morbidity and mortality all over the world. India is currently passing through this epidemic so much so that it would be taking a heavy toll of Indian youth and economy to the tune of some 1.6 trillion $ during 2015-2030 . The main causative factors for CAD identified as coronary risk factors are: smoking / tobacco, physical inactivity, faulty diet, hypertension, diabetes, high level of cholesterol and stress. As most of these risk factors are lifestyle related attempt to modify them by appropriate interventions form the cornerstone of prevention of CAD epidemic. Studies done by Dean Ornish and several others prompted us to plan an interventional case control study in 640 patients of established CAD. These cases were given power point presentation regarding healthy lifestyle on one to one basis and followed up at three and six months. Primary outcomes variable were change in smoking /tobacco habits, physical activity, obesity, dietary habits, control of hypertension, diabetes and lipid profile. At the end of intervention it was possible to bring down the tobacco consumption, improve physical activity, better control of hypertension ( p< 0.03 , reduction in obesity ( p= 0. 0005 and raising HDL cholesterol ( p 0.05 significantly in test group. Taking cue from above study a five step innovative strategy was developed for effective implementation of healthy life style in coronary patients attending Cardiac Clinic at HAH Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard. This strategy included sensitizing patients to locally developed visuals , posters and pamphlets at registration desk , concurrent counseling by attending doctor at the end of clinical examination , and showing patients and their family the features of atherosclerosis during carotid ultrasound assessment . These points were again reinforced at follow up
Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.
Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee
Introduction Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders s...
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary
Earl, Rachel; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Women with hyperthyroidism in pregnancy have increased risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction; and they can develop severe pre-eclampsia or placental abruption. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing or treating hyperthyroidism in pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 July 2010). We intended to include randomised controlled trials comparing antithyroid treatments in pregnant women with hyperthyroidism. Two review authors would have assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. No trials were located. As we did not identify any eligible trials, we are unable to comment on implications for practice, although early identification of hyperthyroidism before pregnancy may allow a woman to choose radioactive iodine therapy or surgery before planning to have a child. Designing and conducting a trial of antithyroid drugs for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism presents formidable challenges. Not only is hyperthyroidism a relatively rare condition, both of the two main drugs used have potential for harm, one for the mother and the other for the child. More observational research is required about the potential harms of methimazole in early pregnancy and about the potential liver damage from propylthiouracil.
Earl, Rachel; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Background Women with hyperthyroidism in pregnancy have increased risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction; and they can develop severe pre-eclampsia or placental abruption. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for preventing or treating hyperthyroidism in pregnant women. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 July 2010). Selection criteria We intended to include randomised controlled trials comparing antithyroid treatments in pregnant women with hyperthyroidism. Data collection and analysis Two review authors would have assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Main results No trials were located. Authors’ conclusions As we did not identify any eligible trials, we are unable to comment on implications for practice, although early identification of hyperthyroidism before pregnancy may allow a woman to choose radioactive iodine therapy or surgery before planning to have a child. Designing and conducting a trial of antithyroid drugs for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism presents formidable challenges. Not only is hyperthyroidism a relatively rare condition, both of the two main drugs used have potential for harm, one for the mother and the other for the child. More observational research is required about the potential harms of methimazole in early pregnancy and about the potential liver damage from propylthiouracil. PMID:20824882
Reilly, John J
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.
Reilly, John J.
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005
Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria
PURPOSE: To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS: Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS: Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....
Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.
Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tajima, Miyuki; Tanaka, Eriko; Uda, Hidenori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yotsumoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Naoki
To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. This study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals). The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000000460.
Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G
Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.
Murray, N; Kelder, S; Parcel, G; Orpinas, P
This paper describes development of Padres Trabajando por la Paz, a violence prevention intervention for Hispanic parents to increase parental monitoring. The intervention was developed using an innovative new program planning process: intervention mapping. Theory and empirical evidence broadly defined performance objectives and determinants of parental monitoring. These objectives were further refined through group and individual interviews with the target parent group. Learning objectives for the intervention guided the content of the intervention that used modeling as the primary method and role model stories as a strategy delivered through newsletters. Stage-matching members of the target population for their readiness to implement the parental monitoring behaviors further refined the social cognitive message design strategies. Intervention mapping provides an explicit theory- and data-driven guide for intervention development that maximizes intervention impact for a specific target population.
Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher
This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…
Kelders, Saskia Marion; Oskam, Maarten-Jan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Web-based preventive interventions have shown to be effective for the prevention of depression, but high rates of non-use and drop-out, less than optimal implementation in the care organization and low acceptance rates cause interventions to be less effective in practice than in theory and research.
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
T. V. Krasnoselskikh; E. V. Sokolovskiy
A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.
T. V. Krasnoselskikh
Full Text Available A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.
Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott
Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…
Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo
Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....
Bagnall, A-M; Jones, R; Akter, H; Woodall, J
Although there is existing evidence on what works to treat burnout and work-related stress, there is less on what works to prevent it from occurring in the first place.\\ud \\ud This report provides an overview of literature covering how to prevent burnout and work-related stress in individuals and within organisations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.
Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Olabisi, Prisca
We examined the interventions used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers in 3 hospitals in south west Nigeria and perceived barriers to effective nursing pressure ulcer prevention interventions. One hundred ninety-three nurses were purposively selected from neurological, orthopedic, intensive care, and accident and emergency units of participating hospitals. Study sites were 3 teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria (Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; University College Hospital, Ibadan; and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire designed for this study. It included 3 sections: demographic information, practices used for pressure ulcer prevention, and perceived barriers to prevention. Sections of the questionnaire that queried interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention were evaluated for face and content validity. Reliability was evaluated via internal consistency; the split half reliability was 0.82. Similar practices regarding pressure ulcer prevention were found across the 3 hospitals. The most commonly used intervention was patient repositioning every 2 hours; the least used intervention was completion of a validated pressure ulcer risk scale. Nurses described using interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention such as massaging bony prominences and application of talcum powder. Nurses identified 2 principal factors that act as barriers to successful prevention of pressure ulcers: inadequate manpower and inadequate supply of linens on the wards. Nurses use a combination of evidence-based interventions, along with interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention. We recommend development of national standards for pressure ulcer prevention in Nigeria that are based on current best evidence and consistent with current international guidelines.
Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao
In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.
O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P
Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant. This article discusses the conditions under which mediation may be present when an intervention effect does not have a statistically significant effect and why mediation should always be considered important. Mediation may be present in the following conditions: when the total and mediated effects are equal in value, when the mediated and direct effects have opposing signs, when mediated effects are equal across single and multiple-mediator models, and when specific mediated effects have opposing signs. Mediation should be conducted in every study because it provides the opportunity to test known and replicable mediators, to use mediators as an intervention manipulation check, and to address action and conceptual theory in intervention models. Mediators are central to intervention programs, and mediators should be investigated for the valuable information they provide about the success or failure of interventions.
Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and calor...
Reilly, John J; Martin, Anne; Hughes, Adrienne R
To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep). Finally, while obesity prevention interventions aim to modify body composition, few intervention trials have used body composition measures as outcomes, and this has limited their sensitivity to detect intervention effects. The new WHO Healthy Lifestyles Trajectory (HeLTI) initiative should address some of these weaknesses. Future early obesity prevention trials should be much more ambitious. They should, ideally: extend their interventions over the first 1000 days; have longer-term (childhood) outcomes, and improved outcome measures (body composition measures in addition to proxies for body composition such as the BMI for age); have greater emphasis on maternal smoking and child sleep; be global.
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The
This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs); whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.
In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a
The aim of the study was to evaluate a motivation-based HIV risk reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women in South Africa. Women were recruited through radio and information pamphlets. At baseline 119 women completed a survey regarding HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, ...
Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...
Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela
Innovative approaches are needed to impact obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases, including tested interventions at the environmental and policy levels. We have conducted multi-level community trials in low-income minority settings in the United States and other countries that test interventions to improve the food environment, support policy, and reduce the risk for developing obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases. All studies have examined change from pre- to post-study, comparing an intervention with a comparison group. Our results have shown consistent positive effects of these trials on consumer psychosocial factors, food purchasing, food preparation and diet, and, in some instances, obesity. We have recently implemented a systems science model to support programs and policies to improve urban food environments. Environmental interventions are a promising approach for addressing the global obesity epidemic due to their wide reach. Further work is needed to disseminate, expand and sustain these initiatives through policy at the city, state and federal levels.
Full Text Available This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs; whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.
Reed, Monique; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael
In the U.S., overweight/obesity among African American (AA) girls has become epidemic. Since parental factors may be associated with improved weight status, it is important to understand the empirical evidence for including parents in obesity prevention interventions with AA girls. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify effectiveness and characteristics of obesity prevention interventions for AA girls (6-17 years) and their parent. Included interventions addressed physical activity (PA), dietary/eating behaviors, and body composition. Of 708 studies published through March 2014, eight met inclusion criteria. Though effects were in the intended direction for most, statistically significant effects were found only for dietary intake and eating behavior. Interventions were characterized by exclusion of girls ages 13-17, failure to link parent involvement to child outcomes, the absence of family systems theory, and modest effects. Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of daughter/parent obesity prevention interventions.
Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C
The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.
Full Text Available Introduction: Radiotherapy has a pivotal role in the fight against cancer. However 85% of patients, who undergo radiotherapy, will face moderate to severe skin reactions, for the treatment of which various local products, available in the market, are used. Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review was to investigate the prevention and treatment of these skin lesions induced by radiation. Methods: For this purpose 34 articles were collected concerning materials, approved by the FDA, for the prevention and treatment of skin damage due to radiation, preclinical factors tested in animal models, factors involved in the prevention and treatment of moist desquamation and unauthorized agents or with little information about them. Results: According to the study results, the moisturizing and hydrophilic creams, herbal preparations, gels based on hyaluronic acid, and Vitamin E, heparinoid creams and formulations based on oils appear to have a positive effect in preventing dermatitis as well as in providing symptom relief. Patches are suitable for the case of moist desquamation. Vasculotide, agent EUK-207, agent RTA 408, agent ALDH2 and the agent Celecoxib are still in the preclinical stage but may become future therapeutic targets. Conclusion: Skin reactions due to radiation remain a significant problem for patients undergoing radical treatment. However, thanks to the multitude of formulations available in the market and several clinical trials it is possible that early prevention and treatment for actinic dermatitis could be achieved. In conclusion, it is crucial that health professionals are aware of the formulations indicated and contraindicated in case of skin reactions induced by radiation and adjust the treatment for the prevention and management of skin reactions in patients receiving radiation therapy.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.
Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse
The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.
Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim
We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.
Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka
This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.
Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul
The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
This had the effect of preventing reinfestation and modifying the insects' feeding practices such that they switched from human to chicken blood meals (chickens do not transmit the disease). This project will test the insect control program in selected border areas in the three countries where T. dimidiata is highly prevalent ...
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…
Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Angela M; López, Diego M
Stress-related disorders have become one of the main problems of public health in many countries and of worldwide organizations, and they are expected to become more common in the forthcoming decades. This article aims at providing a systematic review and a descriptive evaluation of the interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress. A systematic review of five databases (EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect and IEEEXplorer) was carried out. This article provides a quantitative and qualitative description of 21 studies about occupational stress interventions supported by ICT. The following factors were considered for the analysis: impact of the intervention, design of the study, type of intervention, purpose of the intervention, type of instrument for the measurement of occupational stress, and type of ICT used. The systematic review demonstrated that interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress are scarce but effective.
Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante
Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539
Stable externalizing behavior in childhood places children at risk for the development of a chronic and persistent pattern of externalizing behavior problems. Preventive interventions that aim to interrupt this developmental trajectory are crucial. Until now, no evidence-based intervention for
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…
McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…
Lakerveld, J.; Bot, S.D.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kingo, L.; Nijpels, G.
Effective, cost-effective, safe, and feasible interventions to improve lifestyle behavior in at-risk populations are needed in primary care. In the Hoorn Prevention Study, the authors implemented a theory-based lifestyle intervention in which trained practice nurses used an innovative combination of
Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…
Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...
Nyman, Samuel R.
This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…
Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J
Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.
Full Text Available Behavioral interventions can prevent the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness and quality of available evidence of HIV prevention interventions for people living with HIV in high-income settings. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CDC Compendium of Effective Interventions. Interventions published between January, 1998 and September, 2015 were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE. Forty-six articles and 63 datasets involving 14,096 individuals met inclusion criteria. Included articles were grouped by intervention type, comparison group and outcome. Few of these had high or moderate quality of evidence and statistically significant effects. One intervention type, group-level health education interventions, were effective in reducing HIV/STI incidence when compared to attention controls. A second intervention type, comprehensive risk counseling and services, was effective in reducing sexual risk behaviors when compared to both active and attention controls. All other intervention types showed no statistically significant effect or had low or very low quality of evidence. Given that the majority of interventions produced low or very low quality of evidence, researchers should commit to rigorous evaluation and high quality reporting of HIV intervention studies.
Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto
Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132
Kumar G Anil
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.
Peltonen, Kirsi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
Increasing research is available on the preconditions for child mental health and optimal development in traumatic conditions, whereas less is known how to translate the findings into effective interventions to help traumatized children. This literature review analyses the effectiveness of psychosocial preventive interventions and treatments and their theoretical bases among children traumatized in the context of armed conflicts (war, military violence, terrorism and refugee). The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in preventing emotional distress and impairment and promoting optimal emotional-cognitive and social development. The second task is to analyze the nature of the underlying mechanisms for the success of preventive interventions, and the theoretical premises of the choice of intervention techniques, procedures and tools. We found 16 relevant published studies, but an examination of them revealed that only four of them had experimental designs strong enough that they could be included in the meta-analysis. While the subjective reports of the researchers suggested that systematic preventive interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among children traumatized due to armed conflict, the more objective results of the meta-analysis and the weaknesses in designs uncovered during the meta-analysis undermine such a conclusion. Additionally, a majority of the reported preventive interventions focused only on children's biased cognitive processes and negative emotions, while only a few aimed at influencing multiple domains of child development and improving developmental functioning on emotional, social and psychophysiological levels. It is concluded that substantial additional work needs to be done in developing effective preventive interventions and treatments for children traumatized by exposure to war and violence. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Huysmans, Maaike A; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van Mechelen, Willem; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; van der Molen, Henk F; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.
Shih, Sophy T F; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.
Background: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for women who had gestational diabetes.Methods/Design: The original...
Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the rate of post - partum depression . One method to reach this goal is to prevent post -partun depression (PPD) by providing...20060505147 04/17/2006 06:59 13036779673 BUCKLEY AFB ITT PAGE 07 Introduction Depression during pregnancy is associated with "higher incidence of post ... partum depression , maternal psychosocial and lifestyle risks, death by suicide, and adverse fetal outcomes" (Jesse and Graham, 2005). According to
Greaves Colin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their
Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity
Lloyd, Jennifer J; Logan, Stuart; Greaves, Colin J; Wyatt, Katrina M
Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives--establish motivation, take action and stay motivated--in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time
Padula, William V; Mishra, Manish K; Makic, Mary Beth F; Valuck, Robert J
To enhance the learner's competence with knowledge about a framework of quality improvement (QI) interventions to implement evidence-based practices for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Summarize the process of creating and initiating the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention.2. Identify the domains and QI interventions for the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention. Pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention is a priority issue in US hospitals. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel endorses an evidence-based practice (EBP) protocol to help prevent PrUs. Effective implementation of EBPs requires systematic change of existing care units. Quality improvement interventions offer a mechanism of change to existing structures in order to effectively implement EBPs for PrU prevention. The best-practice framework developed by Nelson et al is a useful model of quality improvement interventions that targets process improvement in 4 domains: leadership, staff, information and information technology, and performance and improvement. At 2 academic medical centers, the best-practice framework was shown to physicians, nurses, and health services researchers. Their insight was used to modify the best-practice framework as a reference tool for quality improvement interventions in PrU prevention. The revised framework includes 25 elements across 4 domains. Many of these elements support EBPs for PrU prevention, such as updates in PrU staging and risk assessment. The best-practice framework offers a reference point to initiating a bundle of quality improvement interventions in support of EBPs. Hospitals and clinicians tasked with quality improvement efforts can use this framework to problem-solve PrU prevention and other critical issues.
There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis-the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals-has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that wo...
Beauchamp, A; Backholer, K; Magliano, D; Peeters, A
Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. It is important that all groups benefit from measures to prevent obesity, but we know little about the differential effectiveness of such interventions within particular population subgroups. This review aimed to identify interventions for obesity prevention that evaluated a change in adiposity according to socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine the effectiveness of these interventions across different socioeconomic groups. A systematic search of published and grey literature was conducted. Studies that described an obesity prevention intervention and reported anthropometric outcomes according to a measure of SEP were included. Evidence was synthesized using narrative analysis. A total of 14 studies were analysed, representing a range of study designs and settings. All studies were from developed countries, with eight conducted among children. Three studies were shown to have no effect on anthropometric outcomes and were not further analysed. Interventions shown to be ineffective in lower SEP participants were primarily based on information provision directed at individual behaviour change. Studies that were shown to be effective in lower SEP participants primarily included community-based strategies or policies aimed at structural changes to the environment. Interventions targeting individual-level behaviour change may be less successful in lower SEP populations. It is essential that our efforts to prevent obesity do not leave behind the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A
In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.
George W. Howe
Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.
Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N
Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Han, Claire Jungyoun; Lee, Young Ji; Demiris, George
Regarding cancer awareness, social media effectively promotes health and supports self-management. Given the diverse study designs, methodologies, and approaches of social media interventions in oncology, it is difficult to determine the effects of social media on cancer prevention and management. We aim to systematically review intervention studies using social media for cancer care. A systematic search, using 7 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), was conducted to identify surveys and interventions using contemporary social media tools with a focus on cancer. Of the 18 selected studies, 7 were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were conducted for all types of cancer, and some were conducted for breast cancer in the United States, with mostly white female participants. Facebook was the most frequently used platform. Most studies targeted healthy participants providing cancer prevention education. With social media platforms as part of a larger intervention, or the main component of interventions, interventions were overall feasible and showed a significant improvement in cancer prevention and management. Social media tools have the potential to be effective in delivering interventions for cancer prevention and management. However, there was a dearth of studies with rigorous study methodologies to test social media effects on various cancer-related clinical outcomes. Social media use in cancer care will facilitate improved communication and support among patients, caregivers, and clinicians and, ultimately, improved patient care. Clinicians need to carefully harness social media to enhance patient care and clinical outcomes.
Hudziak, Jim; Archangeli, Christopher
Preschoolers are in the most rapid period of brain development. Environment shapes the structure and function of the developing brain. Promoting brain health requires cultivation of healthy environments at home, school, and in the community. This improves the emotional-behavioral and physical health of all children, can prevent problems in children at risk, and can alter the trajectory of children already suffering. For clinicians, this starts with assessing and treating the entire family, equipping parents with the principles of parent management training, and incorporating wellness prescriptions for nutrition, physical activity, music, and mindfulness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between...... employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. RESULTS: Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative...
Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy.
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L.; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the 9 control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and post-intervention. At post-intervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to vigorous physical activity than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means=7.46 min/day, p=.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (−27.8 min/day, p=.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852
Iskarpatyoti, Brittany S; Lebov, Jill; Hart, Lauren; Thomas, Jim; Mandal, Mahua
Structural interventions alter the social, economic, legal, political, and built environments that underlie processes affecting population health. We conducted a systematic review of evaluations of structural interventions for HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to better understand methodological and other challenges and identify effective evaluation strategies. We included 27 peer-reviewed articles on interventions related to economic empowerment, education, and substance abuse in LMICs. Twenty-one evaluations included clearly articulated theories of change (TOCs); 14 of these assessed the TOC by measuring intermediary variables in the causal pathway between the intervention and HIV outcomes. Although structural interventions address complex interactions, no evaluation included methods designed to evaluate complex systems. To strengthen evaluations of structural interventions, we recommend clearly articulating a TOC and measuring intermediate variables between the predictor and outcome. We additionally recommend adapting study designs and analytic methods outside traditional epidemiology to better capture complex results, influences external to the intervention, and unintended consequences.
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Noar, Seth M; Black, Hulda G; Pierce, Larson B
To conduct a meta-analysis of computer technology-based HIV prevention behavioral interventions aimed at increasing condom use among a variety of at-risk populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing published and unpublished studies testing computer-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 12 randomized controlled trials that met inclusion criteria. Variables that had the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size for condom use was d = 0.259 (95% confidence interval = 0.201, 0.317; Z = 8.74, P partners, and incident sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, interventions were significantly more efficacious when they were directed at men or women (versus mixed sex groups), utilized individualized tailoring, used a Stages of Change model, and had more intervention sessions. Computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions have similar efficacy to more traditional human-delivered interventions. Given their low cost to deliver, ability to customize intervention content, and flexible dissemination channels, they hold much promise for the future of HIV prevention.
Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C
Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.
Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P
Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.
Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk (CMR, also known as metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, comprises obesity (particularly central or abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Leading to death from diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the root cause of CMR is inadequate physical activity, a Western diet identified primarily by low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in saturated fat, as well as a number of yet-to-be-identified genetic factors. While the pathophysiological pathways related to CMR are complex, the universal need for adequate physical activity and a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and whole grains, while minimizing food high in added sugars and saturated fat suggests that these behaviors are the appropriate focus of intervention.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana
This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee
INTRODUCTION Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders see as the causes of work disability, what the intervention should aim at to address this problem, and to what extent the intervention works in practice. METHODS A qualitative research method was used, including data-triangulation: (a) documentary materials; (b) semi-structured interviews with the deliverers and workers (n = 14); (c) participatory observations of group meetings (n = 6); (d) member-checking meetings (n = 3); (e) focus-group meetings (n = 2). A grounded theory approach, including some ethnographic methodology, was used for the data-analysis. RESULTS Stakeholders' perceptions of causes for work disability differ, as do preferred strategies for prevention. Designers proposed work-directed measures to change the workplace and work organizations, and individual-directed measures to change workers' behaviour. Deliverers targeted individual-directed measures, however, workers were mostly seeking work-directed measures. To assess how the intervention was working, designers sought a wide range of outcome measures. Deliverers focused on measurable outcomes targeted at reducing work time-loss. Workers perceived that this intervention offered short-term benefits yet fell short in ensuring sustainable return-to-work. CONCLUSION This study provides understanding of where discrepancies between stakeholders' perceptions about interventions come from. Our findings have implications for workplace disability prevention intervention development, implementation and evaluation
Davison, K K; Kitos, N; Aftosmes-Tobio, A; Ash, T; Agaronov, A; Sepulveda, M; Haines, J
Despite recognition that parents are critical stakeholders in childhood obesity prevention, obesity research has overwhelmingly focused on mothers. In a recent review, fathers represented only 17% of parent participants in >600 observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity. The current study examined the representation of fathers in family interventions to prevent childhood obesity and characteristics of interventions that include fathers compared with those that only include mothers. Eligible studies included family-based interventions for childhood obesity prevention published between 2008 and 2015 identified in a recent systematic review. Data on intervention characteristics were extracted from the original review. Using a standardized coding scheme, these data were augmented with new data on the number of participating fathers/male caregivers and mothers/female caregivers. Out of 85 eligible interventions, 31 (37%) included mothers and fathers, 29 (34%) included only mothers, 1 (1%) included only fathers, and 24 (28%) did not provide information on parent gender. Of the interventions that included fathers, half included 10 or fewer fathers. Across all interventions, fathers represented a mere 6% of parent participants. Father inclusion was more common in interventions targeting families with elementary school-aged children (6-10 years) and those grounded in Ecological Systems Theory, and was less common in interventions focused on very young children (0-1 years) or the prenatal period and those targeting the sleep environment. This study emphasizes the lack of fathers in childhood obesity interventions and highlights a particular need to recruit and engage fathers of young children in prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.
Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Juárez, Olga; Serral, Gemma; Valmayor, Sara; Puigpinós, Rosa; Pasarín, María Isabel; Díez, Élia; Ariza, Carles
Background Childhood obesity preventive interventions should promote a healthy diet and physical activity at home and school. This study aims to describe a school-based childhood obesity preventive programme (POIBA Project) targeting 8-to-12- year-olds. Design and methods Evaluation study of a school-based intervention with a pre-post quasi-experimental design and a comparison group. Schools from disadvantaged neighbourhoods are oversampled. The intervention consists of 9 sessions, including 58 activities of a total duration between 9 and 13 hours, and the booster intervention of 2 sessions with 8 activities lasting 3 or 4 hours. They are multilevel (individual, family and school) and multicomponent (classroom, physical activity and family). Data are collected through anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and lifestyle surveys before and after the intervention and the booster intervention. In the intervention group, families complete two questionnaires about their children’s eating habits and physical activity. The outcome variable is the cumulative incidence rate of obesity, obtained from body mass index values and body fat assessed by triceps skinfold thickness. The independent variables are socio-demographic, contextual, eating habits, food frequency, intensity of physical activity and use of new technologies. Expected impact for public health It is essential to implement preventive interventions at early ages and to follow its effects over time. Interventions involving diet and physical activity are the most common, being the most effective setting the school. The POIBA Project intervenes in both the school and family setting and focuses on the most disadvantaged groups, in which obesity is most pronounced and difficult to prevent. Significance for public health Overweight and obesity are a major public health concern that predispose affected individuals to the development of chronic diseases. Of importance, obesity is more common among
Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let's Talk about the Children, LT) on children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with their families. Consenting families were randomized to the two intervention groups. The initial sample comprised 119 families and their children aged 8-16. Of these, 109 completed the interventions and the baseline evaluation. Mothers and fathers filled out questionnaires including standardized rating scales for children's symptoms and prosocial behaviour at baseline and at 4, 10 and 18 months post-intervention. The final sample consisted of parental reports on 149 children with 83 complete data sets. Both interventions were effective in decreasing children's emotional symptoms, anxiety, and marginally hyperactivity and in improving children's prosocial behaviour. The FTI was more effective than the LT on emotional symptoms particularly immediately after the intervention, while the effect of the LT emerged after a longer interval. The study supports the effectiveness of both interventions in families with depressed parents. The FTI is applicable in cultural settings other than the USA. Our findings provide support for including preventive child mental health measures as part of psychiatric services for mentally ill parents.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.
Wariki, Windy Mariane Virenia; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Wiysonge, Charles S; Horvath, Hacsi; Read, Jennifer S
Various interventions to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been investigated and implemented. A number of systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of MTCT of HIV reported antiretroviral prophylaxis, caesarean section before labour and before ruptured membranes, and complete avoidance of breastfeeding were efficacious for preventing MTCT of HIV. Recent WHO guidelines recommend lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women for treatment of the woman's own HIV infection and for prevention of MTCT of HIV. Therefore, the objective of this overview is to evaluate the currently available systematic reviews of interventions for preventing MTCT of HIV, and to identify the current best evidence-based interventions for reducing the risk of MTCT of HIV. We will include only peer-reviewed systematic reviews of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of interventions for preventing MTCT of HIV that target both HIV-infected women and children aged 2 years and younger born to HIV-infected women. We will search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE. We will assess review eligibility, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews using A Measurement Tool to Assess The Systematic Reviews and will extract data, comparing our results and resolving discrepancies by consensus. Finally, we will independently assess the certainty of the evidence using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Ethics approval is not required. We will publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal and present at conferences, which will inform future research and will be useful for healthcare managers, administrators and policymakers to guide resource allocation decisions and optimisation of interventions to prevent the MTCT of HIV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless
Full Text Available “The Fire is Coming” film is an innovative HIV-prevention intervention contextualized to the Maasai people of Tanzania through use of a traditional Maasai story. The intervention was developed and implemented in partnership with Maasai Pastoralists for Education and Development (MAPED. Although there have been numerous Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP surveys conducted among the Maasai, this is the first control-group comparison study designed to measure the effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention contextualized specifically to the Maasai people of Tanzania. We will first discuss the background and context in which the intervention was developed and methods used to develop the intervention. We will then discuss the evaluation methods, results, and implications of a retrospective Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP two-village comparison survey (n=200 for “The Fire is Coming” HIV-prevention intervention among Maasai people. There was a significant effect for HIV-related attitudes, t(16 = 2.77, p 0.05. Implications: Belief in one’s ability to do something is often the pivotal point for behavior change. The results of the survey denote a highly effective intervention in changing HIV-related attitudes and behaviors. It is promising for replication among other Maasai communities and for adaptation with indigenous people groups in other regions.
Choi, Sang D; Guo, Liangjie; Kang, Donghun; Xiong, Shuping
Training balance and promoting physical activities in the elderly can contribute to fall-prevention. Due to the low adherence of conventional physical therapy, fall interventions through exergame technologies are emerging. The purpose of this review study is to synthesize the available research reported on exergame technology and interactive interventions for fall prevention in the older population. Twenty-five relevant papers retrieved from five major databases were critically reviewed and analyzed. Results showed that the most common exergaming device for fall intervention was Nintendo Wii, followed by Xbox Kinect. Even though the exergame intervention protocols and outcome measures for assessing intervention effectiveness varied, the accumulated evidences revealed that exergame interventions improved physical or cognitive functions in the elderly. However, it remains inconclusive whether or not the exergame-based intervention for the elderly fall prevention is superior to conventional physical therapy and the effect mechanism of the exergaming on elderly's balance ability is still unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stephanie R. Partridge
Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behavior change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalization of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviors of adolescents now and in the future.
Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls
Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.
Schweer, Jen Luettel; Heather, Katie; Kay, Kathryn; Stewart, K. Leigh; Kovach, Laura
R.U. Ready? at Georgetown University is an annual sexual assault awareness event that incorporates peer education and resources with opportunities for students, staff, and faculty to dialogue about providing bystander intervention throughout the campus community. Beyond dialogue, participants learn about student activism and the resources and…
Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena
Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.
Haukka, E; Leino-Arjas, P; Viikari-Juntura, E; Takala, E-P; Malmivaara, A; Hopsu, L; Mutanen, P; Ketola, R; Virtanen, T; Pehkonen, I; Holtari-Leino, M; Nykänen, J; Stenholm, S; Nykyri, E; Riihimäki, H
To examine the efficacy of a participatory ergonomics intervention in preventing musculoskeletal disorders among kitchen workers. Participatory ergonomics is commonly recommended to reduce musculoskeletal disorders, but evidence for its effectiveness is sparse. A cluster randomised controlled trial among the 504 workers of 119 kitchens in Finland was conducted during 2002-2005. Kitchens were randomised to an intervention (n = 59) and control (n = 60) group. The duration of the intervention that guided the workers to identify strenuous work tasks and to seek solutions for decreasing physical and mental workload, was 11 to 14 months. In total, 402 ergonomic changes were implemented. The main outcome measures were the occurrence of and trouble caused by musculoskeletal pain in seven anatomical sites, local fatigue after work, and sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders. Individual level data were collected by a questionnaire at baseline and every 3 months during the intervention and 1-year follow-up period. All response rates exceeded 92%. No systematic differences in any outcome variable were found between the intervention and control groups during the intervention or during the 1-year follow-up. The intervention did not reduce perceived physical work load and no evidence was found for the efficacy of the intervention in preventing musculoskeletal disorders among kitchen workers. It may be that a more comprehensive redesign of work organisation and processes is needed, taking more account of workers' physical and mental resources.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.
Ash, Tayla; Agaronov, Alen; Young, Ta'Loria; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Davison, Kirsten K
A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base. Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched the PubMed, PsycIFO, and CINAHL databases to identify eligible interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity with an active family component published between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of study design, behavioral domains targeted, and sample demographics were extracted from eligible articles using a comprehensive codebook. More than 90% of the 119 eligible interventions were based in the United States, Europe, or Australia. Most interventions targeted children 2-5 years of age (43%) or 6-10 years of age (35%), with few studies targeting the prenatal period (8%) or children 14-17 years of age (7%). The home (28%), primary health care (27%), and community (33%) were the most common intervention settings. Diet (90%) and physical activity (82%) were more frequently targeted in interventions than media use (55%) and sleep (20%). Only 16% of interventions targeted all four behavioral domains. In addition to studies in developing countries, racial minorities and non-traditional families were also underrepresented. Hispanic/Latino and families of low socioeconomic status were highly represented. The limited number of interventions targeting diverse populations and obesity risk behaviors beyond diet and physical activity inhibit the development of comprehensive, tailored interventions. To ensure a broad evidence base, more interventions implemented in developing countries and targeting racial
Xu, Tingting; He, Yasheng; Dainelli, Livia; Yu, Kai; Detzel, Patrick; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Volger, Sheri; Fang, Hai
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes which occurs during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at greater risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery, while babies born from mothers with GDM are at greater risk of post-natal complications. Using the most updated diagnosis criteria, the GDM prevalence is estimated at 9.3-25.5% worldwide and 9.3-18.9% in China. Our objective was to identify healthcare interventions aimed at GDM prevention and control in China. A best-evidence synthesis was performed based on a systematic search of literature published between 1997 and October 2015 in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wan-fang databases using keywords "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus", "GDM", "Intervention" "Medical Intervention" "Early Medical Intervention", "Dietary Intervention", "Exercise Intervention", "Lifestyle Intervention", "Therapy", "Treatment" and "China". Inclusion criteria were studies conducted in China, reporting GDM healthcare interventions, and published in either Chinese or English. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality of the studies and extracted the data. Treatment efficacy was examined with weighted pooled odds ratio (OR) meta-analyses. The search resulted in 5961 articles (published in 276 different Chinese language journals and 6 English language journals), of which 802 were included in this synthesis. While 39.4% (n = 316) failed to report the GDM diagnostic criteria used, the remaining studies classified GDM with various international (n = 5) or Chinese (n = 7) diagnostic standards. Treatment interventions were categorized into 6 types: dietary (18.6%), exercise (1.6%), medication (20.7%), health education (9.0%), psychological (2.6%) and combination (47.4%). No interventions aimed at GDM prevention were identified. Meta-analyses demonstrated a statistically significant overall benefit of GDM treatment strategies in reducing the odds of maternal and
Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Reza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh
Background Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middle-income countries. Objectives To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. Patients and Methods This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were col...
Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L
We evaluated the impact of loan repayment programmes, revising Medicaid fee-for-service rates, and changing dental hygienist supervision requirements on access to preventive dental care for children in Georgia. We estimated cost savings from the three interventions of preventive care for young children after netting out the intervention cost. We used a regression model to evaluate the impact of changing the Medicaid reimbursement rates. The impact of supervision was evaluated by comparing general and direct supervision in school-based dental sealant programmes. Federal loan repayments to dentists and school-based sealant programmes (SBSPs) had lower intervention costs (with higher potential cost savings) than raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate. General supervision had costs 56% lower than direct supervision of dental hygienists for implementing a SBSP. Raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate by 10 percentage points would improve utilization by Loan repayment could serve almost 13 000 children for a cost of $400 000 and a potential cost saving of $176 000. The three interventions all improved met need for preventive dental care. Raising the reimbursement rate alone would marginally affect utilization of Medicaid services but would not substantially increase acceptance of Medicaid by providers. Both loan repayment programmes and amending supervision requirements are potentially cost-saving interventions. Loan repayment programmes provide complete care to targeted areas, while amending supervision requirements of dental hygienists could provide preventive care across the state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola
Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S
Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835
Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre
Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review.
Shih, Sophy T.F.; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.
% for high-risk individuals. Methods/Design: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for post-GDM women. This trial has an intervention...... calls. A total of 574 women will be recruited, with 287 in each arm. The women will undergo blood tests, anthropometric measurements, and self-reported health status, diet, physical activity, quality of life, depression, risk perception and healthcare service usage, at baseline and 12 months...
Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah
Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.
Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis
In recent years, an ever increasing range of technology-based applications have been developed with the goal of assisting in the delivery of more effective and efficient fall prevention interventions. Whilst there have been a number of studies that have surveyed technologies for a particular sub-domain of fall prevention, there is no existing research which surveys the full spectrum of falls prevention interventions and characterises the range of technologies that have augmented this landscape. This study presents a conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art of technology-based fall prevention systems which is derived from a systematic template analysis of studies presented in contemporary research literature. The framework proposes four broad categories of fall prevention intervention system: Pre-fall prevention; Post-fall prevention; Fall injury prevention; Cross-fall prevention. Other categories include, Application type, Technology deployment platform, Information sources, Deployment environment, User interface type, and Collaborative function. After presenting the conceptual framework, a detailed survey of the state of the art is presented as a function of the proposed framework. A number of research challenges emerge as a result of surveying the research literature, which include a need for: new systems that focus on overcoming extrinsic falls risk factors; systems that support the environmental risk assessment process; systems that enable patients and practitioners to develop more collaborative relationships and engage in shared decision making during falls risk assessment and prevention activities. In response to these challenges, recommendations and future research directions are proposed to overcome each respective challenge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Graf, C; Dordel, S
Child and juvenile obesity is increasing worldwide; therefore, effective preventive strategies are warranted. The stepwise project CHILT (Children's Health Interventional Trial) was initiated in 2000 and combines in its multicomponent school-based arm CHILT I health education and physical activity for primary school children to prevent physical inactivity and overweight. The effect on obesity and physical performance was studied in 12 primary schools (intervention schools, IS) compared with 5 control schools (CS). Anthropometric data were recorded. Physical performance was measured by a coordination test for children (the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder", KTK) and the 6-minute run. Anthropometric and motoric data of 436 children in IS (55.0% of the population) and 179 children in CS (62.8%) were available at baseline and at follow-up. No difference in the incidence of overweight was found between the IS and CS after 4 years of intervention. Remission of overweight was higher in IS (23.2% versus 19.2%), but not significant. The increase in BMI was significantly lower in IS, in which the program was regularly performed. There was an improvement in selected items of the KTK in IS. In particular, endurance performance tended to be higher at final examination. School-based preventive intervention seems to have a positive influence on physical motor skills and the remission of overweight. To optimize the effects, a consistent and quality assured implementation and the integration of the children's whole environment are warranted.
Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew
Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.
Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J; Neira, Maria
Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms "environmental," "occupational," "exposure," "cancer," "primary prevention," and "interventions." To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled "Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention" under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17-18 March 2011. Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens.
Vamos, Szonja; Mumbi, Miriam; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen Marshall; Jones, Deborah Lynne
The scale-up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates creative solutions that do not further burden the health system to meet global initiatives in prevention and care. This study assessed the work environment and impact of providing a behavioral risk reduction intervention in six community health centers (CHCs) in Lusaka, Zambia; opportunities and challenges to long-term program sustainability were identified. CHC staff participants (n = 82) were assessed on perceived clinic burden, job satisfaction, and burnout before and after implementation of the intervention. High levels of clinic burden were identified; however, no increase in perceived clinic burden or staff burnout was associated with providing the intervention. The intervention was sustained at the majority of CHCs and also adopted at additional clinics. Behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented and maintained in resource-poor settings. Creative strategies to overcome structural and economic challenges should be applied to enhance translation research.
Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D
, mean age 74, 73.7%women, who had visited the emergency department or had been hospitalized due to a fall. INTERVENTION: Identification of general medical, cardiovascular, and physical risk factors for falls and individual intervention in the intervention group. Participants in the control group....... Followup exceeded 90.0%. A total of 422 falls were registered in the intervention group, 398 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no effect of the intervention on fall rates (relative risk=1.06, 95%confidence interval (CI)=0.75 -1.51), proportion with falls (odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 95......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-two elderly people...
Tolan, Patrick H; Hanish, Laura D; McKay, Mary M; Dickey, Mitchell H
This article reports on 2 studies designed to develop and validate a set of measures for use in evaluating processes of child and family interventions. In Study 1 responses from 187 families attending an outpatient clinic for child behavior problems were factor analyzed to identify scales, consistent across sources: Alliance (Satisfactory Relationship with Interventionist and Program Satisfaction), Parenting Skill Attainment, Child Cooperation During Session, Child Prosocial Behavior, and Child Aggressive Behavior. Study 2 focused on patterns of scale scores among 78 families taking part in a 22-week preventive intervention designed to affect family relationships, parenting, and child antisocial and prosocial behaviors. The factor structure identified in Study 1 was replicated. Scale construct validity was demonstrated through across-source convergence, sensitivity to intervention change, and ability to discriminate individual differences. Path analysis validated the scales' utility in explaining key aspects of the intervention process. Implications for evaluating processes in family interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Aims: To examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that are designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to young people. The review considers specific sub-questions related to the factors that might influence effectiveness, any differential effects for different sub-populations of youth, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Methods: A review of studies on the impact of interventions on young people under the age of 18 was conducted. It included interventions that were designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children and young people. The review was conducted in July 2007, and included 20 papers on access restriction studies. The quality of the papers was assessed and the relevant data was extracted. Results: The evidence obtained from the review indicates that access restriction interventions may produce significant reductions in the rate of illegal tobacco sales to youth. However, lack of enforcement and the ability of youth to acquire cigarettes from social sources may undermine the effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions: When access interventions are applied in a comprehensive manner, they can affect young people’s access to tobacco. However, further research is required to examine the effects of access restriction interventions on young people’s smoking behaviour.
Burgermaster, Marissa; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Mamykina, Lena
Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention. Descriptive coding, summary, and case-ordered descriptive meta-matrices were used to group participants by their psychosocial responses to the intervention and associated behavior changes. Four psychosocial phenotypes of responses emerged: (a) Activated-successful behavior-changers with strong internal supports; (b) Inspired-motivated, but not fully successful behavior-changers with some internal supports, whose taste preferences and food environment overwhelmed their motivation; (c) Reinforced-already practiced target behaviors, were motivated, and had strong family support; and (d) Indifferent-uninterested in behavior change and only did target behaviors if family insisted. Our findings contribute to the field of behavioral medicine by suggesting the presence of specific subgroups of participants who respond differently to behavior change interventions and salient psychosocial characteristics that differentiate among these phenotypes. Future research should examine the utility of prospectively identifying psychosocial phenotypes for improving the tailoring of nutrition behavior change interventions. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.
Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk
Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.
Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.
Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956
Clarke, Aleisha M; Kuosmanen, Tuuli; Barry, Margaret M
The rapid growth in the use of online technologies among youth provides an opportunity to increase access to evidence-based mental health resources. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a narrative synthesis of the evidence on the effectiveness of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions for youth aged 12-25 years. Searching a range of electronic databases, 28 studies conducted since 2000 were identified. Eight studies evaluating six mental health promotion interventions and 20 studies evaluating 15 prevention interventions were reviewed. The results from the mental health promotion interventions indicate that there is some evidence that skills-based interventions presented in a module-based format can have a significant impact on adolescent mental health, however, an insufficient number of studies limits this finding. The results from the online prevention interventions indicate the significant positive effect of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy on adolescents' and emerging adults' anxiety and depression symptoms. The rates of non-completion were moderate to high across a number of studies. Implementation findings provide some evidence that participant face-to-face and/or web-based support was an important feature in terms of program completion and outcomes. Additional research examining factors affecting exposure, adherence and outcomes is required. The quality of evidence across the studies varied significantly, thus highlighting the need for more rigorous, higher quality evaluations conducted with more diverse samples of youth. Although future research is warranted, this study highlights the potential of online mental health promotion and prevention interventions in promoting youth wellbeing and reducing mental health problems.
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Background Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. Methods/design This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Discussion Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154. PMID:24237937
Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gálvez-Herrer, Macarena; Tapias-Merino, Ester; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos
Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154.
Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Rodzinka, Marcin; Kopec, Agnieszka
The ageing of modern societies remains one of the greatest challenges for health and social systems. To respond to this challenge, we need effective strategies assuring healthy active life for elderly people. Health promotion and related activities are perceived as a key intervention, which can improve wellbeing in later life. The main aim of this study is the identification and classification of such interventions addressed to older adults and elderly. Therefore, the strategy based on the scoping review as a feasible tool for exploring this domain, summarizing research findings and identifying gaps of evidence, was applied. The scoping review relies on the analysis of previous reviews of interventions aimed at older adults (55-64 years old) and elderly persons (65 years and above) assessed for their effectiveness in the framework of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis. The search strategy was based on the identification of interventions reported as health promotion, primary disease prevention, screening or social support. In the analysis, the reviews published from January 2000 to April 2015 were included. The search strategy yielded 334 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses addressed to target groups of interest, 182 of them assessed interventions belonging to health promotion, 219 to primary prevention, 34 to screening and 35 to social support. The studies focused on elderly (65 years and above) made up 40.4 % of all retrieved reviews and those addressing population of 55 years and above accounted for 24.0 %. Interventions focused on health maintenance and improvement in elderly and older adults represent frequently combined health promotion and disease prevention actions. Many interventions of this type are not addressed exclusively to elderly populations and/or older adults but are designed for the general population. The most common types of interventions addressed to elderly and older adults in the area of health promotion include health
Background To reduce the large public health burden of the high prevalence of depression, preventive interventions targeted at people at risk are essential and can be cost-effective. Web-based interventions are able to provide this care, but there is no agreement on how to best develop these applications and often the technology is seen as a given. This seems to be one of the main reasons that web-based interventions do not reach their full potential. The current study describes the development of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression, employing the CeHRes (Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management) roadmap. The goals are to create a user-friendly application which fits the values of the stakeholders and to evaluate the process of development. Methods The employed methods are a literature scan and discussion in the contextual inquiry; interviews, rapid prototyping and a requirement session in the value specification stage; and user-based usability evaluation, expert-based usability inspection and a requirement session in the design stage. Results The contextual inquiry indicated that there is a need for easily accessible interventions for the indicated prevention of depression and web-based interventions are seen as potentially meeting this need. The value specification stage yielded expected needs of potential participants, comments on the usefulness of the proposed features and comments on two proposed designs of the web-based intervention. The design stage yielded valuable comments on the system, content and service of the web-based intervention. Conclusions Overall, we found that by developing the technology, we successfully (re)designed the system, content and service of the web-based intervention to match the values of stakeholders. This study has shown the importance of a structured development process of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression because: (1) it allows the development team to
Kelders, Saskia M; Pots, Wendy T M; Oskam, Maarten Jan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C
To reduce the large public health burden of the high prevalence of depression, preventive interventions targeted at people at risk are essential and can be cost-effective. Web-based interventions are able to provide this care, but there is no agreement on how to best develop these applications and often the technology is seen as a given. This seems to be one of the main reasons that web-based interventions do not reach their full potential. The current study describes the development of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression, employing the CeHRes (Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management) roadmap. The goals are to create a user-friendly application which fits the values of the stakeholders and to evaluate the process of development. The employed methods are a literature scan and discussion in the contextual inquiry; interviews, rapid prototyping and a requirement session in the value specification stage; and user-based usability evaluation, expert-based usability inspection and a requirement session in the design stage. The contextual inquiry indicated that there is a need for easily accessible interventions for the indicated prevention of depression and web-based interventions are seen as potentially meeting this need. The value specification stage yielded expected needs of potential participants, comments on the usefulness of the proposed features and comments on two proposed designs of the web-based intervention. The design stage yielded valuable comments on the system, content and service of the web-based intervention. Overall, we found that by developing the technology, we successfully (re)designed the system, content and service of the web-based intervention to match the values of stakeholders. This study has shown the importance of a structured development process of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression because: (1) it allows the development team to clarify the needs that have to be met
De Lepeleere, Sara; Verloigne, Maïté; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity caused by an unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) is a prominent public health concern. Parenting practices may contribute to healthy behaviour change in children, but well-researched examples are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the systematic development of an intervention for parents to prevent childhood overweight/obesity through the improvement of parenting practices. The six steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP), a theory- and evidence-based tool to develop health-related interventions, were used as a framework to develop the 'Movie Models' programme. In Step 1, a needs assessment was performed to better understand the health problem of overweight/obesity in children and its association with diet, PA and SB. In Step 2, the programme goal (increasing the adoption of effective parenting practices) was sub-divided into performance objectives. Change objectives, which specify explicit actions required to accomplish the performance objectives, were also identified. Step 3 included the selection of theoretical methods (e.g. 'modelling' and 'images'), which were then translated into the practical strategy of online parenting videos. Step 4 comprised the development of a final intervention framework, and Step 5 included the planning of programme adoption and implementation. The final phase, Step 6, included the development of an effect- and process-evaluation plan. The IMP was used to structure the development of 'Movie Models', an intervention targeting specific parenting practices related to children's healthy diet, PA, SB, and parental self-efficacy. A clear framework for process analyses is offered, which aims to increase the potential effectiveness of an intervention and can be useful for those developing health promotion programmes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Astrid Ledgaard Holm
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost
Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio
To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.
Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn
Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.
Oostdam, N.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; van Mechelen, W.
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with increased risks for mother and child during pregnancy and in later life. The aim of this article is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent
Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter
The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
BACKGROUND: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul
Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…
Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.
This study evaluated whether engagement (i.e., attendance and quality of participation) in the Parenting our Children to Excellence (PACE) program predicted positive child and parent outcomes. PACE in an 8-week preventive intervention aimed at parents of preschool children. The study investigated the relation of engagement to outcomes in an…
Kuntsche, S.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Oostdam, N.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Mechelen, W. van
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with increased risks for mother and child during pregnancy and in later life. The aim of this article is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent
Stokman, M A; Spijkervet, F K L; Boezen, H M; Schouten, J.P.; Roodenburg, J L N; de Vries, E. G. E.
The aim of these meta-analyses was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis in cancer patients treated with head and neck radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, with a focus on randomized clinical trials. A literature search was performed for reports of
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…
Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.
Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…
Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue
Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…
Nader, Kathleen, Ed.
Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…
Wilkins, Julia; Huckabee, Sloan
This paper presents a review of the literature on dropout prevention interventions for students with disabilities. A variety of search methods, including electronic library searches, hand searches of journals, and Internet searches were used to acquire the widest possible set of research studies. To be included in this review, the studies must…
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon
This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…
Hoving, Jan L.; Lacaille, Diane; Urquhart, Donna M.; Hannu, Timo J.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Work participation of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is important not only economically but also for physical and psychological health. There is no Cochrane Review to date on studies of non-pharmacological interventions specifically aimed at preventing job loss in people with IA. To
Steward, Jennifer M.
Sexual violence on college campuses is a pervasive problem with the potential for extensive physical and psychological health consequences. Institutions have begun implementing prevention programs; however, more research is needed to understand whether these programs are effective. Bystander intervention programs have increased in popularity…
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Braxton, Nikia; Harvey, Jenna; Wingood, Gina
Objective Despite the documented intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV, there is a paucity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for female survivors of intimate partner violence in the United States. This paper describes the adaptation of an effective HIV prevention intervention, Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), for women in domestic violence shelters and the steps taken to improve the adapted intervention’s implementation. Method The adaptation process was guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework and data collected from directors, direct client service providers, and residents of two domestic violence shelters located in urban areas, as well as topical experts. Results Eleven of 12 shelter staff (92%) reported that HIV interventions had never been implemented at their shelter and 64% reported they had not provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Changes made to adapt SISTA for this population and enhance the implementation of the intervention included reducing the intervention’s duration; adding education about the intersection of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV; and adding an HIV risk assessment and safety plan. Conclusions Next steps will include implementing the adapted intervention and evaluating its perceived acceptability and efficacy, and assessing whether contextual factors influence the intervention’s implementation. PMID:27398257
Pihkala, Heljä; Johansson, Eva E
There is a growing interest in prevention of mental disorders in children of mentally ill parents. Beardslee's preventive family intervention is a method recently introduced into Sweden. When asking parents to participate in this intervention, it has become evident how sensitive the issue of parenthood is to our patients. The study aims at exploring what depressed parents considered as obstacles and facilitating factors for accepting Beardslee's family intervention. Ten parents from two psychiatric clinics and one primary healthcare centre in northern Sweden were interviewed by semi-structured technique. Nine of these parents had accepted and participated in Beardslee's family intervention; one parent had been offered but refused participation. Data were analysed according to grounded theory. The main reason for taking part was the lack of dialogue these parents perceived with their children. There were difficulties in talking about and finding words to explain the depression. The parents were worried about their children, wishing to know how the children were actually feeling, and wanting the professionals to take a look at them. To open up was both frightening and tempting. It implied the consideration of many aspects: the right timing, shame and guilt, the partner's interest, the children's willingness and the involvement of professionals. The findings show the delicacy of the issue of children's well-being when a parent is depressed and they highlight some important topics to discuss with the parents when preventive interventions are offered.
Perry, Yael; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen
Objective: Suicide is a significant public health issue, and is especially concerning in adolescents and young adults, who are over-represented both in attempts and completed suicide. Emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to deliver suicide prevention interventions to these populations. The current systematic review aims to identify online and mobile psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for young people, and evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Method: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched for all articles published between January, 2000 and May, 2015. Peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on interventions for young people aged 12–25 years with suicidality as a primary outcome were eligible for inclusion. No exclusions were placed on study design. Results: One study met inclusion criteria, and found significant reductions in the primary outcome of suicidal ideation, as well as depression and hopelessness. Two relevant protocol papers of studies currently underway were also identified. Conclusions: There is a paucity of current evidence for online and mobile interventions for suicide prevention in youth. More high quality empirical evidence is required to determine the effectiveness of these novel approaches to improving suicide outcomes in young people. PMID:27274742
Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose
The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.
Tolan, Patrick; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David
Four hundred twenty-four families who resided in inner-city neighborhoods and had a child entering 1st grade were randomly assigned to a control condition or to a family-focused preventive intervention combined with academic tutoring. SAFEChildren, which was developed from a developmental-ecological perspective, emphasizes developmental tasks and community factors in understanding risk and prevention. Tracking of linear-growth trends through 6 months after intervention indicated an overall effect of increased academic performance and better parental involvement in school. High-risk families had additional benefits for parental monitoring, child-problem behaviors, and children's social competence. High-risk youth showed improvement in problem behaviors and social competence. Results support a family-focused intervention that addresses risk in low-income communities as managing abnormal challenges.
There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections.
Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Gaillard, Aurélie; Stock, Susan; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Hong, Quan Nha; Vezina, Michel; Coulibaly, Youssouph; Vézina, Nicole; Berthelette, Diane
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) represent a major public health problem and economic burden to employers, workers and health insurance systems. This systematic review had two objectives: (1) to analyze the cost-benefit results of organizational-level ergonomic workplace-based interventions aimed at preventing WMSD, (2) to explore factors related to the implementation process of these interventions (obstacles and facilitating factors) in order to identify whether economic results may be due to a successful or unsuccessful implementation. Systematic review. Studies were searched in eight electronic databases and in reference lists of included studies. Companion papers were identified through backward and forward citation tracking. A quality assessment tool was developed following guidelines available in the literature. An integration of quantitative economic results and qualitative implementation data was conducted following an explanatory sequential design. Out of 189 records, nine studies met selection criteria and were included in our review. Out of nine included studies, grouped into four types of interventions, seven yielded positive economic results, one produced a negative result and one mixed results (negative cost-effectiveness and positive net benefit). However, the level of evidence was limited for the four types of interventions given the quality and the limited number of studies identified. Our review shows that among the nine included studies, negative and mixed economic results were observed when the dose delivered and received by participants was low, when the support from top and/or middle management was limited either due to limited participation of supervisors in training sessions or a lack of financial resources and when adequacy of intervention to workers' needs was low. In studies where economic results were positive, implementation data showed strong support from supervisors and a high rate of employee participation. Studies
Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hee Sun
Falls in older people are a common problem, often leading to considerable morbidity. However, the overall effect of exercise interventions on fall prevention in care facilities remains controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on the rate of falls and number of fallers in care facilities. A meta-analysis was conducted of randomized controlled trials published up to December 2014. Eight databases were searched including Ovid-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and KisTi. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-one studies were selected, that included 5,540 participants. Fifteen studies included exercise as a single intervention, whereas the remaining six included exercise combined with two or more fall interventions tailored to each resident's fall risk (i.e., medication review, environmental modification or staff education). Meta-analysis showed that exercise had a preventive effect on the rate of falls (risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97). This effect was stronger when exercise combined with other fall interventions on the rate of falls (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72) and on the number of fallers (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95). Exercise interventions including balance training (i.e., gait, balance, and functional training; or balance and strength) resulted in reduced the rate of falls. Sensitivity analyses indicated that exercise interventions resulted in reduced numbers of recurrent fallers (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.97). This review provides an important basis for developing evidence-based exercise intervention protocols for older people living in care facilities. Exercise programs, which are combined with tailored other fall interventions and challenge balance training to improve balance skills, should be applied to frail older people with functional limitations in institutional settings. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.
Ma, Yong; Clish, Clary; Florez, Jose C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Gerszten, Robert E.
Identifying novel biomarkers of type 2 diabetes risk may improve prediction and prevention among individuals at high risk of the disease and elucidate new biological pathways relevant to diabetes development. We performed plasma metabolite profiling in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a completed trial that randomized high-risk individuals to lifestyle, metformin, or placebo interventions. Previously reported markers, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids and glutamine/glutamate, were associated with incident diabetes (P diabetes, and increases in betaine at 2 years were also associated with lower diabetes incidence (P = 0.01). Our findings indicate betaine is a marker of diabetes risk among high-risk individuals both at baseline and during preventive interventions and they complement animal models demonstrating a direct role for betaine in modulating metabolic health. PMID:26861782
Beharry, Kay D; Valencia, Gloria B; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Aranda, Jacob V
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a significant morbidity in prematurely born infants, is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness in children and persists till adulthood. Strict control of oxygen therapy and prevention of intermittent hypoxia are the keys in the prevention of ROP, but pharmacologic interventions have decreased risk of ROP. Various drug classes such as methylxanthines (caffeine), VEGF inhibitors, antioxidants, and others have decreased ROP occurrence. The timing of pharmacologic intervention remains unsettled, but early prevention rather than controlling disease progression may be preferred. These drugs act through different mechanisms, and synergistic approaches should be considered to maximize efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Newton, Robert L.; Han, Hongmei; Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Lewis, Leslie; Champagne, Catherine M.; Sothern, Melinda; Ryan, Donna; Williamson, Donald A.
Purpose Examine the influence of an environmental intervention to prevent excess weight gain in African American children. Design Single-group repeated measures. Setting The intervention was delivered to a school composed of African American children. Subjects Approximately 45% (N = 77) of enrolled second through sixth grade students. Intervention The 18-month intervention was designed to alter the school environment to prevent excess weight gain by making healthier eating choices and physical activity opportunities more available. Measures Body Mass Index Percentile was the primary outcome variable. Body mass index Z-score was also calculated, and percent body fat, using bioelectrical impedance, was also measured. Total caloric intake (kcal), and percent kcal from fat, carbohydrate, and protein were measured by digital photography. Minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior were self-reported. Analysis Mixed models analysis was used, covarying baseline values. Results Boys maintained while girls increased percent body fat over 18-months (p = .027). All children decreased percent of kcal consumed from total and saturated fat, and increased carbohydrate intake and self-reported physical activity during the intervention (p values < .025). body mass index Z-score, sedentary behavior, and total caloric intake were unchanged. Conclusion The program may have resulted in maintenance of percent body fat in boys. Girl's percent body fat steadily increased, despite similar behavioral changes as boys. School-based interventions targeting African American children should investigate strategies that can be effective across gender. PMID:20465148
Niakan, Sharareh; Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Noori, Tayebeh; Gozali, Elahe
With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web. Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included. The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.
Hahn, Joan Earle
To describe the most frequently reported and the most central nursing interventions in an advance practice registered nurse (APRN)-led in-home preventive intervention model for adults aging with developmental disabilities using the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) system. A descriptive data analysis and a market basket analysis were conducted on de-identified nominal nursing intervention data from two home visits conducted by nurse practitioners (NPs) from October 2010 to June 2012 for 80 community-dwelling adults with developmental disabilities, ages 29 to 68 years. The mean number of NIC interventions was 4.7 in the first visit and 6.0 in the second visit and last visit. NPs reported 45 different intervention types as classified using a standardized language, with 376 in Visit One and 470 in Visit Two. Approximately 85% of the sample received the Health education intervention. The market basket analysis revealed common pairs, triples, and quadruple sets of interventions in this preventive model. The NIC nursing interventions that occurred together repeatedly were: Health education, Weight management, Nutrition management, Health screening, and Behavior management. Five NIC interventions form the basis of an APRN-led preventive intervention model for individuals aging with lifelong disability, with health education as the most common intervention, combined with interventions to manage weight and nutrition, promote healthy behaviors, and encourage routine health screening. Less frequently reported NIC interventions suggest the need to tailor prevention to individual needs, whether acute or chronic. APRNs employing prevention among adults aging with developmental disabilities must anticipate the need to focus on health education strategies for health promotion and prevention as well as tailor and target a patient-centered approach to support self-management of health to promote healthy aging in place. These NIC interventions serve not only as a guide for
Koivusalo, Saila B; Rönö, Kristiina; Klemetti, Miira M; Roine, Risto P; Lindström, Jaana; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kaaja, Risto J; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Tiitinen, Aila; Huvinen, Emilia; Andersson, Sture; Laivuori, Hannele; Valkama, Anita; Meinilä, Jelena; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G; Stach-Lempinen, Beata
To assess whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can be prevented by a moderate lifestyle intervention in pregnant women who are at high risk for the disease. Two hundred ninety-three women with a history of GDM and/or a prepregnancy BMI of ≥30 kg/m(2) were enrolled in the study at lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence of GDM by 39% in high-risk pregnant women. These findings may have major health consequences for both the mother and the child. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.
Background Traditional methods of process evaluation encompass what components were delivered, but rarely uncover how practitioners position themselves and act relative to an intervention being tested. This could be crucial for expanding our understanding of implementation and its contribution to intervention effectiveness. Methods We undertook a narrative analysis of in-depth, unstructured field diaries kept by nine community development practitioners for two years. The practitioners were responsible for implementing a multi-component, preventive, community-level intervention for mothers of new babies in eight communities, as part of a cluster randomised community intervention trial. We constructed a narrative typology of approaches to practice, drawing on the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Max Weber's Ideal Type theory. Results Five types of practice emerged, from a highly 'technology-based' type that was faithful to intervention specifications, through to a 'romantic' type that held relationships to be central to daily operations, with intact relationships being the final arbiter of intervention success. The five types also differed in terms of how others involved in the intervention were characterized, the narrative form (e.g., tragedy, satire) and where and how transformative change in communities was best created. This meant that different types traded-off or managed the priorities of the intervention differently, according to the deeply held values of their type. Conclusions The data set constructed for this analysis is unique. It revealed that practitioners not only exercise their agency within interventions, they do so systematically, that is, according to a pattern. The typology is the first of its kind and, if verified through replication, may have value for anticipating intervention dynamics and explaining implementation variation in community interventions. PMID:20003399
Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri
Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization. Methods/Design HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1 a practice questionnaire, (2 GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3 patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4 physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, (5 a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6 a clinical record audit, and (7 qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…
Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Hursh, Hilary A
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive-behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed.
Bonilla, Catherine; Híjar, Gisely; Márquez, Delia; Aramburú, Adolfo; Aparco, Juan Pablo; Gutiérrez, Ericson L
Childhood obesity is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. The present study describes the interventions used to prevent overweight and obesity in children younger than 5 years. The objective of the interventions was to stimulate breastfeeding, monitor the child's growth, and promote adequate complementary feeding by means of nutritional counseling using a responsive feeding approach in different settings, including health centers and residences. The interventions included physical activity and nutritional counseling, with the active participation of the parents. The quality of evidence from most studies was high because the evidence was derived from controlled clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. All interventions were conducted or could be replicated in Peru by adequate contextualization.
Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Fogelberg, Donald; Diaz, Jesus; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence
The manualization of a complex occupational therapy intervention is a crucial step in ensuring treatment fidelity for both clinical application and research purposes. Towards this latter end, intervention manuals are essential for assuring trustworthiness and replicability of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) that aim to provide evidence of the effectiveness of occupational therapy. In this paper, literature on the process of intervention manualization is reviewed. The prescribed steps are then illustrated through our experience in implementing the University of Southern California/Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center’s collaborative Pressure Ulcer Prevention Project (PUPP). In this research program, qualitative research provided the initial foundation for manualization of a multifaceted occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce incidence of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with SCI. PMID:22214116
Lakestani, Nelly; Donaldson, Morag L
This study aimed to investigate whether preschool children can learn how to interpret dogs' behaviours, with the purpose of helping avoid dog bites. Three- to five-year-old children (N = 70) were tested on their ability to answer questions about dogs' emotional states before and after participating in either an educational intervention about dog behaviour (intervention group) or an activity about wild animals (control group). Children who had received training about dog behaviour (intervention group) were significantly better at judging the dogs' emotional states after the intervention compared to before. The frequency with which they referred to relevant behaviours in justifying their judgements also increased significantly. In contrast, the control group's performance did not differ significantly between the two testing times. These results indicate that preschool children can be taught how to correctly interpret dogs' behaviours. This implies that incorporating such training into prevention programmes may contribute to reducing dog bite incidents.
Davies, Cathy; Cipriani, Andrea; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Radua, Joaquim; Stahl, Daniel; Provenzani, Umberto; McGuire, Philip; Fusar‐Poli, Paolo
Preventing psychosis in patients at clinical high risk may be a promising avenue for pre‐emptively ameliorating outcomes of the most severe psychiatric disorder. However, information on how each preventive intervention fares against other currently available treatment options remains unavailable. The aim of the current study was to quantify the consistency and magnitude of effects of specific preventive interventions for psychosis, comparing different treatments in a network meta‐analysis. PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and unpublished/grey literature were searched up to July 18, 2017, to identify randomized controlled trials conducted in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis, comparing different types of intervention and reporting transition to psychosis. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Data were synthesized using network meta‐analyses. The primary outcome was transition to psychosis at different time points and the secondary outcome was treatment acceptability (dropout due to any cause). Effect sizes were reported as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sixteen studies (2,035 patients, 57% male, mean age 20.1 years) reported on risk of transition. The treatments tested were needs‐based interventions (NBI); omega‐3 + NBI; ziprasidone + NBI; olanzapine + NBI; aripiprazole + NBI; integrated psychological interventions; family therapy + NBI; D‐serine + NBI; cognitive behavioural therapy, French & Morrison protocol (CBT‐F) + NBI; CBT‐F + risperidone + NBI; and cognitive behavioural therapy, van der Gaag protocol (CBT‐V) + CBT‐F + NBI. The network meta‐analysis showed no evidence of significantly superior efficacy of any one intervention over the others at 6 and 12 months (insufficient data were available after 12 months). Similarly, there was no evidence for intervention differences in acceptability at either time point. Tests
Lager, Kate E; Mistri, Amit K; Khunti, Kamlesh; Haunton, Victoria J; Sett, Aung K; Wilson, Andrew D
People with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk of future stroke and other cardiovascular events. Evidence-based strategies for secondary stroke prevention have been established. However, the implementation of prevention strategies could be improved. To assess the effects of stroke service interventions for implementing secondary stroke prevention strategies on modifiable risk factor control, including patient adherence to prescribed medications, and the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2013), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Trials Register (April 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (1981 to April 2013) and 10 additional databases. We located further studies by searching reference lists of articles and contacting authors of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of organisational or educational and behavioural interventions (compared with usual care) on modifiable risk factor control for secondary stroke prevention. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. One review author assessed the risk of bias for the included studies. We sought missing data from trialists. This review included 26 studies involving 8021 participants. Overall the studies were of reasonable quality, but one study was considered at high risk of bias. Fifteen studies evaluated predominantly organisational interventions and 11 studies evaluated educational and behavioural interventions for patients. Results were pooled where appropriate, although some clinical and methodological heterogeneity was present. The estimated effects of organisational interventions were compatible with improvements and no differences in the modifiable risk factors mean systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD) -2.57 mmHg; 95% confidence
Awungafac, George; Delvaux, Therese; Vuylsteke, Bea
The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. The Systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2000 and 22 July 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529). We considered cohort interventions, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional surveys of SW programmes. A framework was used in the description and mapping of intervention to desired outcomes. Twenty-six papers(reporting on 25 studies) were included. A strategy that empowered peer educator leaders to steer community activities showed a twofold increase in coverage of behaviour change communication and utilisation of health facility among SW. Brief alcohol harm reduction effort demonstrated a significant effect on sexual violence and engagement in sex trading. A risk reduction counselling intervention among drug-injecting SW showed an effect on alcohol, substance use and engagement in sex work. No study on a promising intervention like PrEP among SWs was found. We observed that interventions that combined some structural components, biomedical and behavioural strategies tend to accumulate more desired outcomes. The evidence base that can be considered in intervention designs to prevent HIV in SW in SSA is vast. The health sector should consider interventions to reduce binge alcohol intake and intravenous drug use among sex workers. Programmes should staunchly consider multicomponent approaches that explore community-based structural approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B; Hill, Keith D; Lord, Stephen R; Menz, Hylton B
Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392.
Lippman, Sheri A.; Shade, Starley B.; Hubbard, Alan E.
Background Intervention effects estimated from non-randomized intervention studies are plagued by biases, yet social or structural intervention studies are rarely randomized. There are underutilized statistical methods available to mitigate biases due to self-selection, missing data, and confounding in longitudinal, observational data permitting estimation of causal effects. We demonstrate the use of Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) to evaluate the effect of participating in a combined clinical and social STI/HIV prevention intervention on reduction of incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among sex workers in Brazil. Methods We demonstrate the step-by-step use of IPW, including presentation of the theoretical background, data set up, model selection for weighting, application of weights, estimation of effects using varied modeling procedures, and discussion of assumptions for use of IPW. Results 420 sex workers contributed data on 840 incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Participators were compared to non-participators following application of inverse probability weights to correct for differences in covariate patterns between exposed and unexposed participants and between those who remained in the intervention and those who were lost-to-follow-up. Estimators using four model selection procedures provided estimates of intervention effect between odds ratio (OR) .43 (95% CI:.22-.85) and .53 (95% CI:.26-1.1). Conclusions After correcting for selection bias, loss-to-follow-up, and confounding, our analysis suggests a protective effect of participating in the Encontros intervention. Evaluations of behavioral, social, and multi-level interventions to prevent STI can benefit by introduction of weighting methods such as IPW. PMID:20375927
Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Chen, Chen; Huang, Bin; Gordon, Judith
The pediatric emergency department (PED) is under-utilized as a setting in which to provide tobacco prevention interventions for at-risk children. We sought to determine the acceptability and feasibility of incorporating a brief, parental tobacco prevention intervention to 520 parents during the PED visit. Mean age (SD) of parents and children was 38.6 (7.1) and 11.5 (1.1), respectively; 47% of children were female; 45% were African American; 36% of parents had an annual income less than $25,000; 28.8% of parents were current smokers. Over 90% of parents said the intervention provided “useful” and “easy to understand” information and 97% of practitioners said it did not “interfere with clinical care.” Given the high prevalence of parental smoking in the PED, there is a high likelihood that their children will initiate smoking in the future. Thus, the use of the PED as a venue to providing tobacco prevention interventions warrants further evaluation. PMID:24858886
Adair, Linda S
Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre
Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica
Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David
Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.
Lillehoj, Catherine J; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Wickrama, K A S
Using latent growth curve modeling, the current study investigated gender moderation of the longitudinal pathways from internalizing to both social competency (i.e., social assertiveness) and the initiation of substance use (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), as well as the effect of a preventive intervention on that process. Rural Midwestern adolescents who were participating in a school-based preventive intervention study were an average of 12.3 years old at the pretest assessment conducted in 1998. A latent growth curve comparison analysis found that internalizing was related inversely to initial levels of social assertiveness skill among girls; further, internalizing was related positively to substance use initiation growth trajectories among girls. Girls who participated in the preventive intervention demonstrated a slower increase over time in substance use initiation and a faster increase in social assertiveness. Gender moderation of the impact of internalizing and social assertiveness on substance use initiation and response to the intervention, as well as the utility of latent growth curve modeling in the study of longitudinal change, are discussed.
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Design We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. Study sample We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. Results One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI – 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed. PMID:24564697
Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Mischke, Christina
To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI - 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed.
Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Oleski, Jessica; Bodenlos, Jamie S; Ma, Yunsheng
To examine the impact of a skin cancer prevention intervention that promoted sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing. Randomized controlled trial. Public beaches in Massachusetts. Women (N = 250) were recruited to participate in the study during their visit to a public beach. Intervention The intervention included motivational messages to use sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, instructions for proper use of sunless tanning products, attractive images of women with sunless tans, a free trial of a sunless tanning product, skin cancer education, and UV imaging. The control participants completed surveys. The primary outcome was sunbathing 2 months and 1 year after the intervention. Secondary outcomes included sunburns, sun protection use, and sunless tanning. At 2 months, intervention participants reduced their sunbathing significantly more than did controls and reported significantly fewer sunburns and greater use of protective clothing. At 1 year, intervention participants reported significant decreases in sunbathing and increases in sunless tanning relative to control participants but no differences in the other outcomes. This intervention, which promoted sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, had a short-term effect on sunbathing, sunburns, and use of protective clothing and a longer-term effect on sunbathing and sunless tanning. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00403377.
Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June
BACKGROUND Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. METHODS A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. RESULTS Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. CONCLUSIONS The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. PMID:18937268
Arnetz, Judith E.; Hamblin, Lydia; Russell, Jim; Upfal, Mark J.; Luborsky, Mark; Janisse, James; Essenmacher, Lynnette
Objective To evaluate the effects of a randomized controlled intervention on the incidence of patient-to-worker (Type II) violence and related injury in hospitals. Methods Forty-one units across 7 hospitals were randomized into intervention (n=21) and control (n=20) groups. Intervention units received unit-level violence data to facilitate development of an action plan for violence prevention; no data were presented to control units. Main outcomes were rates of violent events and injuries across study groups over time. Results Six months post-intervention, incident rate ratios of violent events were significantly lower on intervention units compared to controls (IRR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80). At 24 months, the risk for violence-related injury was lower on intervention units, compared to controls (IRR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.83). Conclusion This data-driven, worksite-based intervention was effective in decreasing risks of patient-to-worker violence and related injury. PMID:28045793
Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June
Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society
Zapka, Jane; Lemon, Stephenie C; Estabrook, Barbara B; Jolicoeur, Denise G
Ecological interventions hold promise for promoting overweight and obesity prevention in worksites. Given the paucity of evaluative research in the hospital worksite setting, considerable formative work is required for successful implementation and evaluation. This paper describes the formative phases of Step Ahead, a site-randomized controlled trial of a multilevel intervention that promotes physical activity and healthy eating in six hospitals in central Massachusetts. The purpose of the formative research phase was to increase the feasibility, effectiveness, and likelihood of sustainability of the intervention. The Step Ahead ecological intervention approach targets change at the organization, interpersonal work environment, and individual levels. The intervention was developed using fundamental steps of intervention mapping and important tenets of participatory research. Formative research methods were used to engage leadership support and assistance and to develop an intervention plan that is both theoretically and practically grounded. This report uses observational data, program minutes and reports, and process tracking data. Leadership involvement (key informant interviews and advisory boards), employee focus groups and advisory boards, and quantitative environmental assessments cultivated participation and support. Determining multiple foci of change and designing measurable objectives and generic assessment tools to document progress are complex challenges encountered in planning phases. Multilevel trials in diverse organizations require flexibility and balance of theory application and practice-based perspectives to affect impact and outcome objectives. Formative research is an essential component.
Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary
Full Text Available Introduction. Depression in adolescents and young people is associated with reduced social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning, increases in suicide and self-harm behaviours, and problematic substance use. Age-appropriate, evidence-based treatments are required to provide optimal care. Methods. “Evidence mapping” methodology was used to quantify the nature and distribution of the extant high-quality research into the prevention and treatment of depression in young people across psychological, medical, and other treatment domains. Results. Prevention research is dominated by cognitive-behavioral- (CBT- based interventions. Treatment studies predominantly consist of CBT and SSRI medication trials, with few trials of other psychological interventions or complementary/alternative treatments. Quality studies on relapse prevention and treatment for persistent depression are distinctly lacking. Conclusions. This map demonstrates opportunities for future research to address the numerous evidence gaps for interventions to prevent or treat depression in young people, which are of interest to clinical researchers, policy makers, and funding bodies.
Sanz-Martos, Sebastián; López-Medina, Isabel M; Álvarez-García, Cristina; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen
To assess the effectiveness of the interventions to prevent a pregnancy in adolescence. Systematic review. The following databases were consulted: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cuiden Plus, LILACS, and IME, in order to identify interventions aimed at preventing a pregnancy in adolescence. A total of 24 primary investigations, in which an educational program to prevent a pregnancy in the adolescence was evaluated, were selected. The quality of the selected studies was assessed according to the CASPe scale. Educational programs for the modification of the teenage pregnancy rate show inconclusive results, as there are 2 studies that find a reduction, and 2 that find that there are no significant changes. For secondary outcomes, it was found that educational programs are effective for increasing the knowledge level about sexuality and contraceptive methods and changing attitudes about the risk of a teenage pregnancy or the use of contraceptive methods. There are no statistically significant differences between the studies with a positive and negative outcome (P>.05) for any of the results analysed in this review. There is no a single intervention modality that is the most effective for prevention of a teenage pregnancy. More research is needed with a longitudinal approach that assess not only intermediate results, but also a modification in the pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Objective Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Method Adolescents (N=14; 13–18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths’ clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Results Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention (M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Conclusions Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed. PMID:27857509
Willich, Stefan N.
Full Text Available Objectives: The recently published HTA-report “Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking” detects a lack of high-quality publications considering the national prevention structures. Included publications do not give any information regarding current interventions in Germany. The goal of this addendum is to give an overview of the federal prevention system and associated measures for behavioural smoking prevention. Methods: Firstly, relevant tobacco prevention structures with associated tasks and activities were identified. Further, a survey of available project information was conducted in December 2007. This procedure based on systematic analysis in PrevNet-network as well as on manual search on the web sites of primary network centres (PrevNet-Knotenpunkte or other relevant federal state organisations. A written, postal questionnaire was conducted among network centres, federal state organisations and selected health insurance funds. Results: Interventions regarding primary prevention of smoking cover a variety of activities and campaigns issued by the Federal Government, several national organisations, federal and local authorities as well as health insurance funds. Institutions such as the German Ministry of Health, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZGA, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ contribute to smoking prevention on national level. Diverse professional associations, workshops or authorities set up the organisational framework for coordination and planning of tobacco prevention on federal state level. Even on communal level institutional structures in terms of local professional departments and committees are established. The health insurance companies and their associations also play a major role in prevention of smoking uptake. “Rauchfrei”, “Be smart, don´ t start”, “Klasse 2000”, “ALF” or “Just be smokefree” are among the most well
Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.
Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License
Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D
Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).
Reid, J B; Eddy, J M; Fetrow, R A; Stoolmiller, M
A population-based randomized intervention trial for the prevention of conduct problems (i.e., oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) is described. The LIFT (Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers) intervention was designed for all first- and fifth-grade elementary school boys and girls and their families living in at-risk neighborhoods characterized by high rates of juvenile delinquency. The 10-week intervention strategy was carefully targeted at proximal and malleable antecedents in three social domains that were identified by a developmental model of conduct problems. From 12 elementary schools, 671 first and fifth graders and their families participated either in the theory-based universal preventive intervention or in a control condition. The intervention consisted of parent training, a classroom-based social skills program, a playground behavioral program, and systematic communication between teachers and parents. A multiple measure assessment strategy was used to evaluate participant satisfaction and participation, fidelity of implementation, and the immediate impacts of the program on targeted antecedents.
Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the pathways through which a preventive intervention targeting young low-SES disruptive boys could result in lower crime involvement during adulthood. Method: The preventive intervention was implemented when the children were between 7 and 9 years and included three components (i.e. social skills, parental…
van Zoonen, Kim; Buntrock, Claudia; Ebert, David Daniel; Smit, Filip; Reynolds, Charles F; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent, have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of patients and their relatives and are associated with increased mortality rates, high levels of service use and substantial economic costs. Current treatments are estimated to only reduce about one-third of the disease burden of depressive disorders. Prevention may be an alternative strategy to further reduce the disease burden of depression. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of preventive interventions in participants with no diagnosed depression at baseline on the incidence of diagnosed depressive disorders at follow-up. We identified 32 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found that the relative risk of developing a depressive disorder was incidence rate ratio = 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.91), indicating a 21% decrease in incidence in prevention groups in comparison with control groups. Heterogeneity was low (I(2) = 24%). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one new case of depressive disorder was 20. Sensitivity analyses revealed no differences between type of prevention (e.g. selective, indicated or universal) nor between type of intervention (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or other). However, data on NNT did show differences. Prevention of depression seems feasible and may, in addition to treatment, be an effective way to delay or prevent the onset of depressive disorders. Preventing or delaying these disorders may contribute to the further reduction of the disease burden and the economic costs associated with depressive disorders.
Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children’s neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children’s lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. PMID:27044699
Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meyer, Kylie; Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Mosqueda, Laura; Han, S Duke; Wilber, Kathleen H
Elder mistreatment (EM) is a public health problem that harms millions of older Americans each year. Despite growing recognition of its occurrence, there are no evidence-based primary prevention programs. Although EM is distinct from other areas of family violence, including child maltreatment and intimate partner violence, common risk factors and theoretical underpinnings point to opportunities for prevention strategies. Drawing on evidence-based best practices found in other fields of family violence, we identify approaches that could be tested to prevent EM at the hands of family caregivers, who are among the most likely to commit mistreatment. Specifically, we examine home visiting approaches primarily used in the child maltreatment field and identify components that have potential to inform EM interventions, including prevention. We conclude that there is enough information to begin testing a prevention intervention for EM that targets caregivers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen
About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents
Miovský, Michal; Vonkova, Hana; Čablová, Lenka; Gabrhelík, Roman
To study the effect of a universal prevention intervention targeting cannabis use in individual children with different risk profiles. A school-based randomized controlled prevention trial was conducted over a period of 33 months (n=1874 sixth-graders, baseline mean age 11.82). We used a two-level random intercept logistic model for panel data to predict the probabilities of cannabis use for each child. Specifically, we used eight risk/protective factors to characterize each child and then predicted two probabilities of cannabis use for each child if the child had the intervention or not. Using the two probabilities, we calculated the absolute and relative effect of the intervention for each child. According to the two probabilities, we also divided the sample into a low-risk group (the quarter of the children with the lowest probabilities), a moderate-risk group, and a high-risk group (the quarter of the children with the highest probabilities) and showed the average effect of the intervention on these groups. The differences between the intervention group and the control group were statistically significant in each risk group. The average predicted probabilities of cannabis use for a child from the low-risk group were 4.3% if the child had the intervention and 6.53% if no intervention was provided. The corresponding probabilities for a child from the moderate-risk group were 10.91% and 15.34% and for a child from the high-risk group 25.51% and 32.61%. School grades, thoughts of hurting oneself, and breaking the rules were the three most important factors distinguishing high-risk and low-risk children. We predicted the effect of the intervention on individual children, characterized by their risk/protective factors. The predicted absolute effect and relative effect of any intervention for any selected risk/protective profile of a given child may be utilized in both prevention practice and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M
To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa
Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.
Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia
Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.
Full Text Available In this article, attention is called on the American attempt to change the international rules of intervention, and the impact this choice has on transatlantic relations. Hegemonic theory of world politics is the theoretical framework of the analysis. At the same time, the evolutionary world politics model is adopted to understand change in world politics. In the first section of the article, a set of concepts for the analysis of the structure of government of the world political system is presented. The second section is about the current phase of hegemonic politics and the state of transatlantic relations. The third section analyzes the issue of external military intervention to change domestic regimes and President Bush’s prevention doctrine. In the last section of the article, the attitudes and policies of the European Union and American governments on prevention are examined and confronted.
Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha
Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (paccidents in childhood. PMID:27583061
Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie
Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.
Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie; Coffman, Donna
This manuscript focuses on how individualized components may be embedded within a universal preventive intervention (TimeWise: Taking Charge of Leisure Time) to make program delivery more effective. Leisure related variables (motivation, boredom/interest and peer and parental influence) were used to suggest ways to individualize the program. Latent Class Analysis was used to develop individualized risk and strength profiles of adolescents (N = 617). Comparisons were made between a treatment and control group. Four classes were identified: undifferentiated high, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation/amotivation, undifferentiated low. These classes were related to substance use. Membership in the intrinsic class was associated with intervention group while the extrinsic class was related to the control group. Results were useful in suggesting ways to tailor a universal prevention program.
Heacock, Michelle; Trottier, Brittany; Adhikary, Sharad; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Basu, Nil; Brune, Marie-Noel; Caravanos, Jack; Carpenter, David; Cazabon, Danielle; Chakraborty, Paromita; Chen, Aimin; Barriga, Fernando Diaz; Ericson, Bret; Fobil, Julius; Haryanto, Budi; Huo, Xia; Joshi, T K; Landrigan, Philip; Lopez, Adeline; Magalini, Frederico; Navasumrit, Panida; Pascale, Antonio; Sambandam, Sankar; Aslia Kamil, Upik Sitti; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter; Suk, Ann; Suraweera, Inoka; Tamin, Ridwan; Vicario, Elena; Suk, William
As one of the largest waste streams, electronic waste (e-waste) production continues to grow in response to global demand for consumer electronics. This waste is often shipped to developing countries where it is disassembled and recycled. In many cases, e-waste recycling activities are conducted in informal settings with very few controls or protections in place for workers. These activities involve exposure to hazardous substances such as cadmium, lead, and brominated flame retardants and are frequently performed by women and children. Although recycling practices and exposures vary by scale and geographic region, we present case studies of e-waste recycling scenarios and intervention approaches to reduce or prevent exposures to the hazardous substances in e-waste that may be broadly applicable to diverse situations. Drawing on parallels identified in these cases, we discuss the future prevention and intervention strategies that recognize the difficult economic realities of informal e-waste recycling.
Porchia, B R; Baldasseroni, A; Dellisanti, C; Lorini, C; Bonaccorsi, G
The prevention of road traffic accidents should be considered a serious public health concern, since they are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the main cause of death for young people aged 15-29. Evidences from many countries show that successes in preventing road traffic injuries can be achieved through concerted efforts at national level. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of two interventions to prevent road traffic accidents: the introduction of graduated driver licensing (GDL) and the interventions to improve pedestrian and cyclist visibility. Our search started with a scoping review on the interventions to prevent road traffic accidents to allow the development of a logical framework of traffic accidents. Specific and answerable questions formulated according to PICO scheme and combinations of keywords were used to perform a systematic search in the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Evidence, Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) and Google. References of selected papers were searched. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible. No temporal limits or linguistic filters were applied. 160 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were found for the question of the introduction of GDL program and 188 on the improvement of visibility in cyclists and pedestrians. After selection, four papers were included in qualitative synthesis for each question. All included studies underwent quality evaluation. GDL programs seem to be effective in reducing crash rates among young drivers, in particular in 16 year-old. Programs with more restrictions seem also to reduce fatal events. To improve visibility of pedestrians and cyclists, street lighting has been suggested as an intervention able to improve driver's visual capabilities and ability to detect roadway hazards and to prevent car crashes. Visibility aids (fluorescent
Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C
In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.
McPherson, Amy C; Keith, Rebekah; Swift, Judy A
Children with disabilities are at higher risk of obesity, engage in less physical activity and report poorer quality dietary habits than their non-disabled peers. This study reviewed current evidence on interventions designed to facilitate weight management and/or weight-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity and/or healthy eating habits) in children with physical disabilities. A scoping review was performed using established methodology. Data from studies meeting specific inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed using summary statistics, and common characteristics thematically identified. Thirty-four articles were included in the synthesis. No long-term obesity prevention interventions were identified. The majority of research focused upon children with cerebral palsy, and had case study, quasi- or non-experimental designs. All interventions reporting positive outcomes (n = 18) addressed physical activity, with common themes including using motivational strategies for the child and child self-direction. Incremental increases in workload and engaging in strength training for longer than 15 minutes were also effective. Interventions targeting body weight/composition did not report success in the long term. A robust evidence base is lacking for long-lasting obesity interventions for children with physical disabilities. Current research provides some insights into the specific components that should be considered when planning such interventions in the future.
Ong, Katherine S; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo; Kelaher, Margaret; Anderson, Ian
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of disease burden in Australia's Indigenous population, and the greatest contributor to the Indigenous 'health gap'. Economic evidence can help identify interventions that efficiently address this discrepancy. Five interventions (one community-based and four pharmacological) to prevent cardiovascular disease in Australia's Indigenous population were subject to economic evaluation. Pharmacological interventions were evaluated as delivered either via Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services or mainstream general practitioner services. Cost-utility analysis methods were used, with health benefit measured in disability-adjusted life-years saved. All pharmacological interventions produced more Indigenous health benefit when delivered via Indigenous health services, but cost-effectiveness ratios were higher due to greater health service costs. Cost-effectiveness ratios were also higher in remote than in non-remote regions. The polypill was the most cost-effective intervention evaluated, while the community-based intervention produced the most health gain. Local and decision-making contextual factors are important in the conduct and interpretation of economic evaluations. For Australia's Indigenous population, different models of health service provision impact on reach and cost-effectiveness results. Both the extent of health gain and cost-effectiveness are important considerations for policy-makers in light of government objectives to address health inequities and bridge the health gap. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.
Cavallo, David N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; McQueen, Amy; Ramirez, Amelie; Riley, William T
Social media are now used by a majority of American internet users. Social media platforms encourage participants to share information with their online social connections and exchange user-generated content. Significant numbers of people are already using social media to share health-related information. As such, social media provide an opportunity for "user-generated" cancer control and prevention interventions that employ users' behavior, knowledge, and existing social networks for the creation and dissemination of interventions. These interventions also enable novel data collection techniques and research designs that will allow investigators to examine real-time behavioral responses to interventions. Emerging social media-based interventions for modifying cancer-related behaviors have been applied to such domains as tobacco use, diet, physical activity, and sexual practices, and several examples are discussed for illustration purposes. Despite some promising early findings, challenges including inadequate user engagement, privacy concerns, and lack of internet access among some groups need to be addressed in future research. Recommendations for advancing the field include stronger partnerships with commercial technology companies, utilization of rapid and adaptive designs to identify successful strategies for user engagement, rigorous and iterative efficacy testing of these strategies, and inclusive methods for intervention dissemination. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia.We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel.An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600.A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.
Chowers, Michal; Carmeli, Yehuda; Shitrit, Pnina; Elhayany, Asher; Geffen, Keren
Our objective was to assess the cost implications of a vertical MRSA prevention program that led to a reduction in MRSA bacteremia. We performed a matched historical cohort study and cost analysis in a single hospital in Israel for the years 2005-2011. The cost of MRSA bacteremia was calculated as total hospital cost for patients admitted with bacteremia and for patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia, the difference in cost compared to matched controls. The cost of prevention was calculated as the sum of the cost of microbiology tests, single-use equipment used for patients in isolation, and infection control personnel. An average of 20,000 patients were screened yearly. The cost of prevention was $208,100 per year, with the major contributor being laboratory cost. We calculated that our intervention averted 34 cases of bacteremia yearly: 17 presenting on admission and 17 acquired in the hospital. The average cost of a case admitted with bacteremia was $14,500, and the net cost attributable to nosocomial bacteremia was $9,400. Antibiotics contributed only 0.4% of the total disease management cost. When the annual cost of averted cases of bacteremia and that of prevention were compared, the intervention resulted in annual cost savings of $199,600. A vertical MRSA prevention program targeted at high-risk patients, which was highly effective in preventing bacteremia, is cost saving. These results suggest that allocating resources to targeted prevention efforts might be beneficial even in a single institution in a high incidence country.
It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.
Purpose – This paper aims to report findings from an evaluation of the Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (UK) (SFP 10-14 UK), focusing on the strategies used to recruit families into a universal prevention intervention, the approach taken to group composition, and the experiences of participating families.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Methods comprised interviews with programme coordinating team members, a focus group with programme facilitators, focus groups with parents and you...
Marc, Isabelle; Toureche, Narimane; Ernst, Edzard; Hodnett, Ellen D; Blanchet, Claudine; Dodin, Sylvie; Njoya, Merlin M
Anxiety during pregnancy is a common problem. Anxiety and stress could have consequences on the course of the pregnancy and the later development of the child. Anxiety responds well to treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and/or medication. Non-pharmacological interventions such as mind-body interventions, known to decrease anxiety in several clinical situations, might be offered for treating and preventing anxiety during pregnancy. To assess the benefits of mind-body interventions during pregnancy in preventing or treating women's anxiety and in influencing perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), MEDLINE (1950 to 30 November 2010), EMBASE (1974 to 30 November 2010), the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (1 December 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov (December 2010) and Current Controlled Trials (1 December 2010), searched the reference lists of selected studies and contacted professionals and authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, involving pregnant women of any age at any time from conception to one month after birth, comparing mind-body interventions with a control group. Mind-body interventions include: autogenic training, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, imagery, meditation, prayer, auto-suggestion, tai-chi and yoga. Control group includes: standard care, other pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions, other types of mind-body interventions or no treatment at all. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion all assessed risk of bias for each included study. We extracted data independently using an agreed form and checked it for accuracy. We included eight trials (556 participants), evaluating hypnotherapy (one trial), imagery (five trials), autogenic training (one trial) and yoga (one trial). Due to the small number of studies per intervention and to the diversity of outcome measurements, we performed no meta
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Moran, Lisa J; Harrison, Paul; Huang, Terry T-K; Teede, Helena; Skouteris, Helen
Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic. In order to address this problem, we propose that just like all successful public health approaches seeking to change behaviour, individual lifestyle interventions must be provided in the context of a supportive environment that enables, incentivises and rewards healthy changes. Future research should focus on a systems approach that integrates the needs of individuals with the context within which they exist. Borrowing from the social marketing principle of 'audience segmentation', we also need to truly understand the needs of individuals to design appropriately tailored interventions. This approach should also be applied to the preconception period for comprehensive prevention approaches. Additionally, relevant policy needs to reflect the changing evidence-based climate. Interventions in the clinical setting need to be integrally linked to multipronged obesity prevention efforts in the community, so that healthy weight goals are reinforced throughout the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mauricio, Anne M.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Millsap, Roger E.; Meza, Connie M.; Dumka, Larry E.; Germán, Miguelina; Genalo, M. Toni
This study describes a culturally sensitive approach to engage Mexican origin families in a school-based, family-focused preventive intervention trial. The approach was evaluated via assessing study enrollment and intervention program participation, as well as examining predictors of engagement at each stage. Incorporating traditional cultural values into all aspects of engagement resulted in participation rates higher than reported rates of minority-focused trials not emphasizing cultural sensitivity. Family preferred language (English or Spanish) or acculturation status predicted engagement at all levels, with less acculturated families participating at higher rates. Spanish-language families with less acculturated adolescents participated at higher rates than Spanish-language families with more acculturated adolescents. Other findings included two-way interactions between family language and the target child’s familism values, family single- vs. dual-parent status, and number of hours the primary parent worked in predicting intervention participation. Editors’ Strategic Implications: The authors present a promising approach—which requires replication—to engaging and retaining Mexican American families in a school-based prevention program. The research also highlights the importance of considering acculturation status when implementing and studying culturally tailored aspects of prevention models. PMID:18004659
Linda J Cobiac
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite many decades of declining mortality rates in the Western world, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In this research we evaluate the optimal mix of lifestyle, pharmaceutical and population-wide interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a discrete time Markov model we simulate the ischaemic heart disease and stroke outcomes and cost impacts of intervention over the lifetime of all Australian men and women, aged 35 to 84 years, who have never experienced a heart disease or stroke event. Best value for money is achieved by mandating moderate limits on salt in the manufacture of bread, margarine and cereal. A combination of diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor and low-cost statin, for everyone with at least 5% five-year risk of cardiovascular disease, is also cost-effective, but lifestyle interventions aiming to change risky dietary and exercise behaviours are extremely poor value for money and have little population health benefit. CONCLUSIONS: There is huge potential for improving efficiency in cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia. A tougher approach from Government to mandating limits on salt in processed foods and reducing excessive statin prices, and a shift away from lifestyle counselling to more efficient absolute risk-based prescription of preventive drugs, could cut health care costs while improving population health.
Chen Hanwei; Cao Xiaoying; Hu Peiling; Liu Haiying; Tang Yukuan; Xiao Chengjiang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and application of sodium hyaluronate in preventing the recurrence of tubal obstruction after interventional recanalization. Methods: In total 103 cases of the study group were injected sodium hyaluronate to prevent tubal adhering obstruction after successful recanalization, while in the control group 206 cases were injected desamethasone, alphacutanee, metronidazole and gentamycin for the same purpose. Both groups were followed up in 2-3 months after the initial intervention. The assessments included water insufflation, intrauterine pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and the normal labor. Results: In the study group, 190 tubes in 103 cases were obstructed, 27 tubes missing, and 188 tubes were recanalized out of 190 (99%). In the control group 390 tubes were obstructed, 27 tubes missing, 385 tubes were successfully recanalized (99%). In the 2-3 month follow up water insufflation showed satisfying patency in 99 cases in the study group, and in 178 cases in the control group. Significant difference of recurrence rate of tubal obstruction was found between the two groups. Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate is effective to prevent the recurrence of tubal obstruction after interventional recanalization
Braga, Vinícius Lopes; Rocha, Luana Pompeu Dos Santos; Bernardo, Daniel Damasceno; Cruz, Carolina de Oliveira; Riera, Rachel
Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.
Andersen, Lars L; Jørgensen, Marie B; Blangsted, Anne Katrine
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three different workplace interventions on long-term compliance, muscle strength gains, and neck/shoulder pain in office workers. METHODS: A 1-yr randomized controlled intervention trial was done with three groups: specific...... resistance training (SRT, n = 180), all-round physical exercise (APE, n = 187), and reference intervention (REF, n = 182) with general health counseling. Physical tests were performed and questionnaires answered at pre-, mid-, and postintervention. The main outcome measures were compliance, changes......: Compliance was highest in SRT but generally decreased over time. SRT and APE caused increased shoulder elevation strength, were more effective than REF to decrease neck pain among those with symptoms at baseline, and prevent development of shoulder pain in those without symptoms at baseline....
Sorensen, Lucy C; Dodge, Kenneth A
Numerous studies have shown that childhood interventions can foster improved outcomes in adulthood. Less well understood is precisely how-that is, through which developmental pathways-these interventions work. This study assesses mechanisms by which the Fast Track project (n = 891), a randomized intervention in the early 1990s for high-risk children in four communities (Durham, NC; Nashville, TN; rural PA; and Seattle, WA), reduced delinquency, arrests, and general and mental health service utilization in adolescence through young adulthood (ages 12-20). A decomposition of treatment effects indicates that about a third of Fast Track's impact on later crime outcomes can be accounted for by improvements in social and self-regulation skills during childhood (ages 6-11), such as prosocial behavior, emotion regulation, and problem solving. These skills proved less valuable for the prevention of general and mental health problems. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F P; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl
Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. The marketing plan focused on "resiliency building" rather than "depression intervention" and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1-10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care.
Luchsinger, José A; Ma, Yong; Christophi, Costas A; Florez, Hermes; Golden, Sherita H; Hazuda, Helen; Crandall, Jill; Venditti, Elizabeth; Watson, Karol; Jeffries, Susan; Manly, Jennifer J; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier
We examined the association of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention arms (lifestyle intervention, metformin, and placebo) with cognition in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We also examined metformin use, incident type 2 diabetes, and glycemia as exposures. The DPP lasted 2.8 years, followed by a 13-month bridge to DPPOS. Cognition was assessed in DPPOS years 8 and 10 (12 and 14 years after randomization) with the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (SEVLT), letter fluency and animal fluency tests, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a composite cognitive score. A total of 2,280 participants (749 lifestyle, 776 metformin, and 755 placebo) aged 63.1 ± 10.7 years underwent cognitive assessments; 67.7% women, 54.6% non-Hispanic white, 20.7% non-Hispanic black, 14.6% Hispanic, 5.5% American Indian, and 4.6% Asian; 26.6% were homozygous or heterozygous for APOE-ε4. At the time of cognitive assessment, type 2 diabetes was higher in the placebo group (57.9%; P cognition across intervention arms. Type 2 diabetes was not related to cognition, but higher glycated hemoglobin at year 8 was related to worse cognition after confounder adjustment. Cumulative metformin exposure was not related to cognition. Exposure to intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin was not related to cognition among DPPOS participants. Higher glycemia was related to worse cognitive performance. Metformin seemed cognitively safe among DPPOS participants. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter A; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani; Smith, S Jay; Tannor, Bernice; Hutchinson, Angela B; Wilson, Katherine M; Gandhi, Nisha; Lee, Nancy C; Rimer, Barbara; Coates, Ralph C; Kerner, Jon F; Hiatt, Robert A; Buffler, Patricia; Rochester, Phyllis
The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is well established. Behaviors such as seeking shade, avoiding sun exposure during peak hours of radiation, wearing protective clothing, or some combination of these behaviors can provide protection. Sunscreen use alone is not considered an adequate protection against ultraviolet radiation. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other harms or benefits, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services found that education and policy approaches to increasing sun-protective behaviors were effective when implemented in primary schools and in recreational or tourism settings, but found insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness when implemented in other settings, such as child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, and occupational settings. They also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions oriented to healthcare settings and providers, media campaigns alone, interventions oriented to parents or caregivers of children, and community-wide multicomponent interventions. The report also provides suggestions for areas for future research.
Xiao, Zhiwen; Noar, Seth M; Zeng, Lily
To examine whether communication strategies and principles have been utilized in the HIV prevention intervention programs conducted in China. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted using PsycINFO, Medline, and Academic Search Complete with combinations of a number of keywords. Studies were included if they (1) were conducted in China and published prior to October 2011; (2) tested interventions promoting HIV/sexual risk reduction; and (3) reported empirical outcome evaluations on HIV knowledge, condom use and other condom-related variables. Data on 11 dimensions were extracted and analyzed, including formative research, theory, message targeting, messenger and channels, process evaluation, evaluation design, outcome measures. The majority of the 45 intervention studies were not theory-based, did not report conducting formative research or process evaluation, used pretest-posttest control group designs, combined nonmedia channels, printed and visual materials, and employed HIV knowledge and condom use as outcome measures. Many HIV prevention interventions in China have been successful in reducing HIV risk-related outcomes. This literature has its weaknesses; however, the current review illuminates gaps in the literature and points to important future directions for research.
Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.
Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
The National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Trial provided a unique opportunity to test whether, with the community-based diffusion of HIV/sexually transmitted disease prevention information and an elevated understanding of HIV, the level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS in the community would be reduced. A total of 4510 market workers in Fuzhou, China, participated in the study, and longitudinal analyses included study samples of 3785 participants in the 12-month follow-up and 3716 participants in the 24-month follow-up. We graphically examined the change in HIV-related stigma indicators over time between control and intervention groups using boxplot and kernel density estimation. A logistic regression analysis with proportional odds model was further used to examine the intervention effect on HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. Compared with no change over time for the control group, the intervention successfully reduced the level of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes among the target population at the 12-month follow-up, and the effect increased by two-fold (with respect to odds ratios) at the 24-month follow-up. The intervention demonstrated positive attitude changes associated with HIV-related stigma. Our results show the importance of social norms, rather than simply individual behaviors, in developing and implementing stigma reduction campaigns.
Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.
Hsu, Justine; Zinsou, Cyprien; Parkhurst, Justin; N'Dour, Marguerite; Foyet, Léger; Mueller, Dirk H
Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a
Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN
Baker, Courtney N; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H; Willoughby, Michael T
Preschools provide a promising setting in which to conduct preventive interventions for childhood problems, but classroom programs can only be effective if teachers are willing and able to implement them. This study is one of the first to investigate predictors of the frequency of teacher participation in a classroom-based, randomized controlled trial of an integrated prevention program for preschoolers. The intervention was designed to promote school readiness with an integrated social and academic program, to be implemented by teachers with the support of classroom consultants. The current study is part of a larger project conducted with Head Start and community child care centers that serve primarily economically disadvantaged families; 49 teachers from 30 centers participated in this study. Overall, teachers conducted approximately 70% of the program activities. Participation decreased significantly over time from the first to the final week of the intervention, and also decreased within each week of the intervention, from the first to the final weekly activity. Teachers working at community child care centers implemented more intervention activities than did Head Start teachers. Teacher concerns about the intervention, assessed prior to training, predicted less participation. In addition, teachers' participation was positively related to their perception that their centers and directors were supportive, collegial, efficient, and fair, as well as their job satisfaction and commitment. Teacher experience, education, ethnicity, and self-efficacy were not significantly related to participation. In multi-level models that considered center as a level of analysis, substantial variance was accounted for by centers, pointing to the importance of considering center-level predictors in future research.
Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea
The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.
Bruce, Julie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Sheridan, Ray; Westacott, Katharine; Withers, Emma; Finnegan, Susanne; Davison, John; Martin, Finbarr C; Lamb, Sarah E
This paper describes the design and development of a complex multifactorial falls prevention (MFFP) intervention for implementation and testing within the framework of a large UK-based falls prevention randomised controlled trial (RCT). A complex intervention was developed for inclusion within the Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT), a multicentre pragmatic RCT. PreFIT aims to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three alternative primary care falls prevention interventions (advice, exercise and MFFP), on outcomes of fractures and falls. Community-dwelling adults, aged 70 years and older, were recruited from primary care in the National Health Service (NHS), England. Development of the PreFIT MFFP intervention was informed by the existing evidence base and clinical guidelines for the assessment and management of falls in older adults. After piloting and modification, the final MFFP intervention includes seven falls risk factors: a detailed falls history interview with consideration of 'red flags'; assessment of balance and gait; vision; medication screen; cardiac screen; feet and footwear screen and home environment assessment. This complex intervention has been fully manualised with clear, documented assessment and treatment pathways for each risk factor. Each risk factor is assessed in every trial participant referred for MFFP. Referral for assessment is based upon a screening survey to identify those with a history of falling or balance problems. Intervention delivery can be adapted to the local setting. This complex falls prevention intervention is currently being tested within the framework of a large clinical trial. This paper adheres to TIDieR and CONSORT recommendations for the comprehensive and explicit reporting of trial interventions. Results from the PreFIT study will be published in due course. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PreFIT MFFP intervention, compared to advice and exercise, on the prevention of falls and
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Neuhaus, Emily; Brenner, Sharon L; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa
Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology x Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention.
Harvey, Jessica; Dennis, Cindy-Lee
This paper is a report of a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce congenital cytomegalovirus transmission and infection among women of childbearing age. Congenital cytomegalovirus has been identified as the leading infectious cause of damage to the growing fetus in developed countries, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and spina bifida. Despite the prevalence and consequences of this infection, it has a low profile and pregnant mothers are often unaware of the risks and protective behaviours related to its transmission. Women with children in daycare and nurses working with children are particularly at risk of acquiring the virus. A computerized literature search for articles up to 1 December 2007 was performed using MEDLINE (from 1950); EMBASE (from 1980) and CINAHL (from 1982). Both authors independently reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria and assigned a quality rating determined by the number of validity criteria met. Differences were discussed until consensus was reached. Differences in hygiene behaviour changes were most statistically significant for pregnant, seronegative women. Although the methodological quality of the three included studies was not strong, seroconversion rates consistently decreased as cytomegalovirus education and support increased. Nurses can act as preventive agents for cytomegalovirus infection through education about hygiene precautions during antenatal care and through preventive measures in the workplace. The review findings suggest educational interventions in hygiene practices have the potential to be a feasible, large-scale, primary prevention strategy.
Lyness, Jeffrey M; Yu, Qin; Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates
Prevention of late-life depression, a common, disabling condition with often poor outcomes in primary care, requires identification of seniors at highest risk of incident episodes. The authors examined a broad range of clinical, functional, and psychosocial predictors of incident depressive episodes in a well-characterized cohort of older primary care patients. In this observational cohort study, patients age >/=65 years without current major depression, recruited from practices in general internal medicine, geriatrics, and family medicine, received annual follow-up assessments over a period of 1 to 4 years. Of 617 enrolled subjects, 405 completed the 1-year follow-up evaluation. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) determined incident major depressive episodes. Each risk indicator's predictive utility was examined by calculating the risk exposure rate, incident risk ratio, and population attributable fraction, leading to determination of the number needed to treat in order to prevent incident depression. A combination of risks, including minor or subsyndromal depression, impaired functional status, and history of major or minor depression, identified a group in which fully effective treatment of five individuals would prevent one new case of incident depression. Indicators routinely assessed in primary care identified a group at very high risk for onset of major depressive episodes. Such markers may inform current clinical care by fostering the early detection and intervention critical to improving patient outcomes and may serve as the basis for future studies refining the recommendations for screening and determining the effectiveness of preventive interventions.
Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.
BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE P.; NEUHAUS, EMILY; BRENNER, SHARON L.; GATZKE-KOPP, LISA
Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology×Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention. PMID:18606030
Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R
The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.
Conley, Colleen S; Durlak, Joseph A; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Zahniser, Evan
The uses of technology-delivered mental health treatment options, such as interventions delivered via computer, smart phone, or other communication or information devices, as opposed to primarily face-to-face interventions, are proliferating. However, the literature is unclear about their effectiveness as preventive interventions for higher education students, a population for whom technology-delivered interventions (TDIs) might be particularly fitting and beneficial. This meta-analytic review examines technological mental health prevention programs targeting higher education students either without any presenting problems (universal prevention) or with mild to moderate subclinical problems (indicated prevention). A systematic literature search identified 22 universal and 26 indicated controlled interventions, both published and unpublished, involving 4763 college, graduate, or professional students. As hypothesized, the overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for both universal (0.19) and indicated interventions (0.37) were statistically significant and differed significantly from each other favoring indicated interventions. Skill-training interventions, both universal (0.21) and indicated (0.31), were significant, whereas non-skill-training interventions were only significant among indicated (0.25) programs. For indicated interventions, better outcomes were obtained in those cases in which participants had access to support during the course of the intervention, either in person or through technology (e.g., email, online contact). The positive findings for both universal and indicated prevention are qualified by limitations of the current literature. To improve experimental rigor, future research should provide detailed information on the level of achieved implementation, describe participant characteristics and intervention content, explore the impact of potential moderators and mechanisms of success, collect post-intervention and follow-up data regardless of
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J
There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison
Pelleboer-Gunnink, Hannah A; Van der Valk, Inge E; Branje, Susan J T; Van Doorn, Muriel D; Deković, Maja
Children of divorced parents have an increased risk of a variety of problems in comparison to children from intact families. Therefore, several intervention programs have been developed directed at children of divorced parents. Yet, empirical data on the effectiveness of these interventions are limited. This study evaluated the school-based, child-directed prevention program Kids In Divorce Situations (KIDS) using a randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 156 children randomly assigned at the school level into an experimental (80 children) and control condition (76 children). In addition, 131 mothers and 76 fathers participated in the study. Four assessments took place: a pretest, a posttest, and two follow-up assessments conducted 6 months and 1 year after finishing KIDS. Latent growth analyses demonstrated that the intervention significantly reduced child-reported emotional problems and enhanced child-reported communication with the father and mother-reported communication with the child. The effect sizes ranged from .30-.63. Few moderation effects of gender, time since divorce, or perceived parental conflict on the intervention effects were found. After parental divorce, a limited school-based intervention for children can be efficacious in promoting children's emotional well-being and parent-child communication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks
Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.
Babazadeh, Towhid; Kamran, Aziz; Dargahi, Abdollah; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shariat, Fariba; Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed
Background: Skin cancer is a serious public health problem in the world. Its prevalence in many countries has been increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess the effects of a theory-based educational intervention to promote skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers in Chalderan County, Iran. Methods: This was a quasi-randomized controlled field trial study conducted on 238 rural farmers. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as well as the items of SCPBs. The differences between the groups before and 3 months after the intervention were determined by independent t-test, paired t-test, and chi-square applying SPSS software. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found in the scores of the PMT constructs between the two groups (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found between the scores of all the variables, as well as SCPBs, in the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PMT was found to be an appropriate framework for designing educational interventions aiming at promoting SCPBs among rural farmers. It was concluded that designing an educational program with a focus on promoting perceived susceptibility increased the level of performing SCPBs among the rural farmers.
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Zarshenas, Ladan; Keshavarz, Tala; Momennasab, Marzieh; Zarifsanaiey, Nahid
Given the limitations of traditional teaching methods in the learning process of adolescents, this study was designed to investigate the effects of osteoporosis prevention training through interactive multimedia method on the degree of knowledge and self-efficacy of female high school students. In this interventional study which was conducted in 2016 in Fars province, Iran, 120 high school students were selected through proportional stratified sampling from schools and different classes at first, second, third, and pre-university grades. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, each containing 60 students. Educational interventions for the test group included an interactive multimedia CD, and for the control group was an educational booklet. Before and one month after the intervention the students' level of knowledge and self-efficacy was measured. The spss 19 statistical software was used, and descriptive and analytical tests were performed to analyze the data. Results showed a significant difference in self-efficacy scores after the intervention (P=0.012) with the test group obtained a higher self-efficacy score than the control group. Also, a significant increase was observed in the knowledge score of both groups after the training (Pstatistically significant (P=0.38) after the intervention. The use of new training methods like interactive multimedia CD for public education, particular adolescents about health and hygiene is recommended.
Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Reza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh
Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middle-income countries. To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were collected at pre- and post-intervention phases. Outcome evaluation was based on a four-year period (March 2005-March 2009) utilizing drowning registry data for the north of Iran. The implementation program increased the rate of membership in an organization responsible for promoting safety in high risk areas near the Caspian Sea. Compared to a WHO standardized population, drowning incidence in rural areas of the study demonstrated a continuous decrease in age-specific drowning rate among the oldest victims with a gradual decline during the implementation. In the study area, the epidemiological aspects of the study population were exposed and contributing factors were highlighted. This study showed that the promotion of passive interventions had a greater effect on drowning rate than that of active interventions.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked with several acute maternal health risks and long-term development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Intrauterine exposure to GDM similarly increases offspring risk of early life health complications and later disease. GDM recurrence is common, affecting 40–73% of women, and augments associated maternal/fetal/child health risks. Modifiable and independent risk factors for GDM include maternal excessive gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Lifestyle interventions that target diet, activity, and behavioral strategies can effectively modify adiposity. Randomized clinical trials testing the effects of lifestyle interventions during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain have generally shown mixed effects on reducing GDM incidence. Trials testing the effects of postpartum lifestyle interventions among women with a history of GDM have shown reduced incidence of diabetes and improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, the long-term effects of inter-pregnancy or pre-pregnancy lifestyle interventions on subsequent GDM remain unknown. Future adequately powered and well-controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of lifestyle interventions to prevent GDM and identify pathways to effectively reach reproductive-aged women across all levels of society, before, during, and after pregnancy. PMID:27487229
Le Cann, Pierre; Paulus, Hélène; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Frain, Sophie; Gangneux, Jean Pierre
Home health care workers interventions have been implemented in western countries to improve health status of patients with respiratory diseases especially asthma and allergic illnesses. Twenty-six controlled studies dealing with prevention and control of these diseases through home environmental interventions were reviewed. After a comprehensive description of the characteristics of these studies, the effectiveness of each intervention was then evaluated in terms of participants' compliance with the intervention program, improvement of quality of the indoor environment, and finally improvement of health outcomes, in detailed tables. Limitations and biases of the studies are also discussed. Overall, this review aims at giving a toolbox for home health care workers to target the most appropriate measures to improve health status of the patient depending on his and/or her environment and disease. Only a case-by-case approach with achievable measures will warrant the efficacy of home interventions. This review will also provide to the research community a tool to better identify targets to focus in future evaluation studies of home health care workers action. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked with several acute maternal health risks and long-term development of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Intrauterine exposure to GDM similarly increases offspring risk of early-life health complications and later disease. GDM recurrence is common, affecting 40 to 73% of women, and augments associated maternal/fetal/child health risks. Modifiable and independent risk factors for GDM include maternal excessive gestational weight gain and prepregnancy overweight and obesity. Lifestyle interventions that target diet, activity, and behavioral strategies can effectively modify body weight. Randomized clinical trials testing the effects of lifestyle interventions during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain have generally shown mixed effects on reducing GDM incidence. Trials testing the effects of postpartum lifestyle interventions among women with a history of GDM have shown reduced incidence of diabetes and improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, the long-term effects of interpregnancy or prepregnancy lifestyle interventions on subsequent GDM remain unknown. Future adequately powered and well-controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of lifestyle interventions to prevent GDM and identify pathways to effectively reach reproductive-aged women across all levels of society, before, during, and after pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel
The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.
Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping
Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis.
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for
Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D
Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these
Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Fonner, Virginia A.; O'Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.
Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990-2012, examining secondary references, and hand searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of 5,218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with 6 conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, 3 in South or Southeast Asia, and 3 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N=6), female sex workers/bar workers (N=3), and youth/orphans (N=3). All studies targeted females except 2 among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with 2 group-randomized trials and 2 individual-randomized trials. All interventions except 3 included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these interventions may have important effects
Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James
The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.
Sara A. Freedman
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.
Melia, Ruth; Francis, Kady; Duggan, Jim; Bogue, John; O'Sullivan, Mary; Chambers, Derek; Young, Karen
Previous research has reported that two of the major barriers to help-seeking for individuals at risk of suicide are stigma and geographical isolation. Mobile technology offers a potential means of delivering evidence-based interventions with greater specificity to the individual, and at the time that it is needed. Despite documented motivation by at-risk individuals to use mobile technology to track mental health and to support psychological interventions, there is a shortfall of outcomes data on the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) technology on suicide-specific outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile technology-based interventions for suicide prevention. The search includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CRESP and relevant sources of gray literature. Studies that have evaluated psychological or nonpsychological interventions delivered via mobile computing and communication technology, and have suicidality as an outcome measure will be included. Two authors will independently extract data and assess the study suitability in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Studies will be included if they measure at least one suicide outcome variable (ie, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, suicidal behavior). Secondary outcomes will be measures of symptoms of depression. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous and reported outcomes are amenable for pooled synthesis, meta-analysis will be performed. A narrative synthesis will be conducted if the data is unsuitable for a meta-analysis. The review is in progress, with findings expected by summer 2018. To date, evaluations of mobile technology-based interventions in suicide prevention have focused on evaluating content as opposed to efficacy. Indeed, previous research has
Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI have higher rates of depression than the general population. However, few researchers have assessed the impact of depression on the secondary prevention of CHD in China.The main purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between depression and secondary prevention of CHD in Chinese patients after PCI.This descriptive, cross-sectional one-site study recruited both elective and emergency PCI patients one year after discharge. Data from 1934 patients were collected in the clinic using questionnaires and medical history records between August 2013 and September 2015. Depression was evaluated by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Secondary prevention of CHD was compared between depression and non-depression groups.We found that depression affected secondary prevention of CHD in the following aspects: lipid levels, blood glucose levels, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, and rates of medication use.Depressive patients with CHD are at increased risk of not achieving the lifestyle and risk factor control goals recommended in the 2006 AHA guidelines. Screening should focus on patients after PCI because treating depression can improve outcomes by improving secondary prevention of CHD.
Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0
Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick
Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.
Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando
The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Dattilo, Anne M
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Patchell, Beverly A; Robbins, Leslie K; Lowe, John A; Hoke, Mary M
To examine the effects of incorporating tribal specific cultural beliefs into a tailored substance abuse prevention intervention for at risk rural Oklahoma Native American Indian (NAI) Plains adolescents. The 10 hour Native American Talking Circle Intervention, a school-based, group substance abuse prevention program, was implemented over a 8.5 week period and evaluated using a one group, pretest-posttest design. Measurements were from the Native Self-Reliance Questionnaire and the Substance Problems Scale from Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Quick (GAIN-Q). One-tailed, paired sample t-tests demonstrated significant increase in self-reliance, from 86.227 to 92.204 (t (43) = -2.580, p = .007) and a decrease in substance abuse/use, from 2.265 to 1.265 (t (33) = 1.844, p = .007). The Native Talking Circle Intervention based on tribal-specific values and beliefs was shown to be effective with substance abuse/use at-risk NAI Plains tribal adolescents.
Suzuki, Rie; Peterson, Jana J; Weatherby, Amanda V; Buckley, David I; Walsh, Emily S; Kailes, June Isaacson; Krahn, Gloria L
This article describes the development of Promoting Access to Health Services (PATHS), an intervention to promote regular use of clinical preventive services by women with physical disabilities. The intervention was developed using intervention mapping (IM), a theory-based logical process that incorporates the six steps of assessment of need, preparation of matrices, selection of theoretical methods and strategies, program design, program implementation, and evaluation. The development process used methods and strategies aligned with the social cognitive theory and the health belief model. PATHS was adapted from the workbook Making Preventive Health Care Work for You, developed by a disability advocate, and was informed by participant input at five points: at inception through consultation by the workbook author, in conceptualization through a town hall meeting, in pilot testing with feedback, in revision of the curriculum through an advisory group, and in implementation by trainers with disabilities. The resulting PATHS program is a 90-min participatory small-group workshop, followed by structured telephone support for 6 months.
Gheorghe, Maria; Brouwer, Werner B F; van Baal, Pieter H M
This article explores the implications of the relation between quality of life (QoL) and time to death (TTD) for economic evaluations of preventive interventions. By using health survey data on QoL for the general Dutch population linked to the mortality registry, we quantify the magnitude of this relationship. For addressing specific features of the nonstandard QoL distribution such as boundness, skewness, and heteroscedasticity, we modeled QoL using a generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) with a β inflated outcome distribution. Our empirical results indicate that QoL decreases when approaching death, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between TTD and QoL. Predictions of different regression models revealed that ignoring this relationship results in an underestimation of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains for preventive interventions. The underestimation ranged between 3% and 7% and depended on age, the number of years gained from the intervention, and the discount rate used. © The Author(s) 2014.
Voronin, Yegor; Jani, Ilesh; Graham, Barney S; Cunningham, Coleen K; Mofenson, Lynne M; Musoke, Philippa M; Permar, Sallie R; Scarlatti, Gabriella
Globally, 150,000 new paediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occurred in 2015. There remain complex challenges to the global elimination of paediatric HIV-1 infection. Thus, for the global community to achieve elimination of new paediatric HIV-1 infections, innovative approaches need to be explored. Immune-based approaches to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) may help fill some of the remaining gaps and provide new opportunities to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Immune-based interventions to prevent MTCT of HIV-1 may include paediatric HIV vaccines and passive immunization approaches. Recent discoveries providing evidence of robust immune responses to HIV in infants open new and exciting prospects for paediatric HIV vaccines. Moreover, successful vaccination of infants has a different set of requirements than vaccination of adults and may be easier to achieve. Proof-of-concept has been established over the last two decades that passively administered HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibody (mAbs) can prevent chimeric simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) transmission to newborn nonhuman primates. There has been tremendous progress in isolating and characterizing broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV, and clinical testing of these antibodies for treatment and prevention in both infants and adults is a major effort in the field. Immune-based interventions need to be actively explored as they can provide critically important tools to address persistent challenges in MTCT prevention. It is a pivotal time for the field with active discussions on the best strategy to further reduce HIV infection of infants and accomplish the World Health Organization Fast-Track 2030 goals to eliminate new paediatric HIV infections. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.
Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Glassman, Tavis J; Castor, Tom; Karmakar, Monita; Blavos, Alexis; Dagenhard, Paige; Domigan, Julianne; Sweeney, Erin; Diehr, Aaron; Kucharewski, Ruthie
Water-related injuries and fatalities pose serious public health issues, especially to African American youth, a demographic group that drowns at disproportionately high rates. The purpose of this study was to determine if a social marketing intervention targeting the parents and guardians of inner-city youth (U.S. Midwest) could positively influence their perceptions concerning water safety. Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design using matched pairs to evaluate the intervention. Participants consisted of parents who enrolled their children in a six-session survival-swimming course. Guided by the Health Belief Model, the researchers disseminated six prevention messages using six different channels (brochure, e-mail, SMS text message, postcard, Facebook, and window cling). The findings from a two-way analysis of covariance revealed that treatment group participants' knowledge and perceptions of water-related threat all changed favorably. Additionally, all participants planned to reenroll their children in swim lessons. A social marketing campaign using the Health Belief Model improved inner-city parents' knowledge regarding water safety and enhanced their self-efficacy. This study provides practitioners with feasible strategies (prevention messages) to supplement swim lessons, with the ultimate goal of preventing drowning among at-risk youth.
Kuo Christina L
Full Text Available Abstract Background A practice intervention must have its basis in an understanding of the physician and practice to secure its benefit and relevancy. We used a formative process to characterize primary care physician attitudes, needs, and practice obstacles regarding primary prevention. The characterization will provide the conceptual framework for the development of a practice tool to facilitate routine delivery of primary preventive care. Methods A focus group of primary care physician Opinion Leaders was audio-taped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed to identify emergent themes that described physicians' perceptions of prevention in daily practice. Results The conceptual worth of primary prevention, including behavioral counseling, was high, but its practice was significantly countered by the predominant clinical emphasis on and rewards for secondary care. In addition, lack of health behavior training, perceived low self-efficacy, and patient resistance to change were key deterrents to primary prevention delivery. Also, the preventive focus in primary care is not on cancer, but on predominant chronic nonmalignant conditions. Conclusions The success of the future practice tool will be largely dependent on its ability to "fit" primary prevention into the clinical culture of diagnoses and treatment sustained by physicians, patients, and payers. The tool's message output must be formatted to facilitate physician delivery of patient-tailored behavioral counseling in an accurate, confident, and efficacious manner. Also, the tool's health behavior messages should be behavior-specific, not disease-specific, to draw on shared risk behaviors of numerous diseases and increase the likelihood of perceived salience and utility of the tool in primary care.
Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno
Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in
Shroufi, Amir; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Anchala, Raghupathy; Stevens, Sarah; Blanco, Patricia; Han, Tha; Niessen, Louis; Franco, Oscar H
While there is good evidence to show that behavioural and lifestyle interventions can reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in affluent settings, less evidence exists in lower income settings.This study systematically assesses the evidence on cost-effectiveness for preventive cardiovascular interventions in low and middle-income settings. Systematic review of economic evaluations on interventions for prevention of cardiovascular disease. PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus and Embase, Opensigle, the Cochrane database, Business Source Complete, the NHS Economic Evaluations Database, reference lists and email contact with experts. we included economic evaluations conducted in adults, reporting the effect of interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in low and middle income countries as defined by the World Bank. The primary outcome was a change in cardiovascular disease occurrence including coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke. After selection of the studies, data were extracted by two independent investigators using a previously constructed tool and quality was evaluated using Drummond's quality assessment score. From 9731 search results we found 16 studies, which presented economic outcomes for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in low and middle income settings, with most of these reporting positive cost effectiveness results.When the same interventions were evaluated across settings, within and between papers, the likelihood of an intervention being judged cost effective was generally lower in regions with lowest gross national income. While population based interventions were in most cases more cost effective, cost effectiveness estimates for individual pharmacological interventions were overall based upon a stronger evidence base. While more studies of cardiovascular preventive interventions are needed in low and mid income settings, the available high-level of evidence supports a wide range of interventions for the prevention
Villegas, N.; Santisteban, D.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Ambrosia, T.; Peragallo, N.; Lara, L.
Background Young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The literature shows a shortage of STI–HIV prevention interventions focused on this specific high-risk population and a unique set of barriers to receiving prevention messages. Internet-based interventions are promising for delivering STI–HIV prevention interventions and avoiding barriers to services. Aims The study aimed to develop a culturally informed Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age, to investigate its feasibility and acceptability, and to compile recommendations on what would make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for these women. Methods The development of the Internet intervention was facilitated by a process that featured consultation with content and technology experts. A pre-post test design was used to test the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention with 40 young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Results The intervention website consisted of four modules of content and activities that support learning. The intervention was feasible and acceptable for young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrated the value of engaging multiple expert panels to develop culturally informed and technology-based interventions. The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of conducting an Internet-based intervention with multiple sessions, yielding high participation rates in a population in which there are barriers to discussion of STI–HIV prevention and sex-related content. Implications for nursing and health policy The outcomes have implications for nursing education and clinical practice and they can be used for the legal and judicial systems to promote or reinforce policies that encourage STI–HIV prevention strategies
Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian
Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as
Rimland, Joseph M.; Abraha, Iosief; Dell’Aquila, Giuseppina; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Soiza, Roy; Gudmusson, Adalsteinn; Petrovic, Mirko; O’Mahony, Denis; Todd, Chris; Cherubini, Antonio
Background Falls are common events in older people, which cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions are an important approach to prevent falls. There are a large number of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, whose evidence needs to be synthesized in order to facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making. Objectives To systematically examine reviews and meta-analyses that evaluated non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older adults in the community, care facilities and hospitals. Methods We searched the electronic databases Pubmed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO and TRIP from January 2009 to March 2015, for systematic reviews that included at least one comparative study, evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to prevent falls amongst older adults. The quality of the reviews was assessed using AMSTAR and ProFaNE taxonomy was used to organize the interventions. Results Fifty-nine systematic reviews were identified which consisted of single, multiple and multifactorial non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older people. The most frequent ProFaNE defined interventions were exercises either alone or combined with other interventions, followed by environment/assistive technology interventions comprising environmental modifications, assistive and protective aids, staff education and vision assessment/correction. Knowledge was the third principle class of interventions as patient education. Exercise and multifactorial interventions were the most effective treatments to reduce falls in older adults, although not all types of exercise were equally effective in all subjects and in all settings. Effective exercise programs combined balance and strength training. Reviews with a higher AMSTAR score were more likely to contain more primary studies, to be updated and to perform meta-analysis. Conclusions The aim of this overview of
Ballenger-Browning, Kara K; Elder, John P
To systematically review the effectiveness of biological, chemical and educational dengue fever prevention programs on the reduction of entomologic indicators. Searches of PubMed, GoogleScholar, CabDirect databases and reference lists yielded over 1000 articles containing mosquito abatement interventions. Inclusion criteria were: Vector control programs targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes; Studies providing pre- and post-test data. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using Mulla's formula to determine percent reductions for all studies with control groups. Twenty-one studies were reviewed. Twelve dependent variables were presented, however, the Breteau, House and Container indices were the primary measurement tools for monitoring larval populations. Behavioural methods consisting of educational campaigns and maintaining water containers to reduce the mosquito population were applied in eight studies. Eight studies involved the use of biological methods such as predatory organisms or bacteria. Finally, eight studies used chemical control techniques including insecticide sprays, larvicides, insecticide-treated materials, and cleaning water of containers with household chemicals with three studies using a combination of intervention techniques. Post-intervention reduction in entomologic indices ranged from 100% to an increase of 13.9% from baseline. Little evidence exists to support the efficacy of mosquito abatement programs owing to poor study designs and lack of congruent entomologic indices. Creation of a standard entomological index, use of clustered and randomized-controlled trials, and testing the generalizability of proven methods are recommended for future research.
Molina-Aguilera, Ida Berenice; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Lourdes Otilia; Palma-Ríos, María Aparicia; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina
We sought to review and describe health interventions integrated with immunization delivery, both routine and during national vaccination weeks, in Honduras between 1991 and 2009. We compiled and examined all annual evaluation reports from the national Expanded Program on Immunization and reports from the national vaccination weeks (NVWs) between 1988 and 2009. We held discussions with the persons responsible for immunization and other programs in the Health Secretary of Honduras for the same time period. Since 1991, several health promotion and disease prevention interventions have been integrated with immunization delivery, including vitamin A supplementation (since 1994), folic acid supplementation (2003), early detection of retinoblastoma (since 2003), breastfeeding promotion (2007-2008), and disease control activities during public health emergencies, such as cholera control (1991-1992) and dengue control activities (since 1991, when a dengue emergency coincides with the NVW). Success factors included sufficient funds and supplies to ensure sustainability and joint planning, delivery, and monitoring. Several health interventions have been integrated with vaccination delivery in Honduras for nearly 20 years. The immunization program in Honduras has sufficient structure, organization, acceptance, coverage, and experience to achieve successful integration with health interventions if carefully planned and suitably implemented.
Sabina B. Gesell
Full Text Available Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N=79 completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children’s mean age was 4.2 years (SD=0.9, and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI≥85th percentile. Parents were predominantly mothers (97%, with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD=5.4, and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25. Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t=2.08; P<.05. This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.
Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R
The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.
Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea
Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Green, Jennifer; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean
Youth living in group home settings are at significantly greater risk for sexual risk behaviors; however, there are no sexual health programs designed specifically for these youth. The study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of a teen pregnancy-prevention program for youth living in group home foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial involving youth (N = 1,037) recruited from 44 residential group homes located in California, Maryland, and Oklahoma. Within each state, youth (mean age = 16.2 years; 82% male; 37% Hispanic, 20% African-American, 20% white, and 17% multiracial) in half the group homes were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 40 clusters) and the other half were randomly assigned to a control group that offered "usual care" (n = 40 clusters). The intervention (i.e., Power Through Choices [PTC]) was a 10-session, age-appropriate, and medically accurate sexual health education program. Compared to the control group, youth in the PTC intervention showed significantly greater improvements (p attitude areas, all three self-efficacy areas, and two of three behavioral intention areas. This is the first published randomized controlled trial of a teen pregnancy-prevention program designed for youth living in foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The numerous significant improvements in short-term outcomes are encouraging and provide preliminary evidence that the PTC program is an effective pregnancy-prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hanson, Jessica D; Nelson, Morgan E; Jensen, Jamie L; Willman, Amy; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Ingersoll, Karen
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise a continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although studies have shown no differences in rates by race, FASD is of particular concern for American Indian communities. One tribally run prevention program is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program, which is modeled after the evidence-based CHOICES program that was focused on preconceptional prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) by reducing risky drinking in women at risk for pregnancy and/or preventing unintended pregnancy. The OST CHOICES Program was made culturally appropriate for American Indian women and implemented with 3 communities, 2 on the reservation and 1 off. Data on drinking, sexual activity, and contraception use were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and a random intercept generalized estimating equation model. A total of 193 nonpregnant American Indian women enrolled in the OST CHOICES Program, and all were at risk for AEP because of binge drinking and being at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Fifty-one percent of participants completed both 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Models showed a significant decrease in AEP risk from baseline at both 3- and 6-month follow-ups, indicating the significant impact of the OST CHOICES intervention. Women in the OST CHOICES Program were more likely to reduce their risk for AEP by utilizing contraception, rather than decreasing binge drinking. Even with minor changes to make the CHOICES intervention culturally and linguistically appropriate and the potential threats to program validity those changes entail, we found a significant impact in reducing AEP risk. This highlights the capacity for the CHOICES intervention to be implemented in a wide variety of settings and populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Vinícius Lopes Braga
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used for a range of clinical situations and their use is strongly encouraged by the media worldwide. This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews about the preventive effects of probiotics in clinical practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHODS: We included all Cochrane reviews on any probiotics when they were used as preventive interventions and compared with no intervention, placebo or any other pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention. RESULTS: 17 Cochrane systematic reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were summarized in this report. None of the reviews included in the present study provided high-quality evidence for any outcome. The benefits from use of probiotics included decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and duration of episodes; decreased need for antibiotics and absences from school due to colds; and decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Probiotics seem to decrease the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, birthweight, risk of vaginal infection and incidence of eczema. CONCLUSION: Despite the marketing and the benefits associated with probiotics, there is little scientific evidence supporting the use of probiotics. None of the reviews provided any high-quality evidence for prevention of illnesses through use of probiotics. More trials are needed to gain better knowledge of probiotics and to confirm when their use is beneficial and cost-effective.
Machuca, Hildred; Arevalo, Sandra; Hackley, Barbara; Applebaum, Jo; Mishkin, Arielle; Heo, Moonseong; Shapiro, Alan
Nationally, approximately 24% of preschool children are overweight or obese, with low-income communities disproportionately affected. Few interventions to prevent obesity in children at greatest risk have demonstrated positive results. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel group well-child care intervention for primary obesity prevention at age 2 years. Well Baby Group (WBG) is an alternative to traditional well-child care offered at a federally qualified health center in the South Bronx. Facilitated by a pediatrician and nutritionist, WBG fosters positive dietary behaviors, responsive parenting and feeding practices, and peer support during the first 18 months of life. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test the effect of WBG on rates of overweight/obesity at 2 years (BMI-for-age ≥85th percentile) using a nonrandomized comparison group of children receiving traditional care at our center over the same period. Characteristics of mothers and infants were comparable between intervention (n = 47) and comparison (n = 140) groups. Children enrolled in WBG were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese at 2 years than children receiving traditional well-child care (2.1% vs. 15.0%; OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.94; p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analysis, WBG remained a significant independent protective factor (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.93; p = 0.04), adjusting for birthweight and parity. WBG, a replicable model integrated into primary care visits, affords a unique opportunity to intervene consistently and early, providing families in at-risk communities with increased provider time, intensive education, and ongoing support. Further study of group well-child care for primary obesity prevention is warranted to confirm the effectiveness of the model.
Full Text Available Abstract With more than 1.4 million of the 9 million child deaths being attributed to diarrhoea in 2008 and 49% of them occurring in five countries namely, India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China, there is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrhoeal diseases. Of the various interventions, probiotics offer immense potential. The past decade has witnessed the validation of their utility for the prevention, treatment and management of a variety of infective and non infective disorders. The most investigated field continues to remain infectious diarrhoea and compelling evidence comes from randomized placebo controlled trials. While results from these studies are encouraging most of them reflect the outcomes of the developed world. Developing countries like India continue to struggle with nutritional and health challenges and bear the greatest burden of diarrhoea. A paucity of data from the developing countries limits the definite recommendation of probiotics. In these countries curd, often confused for a probiotic, is practiced as an integral part of the culture. While the nutritional benefits of these products cannot be understated, it is still uncertain whether these products can be classified as a probiotic. The emergence of probiotic foods which are scientifically validated for their efficacy and impart defined health benefits offer an excellent opportunity to improve public health. A recent randomized controlled trial conducted by the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases in Kolkata, India demonstrated a protective efficacy of 14% in preventing diarrhoea among children who received a probiotic. For the developing world however the vision for probiotics would mean a fundamental change in perception and developing a well planned strategy to allow interventions like probiotics to permeate to impoverished settings, where the assault of micro organisms is on a daily basis. This would
Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo
Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is
Sun Gang; Yuang Cheng; Huang Deqing; Dong Zhengjun
Objective: To assess the role of antibiotic and interventional radiology in prevention and treatment of discitis and analyze the imaging manifestations of discitis. Methods: 24 rabbits were used to make discitis models, and were classified into 4 groups randomly, 6 cases per group: non-treatment group, prophylactic antibiotic group, therapeutic antibiotic group and interventional treatment group. In prophylactic antibiotics group, intravenous clindamycin was administered 3 day before inoculation of bacteria to disc. In therapeutic antibiotics group, 4-week course of intravenous antibiotics was commenced 1 week after the bacterial inoculation. In interventional treatment group, PLD were performed 1 week after the inoculation, with simultaneous intravenous antibiotics for a period of 1 week, 2 or 4 weeks after inoculation. The lumbar spines of all rabbits were examined by X-ray, CT, and MRI respectively. Needle biopsy of nuclear pulpous was obtained and experimental region of lumbar spine were removed for pathological examination. Results: In non-treatment group and therapeutic antibiotics group, all of the discs inoculated with bacteria developed radiographic and pathological evidence of discitis, including intervertebral space narrowing, inflammatory changes of disc tissue, and destruction of end-plates. In prophylactic antibiotics group, none of the discs developed radiographic and pathological evidences of discitis, the bacterial culture was negative. In interventional treatment group, disc narrowing was observed in medical image and fibrosis was found in nucleus region. There was no evidence of destruction of end-plate, the bacteria culture was negative. Conclusion: MRI is a relative sensitive method to detect discitis. Prophylactic antibiotics is a key measure to prevent discitis. The PLD treatment could hold back the pathological process of discitis. Once developed, intravenous antibiotic is unable to affect the course of discitis
Kennard, Beth D; Biernesser, Candice; Wolfe, Kristin L; Foxwell, Aleksandra A; Craddock Lee, Simon J; Rial, Katie V; Patel, Sarita; Cheng, Carol; Goldstein, Tina; McMakin, Dana; Blastos, Beatriz; Douaihy, Antoine; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth and has become a serious public health problem. There has been limited research on strategies to decrease the likelihood of reattempt in adolescents. As phase one of a treatment development study, clinicians, parents and adolescents participated in qualitative interviews in order to gain new perspectives on developing a targeted intervention and a safety plan phone application for suicide prevention. Participants indicated that transition of care, specific treatment targets and safety planning were important parts of treatment. In addition, all participants endorsed the use of a smartphone application for these purposes.
Renzaho, Andre M N; Halliday, Jennifer A; Mellor, David; Green, Julie
Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12-17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the intervention to be developed in collaborative partnership with communities was used. Three pilot studies were carried out in 2008 and 2009 which included focus groups, interviews, and workshops with SSA parents, teenagers and health professionals, and emerging themes were used to inform the intervention content. A cultural competence framework containing 10 strategies was developed to inform the development of the program. Using findings from our scoping research, together with community consultations through the African Review Panel, a draft program outline (skeleton) was developed and presented in two separate community forums with SSA community members and health professionals working with SSA communities in Melbourne. The 'Healthy Migrant Families Initiative (HMFI): Challenges and Choices' program was developed and designed to assist African families in their transition to life in a new country. The program consists of nine sessions, each approximately 1 1/2 hours in length, which are divided into two modules based on the topic. The first module 'Healthy lifestyles in a new culture' (5 sessions) focuses on healthy eating, active living and healthy body weight. The second module 'Healthy families in a new culture' (4 sessions) focuses on parenting, communication and problem solving. The sessions are designed for a group setting (6-12 people per group), as many of the program activities are discussion-based, supported by session materials and program resources. Strong partnerships and
Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd. Taib, Mohd. Nasir; Mohd. Shariff, Zalilah
Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordere...
Rozanov, V B; Aleksandov, A A; Shugaeva, E N; Perova, N V; Maslennikova, G Ia; Smirnova, S G; Olfer'ev, A M
In a longitudinal cohort (prevention group, n=213, comparison group, n=163) of 10-year prospective follow-up we addressed efficacy of 5-year-long multifactor preventive intervention, conducted in a sample of population of 12 year old boys. Preventive intervention was carried out both at populational level and among persons with risk factors of development of cardiovascular diseases with the use of group, individual, and partly family approaches, and was directed at rationalization of nutrition, elevation of physical activity and prevention of harmful habits. During first 3 years of prevention we succeeded to achieve stable statistically significant lowering of mean levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and atherogeneity index, as well as to affect fatty component of body mass (skinfold thickness). Long term effect of 5-year long preventive intervention manifested as significantly lower level of systolic blood pressure, lower prevalence of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smaller increment of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and index of atherogeneity in the prevention group. These results evidence that prevention of main factors of risk of development of cardiovascular diseases (obesity, arterial hypertension, disorders of lipid composition of the blood, and low physical activity) in child and adolescent age in the period of active growth and development is feasible, effective, safe and is able to lead to decrease of levels of these factors in adults, but should last uninterruptedly until formation of stable habits of healthy life style.
Kuster, Anootnara Talkul; Dalsbø, Therese K; Luong Thanh, Bao Yen; Agarwal, Arnav; Durand-Moreau, Quentin V; Kirkehei, Ingvild
Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other. It is conceivable that computer-based interventions are more accessible, convenient, and cost-effective. To compare the effects of computer-based interventions versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, NIOSHTIC, NIOSHTIC-2, HSELINE, CISDOC, and two trials registers up to February 2017. We included randomised controlled studies that compared the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management intervention (using any technique) with a face-to-face intervention that had the same content. We included studies that measured stress or burnout as an outcome, and used workers from any occupation as participants. Three authors independently screened and selected 75 unique studies for full-text review from 3431 unique reports identified from the search. We excluded 73 studies based on full-text assessment. We included two studies. Two review authors independently extracted stress outcome data from the two included studies. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to report study results. We did not perform meta-analyses due to variability in the primary outcome and considerable statistical heterogeneity. We used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Two studies met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 159 participants in the included arms of the studies
Couser, Gregory P
To explore the literature regarding prevention of depression in the workplace. Literature review of what the author believes are seminal articles highlighting workplace factors and interventions in preventing depression in the workplace. Employees can help prevent depression by building protective factors such as better coping and stress management skills. Employees may be candidates for depression screening if they have certain risk factors such as performance concerns. Organizational interventions such as improving mental health literacy and focusing on work-life balance may help prevent depression in the workplace but deserve further study. A strategy to prevent depression in the workplace can include developing individual resilience, screening high-risk individuals and reducing that risk, improving organizational literacy, and integrating workplace and health care systems to allow access to proactive quality interventions.
Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Ewing, Donna; Dash, Suzanne; Hughes, Zoe; Thompson, Ellen J; Hazell, Cassie M; Field, Andy P; Startup, Helen
Children of anxious parents are at high risk of anxiety disorders themselves. The evidence suggests that this is due to environmental rather than genetic factors. However, we currently do little to reduce this risk of transmission. There is evidence that supporting parenting in those with mental health difficulties can ameliorate this risk. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a new one-session, group-based, preventive parenting intervention for parents with anxiety disorders. Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial. A total of 100 parents with anxiety disorders, recruited from adult mental health services in England (and child aged 3-9 years), were randomized to receive the new intervention (a 1-day, group workshop), or to treatment as usual. Children's anxiety disorder and anxiety symptoms were assessed to 12 months by outcome assessors who were blind to group allocation. Exploratory analyses were conducted on an intention to treat basis, as far as possible. A total of 51 participants were randomized to the intervention condition and 49 to the control condition (82% and 80% followed to 12 months, respectively). The attendance rate was 59%, and the intervention was highly acceptable to parents who received it. The RCT was feasible, and 12-month follow-up attrition rates were low. Children whose parents were in the control condition were 16.5% more likely to have an anxiety disorder at follow-up than those in the intervention group. No adverse events were reported. An inexpensive, light-touch, psycho-educational intervention may be useful in breaking the intergenerational cycle of transmission of anxiety disorders. A substantive trial is warranted. Anxiety disorders run in families, but we currently do little to help anxious parents to raise confident children. A brief group workshop was highly acceptable to such parents and was very inexpensive to run. Children of parents who took part in the brief intervention were 16.5% less
Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C
Tobacco is the main preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Adolescent smoking is increasing in many countries with poorer countries following the earlier experiences of affluent countries. Preventing adolescents from starting smoking is crucial to decreasing tobacco-related illness. To assess effectiveness of family-based interventions alone and combined with school-based interventions to prevent children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use. Fourteen bibliographic databases and the Internet, journals hand-searched, and experts consulted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with children or adolescents and families, interventions to prevent starting tobacco use, and follow-up ≥6 months. Abstracts/titles independently assessed and data independently entered by 2 authors. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool. Twenty-seven RCTs were included. Nine trials of never-smokers compared with a control provided data for meta-analysis. Family intervention trials had significantly fewer students who started smoking. Meta-analysis of 2 RCTs of combined family and school interventions compared with school only, showed additional significant benefit. The common feature of effective high-intensity interventions was encouraging authoritative parenting. Only 14 RCTs provided data for meta-analysis (approximately a third of participants). Of the 13 RCTs that did not provide data for meta-analysis 8 compared a family intervention with no intervention and 1 reported significant effects, and 5 compared a family combined with school intervention with a school intervention only and none reported additional significant effects. There is moderate-quality evidence that family-based interventions prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Griffin, Bronwyn; Watt, Kerrianne; Kimble, Roy; Shields, Linda
There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention), then five months later (post-intervention), to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants' knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated 'adequate behaviour' in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention ( p experience reflects the 'real-world' challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media), legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras), and education to prevent LSVROs.
Shepherd, Emily; Salam, Rehana A; Middleton, Philippa; Makrides, Maria; McIntyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Crowther, Caroline A
Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term encompassing disorders of movement and posture, attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing fetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk factors and causes, no one strategy will prevent all cerebral palsy. Therefore, there is a need to systematically consider all potentially relevant interventions for their contribution to prevention. To summarise the evidence from Cochrane reviews regarding the effects of antenatal and intrapartum interventions for preventing cerebral palsy. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on 7 August 2016, for reviews of antenatal or intrapartum interventions reporting on cerebral palsy. Two authors assessed reviews for inclusion, extracted data, assessed review quality, using AMSTAR and ROBIS, and quality of the evidence, using the GRADE approach. We organised reviews by topic, and summarised findings in text and tables. We categorised interventions as effective (high-quality evidence of effectiveness); possibly effective (moderate-quality evidence of effectiveness); ineffective (high-quality evidence of harm or of lack of effectiveness); probably ineffective (moderate-quality evidence of harm or of lack of effectiveness); and no conclusions possible (low- to very low-quality evidence). We included 15 Cochrane reviews. A further 62 reviews pre-specified the outcome cerebral palsy in their methods, but none of the included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reported this outcome. The included reviews were high quality and at low risk of bias. They included 279 RCTs; data for cerebral palsy were available from 27 (10%) RCTs, involving 32,490 children. They considered interventions for: treating mild to moderate hypertension (two) and pre-eclampsia (two); diagnosing and preventing fetal compromise in labour (one); preventing preterm birth (four); preterm fetal maturation or neuroprotection (five); and managing preterm fetal compromise (one). Quality of
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Anca, Maria; Hategan, Carolina
In the given study dyscalculia is approached in the context of learning difficulties, but also in relation with damaged psychic processes and functions. The practical part of the study describes intervention models from the perspective of dyscalculia prevention and therapymaterialized in personalized intervention programs.
Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald
Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en
Ebert, David Daniel; Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Baumeister, Harald
Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD), their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en
Grau, Lauretta E; Green, Traci C; Singer, Merrill; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Marshall, Patricia A; Heimer, Robert
To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. Following a month-long campaign in which intervention packets containing novel injection hygiene supplies and written materials were distributed to every client at each visit, intervention effectiveness was evaluated by comparing exposed and unexposed participants' self-reported injection practices. Over one-quarter of the exposed group began using the novel hygiene supplies which included an absorbent pad ("Safety Square") to stanch blood flow post-injection. Compared to those unexposed to the intervention, a smaller but still substantial number of exposed participants continued to inappropriately use alcohol pads post-injection despite exposure to written messages to the contrary (22.8% vs. 30.0%). It should also be noted that for those exposed to the intervention, 8% may have misused Safety Squares as part of pre-injection preparation of their injection site; attention should be paid to providing explicit and accurate instruction on the use of any health promotion materials being distributed. While this study indicates that passive introduction of risk reduction materials in injection drug users through syringe exchange programs can be an economical and relatively simple method of changing behaviors, discussions with SEP clients regarding explicit instructions about injection hygiene and appropriate use of novel risk reduction materials is also needed in order to optimize the potential for adoption of health promotion behaviors. The study results suggest that SEP staff should provide their clients with brief, frequent verbal reminders about the appropriate use when distributing risk reduction materials. Issues related to format and language of written materials are discussed.
Ghaisas, Samruddhi; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna; Clark, Florence
Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a major burden to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting their psychological, physical, and social well-being. Lifestyle choices are thought to contribute to the risk of developing PrUs. This article focuses on the interaction between lifestyle choices and the development of PrUs in community settings among participants in the University of Southern California–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS II), a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for adults with SCI. We conducted a secondary cross-case analysis of treatment notes of 47 PUPS II participants and identified four patterns relating PrU development to lifestyle changes: positive PrU changes (e.g., healing PrUs) with positive lifestyle changes, negative or no PrU changes with positive lifestyle changes, positive PrU changes with minor lifestyle changes, and negative or no PrU changes with no lifestyle changes. We present case studies exemplifying each pattern. PMID:25553751
Anne M. Dattilo
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO has described it as a “global epidemic.” Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
Dattilo, Anne M; Birch, Leann; Krebs, Nancy F; Lake, Alan; Taveras, Elsie M; Saavedra, Jose M
Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a "global epidemic." Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
Lin, Ping-Zhen; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Yang, Bei; Li, Meng; Cao, Feng-Lin
Previous studies have reported different effect sizes for self-help interventions designed to reduce postpartum depression symptoms; therefore, a comprehensive quantitative review of the research was required. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of self-help interventions designed to treat and prevent postpartum depression, and identified nine relevant randomized controlled trials. Differences in depressive symptoms between self-help interventions and control conditions, changes in depressive symptoms following self-help interventions, and differences in postintervention recovery and improvement rates between self-help interventions and control conditions were assessed in separate analyses. In treatment trials, depression scores continued to decrease from baseline to posttreatment and follow-up assessment in treatment subgroups. Changes in treatment subgroups' depression scores from baseline to postintervention assessment were greater relative to those observed in prevention subgroups. Self-help interventions produced larger overall effects on postpartum depression, relative to those observed in control conditions, in posttreatment (Hedges' g = 0.51) and follow-up (Hedges' g = 0.32) assessments; and self-help interventions were significantly more effective, relative to control conditions, in promoting recovery from postpartum depression. Effectiveness in preventing depression did not differ significantly between self-help interventions and control conditions.The findings suggested that self-help interventions designed to treat postpartum depression reduced levels of depressive symptoms effectively and decreased the risk of postpartum depression.
DeBate, Rita D; Bleck, Jennifer R; Raven, Jessica; Severson, Herb
Preventing oral-systemic health issues relies on evidence-based interventions across various system-level target groups. Although the use of theory- and evidence-based approaches has been encouraged in developing oral health behavior change programs, the translation of theoretical constructs and principles to behavior change interventions has not been well described. Based on a series of six systematic steps, Intervention Mapping provides a framework for effective decision making with regard to developing, implementing, and evaluating theory- and evidence-informed, system-based behavior change programs. This article describes the application of the Intervention Mapping framework to develop the EAT (evaluating, assessing, and treating) evidence-based intervention with the goal of increasing the capacity of oral health providers to engage in secondary prevention of oral-systemic issues associated with disordered eating behaviors. Examples of data and deliverables for each step are described. In addition, results from evaluation of the intervention via randomized control trial are described, with statistically significant differences observed in behavioral outcomes in the intervention group with effect sizes ranging from r=0.62 to 0.83. These results suggest that intervention mapping, via the six systematic steps, can be useful as a framework for continued development of preventive interventions.
Bourey, Christine; Williams, Whitney; Bernstein, Erin Elizabeth; Stephenson, Rob
Despite growing attention to intimate partner violence (IPV) globally, systematic evaluation of evidence for IPV prevention remains limited. This particularly is true in relation to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where researchers often organize evidence by current interventions strategies rather than comprehensive models of IPV. Applying the concept of structural interventions to IPV, we systematically reviewed the quantitative impact of such interventions for prevention of male-to-female IPV in LMIC in order to (a) highlight current opportunities for IPV research and programming and (b) demonstrate how structural interventions may provide an organizing framework through which to build an evidence base for IPV prevention. We identified articles by systematically searching PubMed and Web of Science, reviewing references of selected studies, and contacting 23 experts. Inclusion criteria included original research, written in English, published between January 2000 and May 2015 in the peer-reviewed literature. Studies evaluated the quantitative impact of structural interventions for the prevention of male-to-female IPV in LMIC through (a) IPV incidence or prevalence or (b) secondary outcomes theoretically linked to IPV by study authors. After initial screening, we evaluated full text articles for inclusion and extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes, and risk of bias, using forms developed for the review. Twenty articles (16 studies) from nine countries met inclusion criteria, representing 13 randomized control trials and seven additional studies, all of which reported results from economic, social, or combined economic and social interventions. Standardized at p prevention. Structural interventions, as an organizing framework, may advance IPV prevention by consolidating available evidence; highlighting opportunities to assess a broader range of interventions, including politico-legal and physical approaches; and emphasizing opportunities to
Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…
Allyson L. Dir
Full Text Available Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD, is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1 developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2 psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3 social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and
Clifford, Anton C; Doran, Christopher M; Tsey, Komla
Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981-2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically and culturally diverse Indigenous
Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L; Kozica, Samantha L; Zoungas, Sophia; Keating, Catherine; Teede, Helena J
To impact on the obesity epidemic, interventions that prevent weight gain across populations are urgently needed. However, even the most efficacious interventions will have little impact on obesity prevention unless they are successfully implemented in diverse populations and settings. Implementation research takes isolated efficacy studies into practice and policy and is particularly important in obesity prevention where there is an urgent need to accelerate the evidence to practice cycle. Despite the recognised need, few obesity prevention interventions have been implemented in real life settings and to our knowledge rarely target rural communities. Here we describe the rationale, design and implementation of a Healthy Lifestyle Program for women living in small rural communities (HeLP-her Rural). The primary goal of HeLP-her Rural is to prevent weight gain using a low intensity, self-management intervention. Six hundred women from 42 small rural communities in Australia will be randomised as clusters (n-21 control towns and n = 21 intervention towns). A pragmatic randomised controlled trial methodology will test efficacy and a comprehensive mixed methods community evaluation and cost analysis will inform effectiveness and implementation of this novel prevention program. Implementing population interventions to prevent obesity is complex, costly and challenging. To address these barriers, evidence based interventions need to move beyond isolated efficacy trials and report outcomes related to effectiveness and implementation. Large pragmatic trials provide an opportunity to inform both effectiveness and implementation leading to potential for greater impact at the population level. Pragmatic trials should incorporate both effectiveness and implementation outcomes and a multidimensional methodology to inform scale-up to population level. The learnings from this trial will impact on the design and implementation of population obesity prevention strategies
Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or
Merlotti, C; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E
Different intervention strategies can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies. Studies were grouped into 15 different strategies: 1: diet plus physical activity; 2: physical activity; 3-6: anti-diabetic drugs [glitazones, metformin, beta-cell stimulating drugs (sulphanylureas, glinides), alfa-glucosidase inhibitors]; 7-8: cardiovascular drugs (ACE inhibitors, ARB, calcium antagonists); 9-14 [diets, lipid-affecting drugs (orlistat, bezafibrate), vitamins, micronutrients, estrogens, alcohol, coffee]; 15: bariatric surgery. Only controlled studies were included in the analysis, whether randomized, non-randomized, observational studies, whether primarily designed to assess incident cases of diabetes, or performed with other purposes, such as control of hypertension, of ischemic heart disease or prevention of cardiovascular events. Appropriate methodology [preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement] was used. Seventy-one studies (490 813 subjects), published as full papers, were analysed to identify predictors of new cases of T2DM, and were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model) to study the effect of different strategies. Intervention effect (new cases of diabetes) was expressed as odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (C.I.s). Publication bias was formally assessed. Body mass index was in the overweight range for 13 groups, obese or morbidly obese in lipid-affecting drugs and in bariatric surgery. Non-surgical strategies, except for beta-cell stimulating drugs, estrogens and vitamins, were able to prevent T2DM, with different effectiveness, from 0.37 (C.I. 0.26-0.52) to 0.85 (C.I. 0.77-0.93); the most effective strategy was bariatric surgery in morbidly obese subjects [0.16 (C.I. 0.11,0.24)]. At meta-regression analysis, age of subjects and amount of weight lost were associated with effectiveness of
Devi, Reena; Singh, Sally J; Powell, John; Fulton, Emily A; Igbinedion, Ewemade; Rees, Karen
The Internet could provide a means of delivering secondary prevention programmes to people with coronary heart disease (CHD). To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions targeting lifestyle changes and medicines management for the secondary prevention of CHD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, in December 2014. We also searched six other databases in October 2014, and three trials registers in January 2015 together with reference checking and handsearching to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating Internet-delivered secondary prevention interventions aimed at people with CHD. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE approach and presented this in a 'Summary of findings' table. Eighteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Eleven studies are complete (1392 participants), and seven are ongoing. Of the completed studies, seven interventions are broad, targeting the lifestyle management of CHD, and four focused on physical activity promotion. The comparison group in trials was usual care (n = 6), minimal intervention (n = 3), or traditional cardiac rehabilitation (n = 2).We found no effects of Internet-based interventions for all-cause mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 1.63; participants = 895; studies = 6; low-quality evidence). There was only one case of cardiovascular mortality in a control group (participants = 895; studies = 6). No incidences of non-fatal re-infarction were reported across any of the studies. We found no effects for revascularisation (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.27; participants = 895; studies = 6; low-quality evidence).We found no effects for total cholesterol (mean difference (MD) 0.00, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.28; participants = 439; studies = 4; low
Tarvonen, P-L; Sipilä, K; Yang, G S; Kim, J K; Lamidi, M-L; Suominen, A L
The aim was to compare the change in dental caries status in two different intervention groups of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). A longitudinal study among 500 children who had participated into the COHPP for 6 years was conducted in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Children in Group I received intensified school-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2007 (n = 250), 10 years in 2010 (n = 250) and 13 years in 2013 (n = 242). Children in Group II (n = 250) joined the programme at the age of 4 years in kindergarten in 2007, were provided with early preschool-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2010 and 10 years in 2013. Both the prevalence and the mean number of dt + DT decreased significantly in both groups during the follow-up. This was due to decrease in the number of dt, whereas the number of DT remained relatively constant. Poisson regression showed that the association between the group status and the change in the number of dt + DT was statistically significant when adjusted for gender but disappeared when the school was included in the analysis. The decrease in dental caries may be partly due to the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and dental treatment received. However, the study gave some reference emphasizing the early starting of the prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa
The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).
Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos
The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.
Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A
Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Murray, Nancy; Kelder, Steve; Parcel, Guy; Orpinas, Pamela
Describes development of an intervention program for Hispanic parents to reduce violence by increased monitoring of their middle school students. Program development used a five-step guided intervention mapping process. Student surveys and parent interviews provided data to inform program design. Intervention mapping ensured involvement with the…
Bastos, Maria Helena; Furuta, Marie; Small, Rhonda; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Bick, Debra
Childbirth is a complex life event that can be associated with both positive and negative psychological responses. When giving birth is experienced as particularly traumatic this can have a negative impact on a woman's postnatal emotional well-being. There has been an increasing focus on women's psychological trauma symptoms following childbirth, including the relatively rare phenomenon of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the benefit of debriefing interventions to prevent this. In this review we examined the evidence for debriefing as a preventative intervention for psychological trauma following childbirth. To assess the effects of debriefing interventions compared with standard postnatal care for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth. The trials registers of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDANCTR-References and CCDANCTR-Studies) and the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group were searched up to 4 March 2015. These registers include relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: the Cochrane Library (all years to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Additional searches were conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. The reference lists of all included studies were checked for additional published reports and citations of unpublished research. Experts in the field were contacted. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials comparing postnatal debriefing interventions with standard postnatal care for the prevention of psychological trauma of women following childbirth. The intervention consisted of at least one debriefing intervention session, which had the purpose of allowing women to describe their experience and to normalise their emotional reaction to that experience. Three authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Meta
Horvath, Tara; Madi, Banyana C; Iuppa, Irene M; Kennedy, Gail E; Rutherford, George; Read, Jennifer S
Worldwide, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) represents the most common means by which children acquire HIV infection. Efficacious and effective interventions to prevent in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV infection have been developed and implemented. However, a large proportion of MTCT of HIV occurs postnatally, through breast milk transmission. The objectives of this systematic review were to collate and assess the evidence regarding interventions to decrease late postnatal MTCT of HIV, and to determine the efficacy of such interventions in decreasing late postnatal MTCT of HIV, increasing overall survival, and increasing HIV-free survival. Electronic searches were undertaken using PubMed, EMBASE and other databases for 1980-2008. Hand searches of reference lists of pertinent reviews and studies, as well as abstracts from relevant conferences, were also conducted. Experts in the field were contacted to locate any other studies. The search strategy was iterative. Randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of interventions to prevent MTCT of HIV through breast milk were included in the analysis. Other trials and intervention cohort studies with relevant data also were included, but only when randomization was not feasible due to the nature of the intervention (i.e., infant feeding modality). Data regarding HIV infection status and vital status of infants born to HIV-infected women, according to intervention, were extracted from the reports of the studies. Six randomized clinical trials and one intervention cohort study were included in this review. Two trials addressed the issue of shortening the duration of (or eliminating) exposure to breast milk. In a trial of breastfeeding versus formula feeding, formula feeding was efficacious in preventing MTCT of HIV (the cumulative probability of HIV infection at 24 months was 36.7% in the breastfeeding arm and 20.5% in the formula arm [p = 0.001]), but the
Fair, Kayla N; Solari Williams, Kayce D; Warren, Judith; McKyer, E Lisako Jones; Ory, Marcia G
Although the influence of organizational culture has been examined on a variety of student outcomes, few studies consider the influence that culture may have on school-based obesity prevention interventions. We present a systematic review of the literature to examine how elements of organizational culture may affect the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions. Fourteen studies examining the impact of organizational-level characteristics on school-based obesity prevention interventions were identified through the online databases EBSCO (CINAHL, ERIC, Agricola), Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Scopus. Five themes were identified as elements of organizational culture that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions: organizational response to limited resources, value placed on staff training and professional development, internal support, organizational values, and school climate. Organizational culture can greatly influence the success of school-based obesity interventions. The collection of data related to organizational-level factors may be used to identify strategies for creating and sustaining a supportive environment for obesity prevention interventions in the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Using the Medical Research Council framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions in a theory-based infant feeding intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the baby milk intervention and trial.
Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Griffin, Simon; Hardeman, Wendy; Schiff, Annie; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Ong, Ken K
We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets; hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients) and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers) to refine them. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials, use of the Medical Research Council framework has helped to build a generalisable evidence base for early life nutritional interventions. However, the process is resource intensive and prolonged, and this should be taken into account by public health research funders. This trial is registered with ISRTCN: 20814693 Baby Milk Trial.
Using the Medical Research Council Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in a Theory-Based Infant Feeding Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: The Baby Milk Intervention and Trial
Full Text Available Introduction. We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. Methods. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets; hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers to refine them. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. Conclusions. In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials, use of the Medical Research Council framework has helped to build a generalisable evidence base for early life nutritional interventions. However, the process is resource intensive and prolonged, and this should be taken into account by public health research funders. This trial is registered with ISRTCN: 20814693 Baby Milk Trial.
van Straten Annemieke
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although indicated prevention of depression is available for about 80% of the Dutch population at little or no cost, only a small proportion of those with subthreshold depression make use of these services. Methods A narrative review is conducted of the Dutch preventive services in mental health care, also addressing the problem of low participation rates. We describe possible causes of these low participation rates, which may be related to the participants themselves, the service system, and the communication to the public, and we put forward possible solutions to this problem. Results There are three main groups of reasons why the participation rates are low: reasons within the participants (e.g., not considering themselves as being at risk; thinking the interventions are not effective; or being unwilling to participate because of the stigma associated with depression; reasons within the health care system; and reasons associated with the communication about the preventive services. Possible solutions to increasing the participation rate include organizing mass media campaigns, developing internet-based preventive interventions, adapting preventive interventions to the needs of specific subpopulations, positioning the services in primary care, integrating the interventions in community-wide interventions, and systematically screening high-risk groups for potential participants. Discussion Prevention could play an important role in public mental health in reducing the enormous burden of depression. However, before this can be realized more research is needed to explore why participation rates are low and how these rates can be improved.
Kuntsche, Sandra; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in preventing, curbing or reducing substance use (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) among 10 to 18-year-olds. The databases PubMed, PsychInfo, Eric and Google Scholar were used to identify randomized trials published within the past 12years evaluating effects on adolescent substance use. Of the 653 identified in the first screening, 39 publications dealing with 13 programs were included. Results reveal desirable effects of parenting measures such as rule-setting, monitoring and parent-child communication. There was also some evidence in terms of preventing, curbing or reducing adolescent substance use. However, this appears to depend particularly on the age group of the adolescents in question, the kind of parents included and the intensity of the program. To conclude, the results of this systematic review underline the importance of including parents in programs aiming to impede initiation of substance use or curb or reduce already existing substance use in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cornelius, Judith B.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Howard, Jacquelyn C.; Shah, Deval; Poka, Avinash; McDonald, Delilah; White, Ann C.
Purpose This study examined African American adolescents’ perceptions of a mobile cell phone (MCP)-enhanced intervention and development of an MCP-based HIV prevention intervention. Design and Methods One focus group was conducted with 11 adolescents who participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen Text Messaging project. Results Adolescents said they benefited from the MCP-enhanced approach and were receptive to the idea of developing an MCP-based intervention. Practice Implications Nurses can use the findings of this report as a starting point in examining the development of MCP-based sexuality education with parents and adolescents. PMID:22188273
Schensul, Stephen L; Saggurti, Niranjan; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Mazumder, Papiya Guha
This paper explores the meaning and applicability of multilevel interventions and the role of ethnography in identifying intervention opportunities and accounting for research design limitations. It utilizes as a case example the data and experiences from a 6-year, NIMH-funded, intervention to prevent HIV/STI among married men in urban poor communities in Mumbai, India. The experiences generated by this project illustrate the need for multilevel interventions to include: (1) ethnographically driven formative research to delineate appropriate levels, stakeholders and collaborators; (2) identification of ways to link interventions to the local culture and community context; (3) the development of a model of intervention that is sufficiently flexible to be consistently applied to different intervention levels using comparable culturally congruent concepts and approaches; (4) mechanisms to involve community residents, community based organizations and community-based institutions; and (5) approaches to data collection that can evaluate the impact of the project on multiple intersecting levels.
Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ito, Shinya; Hashimoto, Mari; Aduma, Saori; Yasumura, Seiji
Locomotion training in a home visit-type preventive-care program has been reported elsewhere. However, continuation of appropriate exercises in a home setting is difficult, and few reports are available on locomotion training in a home setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of locomotion training over 3 months in a home visit-type preventive-care program for improvement of motor function among elderly people. Nine hundred and fifty-eight elderly people in Tendo City in Japan who were not currently attending any preventive-care program were invited to participate in the study, and 87 were enrolled. In the pre-intervention and post-intervention assessments, we administered an interview survey (the Kihon Checklist), the timed one-leg standing test with eyes open and the sit-to-stand test, at the participants' homes. The intervention involved one set of training exercises with the participants standing on each leg for 1 min and squatting five or six times. The participants were asked to repeat one set of the exercises three times a day at home. In addition, the participants were regularly asked over the telephone about their performance of the exercises. Physical strength, cognitive function, and total scores of the Kihon Checklist were significantly lower after the intervention than before. In addition, the one-leg standing test time was significantly longer after the intervention (mean ± SD, 23.9 ± 35.4) than before (15.7 ± 20.5), and the sit-to-stand test time was significantly shorter after the intervention (13.0 ± 6.2) than before (14.8 ± 8.3). Locomotion training in a home-visit preventive-care program with telephone support effectively improved the motor function of elderly people who were not currently attending any preventive-care program organized by the long-term care insurance system.
Wirtz, Andrea L; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna
Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5-65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10-70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012-2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%-70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and access to universal ART for female sex workers is a
Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F. P.; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl
Background: Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. Objective: To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. Method: A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. Results: The marketing plan focused on “resiliency building” rather than “depression intervention” and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1–10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Conclusions: Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care. PMID:20944776
Background Depression is a major public health problem among working-age adults. The workplace is potentially an important location for interventions aimed at preventing the development of depression, but to date, the mental health impact of universal interventions in the workplace has been unclear. Method A systematic search was conducted in relevant databases to identify randomized controlled trials of workplace interventions aimed at universal prevention of depression. The quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. A meta-analysis was performed using results from studies of adequate methodological quality, with pooled effect size estimates obtained from a random effects model. Results Nine workplace-based randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified. The majority of the included studies utilized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques. The overall standardized mean difference (SMD) between the intervention and control groups was 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.24, P = 0.0002), indicating a small positive effect. A separate analysis using only CBT-based interventions yielded a significant SMD of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.22, P = 0.01). Conclusions There is good quality evidence that universally delivered workplace mental health interventions can reduce the level of depression symptoms among workers. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of CBT-based programs than other interventions. Evidence-based workplace interventions should be a key component of efforts to prevent the development of depression among adults. PMID:24886246
Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention, then five months later (post-intervention, to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants’ knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated ‘adequate behaviour’ in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention (p < 0.05. Most of the sample perceived other’s driveway behaviour as inadequate, and this reduced significantly (<0.05. Perceived effectiveness of LSVRO prevention strategies increased from pre- to post-intervention, but not significantly. TV was the greatest source of knowledge regarding LSVROs pre- and post-intervention. This study provides some evidence that the educational campaign and opportunistic media engagement were successful in increasing awareness and improving behaviour regarding LSVROs. While there are several limitations to this study, our experience reflects the ‘real-world’ challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media, legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras, and education to prevent LSVROs.
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J
Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.
Calvo-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Sánchez-Meca, Julio
Preventive interventions improve healthy behaviours and they also increase knowledge regarding back care in children and adolescents, but studies exhibit great variability in their contents, duration and number of sessions, and in the assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to review the empirical evidence regarding preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents, and to ascertain the most efficacious treatments, in what way and under which circumstances. Studies were located from computerized databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, PEDro, Web of Science and IME) and other sources. The search period extended to May 2012. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to use physical therapy methodologies of preventive treatment on children and adolescents, and to compare a treatment and a control group. Treatment, participant, methodological, and extrinsic characteristics of the studies were coded. Two researchers independently coded all of the studies. As effect size indices, standardized mean differences were calculated for measures of behaviours and knowledge, both in the posttest and in the follow-up. The random and mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analyses and sensitivity analyses were carried out in order to check the robustness of the meta-analytic results. A total of 19 papers fulfilled the selection criteria, producing 23 independent studies. On average, the treatments reached a statistically significant effectiveness in the behaviours acquired, both in the posttest and in the follow-up (d+ = 1.33 and d+ = 1.80, respectively), as well as in measures of knowledge (posttest; d+ = 1.29; follow-up: d+ = 0.76). Depending on the outcome measure, the effect sizes were affected by different moderator variables, such as the type of treatment, the type of postural hygiene, the teaching method, or the use of paraprofessionals as cotherapists. The interventions were successful in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions improve healthy behaviours and they also increase knowledge regarding back care in children and adolescents, but studies exhibit great variability in their contents, duration and number of sessions, and in the assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to review the empirical evidence regarding preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents, and to ascertain the most efficacious treatments, in what way and under which circumstances. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, PEDro, Web of Science and IME and other sources. The search period extended to May 2012. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to use physical therapy methodologies of preventive treatment on children and adolescents, and to compare a treatment and a control group. Treatment, participant, methodological, and extrinsic characteristics of the studies were coded. Two researchers independently coded all of the studies. As effect size indices, standardized mean differences were calculated for measures of behaviours and knowledge, both in the posttest and in the follow-up. The random and mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analyses and sensitivity analyses were carried out in order to check the robustness of the meta-analytic results. Results A total of 19 papers fulfilled the selection criteria, producing 23 independent studies. On average, the treatments reached a statistically significant effectiveness in the behaviours acquired, both in the posttest and in the follow-up (d+ = 1.33 and d+ = 1.80, respectively, as well as in measures of knowledge (posttest; d+ = 1.29; follow-up: d+ = 0.76. Depending on the outcome measure, the effect sizes were affected by different moderator variables, such as the type of treatment, the type of postural hygiene, the teaching method, or the use of paraprofessionals as
MacLean, D R
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the developed world, accounting for slightly more than 40% of all mortality. Along with the resultant disability of those who survive with the disease it costs the health care system in Canada approximately $17 billion on an annual basis. The known risk factors for cardiovascular disease are widespread within the population; in Canada, approximately 70% of individuals have one or more of the major risk factors. Research over the past 25 years has disclosed that a significant proportion of the cause of heart disease and its risk factors are rooted in the unhealthy habits of average living in conjunction with unfavorable physical, economic and psychosocial environments. The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease has focused on individual risk factor change combined with approaches to community organization in an effort to produce a more conducive environment for behavior change to be carried out. First-generation community programs for cardiovascular disease prevention, as illustrated by the North Karelia Project, Stanford Five City Project and others in the United States, have relied heavily on social learning theory as advanced by Bandura, from Stanford University. Second-generation prevention programs, such as the Nova Scotia Heart Health Program, have relied on these theories as well