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Sample records for camphor

  1. Spontaneous motion of an elliptic camphor particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Iida, Keita; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    The coupling between deformation and motion in a self-propelled system has attracted broader interest. In the present study, we consider an elliptic camphor particle for investigating the effect of particle shape on spontaneous motion. It is concluded that the symmetric spatial distribution of camphor molecules at the water surface becomes unstable first in the direction of a short axis, which induces the camphor disk motion in this direction. Experimental results also support the theoretical analysis. From the present results, we suggest that when an elliptic particle supplies surface-active molecules to the water surface, the particle can exhibit translational motion only in the short-axis direction.

  2. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  3. Nondipole Photoemission from Chiral Enantiomers of Camphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, K. P.; Stolte, W. C.; Young, J. A.; Demchenko, I. N.; Guillemin, R.; Hemmers, O.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.

    2010-03-01

    K-shell photoemission from the carbonyl carbon in the chiral molecule camphor has been studied in the region just above the core-shell ionization threshold. Differences between angular distributions of emitted photoelectrons from the two enantiomers are attributed to the influence of chirality combined with nondipole effects in the photoemission process, despite the fact the measurements were taken using linearly polarized x-rays. The results suggest the possibility of a new form of linear dichroism.

  4. Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor: An Environment-Friendly Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukul; Ando, Yoshinori [21st Century COE Program: Nanofactory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    High-purity carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are produced by chemical vapour deposition of camphor, an environment-friendly hydrocarbon. In a small CVD reactor (1-m long and 26- mm wide), CVD of 3 g camphor at 650deg. C for 1 hour yields {approx}1.62 g MWNTs of diameter {approx}10 nm with an as-grown purity over 88%; that is, camphor-to-CNT production efficiency is 50%. This is the highest efficiency ever achieved from any material by any method. Moreover, camphor-based CNT synthesis technique stands fairly good against the 12-principle protocol of green chemistry.

  5. Biotransformations of 2-methylisoborneol by camphor-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many camphor-degrading bacteria that are able to transform 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) have been identified. Three strains representative of these, have been examined in detail. Rhodococcus ruber T1 metabolizes camphor through 6-hydroxycamphor, but converts MIB to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbornane. Pseu...

  6. Swarming of self-propelled camphor boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Eric; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2012-05-01

    When an ensemble of self-propelled camphor boats move in a one-dimensional channel, they exhibit a variety of collective behaviors. Under certain conditions, the boats tend to cluster together and move in a relatively tight formation. This type of behavior, referred to as clustering or swarming here, is one of three types recently observed in experiment. Similar clustering behavior is also reproduced in simulations based on a simple theoretical model. Here we examine this model to determine the clustering mechanism and the conditions under which clustering occurs. We also propose a method of quantifying the behavior that may be used in future experimental work.

  7. [Camphor preparations in the overall therapy of cerebral infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natiazhkina, G M; Gorbacheva, F E; Kats, E I; Kvasov, V T

    1980-01-01

    The authors studied the platelet functional properties and the brain bioelectric activity in 20 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases before and after subcutaneous injection of 2.0 ml of racemic camphor T, as well as before and after oral taking of monobromated camphor in a dose of 0.5 g 3 times a day. The platelet aggregation was examined by the method of Born (1962) with automatic recording of aggregatograms. The brain bioelectric activity was examined using an Alvar electroencephalograph. As a result, the authors discovered an inhibitory effect of camphor preparations on the platelet aggregation. Racemic camphor T and monobromated camphor were found to produce a stimulant effect on the brain. PMID:6986733

  8. [Historical study of a moth repellent "Fujisawa Camphor" (4) - newspaper advertisements for "Fujisawa Camphor" in the Meiji Era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Newspaper advertisements were frequently available as one way of communicating news about new products to the general public during the middle of the Meiji Era. The first newspaper advertisement of "Fujisawa Camphor"' appeared in the Osaka Asahi on June 1, 1989. At that time, the newspaper advertisements of OTC were brilliant and the space taken by them was large, in some cases covering a full page. They appeared daily. However, the ad for Fujisawa Camphors was small and simple. The appeal points of the Fujisawa Camphor advertisement were as follows: 1. Fujisawa Camphor, crystals of refined camphor, are hard and colorless.2. It is effective for insecticide and prevents moisture.3. It is widely used by governments and the military.4. It removes bad smell to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:16025650

  9. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitali Patra; Shatanik Sarkar; Malay Kumar Dasgupta; Amit Das

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1½-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any.

  10. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1½-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any.

  11. [Starting with camphor--the progress of Nippon Fine Chemical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    In 1918, Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd. (NFC) was founded under the name, Nippon Camphor Co., Ltd. for the purpose of unifying the camphor business throughout Japan. The company manufactured purified camphor as a government-monopolized good. Camphor was used as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose, as a moth repellent, as an antimicrobial substance, as a rust inhibitor, and as an active ingredient in medicine. It was also a very important good exported in order to obtain foreign currency. Later on, after World War II and the abolition of the camphor monopoly, the company started manufacturing products related to oils and fats, including higher fatty acids, and expanded its business by developing a new field of chemical industry. In 1971 the company changed its name to Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., and made a new start as a diversified fine chemicals company. Recently, the fine chemicals division of NFC has concentrated on rather complex molecules, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, and other chemicals. Since 2000, NFC have started to supply "Presome", precursors of liposome DDS drugs. NFC is strengthening marketing strategies in foreign countries with unique technologies and products.

  12. Characteristic oscillatory motion of a camphor boat sensitive to physicochemical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, S.; Yoshii, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Suematsu, N. J.

    2015-06-01

    A self-propelled camphor boat on water was investigated from the viewpoint of characteristic features of motion and mode-bifurcation depending on the diffusion length of camphor molecules. When a camphor disk was connected to the bottom of a larger plastic plate and then was placed on water, either oscillatory motion (repetition between rest and motion) or continuous motion was observed. In this paper, we report the novel features of this motion and mode-bifurcation as a function of the diffusion length of camphor molecules, e.g., multiple accelerations during oscillation, period-2 or irregular oscillatory motion, and reciprocating oscillation. These characteristic motion and mode-bifurcation are discussed in relation to the diffusion length of camphor molecules under the camphor boat and the development of camphor molecules from the camphor boat on water.

  13. Hexaaquamagnesium(II bis(d-camphor-10-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jeremić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title complex, [Mg(H2O6](C10H15O4S2, consists of regular octahedral [Mg(H2O6]2+ cations and d-camphor-10-sulfonate anions. A three-dimensional supramolecular architecture is formed via hydrogen-bond interactions [O—H...O = 2.723 (2–2.833 (2 Å] to give alternating layers of [Mg(H2O6]2+ cations and d-camphor-10-sulfonate anions. The title compound is isomorphous with the zinc, copper, cadmium and nickel analogues.

  14. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

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    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  15. Unfolding of the bacterial nucleoid both in vivo and in vitro as a result of exposure to camphor.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, E W; Trun, N J

    1997-01-01

    Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are sensitive to killing by camphor; however, the mechanism by which camphor kills has not been elucidated. We report here that camphor unfolds the nucleoid of Escherichia coli and that unfolding does not require DNA replication, translation, or cell division. We show that exposure of isolated nucleoids to camphor results in unfolding of the chromosome.

  16. Hydrodynamics of a fixed camphor boat at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhiraj; Akella, Sathish; Singh, Ravi; Mandre, Shreyas; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when introduced at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and the camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface. This radial spreading of camphor is due to Marangoni forces setup by the camphor concentration gradient. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of this process for a camphor tablet held fixed at the air-water interface. During the initial transient, the time-dependent spread radius R (t) of camphor scales algebraically with time t (R (t) ~t 1 / 2) in agreement with empirical scalings reported for spreading of volatile oils on water surface. But unlike surfactants, the camphor stops spreading when the influx of camphor from the tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the outflux of camphor due to evaporation, and a steady-state condition is reached. The spreading camphor however, shears the underlying fluid and sets up bulk convective flow. We explain the coupled steady-state dynamics between the interfacial camphor spreading and bulk convective flow with a boundary layer approximation, supported by experimental evidence. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  17. Anticonvulsant properties of spirohydantoins derived from optical isomers of camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjie, N; Alexander, G J

    1986-12-01

    Natural camphor exists as the d (+) form but the l (-) form has been synthesized. Replacement of the keto group on carbon 2 of each form with a hydantoin moiety led to only one spirohydantoin derivative. Both d and l derivatives were synthesized. Both forms and their racemic mixture were tested in vivo for toxicity and behavioral effects in mice. A dose of 100 mg/kg of the d form was not toxic: mice showed normal grooming and exploratory behavior; the l form induced hunched posture, body jerks and myoclonic manifestations followed by quiescence. The dl form showed intermediate effects. Challenge with the convulsant pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol) 2 hr after treatment with placebo or the camphor spirohydantoins produced seizure manifestations in all controls, in half of the subjects pretreated with the d-camphor derivative, in none of those pretreated with the l derivative and an intermediate response in those pretreated with racemic mixture. Thus, a spirohydantoin moiety added to camphor conferred strong anticonvulsive properties on the l form and modest ones on the d form; the d form did not seem to antagonize the l form. PMID:3822049

  18. Extracting camphor wood oil from camphor tree seeds%樟树籽提取樟油的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 许莉勇

    2001-01-01

    以樟树青籽和樟树紫籽为研究对象,采用浸提法与水蒸汽蒸馏法来提取樟油。结果表明,用丙酮、石油醚和乙醇作溶剂浸提樟树籽,青籽的得油率为2.70%~3.10%,紫籽的得油率为0.70%~0.93%;用水蒸气蒸馏樟树籽,青籽的得油率为2.80%,紫籽的得油率为0.90%。樟树青籽提取樟油效果优于樟树紫籽。表3参4。%Camphor tree seeds including green seeds and mature seeds werecollected in Ningbo City of Zhejiang Province.Extraction and distillation were used.The results showed that taking acetone,petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents in extraction,camphor wood oil percent of green seeds was 2.70%-3.10%,and percent of mature seeds.0.70%-0.93%;using of stem distillation,camphor wood oil percent of green seeds was 2.80%,and percent of mature seeds 0.90%.It is better to extract camphor wood oil from green seeds of camphor tree than from mature seeds (purple baccae).

  19. Degradation of aqueous solutions of camphor by heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Carla; Altvater, Priscila K; de Freitas, Adriane M; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio G

    2006-02-28

    In this study the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous solutions of camphor was investigated by using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts. In the presence of artificial UV-light the highly photosensitive camphor was almost totally degraded after reaction times of 60 min. However, under these conditions the mineralization degree was lower than 25%. In the presence of semiconductors the degradation was complete after a treatment time of about 30 min. Moreover, the mineralization was considerably greater, mainly with the use of TiO2 (> 80% at reaction time of 60 min). Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes applied in the presence of solar radiation show a promising degradation capability. TiO2-based processes afforded mineralization degrees of about 90% after a reaction time of 120 min, when the system was assisted by aeration.

  20. Rheological behaviour of semi-solid succinonitrile-camphor alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rheology experiments were carried out on succinonitrile-4% (mass fraction) camphor alloy, using a Haake VT550 viscometer.The results showed that the steady state viscosity of succinonitrile-4% camphor alloy in semi-solid process can be described well by the classical power law of viscosity versus shear rate, η= kym, and the test method can be used to simulate the semi-solid processing for metals. The viscosity of the organic alloy decreases with increasing shear rate at a given temperature within liquid-solid range, and the viscosity of the organic alloy slurries increases with decreasing temperature, decreases with decreasing cooling rate. The structure and viscosity of organic alloy during solidification are strongly influenced by shear rate.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  2. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  3. Transdermal permeation of drugs with differing lipophilicity: Effect of penetration enhancer camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Chai, Jia-Ke; Hu, Quan; Yu, Yong-Hui; Ma, Li; Liu, Ling-Ying; Zhang, Xu-Long; Li, Bai-Ling; Zhang, Dong-Hai

    2016-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential application of (+)-camphor as a penetration enhancer for the transdermal delivery of drugs with differing lipophilicity. The skin irritation of camphor was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays and in vivo transdermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. A series of model drugs with a wide span of lipophilicity (logP value ranging from 3.80 to -0.95), namely indometacin, lidocaine, aspirin, antipyrine, tegafur and 5-fluorouracil, were tested using in vitro transdermal permeation experiments to assess the penetration-enhancing profile of camphor. Meanwhile, the in vivo skin microdialysis was carried out to further investigate the enhancing effect of camphor on the lipophilic and hydrophilic model drugs (i.e. lidocaine and tegafur). SC (stratum corneum)/vehicle partition coefficient and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to probe the regulation action of camphor in the skin permeability barrier. It was found that camphor produced a relatively low skin irritation, compared with the frequently-used and standard penetration enhancer laurocapram. In vitro skin permeation studies showed that camphor could significantly facilitate the transdermal absorption of model drugs with differing lipophilicity, and the penetration-enhancing activities were in a parabola curve going downwards with the drug logP values, which displayed the optimal penetration-enhancing efficiency for the weak lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs (an estimated logP value of 0). In vivo skin microdialysis showed that camphor had a similar penetration behavior on transdermal absorption of model drugs. Meanwhile, the partition of lipophilic drugs into SC was increased after treatment with camphor, and camphor also produced a shift of CH2 vibration of SC lipid to higher wavenumbers and decreased the peak area of the CH2 vibration, probably resulting in the alteration of the skin permeability barrier. This suggests that

  4. [Poisoning caused by the cutaneous application of camphorated balsam ointment in a nursing infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelli, M M; Pesenti, P; Ronconi, G F

    1987-01-01

    We describe a case of camphor and balsamic oil poisoning observed in a 1-month-old infant. Because of toxic effects of camphor and volatile oils on central nervous system, these compounds show no therapeutical usefullness in children. PMID:3697334

  5. Synchronized Intermittent Motion Induced by the Interaction between Camphor Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Tateno, Kurina; Nakata, Satoshi; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2015-03-01

    A new mode of collective motion was discovered in a system of camphor disks floating on the water surface in a circular chamber. The mode was induced by tuning the number of the disks. A single or few disks are known to continuously move on the water surface. Conversely, when many disks are present, motion comes to a stop and the disks form ordered spatial patterns by repulsive interaction. Here we found the third mode that emerged at an intermediate disk number, in which inactive and active motion phases alternated non-periodically. This new mode exhibited synchronization as the disk number increased.

  6. "Kafour-e Fansur"]Fansur Camphor[ or "Kafour-e Manthur" ]Powdered Camphor[: Suggesting a Lexical Change in the Shahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فرزام حقیقی

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The story of "Yazdgerd Shahriar" in the Shahnameh refers to a kind of camphor named "Kafour-e Manthur" whose records vary in the Shahnameh manuscripts and printed editions. Considering the cultural background of the story, this kind of camphor has first been traced in Islamic and Arabic texts and then, using the information derived from geographic and medical texts, "Kafour-e Fansur" has been suggested as a more likely record.

  7. "Kafour-e Fansur"]Fansur Camphor[ or "Kafour-e Manthur" ]Powdered Camphor[: Suggesting a Lexical Change in the Shahnameh

    OpenAIRE

    فرزام حقیقی

    2013-01-01

    The story of "Yazdgerd Shahriar" in the Shahnameh refers to a kind of camphor named "Kafour-e Manthur" whose records vary in the Shahnameh manuscripts and printed editions. Considering the cultural background of the story, this kind of camphor has first been traced in Islamic and Arabic texts and then, using the information derived from geographic and medical texts, "Kafour-e Fansur" has been suggested as a more likely record.

  8. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  9. Graphene production by dissociation of camphor molecules on nickel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravani, Fotini [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Interdepartmental Program in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Papagelis, Konstantinos [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassileios; Parthenios, John [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Dassios, Konstantinos G. [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Siokou, Angeliki [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Galiotis, Costas, E-mail: c.galiotis@iceht.forth.gr [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Interdepartmental Program in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece)

    2013-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the production of continuous-high quality-graphene layers based on camphor decomposition on polycrystalline Ni foil, is demonstrated. In situ X-ray diffraction at the pyrolysis temperature of the Ni foil indicates the presence of dominant Ni <111> grains which play an important role in the carbon nucleation and growth. The topography of the grown graphene layers is studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which show that the Ni surface is covered by continuous and wrinkled graphene carpets. Raman spectroscopy reveals the high quality of the graphene film which appears to be only a few monolayers thick. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the existence of graphitic layers and the absence of any spectral features associated with carbides (Ni{sub x}C). The proposed CVD process is a sufficient method for large scale production of graphene films. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive chemical vapor deposition method based on camphor is presented. ► Few-layer graphene carpets of high quality are produced on polycrystalline Ni. ► The working deposition temperature is decreased by about 15%. ► Natural cooling is employed for graphene production. ► Role of Ni surface texture upon the graphene growth process is demonstrated.

  10. Lamellar coupled growth in the neopentylglycol-(D)camphor eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witusiewicz, V. T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2014-01-01

    Lamellar eutectic growth was investigated in the transparent organic alloy neopentylglycol-(D)camphor of eutectic composition (NPG-45.3 wt% DC) using bulk (3D) and thin (2D) samples. Two types of eutectic grains were observed in the polycrystalline samples, either with lamellae well aligned to the direction of solidification or inclined at an angle of 21.5±1.5°. The well aligned grains were used for determining lamellar spacing as function of growth velocity V and temperature gradient G. Based on these data the Jackson-Hunt constant was evaluated to be KJH=1.60±0.15 μm3 s-1. For low growth velocity experiments the contact angles for (DC) and (NPG) lamellae at eutectic triple junctions were also evaluated, being θ(DC)=50.9±4.1° and θ(NPG)=41.8±4.7°, respectively. Using these values, as well as phase diagram data and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients, the chemical coefficient of diffusion of (D)camphor in the eutectic liquid at eutectic temperature 53 °C was estimated to be DL=97±15 μm2 s-1.

  11. Hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sathish; Singh, Dhiraj; Singh, Ravi; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when placed at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface due to Marangoni forces. This steady camphor influx from tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the camphor outflux due to evaporation. When spontaneous fluctuations in evaporation break the axial symmetry of Marangoni force acting radially outwards, the camphor tablet is propelled like a boat along the water surface. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at air-water interfaces. We observe three different modes of motion, namely continuous, harmonic and periodic, due to the volatile nature of camphor. We explain these modes in terms of ratio of two time-scales: the time-scale over which viscous forces are dominant over the Marangoni forces (τη) and the time-scale over which Marangoni forces are dominant over the viscous forces (τσ). The continuous, harmonic and periodic motions are observed when τη /τσ ~ 1 , τη /τσ >= 1 and τη /τσ >> 1 respectively. Experimentally, the ratio of the time scales is varied by changing the interfacial tension of the air-water interface using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Structure of Chiral Amino Acids and Their Corresponding Amino Alcohols with Camphoric Backbone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hui-Fen; HUANG Wei; LI Hui-Hui; YAO Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Chiral amino acids and their corresponding amino alcohols bearing camphoric backbone were prepared from D-(+)-camphoric imide and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, ESI-MS, and NMR measurements. Among them, one intermediate (lS,3R)-3-amino-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid hydrochloride 3 was structurally elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. Versatile intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions observed in its packing structure result in a two-dimensional framework.

  13. NSECTICIDAL TOXICITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE, CAMPHOR AND EUGENOL ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Liška

    2011-01-01

    Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. In general, fumigant activity of all th...

  14. INSECTICIDAL TOXICITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE, CAMPHOR AND EUGENOL ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Liška

    2011-01-01

    Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. Ingeneral, fumi...

  15. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm) cultivated in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caren D. Frizzo; Santos, Ana C; Natalia Paroul; Luciana A. Serafini; Eduardo Dellacassa; Daniel Lorenzo; Patrick Moyna

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae), known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the...

  16. Ag (I)-based 2D metal frameworks with helical structures decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jun; Pan, Daocheng; Xu, Guohai

    2010-12-01

    Two two-dimension homochiral Ag (I) metal frameworks constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acid and hexamethylenetetramine have been synthesized at the room temperature. These two complexes with (6, 3) topology decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid possess the unique helical structures. The result of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirms that the bulk materials are homochiral and also indicates the handedness of the single crystals can be controlled by the chirality of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

  17. Dynamics of camphor sulphonic acid: a quasielastic neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bée, M.; Djurado, D.; Combet, J.; Gonzalez, M. A.

    2002-03-01

    Molecular motions in mono-hydrated racemic camphor sulphonic acid (±)-10-C 10H 16O 4S --H 3O + which is abbreviated as (CSA-H 2O) were investigated using incoherent neutron scattering techniques. Analysis of the intensity of the purely elastic scattering over a wide temperature range (4-340 K) carried out with a high-resolution backscattering spectrometer revealed the onset of molecular motions at ca. 100 K which could be observed on the 10 -10 s time-scale up to T=180 K. These motions were identified as 120° jumps of the methyl groups. Quasielastic measurements using both the backscattering and the time-of-flight techniques enabled to study this movement from 150 to 340 K. The corresponding characteristic time was found to follow an Arrhenius law with an activation energy ΔH=12.0±0.2 kJ mol -1. All the methyl groups appear as dynamically equivalent. That result is at contrast with earlier studies on conducting polymers where CSA was introduced as a counter-ion and for which the intermolecular effects were found to strongly influence the dynamics. Inspection of the low frequency part of the vibrational spectrum evidences deformations of the C-C-S angle and rotational oscillations of the hydration molecules.

  18. HPLC法测定复方樟脑软膏中樟脑的含量%Content determination of camphor in compound camphor ointment by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白林; 范金钊; 徐风华; 王欢欢

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC法测定复方樟脑软膏中樟脑的含量。方法:采用色谱柱Diamonsil C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-乙腈-水(15∶45∶40);检测波长:289 nm;柱温:35℃;流速:1.0 mL·min-1;进样量:10μL。结果:樟脑与其他杂质峰分离良好,樟脑在250.00~2000.00μg·mL-1范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r =1.0000),平均回收率为99.68%,RSD为1.21%(n=9)。结论:本方法简便易行、准确,可作为复方樟脑软膏中樟脑的质量控制方法。%Objective: To establish the HPLC method for determining the content of camphor in compound camphor ointment. Methods:The analysis was carried out on a column of Diamonsil C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) with the mobile phase consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-water (15∶45∶40), the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, the detection wavelength was 289 nm, column temperature was 35℃, the sample injection was 10μL. Results:The samples were separated well from other substances. The calibration curve of camphor was linear in the range of 250.00-2 000.00 μg·mL-1 (r = 1.000 0). The average recovery of camphor in the compound camphor ointment was 99.68%with RSD of 1.21%(n=9). Conclusion: This method is accurate and feasible, which can be applied as the quality control of camphor in the compound camphor ointment.

  19. Collective motion of symmetric camphor papers in an annular water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Heisler, Eric; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku; Nakata, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the collective motion of symmetric self-propelled objects that are driven by a difference in the surface tension. The objects move around an annular water channel spontaneously and interact through the camphor layer that develops on the water surface. We found that two collective motion modes, discrete and continuous density waves, are generated depending on the number of self-propelled objects. The two modes are characterized by examining the local and global dynamics, and the collective motion mechanism is discussed in relation to the distribution of camphor concentration in the annular water channel. We conclude that the difference between these two modes originates from that of the driving mechanism that pushes a camphor paper away from a cluster, through which mechanism density waves are generated and maintained.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of ethanol solution of chiral camphors and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Takayoshi [Department of Chemistry, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: kimura@chem.kindai.ac.jp; Iwama, Sekai; Kido, Satoko; Khan, Mohammad Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Enthalpies of mixing and the densities of ethanol solution of R- and S-enantiomers of camphor, 10-camphorsulfonamide, 10-camphorsulfonic acid, camphorquinone, and 10-camphorsulfonyl chloride have been measured for a wide range of mole fractions of heterochiral components at 298.15 K. Enthalpies of mixing were exothermic for all concentrations and heterochiral solutions were more stable than each of the homochiral solutions. Enthalpic stabilization of mixing of heterochiral solutions was increased with a decreasing concentration of all the camphor derivatives measured. The sequence of enthalpic stabilization on mixing was 10-camphorsulfonyl chloride, 10-camphorsulfonic acid, 10-camphorsulfonamide, camphor, and camphorquinone. Apparent molar volumes were determined and excess volumes of mixing of heterochiral solutions were small and negative. Enthalpic stabilizations were found to be dependent on dipole-dipole interaction between solutes and solvents.

  1. Spontaneous resolution of racemic camphorates in the formation of three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-07-20

    Reported here is a rare example of enantioselective processes between organic racemic ligands (DL-camphorates) with in situ formed chiral metal complexes. Such enantioselectivity leads to a double spontaneous resolution of two pairs of distinctly different racemates [the LambdaDelta-Zn(Htea) units and the DL-camphorate ligands] into two chiral three-dimensional frameworks containing only one enantiommeric form from each racemate. This work demonstrates unique enantioselectivity in the self-assembly of metal-organic frameworks containing multiple chiral features, which points to a new avenue for the preparation of chiral framework materials and for the resolution of racemates. PMID:19537824

  2. Theoretical study on the translation and rotation of an elliptic camphor particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Keita; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2014-04-01

    The spontaneous motion of an elliptic camphor particle floating on water is studied theoretically and experimentally. Considering a mathematical model for the motion of an elliptic camphor particle in a two-dimensional space, we first investigate the asymptotic solutions with numerical computation. We then introduce a small parameter ε into the definition of the particle shape, which represents an elliptic deformation from a circular shape and, by means of perturbation theory, we analytically calculate the travelling solution to within O(ε). The results show that short-axis-directed travelling solutions primarily bifurcate from stationary solutions and that long-axis-directed ones are secondary which means that elliptic camphor particles are easier to move in the short-axis direction. Furthermore, we show that rotating solutions bifurcate from stationary solutions and that the bifurcation point changes with O(ε2), which suggests that elliptic camphor disks easily exhibit translational motion, rather than rotational, within the small deformation. Finally, our theoretical suggestions are confirmed by an experiment.

  3. Induced solvent chirality: A VCD study of camphor in CDCl 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debie, Elke; Jaspers, Lize; Bultinck, Patrick; Herrebout, Wouter; Veken, Benjamin Van Der

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how the presence of a chiral compound in solution induces chirality in the surrounding solvent molecules. Using Vibrational Circular Dichroism on camphor dissolved in deuterated chloroform, it is found that the C-D stretch in the latter indeed becomes VCD active. The experimental results agree with ab initio computed spectra for 1:1 associations between the solvent and solute.

  4. An efficient method for following the enzymic reactions involved in camphor biosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora by use of GC-MS and regiospecifically deuteriated substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamitsu, Tohru; Suga, Takayuki (Hiroshima Univ., Kagamiyama (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry); Ohta, Shinji (Hiroshima Univ., Higashisenda-machi, Naka-ku (Japan). Instrument Center for Chemical Analysis)

    1992-05-01

    An efficient method has been developed to follow the enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of camphor in Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) by use of (5,5-{sup 2}H{sub 2})geranyl diphosphate as a substrate and GC-MS with selected ion monitoring. Borneol and camphor biosynthesized in the enzymic reactions gave a base peak due to the deuterium-containing ion in its EI mass spectrum. It is possible to detect 1.5 ng of the biosynthesized borneol and camphor per injection into GC-MS. This method enabled us to differentiate easily the biosynthesized camphor from the endogenous camphor and it is a facile and sensitive technique to determine the amount of the biosynthesized camphor. (author).

  5. 气相色谱法测定樟酚酊中樟脑含量%Determination of Camphor Content in Camphor Phenol Tincture by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a GC method for determining the camphor contents in Camphor Phenol Tincture. Methods The GC method was adopted with the TM-Wax capillary column (30 mm × 0.32 mm,0.25 μm) as the analytical column,the FID detector,the streaming samples,the split ratio of 40 : l,the inlet temperature of 230℃ ,the column temperature of 125℃ ,the detector temperature of 250℃ and N2 as the carrier gas. Salicylic acid methyl ester was used as the internal standard substance with internal standard method for quantitation. Results The sample concentration of camphor in the range of 0.364 3-2.549 9 g/L had good linear relation with the ratio of the peak areas of camphor and the internal substance, r = 0.999 9. The average recovery rate of the sample was 99.45% , RSD = 0. 79%. Conclusion This method is sensitive and simple with accurate detection Results and good reproducibility and can be used for the quality control of Camphor Phenol Tincturer.%目的 建立樟酚酊中樟脑的含量测定方法.方法 采用气相色谱(GC)法.以TM-Wax毛细管柱(30 mm×0.32 mm,0.25μm)为分析柱,FID检测器,分流进样,分流比40:1,进样口温度为230 ℃,柱温为125℃,检测器温度为250 ℃,N2为载气.用水杨酸甲酯作内标物,以内标法定量.结果 樟脑进样质量浓度在0.364 3~2.549 9 g/L范围内与樟脑和内标物的峰面积之比有良好线性关系.r=0.999 9,平均加样回收率为99.45%,RSD=0.79%.结论 该方法灵敏、简便、结果准确、重现性好,可用于樟酚酊的质量控制.

  6. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The chemical UV-filter 3-benzylidene camphor causes an oestrogenic effect in an in vivo fish assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbech, Henrik; Nørum, Ulrik; Korsgaard, Bodil; Poul, Bjerregaard

    2002-10-01

    Chemical UV-filters are used in sun protection products and various kinds of cosmetics. The lipophilic chemical UV-filter 3-benzylidene camphor was investigated for its capability to cause vitellogenin induction, possibly via oestrogen receptor binding, in a well-established in vivo fish assay (juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, vitellogenin ELISA). A clear relationship was demonstrated between the dose of injected 3-benzylidene camphor and the concentration of plasma vitellogenin with a 105-times induction from 68 mg 3-benzylidene camphor /kg/injection and above compared to the control vitellogenin level. The relationship between the injected dose of 3-benzylidene camphor and the percent of responding fish (vitellogenin) was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and effective dose-values (ED-values) were determined. ED10, ED50 and ED90 of 3-benzylidene camphor after 6 days (2 injections) were 6.4, 16 and 26 mg/kg/ injection, respectively. These ED-values place 3-benzylidene camphor among the more potent xenooestrogens discovered to date and necessitates investigations on the distribution, concentration, persistence and bioaccumulation of 3-benzylidene camphor and other UV-filters in nature.

  8. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Coffin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH.

  9. Camphor-mediated synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes and carbon dots for bioimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Goldie Oza; Ravichandran, M.; Victor-Ishrayelu Merupo; Sachin Shinde; Ashmi Mewada; Jose Tapia Ramirez; Velumani, S.; Madhuri Sharon; Maheshwar Sharon

    2016-01-01

    A green method for an efficient synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes (CNCs), Carbon dots (CDs) using Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is demonstrated. Here, we describe a competent molecular fusion and fission route for step-wise synthesis of CDs. Camphor on acidification and carbonization forms CNPs, which on alkaline hydrolysis form CNCs that are encapsulated by thick graphitic layers and on further reduction by sodium borohydrid...

  10. Three 2D Ag(I)-framework isomers with helical structures controlled by the chirality of camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng

    2011-02-28

    Three 2D Ag(I)-framework isomers were constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acids or racemic camphor-10-sulfonic acids, together with achiral 4-aminobenzoic acids. In complex 1, (+)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids bridge the single left-handed helices that are made up of Ag ions and 4-aminobenzoic acids, generating a homochiral 2D layer. In such a structure, the interweaving of triple left-handed homohelices was also found. It is worth noting that the helicity of complex 2 could be controlled by the handedness of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid. In complex 2, there are right-handed helical structures, including single right-handed and triple right-handed helical structures connected by (-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids. For a comparative study, (±)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids were utilized to synthesize complex 3, in which equal numbers of right-handed or left-handed double-helical chains are created. All the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination, powder X-ray diffraction, IR, TGA and element analysis. Circular dichroism spectra of complexes 1 and 2 were been studied to confirm the fact that enantiopure bridging ligands do not racemize. PMID:21264423

  11. Selection of the Rotation Direction for a Camphor Disk Resulting from Chiral Asymmetry of a Water Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroya; Koyano, Yuki; Yamanaka, Osamu; Sumino, Yutaka; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Skrobanska, Paulina; Gorecki, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Self-motion of a camphor disk rotating inside a water chamber composed of two half-disks was investigated. The half-disks were joined along their diameter segments, and the distance between their midpoints (ds) was considered as the control parameter. Various types of camphor disk motions were observed depending on ds. When ds = 0, the chamber had a circular shape, so it was symmetric. A camphor disk showed either a clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW) rotation with the direction determined by its initial state. The symmetry of the chamber was broken for ds > 0. For moderate distances between the midpoints, a unidirectional orbital motion of the disk was observed. The preferred rotation direction was determined by the shape of the chamber, and it did not depend on the initial rotation direction. For yet larger ds, the unidirectional circular motion was no longer observed and the trajectory became irregular. A mathematical model coupling the camphor disk motion with the dynamics of the developed camphor molecular layer on water was constructed, and the numerical results were compared with the experimental results. The selection of motion type can be explained by considering the influence of camphor concentration on the disk trajectory through the surface tension gradient. PMID:27500909

  12. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  13. Nitrogen doping in camphoric carbon films and its application to photovoltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mominuzzaman, Sharif M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Rusop, Mohamad; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)

    2006-11-23

    Carbon films have been deposited on quartz and single-crystal silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. The soot for the target was obtained from burning camphor, a natural source. The effect of nitrogen (N) incorporation in camphoric carbon film is investigated. Optical gap for the undoped film is about 0.95eV. The optical gap remains unchanged for low N content and decreases to about 0.7eV. With higher N content the optical gap increases. The resistivity of the carbon film is increased with N content initially and decreases with higher N content till the film is deposited at 30mTorr. The results indicate successful doping for the film deposited at low nitrogen content. The J-V characteristics of N-incorporated carbon/silicon photovoltaic cell under illumination are observed to improve upon N-incorporation in carbon layer. (author)

  14. Quantitative determination of the solidus line in the dilute limit of succinonitrile-camphor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, F. L.; Fabietti, L. M.; Bergeon, N.; Strutzenberg, L. L.; Karma, A.; Billia, B.; Trivedi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Different phase diagram measurements for succinonitrile-camphor alloys to date have yielded different values of the solute partition coefficient and the freezing range of the alloy. These parameters are critical to model solidification microstructure evolution. New measurements are made to precisely characterize the dilute limit of the succinonitrile-camphor phase diagram using thin-sample directional solidification experiments where convection is negligible, so that solute transport in the melt is purely diffusive, and the temperature gradient is constant in time. These results are confirmed through complementary measurements by differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal annealing. Possible measurement uncertainties in previously measured solidus lines are discussed. Experimental results were further confirmed using a boundary layer model of transient planar interface dynamics.

  15. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  16. Supramolecular arrangement in mono and bi-camphor acyl hydrazones: A structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Adelino M.; Carvalho, M. Fernanda N. N.; Ferreira, Ana S. D.

    2016-03-01

    New acyl hydrazones were synthesized by condensation with camphorquinone aiming at extending the range of applications of the biologically active camphor compounds and structural studies by XRD, 1H-NMR and IR were used in conjunction with advanced computational methodologies to understand the new structural chemistry enabled by the conjugation of the camphor ketone group to the hydrazone Ndbnd C double bond. In particular, were analysed supramolecular arrangements either by hydrogen bonding to water molecules or electrostatic interactions with non protic solvents. The relative stability of all conformers (E/Z) prompted by the hydrazone bond was addressed by state of the art methods such as CR-CCSD(T) and their inter-conversion in both S0 and S1 by CR-EOM-CCSD(T).

  17. Three-dimensional homochiral transition-metal camphorate architectures directed by a flexible auxiliary ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chew, Emily; Chen, Shumei; Pham, Jimmy T H; Bu, Xianhui

    2008-05-01

    Reported here are four homochiral and one racemic chiral compounds assembled from transition metals (Fe2+, Co2+, and Ni2+), rigid enantiopure camphoric acid, and flexible 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine; they feature an unusual homochiral three-dimensional supramolecular assembly (resulting from catenation of 4-connected bilayers) as well as a homochiral 3-fold interpenetrating diamond net and a noninterpenetrating primitive cubic net. PMID:18393493

  18. Surface Study of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Thermal-CVD of Camphor Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Surface morphology study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature, which indirectly maybe cost effective. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs. The camphoric hydrocarbons not only found acts as the precursors but also enhances the production rate and the quality of CNTs.

  19. Development and validation of a preference based measure derived from the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for use in cost utility analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Meads David M; Ratcliffe Julie; McKenna Stephen P; Brazier John E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary Hypertension is a severe and incurable disease with poor prognosis. A suite of new disease-specific measures – the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) – was recently developed for use in this condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preference based measure from the CAMPHOR that could be used in cost-utility analyses. Methods Items were selected that covered major issues covered by the CAMPHOR QoL scale (activities,...

  20. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims.

  1. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Friji, Meethale Thiruvoth; Kumar, S Dinesh; Asokan, Arjun; Pandey, Sandhya

    2014-05-01

    Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims.

  2. Solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectrum of camphor using continuum, discrete or explicit approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Jacob; Mennucci, Benedetta; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2010-01-01

    We address the effect of solvation on the lowest electronic excitation energy of camphor. The solvents considered represent a large variation in-solvent polarity. We consider three conceptually different ways of accounting for the solvent using either an implicit, a discrete or an explicit solvation model. The solvatochromic shifts in polar solvents are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for all three solvent models. However, both the implicit and discrete solvation models are less successful in predicting solvatochromic shifts for solvents of low polarity. The results presented suggest the importance of using explicit solvent molecules in the case of nonpolar solvents.

  3. Synthesis of Rare Metal Yttrium of Camphor Sulfonic Acid%樟脑磺酸钇的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红; 柯春兰

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied the preparation of Yttrium of L-camphor sulfonic acid and Yttrium of D-cam-phor sulfonic acid. In this experiment,racemic camphor was uesd as the raw material,and through the sulfonation reaction,split,purification and separate,chiral camphor sulfonic acid was abtained,and it can react with Y2 O3 to get yttrium of chiral Camphor sulfonic acid. The optimal synthesis conditions were:Camphor sulfonic acid concentration was 12% -15%,reaction temperature was 90 ℃,reaction time was 0. 5-1 h,Y2 O3 excessed 50%. Tested by in-frared spectroscopy( IR)and XRD,it can be found that Yttrium of Rare Metal Camphor Sulfonic Acid are consist-ent with the standard compounds.%研究了左旋樟脑磺酸钇和右旋樟脑磺酸钇的制备。实验以合成樟脑粉为原料,经过磺化反应、拆分、纯化分离等步骤得到手性樟脑磺酸,稀土金属氧化钇与手性樟脑磺酸反应合成了稀土金属樟脑磺酸钇,合成条件:樟脑磺酸质量浓度12%~15%,反应温度90℃,反应时间0.5~1 h,氧化钇过量50%。得到的产品稀土金属樟脑磺酸钇经红外光谱( IR)、XRD分析,证明与目标产物一致。

  4. Synthesis, Structure and Characterization of Manganese(Ⅱ) Coordination Polymer with Camphoric Acid and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Ying; SHI Zhan; YANG Ming; LI Guang-hua; FENG Shou-hua

    2005-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer, Mn(H2O)(CA)(Phen)·H2O(CA=camphoric acid, Phen=1,10-phenanthroline), was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Six-coordinated Mn(Ⅱ) atoms are linked with carboxyl groups from camphoric acid ligands to form infinite one-dimensional chains. These chains are packed by means of hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking, forming a three-dimensional structure. IR, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic susceptibility data for Mn(H2O)(CA)(Phen)·H2O are given.

  5. Studies on enhancement of surface durability for steel surface by camphor oil modified epoxy polyamide coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu 630 006 (India)]. E-mail: selvaraj_58@yahoo.co.in; Maruthan, K. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu 630 006 (India); Venkatachari, G. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu 630 006 (India)

    2006-12-15

    Epoxy polyamide coatings are generally used to protect mild steel structures from corrosive atmosphere due to their better adhesion over under prepared surface and effective barrier protection. But the coating has the ability to disintegrate due to UV radiation and high humidity condition. To improve the weatherability and chemical resistance performance of epoxy polyamide, there is a need to modify it with suitable cross linking agent. In this work, it has been found that camphor oil at 5 wt.% as the optimum level to protect the mild steel structures from corrosive electrolyte. Further the impedance study has shown that the resistance exerted by the Camphor oil incorporated coating in 0.5 M NaCl solution after 60 days is 3 x 10{sup 7} {omega} cm{sup 2} where as the resistance of the coating without this modifier is 3 x 10{sup 6} {omega} cm{sup 2}. The FTIR spectral study indicates that the formation of ether linkages in the dried film and also the other functional groups present in the epoxy polyamide polymer is completely disappeared in the modified coating. Similarly the TG and DTA analysis showed that considerable shift in the degradation temperature has been noticed for the polymer coating with modifier.

  6. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  7. Determination of Dyclonine Hydrochloride by a HPLC Method and Camphor and Menthol by a GC Method in Compound Lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with UV detector for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride and a gas chromatography (GC method with flame ionization detector (FID for the determination of camphor and menthol in lotion were developed. The developed HPLC method involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 reversed-phase column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 200 mm and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : water : triethylamine in a ratio of 45 : 55 : 1.0; pH was adjusted to 3.5 with glacial acetic acid. The developed GC method for determination of camphor and menthol involved using an Agilent 19091J-413 capillary chromatographic column (30 m × 320 μm × 0.25 μm. The two methods were validated according to official compendia guidelines. The calibration of dyclonine hydrochloride for HPLC method was linear over the range of 20–200 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 6.0 min for dyclonine hydrochloride. The calibration of camphor and menthol of GC method was linear over the range of 10–2000 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 2.9 min for camphor and 3.05 min for menthol. The proposed HPLC and GC methods were proved to be suitable for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride, camphor, and menthol in lotion.

  8. Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J T; Tang, L; Li, W S; Wang, K; Cheng, D M; Zhang, Z X

    2015-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren causes severe damage to humans and animals as well as the environment. Chemical treatment is the main strategy of RIFA management, which also is potentially toxic to the environment. Plant essential oils (EOs) are considered as potential substance that can be used to control insects. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of camphor EO and investigate the insecticidal activity on RIFAs. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results revealed that 36.61% camphor and 30.05% cineole were the major components. The insecticidal activity of camphor EO was assessed against RIFA workers by conducting two different bioassays: fumigant toxicity and repellence. Fumigant toxicity assay results showed that the lethal dose (LC50) of the EO at 24 h was 1.67 and 4.28 μg/ml for minor and major workers, respectively; knockdown time (KT50) was 10.82 and 14.73 h. At 2.55 μg/ml, the highest average mortality of the ants was 84.89% after 72 h. Camphor EO exhibited fumigant toxicity against minor and major workers as indicated by the effects on attacking, feeding, and climbing behaviors. This EO was also strongly repellent to the two size workers of the colony as observed in their behavior against Tenebrio molitor treated with 5 µl EO. The fumigant toxicity and repellence of camphor EO against RIFA indicated that this substance could be a potential alternative for the development of eco-friendly products used to control pests. PMID:26392574

  9. 香樟在徐州地区的引种及前景%Prospect of Growing Camphor Tree in Xuzhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何树川

    2009-01-01

    Camphor tree has been widely used due to its unique characteritics of large and tall trunk, dense branches and leaves, large and shady canopy,magnificent tree form, long life cycle and evergreen. With global warming,scientific and technological progress and the improvement of plant cultivation techniques, the scope of planting Camphor tree is expanded. In this paper,the conditions and prospect of growing Camphor tree in Xuzhou were illustrated from aspects of biological characteristics,feasibility of growing the trees in Xuzhou, critical techniques of planting and tending..

  10. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  11. On the question of phase equilibria in the succinonitrile-(D)camphor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2013-07-01

    Alloys from the succinonitrile-(D)camphor (SCN-DC) system are widely used as model alloys for the in situ investigation of solidification using light optical microscopy, but literature on the binary phase diagram is contradictory with respect to the solubility limit of DC in (SCN). Phase equilibria of the system were therefore revisited experimentally and critically assessed in the present work. The results prove that the maximum solubility of DC in the succinonitrile solid solution (SCN) is far less 1 wt% and the volume fraction of the (DC) phase in the eutectic solid is 23.3%. On this basis and on recently reported experimental data the CALPHAD description of the SCN-DC system was re-optimized.

  12. Opto-electrical properties of amorphous carbon thin film deposited from natural precursor camphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Debabrata [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)]. E-mail: dpradhan@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca; Sharon, Maheshwar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-06-30

    A simple thermal chemical vapor deposition technique is employed for the pyrolysis of a natural precursor 'camphor' and deposition of carbon films on alumina substrate at higher temperatures (600-900 deg. C). X-ray diffraction measurement reveals the amorphous structure of these films. The carbon films properties are found to significantly vary with the deposition temperatures. At higher deposition temperature, films have shown predominately sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon and therefore, higher conductivity and lower optical band gap (Tauc gap). These amorphous carbon (a-C) films are also characterized with Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, electrical and optical properties are measured. The thermoelectric measurement shows these as-grown a-C films are p-type in nature.

  13. Strecker degradation of amino acids promoted by a camphor-derived sulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Fernanda N N; Ferreira, M João; Knittel, Ana S O; Oliveira, Maria da Conceição; Costa Pessoa, João; Herrmann, Rudolf; Wagner, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    A camphor-derived sulfonimine with a conjugated carbonyl group, oxoimine 1 (O2SNC10H13O), reacts with amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine) to form a compound O2SNC10H13NC10H14NSO2 (2) which was characterized by spectroscopic means (MS and NMR) and supported by DFT calculations. The product, a single diastereoisomer, contains two oxoimine units connected by a -N= bridge, and thus has a structural analogy to the colored product Ruhemann´s purple obtained by the ninhydrin reaction with amino acids. A plausible reaction mechanism that involves zwitterions, a Strecker degradation of an intermediate imine and water-catalyzed tautomerizations was developed by means of DFT calculations on potential transition states. PMID:27340465

  14. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  15. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the β-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-[G-3H]camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess β-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2[U-14C]campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C14 to C20) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots

  16. Molecular dynamics in conducting polyaniline protonated by camphor sulfonic acid as seen by quasielastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering techniques, the molecular motions were investigated in fully hydrogenated and partially deuterated polyaniline protonated by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) conducting samples. The obtained results show that on the 10-9-10-12 s time scale the polymer chains do not exhibit any diffusive motions: the whole observed quasielastic scattering has accordingly to be attributed to motions of CSA ions. From our measurements two molecular movements could be differentiated. A rapid one has been attributed to the three-site rotation of methyl groups present on camphor moieties of CSA and a slower one that has been modeled as a rigid body motion of the whole CSA molecule. Due to the disordered character of the system, the methyl rotors appeared to be dynamically nonequivalent. Their dynamics was then described in terms of a log gaussian distribution of correlation times. This description allowed a good fitting of experimental data and gave an activation energy of 12.5 kJ mol-1. However, two different regimes in temperature could be distinguished. At high temperatures (T>280 K) the width of the distribution is nearly zero and thus, the methyl rotors are dynamically equivalent while it turned larger and larger when temperature is decreased below 250 K revealing that the rotors are more and more sensitive to their local environment. In the conducting samples the slowest motion clearly exists in the 280-330 K temperature range and is blocked at temperatures inferior to 250 K. This transition occurs in the temperature range in which the metal-insulator transition also happens

  17. Exact solutions for chemical concentration waves of self-propelling camphor particles racing on a ring: A novel potential dynamics perspective

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Frank

    2015-01-01

    A potential dynamics approach is developed to determine the periodic standing and traveling wave patterns associated with self-propelling camphor objects floating on ring-shaped water channels. Exact solutions of the wave patterns are derived. The bifurcation diagram describing the transition between the immobile and self-propelling modes of camphor objects is derived semi-analytically. The bifurcation is of a pitchfork type which is consistent with earlier theoretical work in which natural b...

  18. Exact solutions for chemical concentration waves of self-propelling camphor particles racing on a ring: A novel potential dynamics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, T D

    2015-01-01

    A potential dynamics approach is developed to determine the periodic standing and traveling wave patterns associated with self-propelling camphor objects floating on ring-shaped water channels. Exact solutions of the wave patterns are derived. The bifurcation diagram describing the transition between the immobile and self-propelling modes of camphor objects is derived semi-analytically. The bifurcation is of a pitchfork type which is consistent with earlier theoretical work in which natural boundary conditions have been considered.

  19. Camphor-mediated synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes and carbon dots for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Goldie; Ravichandran, M; Merupo, Victor-Ishrayelu; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Ramirez, Jose Tapia; Velumani, S; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2016-01-01

    A green method for an efficient synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes (CNCs), Carbon dots (CDs) using Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is demonstrated. Here, we describe a competent molecular fusion and fission route for step-wise synthesis of CDs. Camphor on acidification and carbonization forms CNPs, which on alkaline hydrolysis form CNCs that are encapsulated by thick graphitic layers and on further reduction by sodium borohydride yielded CDs. Though excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence is observed in all the three carbon nanostructures, CDs possess enhanced photoluminescent properties due to more defective carbonaceous structures. The surface hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups make them water soluble in nature. They possess excellent photostability, higher quantum yield, increased absorption, decreased cytotoxicity and hence can be utilized as a proficient bio imaging agent. PMID:26905737

  20. Conditioned enhancement of natural killer cell activity, but not interferon, with camphor or saccharin-LiCl conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, V K; Hiramoto, N S; Solvason, H B; Tyring, S K; Spector, N H; Hiramoto, R N

    1987-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning of the natural killer (NK) cell response has been demonstrated by pairing camphor with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in nine association trials. The NK cell response could be conditioned also by using combined saccharin and lithium chloride (LiCl) as the conditioned stimulus. The camphor and saccharin-LiCl paradigms were tested to determine if the conditioned NK cell activity was the result of conditioning of the interferon response. Interferon levels were measured at 6 hr and NK cell activity at 24 hr after application of the conditioned stimulus. The interferon levels measured in separate experiments were not uniformly elevated in conditioned animals compared with controls.

  1. Camphor-mediated synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes and carbon dots for bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Goldie; Ravichandran, M.; Merupo, Victor-Ishrayelu; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Ramirez, Jose Tapia; Velumani, S.; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2016-02-01

    A green method for an efficient synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes (CNCs), Carbon dots (CDs) using Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is demonstrated. Here, we describe a competent molecular fusion and fission route for step-wise synthesis of CDs. Camphor on acidification and carbonization forms CNPs, which on alkaline hydrolysis form CNCs that are encapsulated by thick graphitic layers and on further reduction by sodium borohydride yielded CDs. Though excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence is observed in all the three carbon nanostructures, CDs possess enhanced photoluminescent properties due to more defective carbonaceous structures. The surface hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups make them water soluble in nature. They possess excellent photostability, higher quantum yield, increased absorption, decreased cytotoxicity and hence can be utilized as a proficient bio imaging agent.

  2. Enantioselective separation of the sunscreen agent 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor by electrokinetic chromatography: Quantitative analysis in cosmetic formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gómara, Belén; García Ruiz, Carmen; Marina Alegre, María Luisa

    2005-01-01

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)-camphor (MBC) is a chiral sunscreen agent used in cosmetic products. In this work, the enantioseparation of MBC has been performed by EKC and applied to the analysis of the MBC enantiomers in cosmetic creams. Different experimental conditions (type and concentration of the chiral selector, temperature, and sample solvent) have been optimized. Due to the neutral nature of this compound, anionic CD derivatives were investigated as chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-β-CD...

  3. Mode-selection and mode-switching of an autonomous motor composed of a camphor rotor and a mobile loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Tenno, Ryoichi; Ikura, Yumihiko S.

    2011-09-01

    Mode-selection and mode-switching of self-motion were investigated for a loop driven by the movement of a camphor rotor on water, as a simple autonomous system. Three modes of self-motion (caterpillar motion, translation, and alternating mode-switching between them) were selectively generated depending on the state of a knot of the loop. The experimental results were numerically reproduced and categorized by using a differential equation of rotation with a fold bifurcation.

  4. Bifurcation phenomena of two self-propelled camphor disks on an annular field depending on system length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kei; Wakai, Ken; Ueda, Tomoaki; Yoshii, Miyu; Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Nishimori, Hiraku; Nakata, Satoshi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    Mode selection and bifurcation of a synchronized motion involving two symmetric self-propelled objects in a periodic one-dimensional domain were investigated numerically and experimentally by using camphor disks placed on an annular water channel. Newton's equation of motion for each camphor disk, whose driving force was the difference in surface tension, and a reaction-diffusion equation for camphor molecules on water were used in the numerical calculations. Among various dynamical behaviors found numerically, four kinds of synchronized motions (reversal oscillation, stop-and-move rotation, equally spaced rotation, and clustered rotation) were also observed in experiments by changing the diameter of the water channel. The mode bifurcation of these motions, including their coexistence, were clarified numerically and analytically in terms of the number density of the disk. These results suggest that the present mathematical model and the analysis of the equations can be worthwhile in understanding the characteristic features of motion, e.g., synchronization, collective motion, and their mode bifurcation.

  5. HPLC法同时测定复方樟脑搽剂中苯酚和樟脑含量%Simultaneous determination of phenol and camphor in compound camphor liniment by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆松伟; 宋洪杰; 陈方剑

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for simultaneous determination of phenol and camphor in compound camphor liniment by HPLC. Methods The separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 analytical column(150 mm × 4. 6 mm, S μm)with the mobile phase consisting of methanol-water(55 : 45 ). The detection wavelength was 287 nm. The flow rate was 0. 8 ml/min. Results The standard curves were linear in the range of 103. 4 - 827. 2 μg/ml for phenol (r=0.999 1, ra=5) and 205.1 ~ 1 640. 8μg/ml(r = 0.9995, n = 5 ) for camphor. The average recoveries of phenol and camphor were 99. 61% (RSD = 1. 19% , n=9) and 99. 83% (RSD = 1. 18% ,n=9). Conclusion The method was simple and accurate with a good reproducibility, and could be used as a quality control method for compound camphor liniment.%目的 建立同时测定复方樟脑搽剂中苯酚和樟脑含量的HPLC法.方法 色谱柱为Kromasil-C18(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相为甲醇-水(55:45);检测波长287 nm;流速0.8 ml/min.结果 苯酚和樟脑的线性范围分别在103.4~827.2μg/ml(r =0.999 1,n=5)、205.1~1 640.8μg/ml(r=0.999 5,n=5),平均回收率分别为99.61%( RSD=1.20%,n=9)、99.83%(RSD=1.18%,n=9).结论 该方法简便、准确,重复性好,适用于复方樟脑搽剂的质量控制.

  6. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger Wolf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%. The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol, which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  7. Nitrogen isotope variations in camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaves of different ages in upper and lower canopies as an indicator of atmospheric nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Huayun, E-mail: xiaohuayun@vip.skleg.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wu Lianghong; Zhu Renguo; Wang Yanli; Liu Congqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 46, Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Nitrogen isotopic composition of new, middle-aged and old camphor leaves in upper and lower canopies has been determined in a living area, near a motorway and near an industrial area (Jiangan Chemical Fertilizer Plant). We found that at sites near roads, more positive {delta}{sup 15}N values were observed in the camphor leaves, especially in old leaves of upper canopies, and {Delta}{delta}{sup 15}N = {delta}{sup 15}N{sub upper} - {delta}{sup 15}N{sub lower} > 0, while those near the industrial area had more negative {delta}{sup 15}N values and {Delta}{delta}{sup 15}N < 0. These could be explained by two isotopically different atmospheric N sources: greater uptake from isotopically heavy pools of atmospheric NO{sub x} by old leaves in upper canopies at sites adjacent to roads, and greater uptake of {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub y} in atmospheric deposition by leaves at sites near the industrial area. This study presents novel evidence that {sup 15}N natural abundance of camphor leaves can be used as a robust indicator of atmospheric N sources. - Research highlights: Camphor leaves showed high {delta}{sup 15}N values near roads and low values near the industrial area. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of camphor leaves near roads increased with time of exposure. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of camphor leaves near the industrial area decreased with time of exposure. More positive foliage {delta}{sup 15}N values were found in the upper canopies near roads. Near the industrial area, the upper canopies showed more negative foliage {delta}{sup 15}N values. - Nitrogen isotope in camphor leaves indicating atmospheric nitrogen sources.

  8. Calcium hydroxide mixed with camphoric p-monochlorophenol or chlorhexidine in delayed tooth replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Carolina Lunardelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Brandini, Daniela Atili; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame; Saito, Célia Tomiko Hamada Matida

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the repair process after delayed replantation of rat teeth, using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) mixed with camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP), chlorhexidine 2% (CHX), or saline as temporary root canal dressing to prevent and/or control inflammatory radicular resorption. Thirty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinos) had their right upper incisor extracted, which was bench-dried for 60 minutes. The dental papilla, the enamel organ, the dental pulp, and the periodontal ligament were removed. The teeth were immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solution for 10 minutes. The root canals were dried with absorbent paper cones and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals according to root canal dressing used: group 1: Ca(OH)2 + saline, group 2: Ca(OH)2 + CMCP, and group 3: Ca(OH)2 + CHX 2%. Before replanting, the teeth sockets were irrigated with saline. Histological analysis revealed the presence of inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, and ankylosis in all 3 groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between group 3 and the other groups. The use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with CMCP or CHX did not show an advantage over the use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with saline in preventing and/or controlling inflammatory resorption in delayed replantation of rat teeth. PMID:22067873

  9. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  10. Wetting Camphor: Multi-Isotopic Substitution Identifies the Complementary Roles of Hydrogen Bonding and Dispersive Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Krin, Anna; Steber, Amanda L; López, Juan C; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Using broadband rotational spectroscopy, we report here on the delicate interplay between hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces when an unprecedentedly large organic molecule (camphor, C10H16O) is microsolvated with up to three molecules of water. Unambiguous assignment was achieved by performing multi H2(18)O isotopic substitution of clustered water molecules. The observation of all possible mono- and multi-H2(18)O insertions in the cluster structure yielded accurate structural information that is not otherwise achievable with single-substitution experiments. The observed clusters exhibit water chains starting with a strong hydrogen bond to the C═O group and terminated by a mainly van der Waals (dispersive) contact to one of the available sites at the monomer moiety. The effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity is noticeable, and the O···O distances between the clustered water subunits decrease with the number of attached water molecules. The results reported here will further contribute to reveal the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in systems of increasing size. PMID:26689110

  11. 不同施肥对香樟幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Different Fertilization Treatments on Growth of Camphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟毅

    2016-01-01

    The effect of urea as nitrogen source,calcium superphosphate for phosphorus source fertilization on growth condition of camphor forest were studied. The results showed that when the urea content was 2.57g in a ba⁃sin,camphor diameter increased by content of calcium superphosphate;when urea content was 4.09g in a basin, camphor diameter decreased by content of calcium superphosphate.When the content of calcium superphosphate was 2.19g in a basin,camphor diameter decreased by content of urea. The test results will provide scientific basis for the intensive management of camphor.%研究以尿素为氮源、过磷酸钙为磷源的施肥对香樟生长状况的影响。结果显示,尿素含量为2.57g/盆,香樟地径随过磷酸钙含量增加而增加;所施尿素含量为4.09g/盆,香樟地径随过磷酸钙含量增加而减小;所施过磷酸钙含量为2.19g/盆,香樟地径随尿素含量增加而减小。试验结果将为香樟的集约经营提供科学依据。

  12. 樟树籽中生物活性物质的研究进展%An Advanced Research on the Bioactive Component in Camphor Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫林

    2012-01-01

    樟树在南方种植广泛,会产生大量的樟树籽,因此企待樟树籽的应用开发应该深入。目前的研究主要集中在樟树籽油、樟树籽壳色素的提取方法和应用、主要成分的分析和结构研究。作为药物或者食品添加物,樟树籽蛋白都具有一定的研究意义。%The camphor seed should be exploited with more attention owing to the wide coverage of camphor tree and the seed production. The present researches of camphor seed are mainly focused on extraction methods, main components or construct of the oil and the pigment in camphor seed, as well as some other bioactive component. It was emphasized on the importance of camphor seed protein as food additive or drug.

  13. Stereoisomer composition of the chiral UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Buerge, Ignaz J

    2005-05-01

    4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is an important organic UV filter used in many personal care products such as sunscreens and cosmetics. After use, 4-MBC may enter the aquatic environment due to its release from skin during recreational activities (swimming, bathing) and from personal hygiene measures (washing, laundering of cloths) via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, 4-MBC has been detected in wastewater, in surface waters, and even in fish. 4-MBC can exist as distinct cis-(Z)- and trans-(E)-isomers, both of which are chiral. Despite the fact that stereoisomers often show a different biological behavior, the stereochemistry of 4-MBC has hardly ever been considered in environmental or biological studies. In this study, enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the stereoisomer composition of 4-MBC. For stereoisomer assignment, the pure enantiomers of (E)-4-MBC were synthesized from (+)- and (-)-camphor. The photochemical isomerization (sunlight) of these (E)-isomers to the corresponding (Z)-isomers eventually allowed the configurational assignment of all four stereoisomers of 4-MBC. In a technical material and in a major brand sun lotion, 4-MBC was shown to consist entirely (>99%) of (E)-isomers and to be racemic (R/S, 1.00 +/- 0.02). Wastewater showed the presence of both (E)- and (Z)-4-MBC with a clear excess of (E)-isomers (E > Z). Untreated wastewater showed a nearly racemic composition (R/S= 0.95-1.09), suggesting that most if not all commercial 4-MBC is racemic. Treated wastewater indicated some excess of (R)- or (S)-stereoisomers (R/S, 0.89-1.17), likely as a result of some enantioselective (bio)degradation in WWTPs. Residues of 4-MBC in lakes and in a river with inputs from WWTPs and/or recreational activities consisted mainly of (E)-4-MBC and, with exception of one lake (Greifensee), showed a small enantiomer excess (R/S, 1.04-1.16). In Greifensee, 4-MBC showed a higher enantiomer excess (R/S, 1

  14. Crystal structure of tetramethyltetrathiafulvalenium (1S-camphor-10-sulfonate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Sommer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-oxidation of tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene (TMTTF in the presence of the chiral anion (1S-camphor-10-sulfonate (S-camphSO3− in tetrahydrofuran/water medium afforded a 1/1 salt formulated as TMTTF·S-camphSO3·2H2O or 2-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dithiole radical ion (1+ [(1S-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methanesulfonate dihydrate, C10H12S4+·C10H15O4S−·2H2O. In this salt, two independent TMTTF units are present but, in both cases, the observed bond lengths and especially the central C=C distance [1.392 (6 and 1.378 (6 Å] are in agreement with a complete oxidation of TMTTF which is thus present as TMTTF.+ radical cations. These cations form one-dimensional stacks in which they are associated two by two, forming dimers with short [3.472 (1 to 3.554 (2 Å] S...S contacts. The two S-camphSO3 anions present also form stacks and are connected with each other via the water molecules with many O—H...O hydrogen bonds ranging from 1.86 (3 to 2.15 (4 Å; the O—H...O hydrogen-bonding network can be described as being constituted of C22(6 chains bearing R33(11 lateral rings. On the other hand, the columns of cations and anions are connected through C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a system expanding in three directions; finally, the result is a three-dimensional network of O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  15. The effect of carbon precursors (methane, benzene and camphor) on the quality of carbon nanotubes synthesised by the chemical vapour decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Wen; Aziz, Azizan; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Tye, Ching-Thian

    2011-06-01

    The effect of carbon precursors on carbon nanotube (CNT) formation was studied. The catalyst used was Fe 3O 4/MgO without prior reduction by hydrogen. Methane, benzene and camphor were used to produce CNTs at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The results show that the types of carbon precursors greatly affect the quality of CNTs produced. The CNTs obtained from the decomposition of methane had the lowest intensity of D band to G band ratio ( ID/ IG) compared to the ID/ IG ratios of CNTs produced using benzene and camphor at 900 and 1000 °C, respectively. This low ID/ IG ratio is due to the difference in the molecule structures between methane, benzene and camphor, which resulted in different CNT growth mechanism. Raman analysis showed that single-walled carbon nanotubes of high quality were formed at 900 °C using methane as carbon precursor.

  16. Camphor: a good model for illustrating NMR techniques; Canfora: um bom modelo para ilustrar tecnicas de RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Leal, Katia Zaccur [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: kzl@rmn.uff.br; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Processos Organicos; Azeredo, Rodrigo Bagueira de V. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Kleinpeter, Erich [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Chemisches Institut

    2007-07-01

    The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to establish the three-dimensional structures of molecules is an important component of modern Chemistry courses. The combination of techniques that can be used for this purpose is conveniently illustrated by their application to the camphor molecule. This paper presents applications of several techniques used in NMR spectral interpretation in an increasing order of complexity. The result of individual experiments is illustrated in order to familiarize the user with the way connectivity through bonds and through space is established from 1D/2D-NMR spectra and molecular stereochemistry is determined from different NMR experiments. (author)

  17. Identification and Structures of Two Main Unknown Components in the By-product from the Hydration Synthesis of Camphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梭; 李兆基; 康遥; 覃业燕; 唐艳红; 姚元根; 钟庆有; 林镜福; 林晓晴; 王镇中

    2000-01-01

    Two main unknown components in the by-product of camphor hydration synthesis were separated and identified by fine fractional distillation and spectroscopic analyses. The components with different ratios of unknown components A and B were collected by the further distillation. The combined spectral results of GC, MS,GC-MS and 13C NMR of the collected samples revealed that A is exo-2, 2, 3-trimethylbicyclo[2, 2, 1 ]heptane, and B is endo-2, 2, 3-trimethylbicyclo[2, 2, 1 ]heptane.

  18. Few layers isolated graphene domains grown on copper foils by microwave surface wave plasma CVD using camphor as a precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Aryal, Hare; Adhikari, Sudip; Uchida, Hideo; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Few layers isolated graphene domains were grown by microwave surface wave plasma CVD technique using camphor at low temperature. Graphene nucleation centers were suppressed on pre-annealed copper foils by supplying low dissociation energy. Scanning electron microscopy study of time dependent growth reveals that graphene nucleation centers were preciously suppressed, which indicates the possibility of controlled growth of large area single crystal graphene domains by plasma processing. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the graphene domains are few layered which consist of relatively low defects.

  19. 某樟脑车间的典型工艺设计%Process for the typical design of a camphor workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小琼

    2015-01-01

    主要介绍和阐述某樟脑车间的典型工艺设计,该工艺流程采用分馏、脱水脱氢的方法,主要包括了异构反应以及酯化反应,产品为合成樟脑。%This paper introduces the typical process design of a camphor workshop. Fractionation and dehydration technology are applied in the process,that includes heterogeneous and esterification reaction. The product is synthetic camphor.

  20. Exact solutions for chemical concentration waves of self-propelling camphor particles racing on a ring: A novel potential dynamics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Frank

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A potential dynamics approach is developed to determine the periodic standing and traveling wave patterns associated with self-propelling camphor objects floating on ring-shaped water channels. Exact solutions of the wave patterns are derived. The bifurcation diagram describing the transition between the immobile and self-propelling modes of camphor objects is derived semi-analytically. The bifurcation is of a pitchfork type which is consistent with earlier theoretical work in which natural boundary conditions have been considered.

  1. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of neopentylglycol solid solution in equilibrium with neopentylglycol-(D) camphor eutectic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ü.; Aksöz, S.; Maraşlı, N.

    2012-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid neopentylglycol (NPG) solution (NPG-3 mol% D-camphor) in equilibrium with the NPG-DC eutectic liquid (NPG-36.1 mol% D-camphor) have been directly observed using a horizontal linear temperature gradient apparatus. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ( Г), solid-liquid interfacial energy ( σSL) of NPG solid solution have been determined to be (7.5±0.7)×10 -8 K m and (8.1±1.2)×10 -3 J m -2, respectively. The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient versus TmΩ1/3, where Ω is the volume per atom was also plotted by linear regression for some organic transparent materials and the average value of coefficient ( τ) for nonmetallic materials was obtained to be 0.32 from graph of the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient versus TmΩ1/3. The grain boundary energy of solid NPG solution phase has been determined to be (14.6±2.3)×10 -3 J m -2 from the observed grain boundary groove shapes. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated eutectic liquid to thermal conductivity of solid NPG solution was also measured to be 0.80.

  2. Crystal structure of tetra-methyl-tetra-thia-fulvalenium (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Mathieu; Allain, Magali; Mézière, Cécile; Pop, Flavia; Giffard, Michel

    2015-07-01

    Electro-oxidation of tetra-methyl-tetra-thia-fulvalene (TMTTF) in the presence of the chiral anion (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate (S-camphSO3 (-)) in tetra-hydro-furan/water medium afforded a 1/1 salt formulated as TMTTF·S-camphSO3·2H2O or 2-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di-thiole radical ion (1+) [(1S)-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methane-sulfonate dihydrate, C10H12S4 (+)·C10H15O4S(-)·2H2O. In this salt, two independent TMTTF units are present but, in both cases, the observed bond lengths and especially the central C=C distance [1.392 (6) and 1.378 (6) Å] are in agreement with a complete oxidation of TMTTF which is thus present as TMTTF (.) (+) radical cations. These cations form one-dimensional stacks in which they are associated two by two, forming dimers with short [3.472 (1) to 3.554 (2) Å] S⋯S contacts. The two S-camphSO3 anions present also form stacks and are connected with each other via the water mol-ecules with many O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds ranging from 1.86 (3) to 2.15 (4) Å; the O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network can be described as being constituted of C 2 (2)(6) chains bearing R 3 (3)(11) lateral rings. On the other hand, the columns of cations and anions are connected through C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a system expanding in three directions; finally, the result is a three-dimensional network of O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26279858

  3. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as model substrates. For the acyclic enone enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Topological and experimental approach to the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of the binary enantiomer system d- and l-camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Barrio, Maria; Espeau, Philippe; Tamarit, Josep Lluis; Céolin, René

    2011-02-24

    In 1981, Jacques, Collet, and Wilen already put forward the idea to use pressure to influence equilibria in binary enantiomer systems in analogy with temperature (Jacques et al. Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1981). Whereas temperature is used routinely to study phase equilibria, pressure is an all but forgotten parameter. This is therefore possibly the first paper on the influence of pressure on a binary enantiomer system: d- and l-camphor. The study consists of two parts, a topological approach, which uses data obtained from routine measurements (differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction), and the experimental determination of phase transitions as a function of pressure and temperature. This has resulted in two topological pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the pure enantiomer d-camphor and of the racemic mixture dl-camphor; both have been verified by the experiments as a function of pressure. In turn, these results have been used to construct part of the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of d- and l-camphor. A method to obtain the excess Gibbs energy from these binary phase diagrams as a function of pressure is proposed. PMID:21280597

  5. Analysis of Technical Measures of Camphor Trees Transplanting in Non-dormant Period%非休眠期香樟大树移栽技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家栋

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survival mechansim of trees transplant , this article discusses and summarizes the transplanting techniques of camphor trees in non -dormant period .%综合分析了大树移栽成活的机理,对非休眠期香樟大树移栽技术进行了探讨和总结。

  6. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as mod

  7. Study on Induction of Polyploid Camphor with Colchicine%秋水仙素诱导香樟多倍体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文; 端木卜文; 吴沐秀; 余佳; 韩浩章

    2015-01-01

    Taking the germinated camphor seeds as test materials,using germinated seed soaking method, the effect of different concentration and processing time of colchicine on the polyploid induction of cam⁃phor were studied. The results showed that the highest polyploid induction rate happened when the germi⁃nated camphor seeds soaked 36~48h with 0.1%~0.2% of colchicine solution. The higher colchicine con⁃centration and the longer the processing time,the camphor seedling mortality was higher,obtaining 67 poly⁃ploids camphor seedlings.%以萌发的香樟种子为试材,采用种子浸渍法,研究了不同浓度秋水仙素、不同处理时间对香樟多倍体诱导的影响。结果表明:0.1%~0.2%的秋水仙素水溶液浸泡处理种子36~48h,其多倍体的诱导率最高,死亡率相对较低。秋水仙素浓度越高,处理时间越长,香樟幼苗死亡率越高,试验共获得香樟多倍体植株67株。

  8. 樟树叶多酚对油脂的抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol in Camphor Leaf on Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾娟; 李会娜

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol was extracted from camphor leaf by using 70% alcohol and its antioxidant properties on oil and lard were studied. Results showed that camphor polyphenols extract can effectively delay oxidation of oil and lard, and the antioxdant activity increased with the amount of camphor polyphenols increasing. But polyphenols from camphor Leaf was lower than those of Vc, VE, citric acid and PG.%本文以樟树叶为原料,用70%的乙醇热回流法提取樟树叶中多酚,研究樟树叶多酚对油脂基质的抗氧化性质.结果表明:樟树多酚提取物可以有效地延缓植物油及动物油的氧化,抗氧化能力随着樟树多酚提取物添加量的增加而增强;但是,樟树多酚提取物的抗氧化能力不如维生素C、维生素E、柠檬酸及没食子酸丙酯.

  9. Influence of cosmetics vehicles on 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor's skin penetration, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Scliar Sasson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the skin penetration of 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC in two vehicles, an oil-in-water (O/W emulsion and an alcoholic gel. The penetration of this UVB filter through these vehicles was determined in vitro (Franz cells using pig ear skin. The 4-MBC permeated through the skin both with the emulsion o/w as the alcoholic gel. However, with the alcoholic gel, 5 h after application of the product, the 4-MBC was found in the receptor fluid, while with the emulsion o/w, 24 h after it was detected. In both vehicles, the 4-MBC was present in the viable epidermis, dermis but most part of it, was found in the stratum corneum, being more remarkable for alcoholic gel. The right choice of the vehicle could decrease the potential toxicological risk and increase the efficacy of sunscreens products.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes veículos cosméticos na permeação cutânea da 4-metilbenzilideno cânfora através de experimento in vitro utilizando células de difusão de Franz. Os veículos avaliados foram um gel alcoólico e uma emulsão não iônica O/A. Durante o experimento, foi doseada a presença da 4-MBC no fluido receptor em µg/cm², desde o tempo 0 h até 24 h após a aplicação dos veículos, bem como sua concentração na superfície cutânea, estrato córneo e [epiderme sem estrato córneo + derme]. No estudo realizado com o gel alcoólico, a partir de 5 h após o início do experimento, já foi detectada a presença da 4-MBC no fluido receptor, ao passo que, utilizando a emulsão O/A, a 4-MBC foi detectada apenas após 24 h. Em ambos os veículos a 4-MBC estava presente na [epiderme sem estrato córneo + derme] não havendo diferença estatística entre eles. A maior concentração de 4-MBC foi detectada na superfície cutânea, estando em maior quantidade quando utilizada a emulsão O/A como veículo. Já no estrato córneo, a concentração de 4-MBC foi maior na utiliza

  10. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, E.F., E-mail: ericafa@las.inpe.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Resende, V.G. de; Mengui, U.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Cunha, J.B.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91.501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Massi, M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP 12.227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N{sub 2} or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  11. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, E. F.; de Resende, V. G.; Mengui, U. A.; Cunha, J. B. M.; Corat, E. J.; Massi, M.

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N2 or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  12. Benchmark experiments and numerical modelling of the columnar-equiaxed dendritic growth in the transparent alloy Neopentylglycol-(d)Camphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, L.; Wu, M.; Zimmermann, G.; Ludwig, A.; Ahmadein, M.

    2015-06-01

    Solidification benchmark experiments on columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth, as well as the columnar-equiaxed transition have been carried out under diffusion-dominated conditions for heat and mass transfer in a low-gravity environment. The system under investigation is the transparent organic alloy system Neopentylglycol-37.5wt.-%(d)Camphor, processed aboard a TEXUS sounding rocket flight. Solidifications was observed by standard optical methods in addition to measurements of the thermal fields within the sheet like experimental cells of 1 mm thickness. The dendrite tip kinetic, primary dendrite arm spacing, temporal and spatial temperature evolution, columnar tip velocity and the critical parameters at the CET have been analysed. Here we focus on a detailed comparison of the experiment “TRACE” with a 5-phase volume averaging model to validate the numerical model and to give insight into the corresponding physical mechanisms and parameters leading to CET. The results are discussed in terms of sensitivity versus numerical parameters.

  13. Sulfur speciation and bioaccumulation in camphor tree leaves as atmospheric sulfur indicator analyzed by synchrotron radiation XRF and XANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong Zeng; Guilin Zhang; Liangman Bao; Shilei Long; Mingguang Tan; Yan Li; Chenyan Ma

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing and understanding the effects of ambient pollution on plants is getting more and more attention as a topic of environmentalbiology.A method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy wasestablished to analyze the sulfur concentration and speciation in mature camphor tree leaves (CTLs),which were sampled from 5 localfields in Shanghai,China.Annual SO2 concentration,SO42-concentration in atmospheric particulate,SO42-and sulfur concentrationin soil were also analyzed to explore the relationship between ambient sulfur sources and the sulfur nutrient cycling in CTLs.Totalsulfur concentration in mature camphor tree leaves was 766-1704 mg/kg.The mainly detected sulfur states and their correspondingcompounds were +6 (sulfate,include inorganic sulfate and organic sulfate),+5.2 (sulfonate),+2.2 (suloxides),+0.6 (thiols andthiothers),+0.2 (organic sulfides).Total sulfur concentration was strongly correlated with sulfate proportion with a linear correlationcoefficient up to 0.977,which suggested that sulfur accumulated in CTLs as sulfate form.Reduced sulfur compounds (organic sulfides,thiols,thioethers,sulfoxide and sulfonate) assimilation was sufficed to meet the nutrient requirement for growth at a balanced levelaround 526 mg/kg.The sulfate accumulation mainly caused by atmospheric sulfur pollution such as SO2 and airborne sulfate particulateinstead of soil contamination.From urban to suburb place,sulfate in mature CTLs decreased as the atmospheric sulfur pollution reduced,but a dramatic increase presented near the seashore,where the marine sulfate emission and maritime activity pollution were significant.The sulfur concentration and speciation in mature CTLs effectively represented the long-term biological accumulation of atmosphericsulfur pollution in local environment.

  14. Sulfur speciation and bioaccumulation in camphor tree leaves as atmospheric sulfur indicator analyzed by synchrotron radiation XRF and XANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianrong; Zhang, Guilin; Bao, Liangman; Long, Shilei; Tan, Mingguang; Li, Yan; Ma, Chenyan; Zhao, Yidong

    2013-03-01

    Analyzing and understanding the effects of ambient pollution on plants is getting more and more attention as a topic of environmental biology. A method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy was established to analyze the sulfur concentration and speciation in mature camphor tree leaves (CTLs), which were sampled from 5 local fields in Shanghai, China. Annual SO2 concentration, SO4(2-) concentration in atmospheric particulate, SO4(2-) and sulfur concentration in soil were also analyzed to explore the relationship between ambient sulfur sources and the sulfur nutrient cycling in CTLs. Total sulfur concentration in mature camphor tree leaves was 766-1704 mg/kg. The mainly detected sulfur states and their corresponding compounds were +6 (sulfate, include inorganic sulfate and organic sulfate), +5.2 (sulfonate), +2.2 (suloxides), +0.6 (thiols and thiothers), +0.2 (organic sulfides). Total sulfur concentration was strongly correlated with sulfate proportion with a linear correlation coefficient up to 0.977, which suggested that sulfur accumulated in CTLs as sulfate form. Reduced sulfur compounds (organic sulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfoxide and sulfonate) assimilation was sufficed to meet the nutrient requirement for growth at a balanced level around 526 mg/kg. The sulfate accumulation mainly caused by atmospheric sulfur pollution such as SO2 and airborne sulfate particulate instead of soil contamination. From urban to suburb place, sulfate in mature CTLs decreased as the atmospheric sulfur pollution reduced, but a dramatic increase presented near the seashore, where the marine sulfate emission and maritime activity pollution were significant. The sulfur concentration and speciation in mature CTLs effectively represented the long-term biological accumulation of atmospheric sulfur pollution in local environment. PMID:23923435

  15. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  16. Effect of plant growth regulators on direct somatic embryogenesis in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) from immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic calli induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuLi; Zhou Suo; Bao Man-zhu

    2007-01-01

    A description of a successful direct somatic embryogenesis induction from immature zygotic embryos of a camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) is presented. After a subculture of 2-3 years,embryogenic calli could be derived from primary somaticembryos. Immature zygotic embryos were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)basal medium supplemented with a range of combinations of cytokinins (BA) and auxins(2,4-D or NAA) for somatic embryo induction. Primary somatic embryos could be induced direly in almost all PGR combinations. A positive effect of 2,4-D On somatic embryo genesis from immature zygotic embryos of camphor tree was obtained. BA at appropriate concentrations (5mg·L-1) of BA had the effect of restraining somatic embryo induction. NAA had a less positive effect on somatic embryogenesis than 2,4-D.

  17. Investigating the Xingwei, Guijing and efficacy of Taiwan Antrodia camphorate%台湾牛樟芝的性味、归经与功效的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志诚; 阮时宝

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the growth and distribution, style and characteristics of Antrodia camphorata. Study on the flavor of Antrodia camphorate, the return and efficacy, four and five flavor, toxicity. How to Paozhi Antrodia camphorate, The contraindication of the medicine, dosage and usage, function and application. Auxiliary medication after study of Antrodia camphoratacan acts as a tumor therapy.%浅谈牛樟芝的生长与分布,型态与特征。研究牛樟芝的性味、经归与功效、四气与五味,毒性。如何炮制牛樟芝,它的用药禁忌,剂量与用法,功效与应用。经研究牛樟芝可作为肿瘤治疗的辅助性用药。

  18. Topological and experimental approach to the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of the binary enantiomer system d- and I-camphor

    OpenAIRE

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Barrio Casado, María del; Espeau, Philippe; Tamarit Mur, José Luis; Céolin, René

    2011-01-01

    In 1981, Jacques, Collet, and Wilen already put forward the idea to use pressure to influence equilibria in binary enantiomer systems in analogy with temperature (Jacques et al. Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1981). Whereas temperature is used routinely to study phase equilibria, pressure is an all but forgotten parameter. This is therefore possibly the first paper on the influence of pressure on a binary enantiomer system: d- and l-camphor. The study con...

  19. Identification of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone as anti-inflammatory compounds in a Salvia officinalis L. infusion using human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam M; Fricke, Kristina; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel M; Walker, Jessica; Rychlik, Michael; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-04-10

    Drinking or gargling Salvia officinalis L. infusion (sage infusion) is thought to soothe a sore throat, tonsillitis, and inflamed, red gums, although structure-based scientific evidence for the key anti-inflammatory compounds in sage infusion is scarce. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were treated with sage infusion (SI) or SI fractions containing either its volatile components and water (aqueous distillate, AD) or its dry matter (DM) for six hours. SI, AD, and DM reduced a mean phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin (PMA/I)-stimulated release of the pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 by more than 50% (p < 0.05). Cellular uptake experiments and subsequent GC-MS analysis using stable-isotope-labeled internal standards revealed the presence of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and α-/β-thujone in SI-treated cells; LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of rosmarinic acid. A significant, more than 50% mean inhibition of PMA/I-induced IL-6 and IL-8 release was demonstrated for the volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone, but not for the nonvolatile rosmarinic acid when applied in concentrations representative of sage infusion. Therefore, the volatile compounds were found to be more effective than rosmarinic acid. 1,8-Cineole, borneol, camphor, and α-/β-thujone chiefly contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of sage infusion in human gingival fibroblasts.

  20. Synthesis of a Series of Camphor-type β-dione Compounds%系列樟脑型β-二酮化合物的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢运; 骆开均; 蒋世平; 徐玲玲

    2011-01-01

    The α-methylene of camphor is very hard to be activated because of the steric hindrance.In this paper, a series of camphor-type β-dione compounds are synthesized by using D( + )-camphor as starting material, ethylene glycol diethyl ether as solvent,and sodium hydride as a basic catalyst.The target compounds are obtained in a yield of 30% ~58.3% and are characterized by 1H NMR and MS.The influences of solvent, basic catalyst and purification method on the reaction are also discussed.%樟脑由于具有较大的空间位阻,其α位的亚甲基较直链α位碳难活化.从D(+)-樟脑出发,采用高沸点的乙二醇二乙醚做溶剂,氢化钠作碱催化剂,合成了3-苯甲酰基樟脑,3-乙酰基樟脑和3-三氟乙酰基樟脑等系列樟脑型β-二羰基化合物,产率为30%~58.3%.目标产物用1H NMR,质谱(MS)来表征.并讨论了溶剂,碱催化剂以及提纯方法对反应的影响.

  1. Determination of Naphthalene Content of Camphor Pellet by HPLC%HPLC法测量市售卫生球中萘的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦敏娜

    2014-01-01

    萘是一种潜在的致癌物。市售卫生球中是否含有萘含量的受到越来越多人们的关注。本文以甲醇为流动相,用纯萘为标准物质,用匀蕴孕悦法测定了在市场上随机购买的2种樟脑丸中萘的含量。结果表明,一种样品萘的含量较高。%Naphthalene is a potential carcinogen. The naphthalene content of commercial camphor pellets was paid more and more attention by people. In this paper, taking methanol as mobile phase and pure naphthalene as standard substance, two kinds of camphor pellets which were purchased randomly from the market were detected by HPLC. The results showed that one of the camphor pellets contained high naphthalene.

  2. Study on the Synthesis of Camphor Oxime under the Microwave Radiation%微波辐射下樟脑肟的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈田木; 潘乐; 卞云鹏; 罗金岳; 刘祖广

    2014-01-01

    以樟脑和盐酸羟胺为原料,在微波辅助下合成樟脑肟,采用IR, GC-MS,1 H NMR等手段对产物进行了表征。利用单因素试验系统考察了缚酸剂种类、缚酸剂用量、反应物料比、反应温度、反应时间和微波功率对产物得率的影响,得到适宜的工艺条件为: n(樟脑):n(盐酸羟胺):n(缚酸剂)=1:2:2,溶剂为75%乙醇水溶液,反应温度为85℃,反应时间为80 min,微波功率为500 W。此条件下,樟脑肟得率为87.0%。%Camphor and hydroxylamine hydrochloride were used as raw material in the microwave assisted synthesis of camphor oxime, using IR, GC-MS, 1 H NMR methods as the identification of the experimental result, the product was confirmed as camphor oxime.The experimental parameters such as different type of acid-binding agent, acid-binding agent amount, reaction material ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time, effects of microwave power on the oximation reaction were investigated systematically with single-factor experimentation to obtain maximum yield. The process conditions were optimized by experiment : n(Camphor):n(Hydroxylamine hydrochloride):n(Sodium acetate)=1:2:2. The solvent was 75% ethanol aqueous solution.Reaction temperature was 85 ℃, the reaction time of 80 min, and microwave power was 500 W.Under the condition of the camphor, oxime yield could reach 87.0%.

  3. Effect of feeding camphor (Eucalyptus Globules) levels on some immunity characteristics, growth and gut microflora of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Eucalyptus globules Egypt to Japanese quail diet on performance and some metabolic functions and immunity. Four hundred,one day old, unsexed japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups containing 100 birds in each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 25 birds. Group one was supplemented with 1% Egypt in basal diet, group two was supplemented with 2% Egypt in basal diet, group three was used as negative control (-ve)without any addition of antibiotic in diet or water, while group four represented the positive control (+ ve) by addition antibiotics (0.5 g neomycin sulphate +0.5 g oxytetracyclin) in drinking water for 5 days post hatching. The experimented diet contained 3200 Kcal ME/kg and 24% crude proteins. The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, mortality, some organs weighs and some blood parameters were measured and some microbial population of small intestines was counted. Results indicated that the addition of Egypt led to significant increase in quails body weights, spleen, bursa and ovary and the measures of total proteins, globulins, haemagglutination inhibition (HI)and triiodothyronine (T3). Decrease in mortality ratio and less counts of microflora and salmonella of gut were also achieved as a result of diet camphor addition

  4. A nano-sized Uranyl Camphorate Cage and its Use as a Building Unit in a Metal-Organic Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with (1R, 3S)-(+)-camphoric acid (H2L) in the presence of 1, 4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) gives the chiral octa-nuclear cage [(UO2)8(L12H8)].12H2O (1), which displays an approximately cubic shape with the metal ions as apexes and an internal cavity of ca. 7 Angstrom in length. Complex 1, which is the first example of a homoleptic nano-sized cage including uranyl ions, can further be used as a supramolecular building block to generate coordination polymers, as exemplified by the compound [Ba(H2O)8]2[(UO2)8Ba2(L12)(H2O)4].8H2O (2), obtained in the presence of Ba(CH3)COO)2. In 2, which retains the overall packing mode of cages present in 1, a two-dimensional assembly is formed through bridging by the carboxylate-bound alkaline-earth metal cations. However, whereas 1 displays extended channels, these are obstructed by counterions in 2. (author)

  5. Comparative Analysis of IR and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectra for a Series of Camphor-Related Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Sergio; Burgi, Luigi Filippo; Gangemi, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Roberto; Lebon, France; Longhi, Giovanna; Pultz, Vaughan M.; Lightner, David A.

    2009-09-01

    The absorption spectra and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra in the mid-IR range 1600-950 cm-1 of 10 camphor-related compounds have been recorded and compared to DFT calculated spectra at the B3PW91/TZ2P level and have been examined together with the corresponding data of the parent molecules. The rigidity of the bridged structure common to all compounds investigated permits (a) identification of three spectroscopic regions in the mid-IR range that can be "used" separately by the interested stereochemist for structural diagnosis and assignment of some major characteristics of the VCD spectra in these regions to what we call "skeletal chiral sense" and (b) recognition of possible conformers for flexible substituent groups, when present. VCD spectra of the 10 molecules have been recorded and analyzed also in the CH-stretching region, 3100-2800 cm-1. Here, we have been able to identify and characterize features of vibrational excitons by comparison of data within the 10-molecule class. To find a theoretical justification of result (a), we have examined the potential energy distribution of the normal modes in the mid-IR range, the partitioning of the calculated rotational strengths in terms of contributions from all couples of internal coordinates, the angle formed by the two vectors, the electric dipole transition moment and the magnetic dipole transition moment, and finally the overlap of normal modes of different molecules. A discussion is provided as to the usability of the introduced algorithms.

  6. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 μg/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate

  7. Enantioselective separation of the sunscreen agent 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor by electrokinetic chromatography: Quantitative analysis in cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómara, Belén; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, María Luisa

    2005-10-01

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)-camphor (MBC) is a chiral sunscreen agent used in cosmetic products. In this work, the enantioseparation of MBC has been performed by EKC and applied to the analysis of the MBC enantiomers in cosmetic creams. Different experimental conditions (type and concentration of the chiral selector, temperature, and sample solvent) have been optimized. Due to the neutral nature of this compound, anionic CD derivatives were investigated as chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-beta-CD (CM-beta-CD) showed the highest chiral separation power, observing that a 15 mM concentration of this CD at a working temperature of 15 degrees C enabled to obtain the highest enantioresolution. However, under these conditions, tailing of peaks obtained for the enantiomers was observed. The addition of increasing concentrations of the neutral alpha-CD to CM-beta-CD at a 15 mM concentration in a 100 mM borate buffer at pH 9.0 improved the enantiomeric separation and decreased peak tailing. The use of DMF for the total dissolution of the cosmetic creams, and methanol:water (1:1 v/v) for appropriate dilution enabled to observe good shape and size for the peaks of the MBC enantiomers. After optimizing a method for the preconditioning of the capillary, the analytical characteristics of the chiral separation method for the analysis of MBC were investigated. Linearity, LODs and LOQs, precision (instrumental repeatability, method repeatability, intermediate precision), accuracy, and selectivity were evaluated. The method was applied to analyze MBC enantiomers contained in two commercial cosmetic creams containing racemic MBC and to study the skin absorption of this compound with time. PMID:16217832

  8. Effects of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) on neuronal and muscular development in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vincent Wai Tsun; Tsui, Mei Po Mirabelle; Chen, Xueping; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Jin, Ling; Lam, Raymond H W; Yu, Richard Man Kit; Murphy, Margaret B; Cheng, Jinping; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2016-05-01

    The negative effects of overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in humans, including sunburn and light-induced cellular injury, are of increasing public concern. 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), an organic chemical UV filter, is an active ingredient in sunscreen products. To date, little information is available about its neurotoxicity during early vertebrate development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of 4-MBC in embryo medium for 3 days. In this study, a high concentration of 4-MBC, which is not being expected at the current environmental concentrations in the environment, was used for the purpose of phenotypic screening. Embryos exposed to 15 μM of 4-MBC displayed abnormal axial curvature and exhibited impaired motility. Exposure effects were found to be greatest during the segmentation period, when somite formation and innervation occur. Immunostaining of the muscle and axon markers F59, znp1, and zn5 revealed that 4-MBC exposure leads to a disorganized pattern of slow muscle fibers and axon pathfinding errors during the innervation of both primary and secondary motor neurons. Our results also showed reduction in AChE activity upon 4-MBC exposure both in vivo in the embryos (15 μM) and in vitro in mammalian Neuro-2A cells (0.1 μM), providing a possible mechanism for 4-MBC-induced muscular and neuronal defects. Taken together, our results have shown that 4-MBC is a teratogen and influences muscular and neuronal development, which may result in developmental defects. PMID:26888529

  9. 樟脑油精药效及其安全性评价%Laboratory Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Camphor Oil Spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桢红; 陈淑玉; 瞿明芳

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate repellent efficacy,fun gistatic efficacy and saf ety of the camphor oil spray.Method:Place the human volunt eer's hand treated with the camphor oil inside a cage containing 300 Aedes alb opictus,for 2 min, and observe the treated skin surface for mosquit oes which landed and attempted to feed. Mingle the camphor oil and the fungous s uspension,Candida albicans,culture and count the number of mold.Infuse the m ice with the spray by single oral injection,and treat directly the rabbits' expo sed skin and the conjunc tiva crypt with the spray.Result:The repellent protection time against Aedes albopictus was over 6h. Mean fungistatic rate to mold was 99.99%. The acute oral LD50 was 1 302.5mg/kg in mice. This produc t was non-irritant to skin,but slightly irritant to eye. Conclusion: The camphor oil spray is a better repellency against mosquito,inhibit or against mold,and low acute toxicity substance.%目的:评价樟脑 油精喷剂的药效及其在使 用中的安全性。方法:将樟脑油精涂于裸露皮肤上,进行驱蚊试验 ;取白色念球菌(ATCC10231)悬液加入樟脑油精,观察对真菌的 抑制作用;急性经口毒性试验采用一次性灌胃给药;急性皮肤刺激和眼刺激试验直接涂药于 家兔皮肤和滴药于眼结膜囊内。结果:驱蚊保护时间达6h以上;抑 菌率达99.99%;小鼠 急性经口LD50为1 302.25mg/kg;对家兔皮肤刺激积分值为0,48h后对眼刺激平 均指数为0.5。结论:本品对蚊虫有一定驱避保护作用,对霉菌 生长有较强的抑制作用,而且毒性低,使用安全。

  10. Cânfora: um bom modelo para ilustrar técnicas de RMN Camphor: a good model for illustrating NMR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julliane Diniz Yoneda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to establish the three-dimensional structures of molecules is an important component of modern Chemistry courses. The combination of techniques that can be used for this purpose is conveniently illustrated by their application to the camphor molecule. This paper presents applications of several techniques used in NMR spectral interpretation in an increasing order of complexity. The result of individual experiments is illustrated in order to familiarize the user with the way connectivity through bonds and through space is established from 1D/2D-NMR spectra and molecular stereochemistry is determined from different NMR experiments.

  11. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera), in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur G. Appel; Xing Ping Hu; Jinxiang Zhou; Zhongqi Qin; Hongyan Zhu; Xiangqian Chang; Zhijing Wang; Xianqin Liu; Mingyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L.), located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60%) trees had multiple tubes at all directions. H...

  12. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid and 2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By hydrothermal method, two new coordination polymers [Co(ca)(phdat)]n (1), [Ni(ca)(phdat).0.125H2O]n (2) (H2ca=D-camphoric acid, phdat=2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine) have been achieved and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, both of which exhibit two-dimensional layered network built up from paddle-wheel Co2(CO2)4/Ni2(CO2)4 SBUs by ca2− ligand. In the existence of π…π stacking interactions between triazine rings and phenyl rings, the 3D networks are constructed with the hanging phdat filled between the neighboring layers. Furthermore, compounds 1–2 exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior and compound 2 displays a good activity for methanol oxidation. - Graphical abstract: Two new coordination compounds 1–2 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic and electrochemical measurement. - Highlights: • This paper reports two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid. • Both the compounds feather two-dimensional layered networks built up from paddle-wheel SBUs. • The magnetism and electrochemical property are investigated

  13. Research on Antibacterial Health Properties of Camphor Wood Odor Constituents%香樟材气味成分抗菌保健性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文利

    2012-01-01

    The research on anti-bacterial corrosion resistance of timber mainly studies the fungi and termites to timber traditionally, and its main purpose is to protect timber and extend the life of timber. This paper takes volatile oil of natural camphor wood for the antimicrobial agent to study the inhibitory action of volatile oil of natural camphor wood on five kinds of bacteria, namely colon bacillus, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella, dysentery and bacillus thuringiensis. The main purpose is to protect human health and improve people's quality of life.%对木材抗菌耐腐的研究,传统上都是研究真菌以及白蚁等对本材的破坏,其目的主要是保护木材,延长木材的使用寿命.而本论文以天然香樟材的挥发油为抗菌剂,研究天然香樟材的挥发油对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌、痢疾、苏云金杆菌五种细菌抑制作用,目的主要是为了保护人体健康,提高人们的生活质量.

  14. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid and 2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lun, Huijie; Yang, Jinghe; Jin, Linyu; Cui, Sasa; Bai, Yanlong [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhang, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Yamin, E-mail: liyamin@henu.edu.cn [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2015-05-15

    By hydrothermal method, two new coordination polymers [Co(ca)(phdat)]{sub n} (1), [Ni(ca)(phdat).0.125H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2) (H{sub 2}ca=D-camphoric acid, phdat=2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine) have been achieved and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, both of which exhibit two-dimensional layered network built up from paddle-wheel Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}/Ni{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4} SBUs by ca{sup 2−} ligand. In the existence of π…π stacking interactions between triazine rings and phenyl rings, the 3D networks are constructed with the hanging phdat filled between the neighboring layers. Furthermore, compounds 1–2 exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior and compound 2 displays a good activity for methanol oxidation. - Graphical abstract: Two new coordination compounds 1–2 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic and electrochemical measurement. - Highlights: • This paper reports two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid. • Both the compounds feather two-dimensional layered networks built up from paddle-wheel SBUs. • The magnetism and electrochemical property are investigated.

  15. Crystal structure of tetra­methyl­tetra­thia­fulvalenium (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Mathieu; Allain, Magali; Mézière, Cécile; Pop, Flavia; Giffard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of tetra­methyl­tetra­thia­fulvalene (TMTTF) in the presence of the chiral anion (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate (S-camphSO3 −) in tetra­hydro­furan/water medium afforded a 1/1 salt formulated as TMTTF·S-camphSO3·2H2O or 2-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di­thiol-2-yl­idene)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di­thiole radical ion (1+) [(1S)-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobi­cyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methane­sulfonate dihydrate, C10H12S4 +·C10H15O4S−·2H2O. In this salt, two independent TMTTF units are present but, in both cases, the observed bond lengths and especially the central C=C distance [1.392 (6) and 1.378 (6) Å] are in agreement with a complete oxidation of TMTTF which is thus present as TMTTF. + radical cations. These cations form one-dimensional stacks in which they are associated two by two, forming dimers with short [3.472 (1) to 3.554 (2) Å] S⋯S contacts. The two S-camphSO3 anions present also form stacks and are connected with each other via the water mol­ecules with many O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds ranging from 1.86 (3) to 2.15 (4) Å; the O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network can be described as being constituted of C 2 2(6) chains bearing R 3 3(11) lateral rings. On the other hand, the columns of cations and anions are connected through C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a system expanding in three directions; finally, the result is a three-dimensional network of O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26279858

  16. 不同生长势古香樟矿质营养分析%Analysis of Mineral Nutrition of Ancient Cinnamomum camphor with Different Growth Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利娟; 杨志民; 贺随超; 刘君

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamomum camphor is a very important species for greening and beautifying in southern city. Ancient C. Camphor objectively records the social development and species change, however, its aging is increas-ingly serious. Based on nutritional deficit theory, we analyzed 12 kinds of mineral elements in leaves of ancient C. Camphor with different growth potential, in order to find the key elements caused aging and provide theory basis of aging evaluation and regeneration. Results showed that, there was no significant difference in the content of K be-tween different seasons, while significant but small differences in the contents of the others. The differences be-tween different trees were related with the grade of senescence. When dij was 5 (dij means Euclidean distance) , the tested C. Camphor could be divided into 3 grades ( I , II and Ⅲ, respectively) according to growth potential (from strong to weak) by clustering analysis. With senescence aggravating, the content of Na and Al in leaves in-creased , while the others decreased, and the ratio of N, P and K was imbalanced seriously. By principal compo-nent analysis, three main components were extracted, whose accumulative total variance contribution rate was 94.91%. The variance contribution of the first principal component was 69.25% , including P, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and B. The second principal component was N, its variance contribution was 13.45%. The variance contribution of the third principal component was 12. 21% , including Ca, Al, Zn and Mn.%香樟(Cinnamomum camphor)是南方城市绿化、美化的重要树种,古香樟客观记录了社会发展和物种变迁,但其衰老现象日趋严重.文章从营养亏缺理论出发,对不同生长势古香樟叶片12种矿质元素进行分析,以期找到引起其衰老的关键元素,为古树名木评价和复壮提供依据.研究结果表明:不同季节间,K含量差异不显著,其他各元素在部分季节间存在差异,但差异较小;不同生长势

  17. Development of microwave-assisted extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Chunhui [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Mao Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medicinal University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yao Ning [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xiangmin [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: xmzhang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-08-04

    In the work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for quantitative analysis of the bioactive components of camphor and borneol in a traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) of Flos Chrysanthemi Indici. After systematical investigation, the optimal experimental parameters microwave power (400 W), irradiation time (4 min), fiber coating (PDMS/DVB fiber), extraction temperature (40 deg. C), extraction time (20 min), stirring rate (1100 rpm), and salt effect (no salt added) were investigated. The optimized method provided satisfactory precision (RSD values less than 12%), good recovery (from 86% to 94%), and good linearity (R {sup 2} > 0.999). The proposed method was applied to quantitative analysis of camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici samples from 11 different growing areas. To demonstrate the method feasibility, steam distillation was also used to analyze camphor and borneol in Flos Chrysanthemi Indici samples from these different growing areas. The very close results were obtained by the two methods. It has been shown that the proposed ME-HS-SPME-GC-MS is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and reliable method for quantitative analysis of camphor and borneol in TCM, and a potential tool for quality assessment of Flos Chrysanthemi Indici.

  18. 茧蜂克星对栗蚕寄生蜂病防治效果试验%Experiment on the Prevention and Control Effect of Braconidae Jinx on Camphor Silkworm Parasitoids Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚俐; 孟宪民; 徐亮; 宿桂梅; 焦阳

    2014-01-01

    栗蚕的盘绒茧蜂病大发生年份发病率高达60%以上,严重影响栗蚕的生产。采用0.05%的茧蜂克星在栗蚕2龄期施药,防治效果可达100%;栗蚕食药叶4 d后疗效可达95.88%,且对栗蚕生长发育无不良影响。%The incidence of Camphor silkworm Apanteles glomeratus disease was above 60% in the year when the disease broke out ,which seriously affected Camphor silkworm production .The experiment revealed that 0 .05%Braconidae Jinx applied in the 2nd instar can effectively control the occurrence of Apanteles glomeratus disease by 100% ;if the Camphor silkworm ate the leaves sprayed with Braconidae jinx ,the controllability of the disease can reach 95 .88% after 4 days ,and there was no harm to Camphor silkworm’s growth .

  19. Study of Specialized Matrix Formula for Camphor Based on Aerobic Composting of Municipal Sewage Sludge%以城市生活污泥好氧堆肥为主的香樟专用基质配伍研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守红; 寇祥明; 徐荣; 朱凌宇; 王小治; 张家宏; 韩光明; 毕建花; 王桂良

    2015-01-01

    为实现城市生活污泥的资源化利用 ,本文通过盆栽试验 ,测定不同基质处理香樟的多项生长指标 ,对以城市生活污泥好氧堆肥为主的香樟专用基质配伍开展研究.结果表明 ,相较于菌菇渣 ,城市生活污泥堆肥更适合作为香樟的有机肥源 ;维生素B12 、微量元素B、Zn配合施用 ,比萘乙酸更能促进香樟的恢复生长 ;杀菌剂对于香樟专用基质功效存在负作用 ;在11个不同配伍处理中 ,E处理(城市生活污泥堆肥+复合肥+维生素B12 +微量元素B、Zn+聚天冬氨酸)基质配伍最好 ,其综合评价最高 ,在香樟8个单项生长指标中 ,5个指标排在前两位.研究结果将为香樟专用基质的开发提供理论和实践依据.%To realize resource utilization of municipal sewage sludge ,with the aerobic composting of municipal sewage sludge as the main raw material ,the formula ratio of camphor seedling has been optimized by the different kinds of growth indicator of camphor seedling in pot .The results show that :comparing with mushroom residue ,municipal sludge compost was suitable as organic part of formula for camphor seedling ;the combination of vitamin B12 ,microele-ment B and Zn ,was of better effect on camphor growing ,made a good substitute for 1-naphthlcetic acid ;antiseptic played a negative role in the special matrix for camphor growing ;the E treatment(aerobic composting of municipal sew-age sludge + compound fertilizer + vitamin B12 + trace elements (B ,Zn)+ polyaspartic acid ) was the most suitable formula of camphor seedling which had five kinds of growth indicator of camphor seedling ranking top two between the eleven ratio ;the comprehensive evaluation index system also supported the conclusion .

  20. 樟脑药理毒理研究回顾及安全性研究展望%Research on Pharmacology, Toxicology and Safety of Camphor: Review and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁元刚; 马红梅; 张伯礼

    2012-01-01

    Camphor have many pharmacological effects, such as excitement, cardiac, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, cough, penetration, reduce mitochondrial respiration, regulating liver enzyme, mites.and Interactions with other drugs, is one of the world's first natural organic ingredients be used. Camphor is widely used, but also has a strong toxicity, manifested in the ovary, testes, nerves, liver, heart, fetus, pregnant women, the apparent toxicity to the kidneys and urinary system less genotoxic potential toxicity. In recent yean, research subject of the transformation and the relationship borneol and camphor in body fetching attention, we consider it necessary to understand the pharmacology and toxicology and safety of camphor progress, provide a reference for in-depth study of the relationship between body transformation of bomeol and camphor.%樟脑有兴奋、强心、消炎、镇痛、抗菌、止咳、促渗、杀螨等药理作用,并与其他药物间相互作用,是世界上最早被使用的天然有机化学成分之一.樟脑应用广泛,又具有较强毒性,表现在对卵巢、睾丸、神经、肝脏、心脏、胎儿、孕妇的明显毒性,对肾脏泌尿系统的潜在毒性和较小遗传毒性.近年来,冰片与樟脑体内转化及相互关系研究课题引人关注,我们认为有必要了解樟脑药理毒理及安全性方面的进展,为深入研究冰片与樟脑体内转化及相互关系提供参考.

  1. Camphor-10-sulfonic acid catalyzed condensation of 2-naphthol with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes to 14-aryl/alkyl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Kshama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available (±-Camphor-10-sulfonic acid (CSA catalyzed condensation of 2-naphthol with both aliphatic/aromatic aldehydes at 80°C yielded 14-alkyl/aryl-dibenzoxanthenes as the sole product in high yields. However, the same condensation with benzaldehyde at 25°C afforded a mixture of intermediate 1,1-bis-(2-hydroxynaphthylphenylmethane and 14-phenyl-dibenzoxanthene while the condensation with aliphatic aldehydes at 25°C furnished the corresponding 14-alkyl-dibenzoxanthenes as the sole product. Moreover, condensation of 2-naphthol with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes with low catalyst loading (2 mol% was greatly accelerated under microwave irradiation to afford the corresponding 14-aryl/alkyl-dibenzoxanthenes as the sole product in high yields.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks constructed from d-camphor acid: bifunctional properties related to luminescence sensing and liquid-phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lili; Xu, Xiaoyue; Lv, Kangle; Huang, Yumei; Zheng, Xiaofang; Zhou, Li; Sun, Renqiang; Li, Dongfeng

    2015-02-25

    Three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [M2(d-cam)2(bimb)2]n · 3.5nH2O (M = Mn for 1, Co for 2) and [Cd8(d-cam)8(bimb)4]n (3) (d-H2cam = d-camphor acid, bimb = 4,4'-bis(1-imidazolyl)biphenyl), solvothermally synthesized, exhibit structural diversity. The charming aspect of these frameworks is that compound 3 is the very first MOF-based sensor for quantitatively detecting three different types of analytes (metal ions, aromatic molecules, and pesticides). And also, both compounds 2 and 3 show rapid uptake and ready regeneration for methyl orange (MO) and can selectively bind MO over methylene blue (MB) with high MO/MB separation ratio.

  3. GC Determination and Identification of Camphor in Xiaomeng Eye Ointment%消曚眼膏中樟脑的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪妍

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立GC法测定消曚眼膏中冰片掺假物—樟脑的含量。方法:采用DB-WAX色谱柱(柱长30m,内径0.53mm,膜厚度1μm),载气为氮气,分流比为10∶1,柱温为140℃,进样口温度为180℃,检测器温度为200℃。结果:樟脑在0.00499~0.998μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9997),回收率为99.09%(n=9),RSD为1.62%。结论:本法灵敏、准确,可作为该产品的质量控制指标。%Objective: To establish GC method for determination of camphor in Xiaomeng eye ointment. Methods:The DB-WAX chromatographic column (30m ×0.53mm ×1μm)was adopted with nitrogen as the carrier gas and the split ratio of 10:1.The column temperature was 140℃,the injection port temperature was 180℃ and the detector temperature was 200℃. Results:The linear range of camphor was in the range of 0.00499~0.998μg(r=0.9997),and the average recovery(n=9)was 99.09%and RSD was 1.62%.Conclusion:This method is convenient, rapid, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for quality control of Xiaomeng eye ointment.

  4. Effects of dimerization on the photoelectron angular distribution parameters from chiral camphor enantiomers obtained with circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Laurent; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2010-09-01

    As an intermediate state of matter between the free monomeric gas phase and the solid state, clusters may exhibit a specific electronic structure and photoionization dynamics that can be unraveled by different types of electron spectroscopies. From mass-selected ion yield scans measured for photoionization of (R)-camphor, the ionization potentials (IPs) of the monomer (8.66±0.01 eV), and of the homochiral dimer (⩽8.37±0.01 eV) and trimer (⩽8.30±0.01 eV) were obtained. These spectra, combined with threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and velocity map ion imaging, allow us to show that the camphor monomer and dimer photoionization channels are decoupled, i.e., that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the dimer does not undergo a dissociative ionization process that would lead to a spurious contribution to the monomer ion channel. Therefore mass selection, as achieved in our imaging photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments, leads to size selection of the nascent monomer or dimer species. Since both the monomer and dimer are chiral, their photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) not only involves the usual β anisotropy parameter but also a chiral asymmetry parameter b1 that can generate a forward-backward asymmetry in the PAD. This has been investigated using circularly polarized light (CPL) to record the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the near-threshold vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization region. Analysis of size-selected electron images recorded with left- and right-handed CPL shows that over the first 1.5 eV above the HOMO orbital ionization potentials (IPs), the β parameter is not affected by the dimerization process, while the chiral b1 parameter shows clear differences between the monomer and the dimer, confirming that PECD is a subtle long-range probe of the molecular potential.

  5. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  6. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  7. 樟脑对MRC-5细胞p53 mRNA表达的影响*%Effect of camphor on expression level of p53 mRNA in MRC-5 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 段承刚; 唐小军; 蔡仕钰; 郑波; 罗映; 赖国超; 申淑琬; 于海清

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the p53 mRNA expression level in MRC-5 cells after treated with camphor (C10H16O). Methods: MRC-5 cells were cultured by using DMEM and divided into the camphor group and the control group. 1×105 cells/well were seeded evenly in a six-well plate,three wells for each group. MRC-5 cells were treated with 180μg·ml-1 camphor for 24h and 48h. The relative growth rate was measured via MTT method. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized via reverse transcription. With GAPDH mRNA as reference, the relative quantity of p53/GAPDH mRNA expression level was analyzed by using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SQ-PCR). The experiment was repeated three times. Results: After treated with 180μg·ml-1 camphor, the relative growth rate of MRC-5 cells was greater than 90% both at 24h and 48h. The p53 mRNA expression levels in control group and camphor group were 0.81±0.24 and 0.56±0.13 at 24h (P>0.05) and 0.76 ±0.11 and 1.08 ±0.19 at 48h (P>0.05). The up-regulation of mRNA expression level at 48h was significantly higher than that at 24h in camphor group(P0.05)。给药48h,对照组和试验组MRC-5细胞p53 mRNA表达水平分别为0.76±0.11和1.08±0.19(P>0.05)。给药24h和48h,试验组MRC-5细胞p53 mRNA表达水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:180μg·ml-1浓度的樟脑对MRC-5为安全给药浓度。给药后MRC-5细胞p53 mRNA表达水平上调有统计学意义,提示樟脑可能间接影响p53基因的表达调控。

  8. Inhibition of Extractives from Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves on Carbon Steel in H2SO4 Solution%樟树叶提取液在硫酸介质中对碳钢的缓蚀作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴文; 龚敏; 曾宪光; 姜春梅; 曾祥梅; 张婷

    2012-01-01

    应用动电位极化法和电化学阻抗(EIS)研究了樟树叶提取液(CCLE)在硫酸介质中对碳钢的缓蚀性能和缓蚀机理.结果表明,采用酸浸泡法从樟树叶中提取的缓蚀剂,对碳钢在10%H2SO4溶液中具有良好的缓蚀作用,随着提取液浓度的增加,缓蚀效率增大;随着实验温度升高,缓蚀效率减小.樟树叶提取液为混合抑制型缓蚀剂,提取液中的有效缓蚀成分在碳钢表面的吸附满足Langmuir等温吸附方程;樟树叶提取液的加入使碳钢在硫酸中反应的表观活化能增加,起到缓蚀作用.%The corrosion inhibition effect of the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive for carbon steel in 10% H2SO4 solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive had good corrosion inhibition effect for carbon steel in 10% H2SO4 solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive, and decreased with increasing temperature. The Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive was a mixed-type inhibitor, and the adsorption of the effective corrosion inhibition component of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive on the carbon steel surface conformed with Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. The addition of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive in sulfuric acid solution enhanced the apparent activation energy of the reaction on carbon steel, which made the corrosion inhibition effective.

  9. 江西乐安县牛田古樟群资源保护研究%Protection of Niu-tian Old Camphor Trees Community Resources in Le'an County,Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小军; 李美玲; 罗小荷

    2011-01-01

    The present situation of community of old camphor trees resources in Niu-tian,Le'an county was surveyed,the result showed that there were 4 127 old trees,including 2 907 old camphor trees and other 1 220 old trees,meanwhile,the old trees were graded judging by standard of national old tree classification and combined by checking the age of old trees and their growing environment.From them,old trees of gradeⅠwere 346,accounted for 8.4%,gradeⅡ 2 330 accounted for 56.5%,grade Ⅲ 1 451 accounted for 35.1%.The countermeasures of protecting old camphor trees community were put forward on base of analyzing and evaluating the old tree resources,animal and plant resources,landscape resources and state of community health of community of old camphor tree.%对乐安县牛田古樟群资源调查结果表明,古樟群共有古树4 127株,其中古樟2 907株,其他树种古树1 220株;对照国家古树名木分级标准,结合查数古树年龄和各自生长环境,其中Ⅰ级古树346株,占8.4%,Ⅱ级古树2 330株,占56.5%,Ⅲ级古树1 451株,占35.1%。在对乐安县牛田古樟群古树资源、动植物资源、景观资源、古樟群健康状况等进行分析和评价基础上,提出保护古樟群的具体对策。

  10. 樟茶间作对土壤养分及重金属含量的影响研究%Effect of Tea and Camphor Tree Intercropping on Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽; 夏丽飞; 陈枚; 杨盛美; 李晓霞; 冉隆珣; 李友勇; 孙云南

    2013-01-01

      为了揭示樟茶间作模式对土壤养分及土壤重金属元素含量的影响,以香樟间作茶园土壤为材料,以单作茶园土壤为对照,分析了土壤及茶叶样品营养元素和重金属元素含量。结果表明:与单作茶园相比,樟茶间作茶园土壤有机质含量增高,但土壤有效态养分含量降低;间作茶园土壤重金属元素含量明显降低,但茶叶新稍中重金属元素含量增加。樟茶间作模式推广中应特别重视茶园土壤重金属元素背景值,保障茶叶的绿色安全生产。%In order to reveal the effects of tea and camphor tree intercropping on soil nutrients and heavy metals, the levels of nutrients and heavy metals in the samples taken from tea and camphor tree intercropping garden contrast to simplex tea garden were analyzed. The results showed that in tea and camphor tree intercropping garden, contrast to simplex tea garden, the contents of soil organic matter increased but its available nutrients decreased. Meanwhile, the levels of heavy metals in soil decreased, but which in the shoots increased. The background values of soil heavy metals should be paid attention to in the extension of tea and camphor tree intercropping mode to ensure the quality safety in tea production.

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of camphoric acid chitosan amide%樟脑酸酰化壳聚糖的微波合成及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振明; 杨艳忠; 李静宇; 谢磊; 杨盛春

    2012-01-01

    以壳聚糖和樟脑酸为原料,在微波辐射下合成了一种新型壳聚糖衍生物——樟脑酸酰化壳聚糖,通过红外(FT-IR)、核磁(1H-NMR)、X-射线衍射(XRD)和热失重(TG)等测试手段对产物结构和性能进行了表征.结果表明樟脑酸通过酰胺键与壳聚糖结合,X-射线结果表明樟脑酸酰化壳聚糖的晶体结构发生了很大的改变,TG分析表明其热稳定性好于壳聚糖.%A new type chitosan derivative,camphoric acid chitosan amide, was synthesized by using of chitosan and camphoric acid as raw materials under microwave irradiation. The chemical structures and properties of the target product were investigated by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra CH-NMR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG),and X-ray diffraction (XRD)measurements. The results showed that the camphoric acid is bonded with chitosan by amide-bond. The XRD pattern of product is signicantly different from the crystalline structure of chitosan. TG result demonstrated that thermal stability of the product is better than that of chitosan.

  12. 毛细管气相色谱法同时测定复方樟脑搽剂中樟脑、薄荷脑含量%Content determination of camphor and menthol in compound camphor liniment by capillary gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊丽; 李加恒; 盖静

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for the determination of camphor and menthol in compound camphor liniment by capillary gas chromatography (GC).Methods:The content was determined by GC combined with Agilent 19095N-123 INNOWAX capillary chromatographic column (30 m × 0.53 mm,1 μm).Column temperature:120℃,injector temperature:220℃,FID detector temperature:260℃.Injector volume was 1 μl,split ratio was 20 ∶ 1.Nitrogen was used as carrier gas,the flow of column was 6.0 ml/min,air:450 ml/min,hydrogen:40 ml/min.Results:The linear range were 0.2016-2.0160 mg/ml (r=0.9999),0.3920-3.9200 mg/ml (r =0.9999) for camphor and menthol respectively.The corresponding average recovery rate were 99.01% (RSD=1.3%) and 97.80% (RSD=1.8%).Conclusion:This method is simple,accurate and with good reproducibility,which can be used as quality control for compound camphor liniment.%目的:建立毛细管气相色谱法同时测定复方樟脑搽剂中樟脑、薄荷脑的含量.方法:采用气相色谱法,Agilent 19095N-123 INNOWAX毛细管色谱柱(30 m×0.53 mm,1μm),FID检测器,柱温120℃,进样口温度220℃,检测器温度260℃,进样量1μl,分流比20∶1,载气为N2,柱流量6.0 ml/min,空气流量450 ml/min,H2流量40 ml/min.结果:各组分的分离度和线性关系良好,樟脑、薄荷脑质量浓度线性范围分别为0.2016~2.0160 mg/ml(r=0.9999)、0.3920~3.9200 mg/ml(r=0.9999),平均回收率分别为99.01%(RSD=1.3%)、97.80%(RSD=1.8%).结论:本法操作简便、结果准确、重现性好,可用于复方樟脑搽剂的质量控制.

  13. A Preliminary Research on Morphological Characteristics of Branches and Leaves Diversity of Ancient Camphor-trees in Jiangxi Province%江西古樟枝叶形态多样性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萌; 陈尚钘; 杨光耀; 王宗德; 季春峰

    2014-01-01

    10 morphologic characters of 151 ancient camphor-tree leaves samples in Anyi, Anfu, Ruijin, Wuyuan and Yanshan of Jiangxi province were studied with the numerical taxonomic methods. The Q cluster analysis method wa applied to classify the 151 samples, and the ten characters were analyzed by R cluster as well as principal components analysis method. The result indicated that the ancient camphor-trees can not be divided into different groups based on the present samples and condition because the leaves' shape of ancient camphor-trees has high similarity. However, the shapes of ancient camphor-trees showed two types:the edge of leaves is waved or non-waved. This character has a strong regularity in the ancient camphor-trees leaves. It providea a favorable basis for the future study of system classification and evolution manner of the plants in Lauraceae.%选取10个形态学性状,应用数量分类学方法对江西省安义、安福、瑞金、婺源、铅山5个地区共151株古樟标本进行研究。将数量分类学中的Q聚类应用于5个地区共151份样本的分类,对选取的10个性状进行了R型聚类分析,且对这10个性状进行主成分分析。结果表明:同一地区以及不同地区的古樟之间的差异性不明显,也即古樟在枝叶形态上的相似度很大,依据现有样本和条件暂时无法把古樟分出不同的类群。不过古樟从性状上有两大类型,叶片存在边缘波状和不波的两种情况,此性状在古樟叶片中表现出较强的规律性。本研究为今后利用枝叶形态探讨樟科植物的系统分类和演化方式提供有利的依据。

  14. 神佗伤湿灵中樟脑与薄荷脑的气相色谱测定%Determination of Camphor and menthol in Shentuo Shangshiling by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有诚; 谭颖华

    2001-01-01

    To determine the contents of camphor and menthol in ShnetuoShangshiling by gas chromatography. Methods: 10% PEG - 20M was used as stationary phase, Shimalite W(NAM) 60- 80 mesh as supporter and naphthalene as internal standard. Results: The concentrations of camphor and menthol were linear to ratios of their peak areas to the naphthalene' s area in the range of 1.41mg/ml/~11.30mg/ ml and 1.40mg/ml~11.21mg/ml respectively. The regressive equations were:camphor Y=0. 19969 C- 0.00244(r = 1.0000, n = 5) ,men thol Y=0.22175 C-0.00260(r=0.9999, n=5) . The mean added-recovery rates were: camphor 100.56% (n=6, RSD=0.45%); menthol: 101.01% ( n = 6, RSD = 0.79% ). Conclusions: Bein8 simple, fast and duplicable in operation, gas chrormatography is a good method to determine the content of camphor and menthol with accurate, stable and reliable results.%用气相色谱法测定神佗伤湿灵中樟脑及薄荷脑的含量。方法:以10%PEG20M为固定相,ShimaliteW(NAW)60~80mesh为担体,萘为内标。结果:樟脑及薄荷脑浓度分别在1.41mg/ml~11.30mg/ml和1.40mg/ml~11.21mg/ml范围内,与A对/A内之间呈线性关系。回归方程分别为:樟脑y=0.19969C-0.00244(r=1.0000);薄荷脑y=0.22175C-0.00260(r=0.9999)。加样回收率分别为:樟脑100.56%(n=6.RSD=0.45%);薄荷脑101.01%(n=6,RSD=0.79%)。结论:气相色谱测定法测定樟脑与薄荷脑快速、简便、重现性好,结果准确、稳定、可靠。

  15. The Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves Extractive and Potassium Iodide%樟树叶提取液与碘化钾的缓蚀协同效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴文; 龚敏; 曾宪光; 姜春梅; 曾祥梅; 张婷

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical method was used to study the synergistic effect between Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive and potassium iodide for Q23S steel in sulfuric acid solution. The results showed that the corrosion current density decreased, when Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive complexed with potassium iodide, the desorption potential positively shifted and corrosion potential negatively shifted, so the effective inhibitor region was increased, the adsorption stability of inhibitor was improved, showing better corrosion inhibition performance. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing the Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive concentration. The composite inhibitor made up of Cinnamomum camphor leaves extractive and potassium iodide was a mixed-type inhibitor, and the inhibitor mechanism of which was coverage effect. The joint adsorption of Cinnamomum camphor Leaves and potassium iodide on the Q235 steel surface was mainly overlapping adsorption, and the adsorption conformed with Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation.%采用电化学方法研究了樟树叶提取液(CCIE)和碘化钾复配后(FPCCLE),对Q235钢在硫酸溶液中的缓蚀协同效应,结果表明:樟树叶提取液与碘化钾复配后,腐蚀电流密度减小,腐蚀电位负移,脱附电位Edes正移,增大了缓蚀剂的有效作用范围,提高了缓蚀剂的吸附稳定性,表现出更好的缓蚀作用,且缓蚀效率随提取液浓度的增加而增大;樟树叶提取液与碘化钾组成的复配缓蚀剂属于混合抑制型缓蚀剂,作用机理为几何覆盖效应;樟树叶提取液和碘化钾在Q235钢表面的联合吸附为重叠吸附,吸附规律符合Langmuir吸附等温方程.

  16. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to combined UVB (4-methylbenzylidene camphor/octyl methoxycinnamate) and UVA (benzophenone-3/butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane) absorber sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    1998-01-01

    In a 71-year-old male Caucasian patient with persistent eczema on light-exposed skin, photocontact allergy was demonstrated to the UV filter substances 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (UVB), octyl methoxycinnamate (UVB), benzophenone-3 (UVA) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (UVA) present in sunscreen products used by the patient over several years. A significantly reduced UVB sensitivity of 25 mJ/cm2 in this patient (normal minimal erythema dose in our laboratory = 70-130 mJ/cm2) was considered an early indication of a persistent light reaction. Topical anti-inflammatory treatment over 2 weeks together with consequent application of a sunscreen containing Mexoryl SX/titanium dioxide led to complete remission. Taking into account the widespread use of the above UV filter substances not only in sun protection products, but also in cosmetics such as antiaging lotions and day care products, the possible risk of allergy to these chemicals has to be taken seriously. The substitution of known photocontact sensitizers in UV filters by photostable compounds and detailed product information are the basis of preventive strategies. PMID:9621150

  17. Bioactivity of Camphor to Aphids (Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach, Myzus persicae Sulzer and Aphis gossypii Glover)%莰酮对蚜虫生物活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤丽梅; 李保同

    2002-01-01

    进行了樟树(Cinnanomum camphora L.)中的莰酮(Camphor C10H160)对蚜虫的触杀、熏蒸毒力和拒食活性研究.结果表明,处理后24 h莰酮对菜缢管蚜、桃蚜和棉蚜触杀作用的LD50分别为3.12×10-3,2.04x10-3,0.68×10-3ng/头,熏蒸作用的LC50分别为3.44,2.56,1.06mg/L,拒食作用的AFC50分别为3.34,2.98,1.32mg/L.经回归和相关分析,处理浓度与作用效果相关性均达到极显著或显著水平.莰酮在田间防治菜缢管蚜的效果显著.

  18. In-situ and real-time investigation of the columnar-equiaxed transition in the transparent alloy system neopentylglycol-camphor onboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, L.; Zimmermann, G.

    2011-12-01

    The low-gravity experiment TRACE (TRansparent Alloys in Columnar Equiaxed solidification) has been performed onboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-47 to enable the investigation of dendritic growth and the dendrites' columnar to equiaxed transition during solidification. Low-gravity conditions provide solidification under diffusive heat and mass transfer conditions and without sedimentation or buoyancy of equiaxed dendrites or nucleation seeds to simplify the boundary conditions for dendritic microstructure simulation. In addition the transparent organic alloy system Neopentylglycol (NPG) - (D)Camphor (DC) was used to allow for a real-time and in-situ observation of the microstructure evolution with standard optics. For the flight experiment all relevant experimental parameters like thermal gradient, solidification velocity and undercooling within the bulk liquid and at the columnar dendritic tips have been determined by image analysis or from thermocouple recordings within the solidifying alloy. This allows a very detailed comparison with results of existing models for dendritic growth and for columnar-to-equiaxed transition. Here we present a summary of the experimental findings in comparison with results of some of the theoretical models.

  19. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Camphoric Acid-based Thiourea Derivatives%樟脑酸基硫脲类化合物的合成及抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马献力; 刘陆智; 段文贵; 石贤春; 李芳耀; 华忠泽

    2015-01-01

    Ten novel camphoric acid-based thiourea compounds (5a 5j) were prepared using camphoric acid and aminoethyl substituted phenyl thioureas as starting materials. The target compounds were characterized by FT-IR,1H NMR,13 C NMR,LC-MS,and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of the compounds 5a 5j were tested. The preliminary bioassay showed that most of the target compounds exhibited certain antifungal activities,in which camphoric acid-based (o-methoxy)phenyl thiourea 5c (R=o-CH3O) and camphoric acid-based (m-methoxy)phenyl thiourea 5d (R=m-CH3O) had inhibition rate of 86. 9 % against Alternaria solani,and camphoric acid-based (m-methoxy)phenyl thiourea 5d,camphoric acid-based (m-methyl)phenyl thiourea 5g (R=m-CH3) and camphoric acid-based (p-bromo)phenyl thiourea 4i ( R=p-Br) had inhibition rate of 86. 1% against Physalospora piricola at the concentration of 50 mg/L. In addition,compound 5i also had the best inhibitory activity against cercospora arachidicola(73. 6%).%以樟脑酸和氨乙基取代苯基硫脲为原料,合成了10个新型的樟脑酸基硫脲类化合物(5a 5j). 利用FT-IR、1 H NMR、13 C NMR、LC-MS和元素分析等手段对目标产物进行了结构表征. 同时对化合物5a 5j的抑菌活性进行了测试. 初步的生物活性测试表明,在质量浓度为50 mg/L时,大部分化合物具有一定的抑菌活性,其中化合物樟脑酸基邻甲氧基苯基硫脲5c(R=o-CH3O)和樟脑酸基间甲氧基苯基硫脲5d(R=m-CH3O)对番茄早疫病菌(Alternaria solani)的抑制率达86. 9 %,化合物樟脑酸基间甲氧基苯基硫脲5d、樟脑酸基间甲基苯基硫脲5g( R=m-CH3 )和樟脑酸基对溴苯基硫脲5i(R=p-Br)对苹果轮纹病菌(Physalospora piricola)的抑制率达86. 1 %. 此外,化合物5i还对花生褐斑病毒(Cercospora arachidicola)具有最好的抑制率(73. 6%).

  20. Structural Elucidation of D-Camphor andβ-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex%D-樟脑与β-环糊精包合物的结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆英; 何佩芝

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion complex ofβ-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and D-camphor was prepared from saturated solution with stirring. The stoichiometric ratio of the inclusion complex was found to be 1∶1, as indicated by the 1H NMR results. XRD and FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the intermolecular interactions between D-camphor and β-CD. 1H ROESY NMR results showed that the bicyclo[2.2.1]-2-heptanone of D-camphor was located in the cavity ofβ-CD, and its methyl group was partially outside. Quantum chemical calculation was used to obtain minimized binding energy and optimized structure, suggesting the presence of hydrogen bonding.%采用饱和水溶液搅拌法制备β-环糊精(β-CD)/D-樟脑包合物.1H NMR确定了β-CD与 D-樟脑形成包合物的化学计量比为1∶1.X-射线衍射图谱和红外光谱图证明 D-樟脑和β-CD分子间的相互作用.1H ROESY NMR分析结果说明包合物的结构型式是D-樟脑的二环[2.2.1]-2-庚酮位于β-CD空腔内,其三甲基部分位于β-CD空腔外.通过量子化学计算得到形成β-CD/D-樟脑包合物最低结合能和结构优化状态,氢健的存在证实了上述分析结果的准确性.

  1. Determination of camphor, synthetic borneol, menthol in HanBi Ointment by GC%气相色谱法测定寒痹软膏中樟脑、冰片和薄荷脑的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟强

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立测定寒痹软膏中樟脑、冰片、薄荷脑含量的方法。方法采用气相色谱法,毛细管柱为 ZB-Wax(30m ×0.25mm ×0.5μm),萘为内标物,程序升温,FID检测器。结果樟脑、冰片、薄荷脑分别在0.3209~0.6417mg· mL -1、0.2414~0.4828mg· mL -1、0.2392~0.4784mg · mL -1范围内呈良好线性关系。平均回收率分别为:樟脑102.54%,RSD 为1.02%;冰片98.81%,RSD 为1.05%;薄荷脑102.13%,RSD 为1.53%。结论本方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,可同时测定寒痹软膏中樟脑、冰片和薄荷脑的含量。%OBJECTIVE To set up a method for the determination of camphor ,synthetic bomeolmenthol in Han-bi Ointment.METHODS camphor , synthetic bomeol , menthol wasdetermined by GC.A capillary column ZB-Wax (30m ×0.25mm ×0.5μm) was used,sequential increase of temperature programming ,FID detector.RESULTS camphor , syntheticborneol , menthol presented a good linear correlation within a range of 0.3209 ~0.6417 mg · mL-1、0.2414~0.4828 mg· mL-1、0.2392~0.4784 mg· mL-1.The average recovery of camphor ,synthetic bome-ol and menthol was 102.54%( RSD =1.02%)、98.81%( RSD =1.05%)、102.13%( RSD =1.53%).CONCLUSION This method is simple ,reliable and good repeatability.

  2. Cyclometalated platinum(Ⅱ) complexes with sterically bulky camphor-derived groups as β-diketonate ancillary ligand:a new route to efficiently reducing π-π interactions and Pt-Pt interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new series of mono-cyclometalated square planar platinum(Ⅱ) complexes have been synthesized and the single-crystal X-ray structures of complex 1 and 2 have been determined.The complexes have the general formula ppyPt(OO),where ppy is 2-phenylpyridyl,and OO is β-diketonate ancillary ligands with the acyl substituent group in position 3 of(D)-(+)-camphor.Although,like the many Pt(Ⅱ) complexes with square-planar geometry,these complexes have plane stacking modes in crystal structure,the sterically bulky camphor-derived groups compel extensive slipping of the molecular stacking planes,resulting in the negligible overlapping of the aromatic ring fragments between molecules and the considerable Pt-Pt distance.The resolved spectra and a little shifted emission in solid state of complexes show that there is significant reduction of π-π interactions and Pt-Pt interactions,and suggest these complexes may be good candidates for doped phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes(PhOLEDs) and even for nondoped PhOLEDs.

  3. 樟脑与克霉唑软膏联合治疗股癣和足癣的临床疗效%Camphor combined with clotrimazole ointment in the treatment of tinea cruris and tinea pedis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨樟脑联合克霉唑软膏治疗股癣和足癣的疗效。方法:收治股癣和足癣患者100例,将樟脑碾碎为粉末与克霉唑软膏混合后均匀涂抹患处。结果:2~3 d后,水疱以及糜烂结痂,4~5 d后患处蜕皮,9~10 d后,患处蜕皮结束,皮肤颜色恢复正常,治愈。结论:本方法简便、价廉,效果好。%Objective:To explore the effect of camphor combined with clotrimazole ointment in the treatment of tinea cruris and tinea pedis.Methods:Camphor was crushed into powder,and then it was mixed with clotrimazole ointment,then it was evenly coated in the affected area.Results:2 to 3 days later, blisters and erosion was scabby.4 to 5 days later, molting was started. 9 to 10 days later, molting was end, and affected skin color returned to normal.It was cure.Conclusion:This method is simple,inexpensive,and the effect is good.

  4. 茎泽兰-薰衣草精油-樟脑防蛀剂的制备与性能研究%Preparation and Properties of Eupatorium-Lavender oil-Camphor Mothproofing Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 赵静; 史少伟; 徐丹红; 王凤

    2011-01-01

    为了研究不同因素对片剂释药速率的影响,并通过药效试验确定最佳配方,以樟脑和薰衣草精油为主要防蛀成分,以紫茎泽兰为辅料,粉末直接压片法制片,通过动态释放试验测定不同影响因素下片剂的释药速率,并以黑皮蠹为供试虫种,测定纯樟脑、纯紫茎泽兰草粉以及不同配方制剂的防蛀效果.结果表明:紫茎泽兰草粉可压性良好;10 MPa制片压力下,以二氧化硅吸附薰衣草精油制得的片剂,对精油的缓释效果最好.纯樟脑片和纯草粉片的织物损害程度分别为3级、4级,均未达到登记标准(≤2);当樟脑含量为60%,精油含量为6%时,片剂防蛀效果最好,织物损害程度为1级,满足并超过登记标准.%The mothproofing tablets composed of dry eupatorium powder, lavender oil and camphor were prepared. The effects of various factors on the release rates of active agents from the mothproofing tablets were investigated. The optimized formulation was obtained by efficacy test. The camphor and lavender oil-containing mothproofing tablets were prepared by the method of direct compression using eupatorium dry powders as a matrix material. The factors influencing the release rates of active agents from the tablets were investigated using in vitro dynamic release experiment. The efficacies of pure camphor tablets, pure dry eupatorium-powder tablets and the other tablets with different formulations were evaluated using the black carpet beetles as test insects. The dry eupatorium powders had good compressibility. The tablets had good sustained release effects for lavender oil, which were prepared under the compression force of 10 Mpa using silica particles as the adsorbent for lavender oil. The fabric damage degree was evaluated as grade 3 and 4 respectively for pure camphor tablets and pure eupatorium-powder tablets, both of which did not meet the registration standard (grade≤2). The formulations were optimized to obtain

  5. Determination of Mentholum and Camphor in Compound Zinc Oxide Powder by GC%气相色谱法测定复方氧化锌粉中薄荷脑和樟脑含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹰; 程璐; 胡志强; 刘倩

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法同时测定复方氧化锌粉中的樟脑、薄荷脑两组分的含量.方法:以萘为内标物质,环己烷作为溶剂,岛津CBP-M25-025(25 m×0.22 mm,0.25μm)为色谱柱;栽气为氮气,柱温130 ℃,进样口和检测器温度均为180℃,FID氢火焰离子化检测器,进样量1μl.结果:测定各组份达到良好分离,樟脑的线性范围为0.26~2.63 mg·ml-1,薄荷脑的线性范围为0.51~5.06 mg·ml-1(r=0.999 8);樟脑的平均回收率为99.5%(RSD=1.10%),薄荷脑的回收率为98.9%(RSD=1.36%).结论:本方法灵敏、快速、简便、可用于复方氧化锌粉的质量控制.%Objective: To establish a method for detecting mentholum and camphor in compound zinc oxide powder by GC.Method: Naphthalene was chosen as the internal standard, and cyclohexane as the solvent.Shimadzu CBP-M25-025 (25 m ×0.22 mm,0.25μm) was used as the column, and nitrogen as the carrier gas.The temperature of column was 130 ℃, and the temperature of injection port and FID detector was both 180 ℃.The injection amount was 1 μl.Result: The calibration curve of Camphor was linear within the range of 0.26-2.63 mg· ml - 1, and the calibration curve of mentholum was linear within the range of 0.51-5.06 mg· ml - 1 (r =0.999 8).The average recovery of camphor was 99.5 % with RSD of 1.10%.The average recovery of mentholum was 98.9% with RSD of 1.36%.Conclusion: The method is sensitive, accurate and convenient, and can be used for the quality control of compound zinc oxide powder.

  6. Determination of the Content of Borneol、Menthol、Camphor in Sanhong Ointment by GC%气相色谱法测定三红软膏中冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓康程

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法测定粉三红软膏中冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑的含量。方法以萘为内标物,选用ZB-Wax毛细管柱(30m ×0.25mm ×0.5μm);载气为:氮气、氢气、空气;FID检测器;采用升温程序与分流进样。结果冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑的线性关系良好,冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑的平均回收率分别为98.81%、102.04%、102.54%,RSD分别为1.53%、1.05%、1.02%。结论该方法准确可靠、精密度高、重现性好,可用于三红软膏中冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑的含量测定。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To establish a GC method for determination of borneol、menthol、camphor in Shang-hong Ointment.METHODS Naphthalene was used for the internal standard .The GC system consisted of ZB-Wax capillary column (30 m ×0.25 mm ×0.5μm);nitrogen、hydrogen、air as the carrier gas;FID as the detector;Using the temperature program and Split injection .RESULTS borneol、menthol、camphor showed a good linear relation-ship.The average recovery was 98.81%、102.04%、102.54%,RSD was 1.53%、1.05%、1.02%.CONCLUSION The method is accurate、reliable、high precision、good repeatability and can be used for the determination of borne-ol、menthol、camphor in Shanghong Ointmen .

  7. Determination of Camphor and Menthol in Xiaozhongzhitong Tincture by Capillary Gas Chromatography%毛细管气相色谱法测定消肿止痛酊中樟脑与薄荷脑的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 陈安家; 张一鸣; 王洁; 李霞; 李进冉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for GC determination of Camphor and Menthol in Xiaozhongzhitong Tincture.Methods Capillary GC was adopted.The internal standard method was employed with octanol as internal standard.The GC system consisted of a flame ionization detector,PEG-20M capillary column(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm),nitrogen as the carrier gas;oven temperature 160℃,detector temperature 250℃,N2:3 ml/min,H2:30 ml/min,Air:300ml/min,made up(N2):30 ml/min.Results Camphor and Menthol could be separated well under the chromatographic conditions.The linear range of Camphor was 3.00~18.00 μg/ml (r=0.999 2),and the linear range of the Menthol was 3.20~19.20 μg/ml(r=0.999 5);the recovery of Camphor was 98.5%~101.5%,and the recovery of Menthol was 97.6%~101.7%.Conclusion The method is simple,sensitive,accurate and has good repeatability,and it can be used to control the quality of Xiaozhongzhitong Tincture.%目的 建立测定消肿止痛酊中樟脑和薄荷脑含量的方法.方法 采用毛细管气相色谱法.色谱柱为PEG-20M石英毛细管柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm);载气为氮气;正辛醇为内标;柱温160℃;氢火焰离子检测器;检测器和气化室的温度均为250℃;N2流速3 ml/min;H2流速30 ml/min;空气流速300 ml/min;尾吹气N2流速30 ml/min.结果 樟脑、薄荷脑和正辛醇能达到良好分离;樟脑的线性范围3.00~18.00 μg/ml(r=0.999 2),薄荷脑的线性范围3.20~19.20 μg/ml(r=0.999 5);樟脑的回收率98.5%~101.5%,薄荷脑的回收率97.6%~101.7%.结论 方法简便、准确、专属性强、重复性好,可用于消肿止痛酊的质量控制.

  8. Ação larvicida de derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+- cânfora e da (+- isopinocanfona sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus Larvicidal action of (+-camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives on Boophilus microplus cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Chagas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a atividade larvicida de 33 derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona no carrapato B. microplus, na busca de princípios ativos menos tóxicos para o seu controle. Os produtos foram obtidos por clorossulfonação da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona. Eles foram submetidos à solubilização e testados separadamente e em conjunto contra larvas de carrapato encerradas em envelopes contendo papéis impregnados e acondicionadas em estufa climatizada. A mortalidade média não atingiu 5% em todos os testes realizados, indicando que a clorossulfonação não é a rota de síntese mais adequada para a obtenção de derivados sintéticos com efeito larvicida sobre B. microplus. Os 33 produtos testados sob a forma de triagem biológica não podem ser considerados como potenciais acaricidas.It was investigated the acaricidal activity of (+- camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives against Boophilus microplus cattle tick. The products were obtained through the camphor and isopinocamphone clorosulfonation. Thirty-three products were submitted to solubilization and tested alone and together, against tick larvae. Ticks were caught in filter paper envelopes impregnated with products, which were incubated under controlled conditions. The average mortality did not reach 5% in all trials, indicating that clorosulfonation is not an appropiate procedure to obtain derivatives with larvicidal effect against B. microplus. The 33 products tested in the biological screening could not be considered as potential acaricides.

  9. Oxidação do borneol à cânfora com água sanitária - um experimento simples, de baixo custo e limpo Oxidation of borneol to camphor with bleach: a simple, green chemistry and inexpensive experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bernardo dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory pressure is increasingly focusing on the use and disposal of substances hazardous to human health and environment. In the last years efforts have also been made to introduce green chemistry concepts in undergraduate courses. In this paper we present an experiment on the oxidation reaction of borneol to camphor with bleach in acetone. This experiment is important to show undergraduate students that a cheap and non hazardous commercial product can be a useful oxidation agent of alcohols.

  10. Investigation and Analysis of Growth Effect of Mixed Forestation of Chinese Fir and Camphor Tree%杉木樟树混交造林生长效果调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪义

    2015-01-01

    In pinus massoniana cutover land on Tiger Mountain ,the article conducts an experiment that a mixed forest and pure forest of Chinese fir and camphor tree are tested .After 11 years of operation and management ,the forests grow well . The results show that the forest increment of mixed forest of Chinese fir and camphor tree is obviously larger than that of pure forest .The average tree height of mixed forest is taller than pure forest of Chinese fir and pinus massoniana by 3.56%and 7.25%respectively;the average DBH is coarser by 14.47%and 15.26%respectively;the average crown is larger by 21.28%and 77.78%respectively;the canopy density is larger by 3.26%and 2.15%respectively;the individual volume is larger by 31.58%and 38.89%respectively;the average per hectare volume is larger by 22.14%and 41.89%respective-ly.The soil fertility nutrient N,P,K of mixed forest is clearly higher than that of pure forest .%在虎头山马尾松采伐迹地,进行了营造杉木樟树混交林、纯林试验,经过11年的经营管理,其林木生长良好. 结果显示:杉木樟树混交林的林木生长量,比纯林的林木生长量显著良好,树高平均分别大3.56%、7.25%,胸径平均分别粗14.47%、15.26%,树冠平均分别大21.28%、77.78%,郁闭度平均分别大3.26%、2.15%,单株材积平均分别大31.58%、38.89%,每公顷蓄积量平均分别多22.14%、41.89%. 杉木樟树混交林的土壤肥力养分N、P、K,分别比杉木、樟树纯林的土壤肥力也明显提高.

  11. Primary Study on Reasons for the Growth Re-cession of Fragrant Camphor Trees at the West Lake Scenic Area and Diagnosis Procedure%杭州西湖景区古香樟生长衰退原因及诊断程序初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昆仑

    2013-01-01

    香樟是杭州市市树,在杭州市的古树中占有较大比重.近年来,随着环西湖景区的免费开放和西湖综合保护工程的实施建设,使得部分古香樟面临立地环境改变等问题,有的古香樟出现了生长势衰弱,甚至濒临死亡.如不及时进行救治和复壮,将对滨湖景观的良好保持和可持续发展造成极为不利的影响.因此,加强对环西湖景区古香樟的保护管理,开展环西湖古香樟生长衰退原因诊断程序研究,对今后环西湖古树的保护和复壮均很有意义.列举了影响古树生长的几种因素与判断指标,对其衰退原因进行了系统诊断,并简单讨论了古樟树的复壮措施.%Fragrant camphor tree is the city tree of Hangzhou which takes a large proportion of the ancient trees in Hangzhou City.Recently,with the free open of the attractions around the West Lake and the implementation of the comprehensive project for protecting the West Lake,a part of ancient fragrant camphor trees are facing problems such as altered living conditons.Some of them are showing a decline in growth vigor or even close to death,which will produce extremely negative influences on the maintaining and sustainable development of the West Lake Scenic Area if without any timely measures for the rescue and rejuvenation of the trees.Therefore,strengthening the protection and management of ancient fragrant camphor trees at the West Lake Scenic Area and carrying out researches on the procedure for diagnosing the reasons for the growth recession of the ancient fragrant camphor trees at the West Lake Scenic Area are of great significance for the future protection and rejuvenation of the ancient trees around the West Lake.The factors influencing the growth of ancient trees and indexes for judging the growth condition were listed and the reasons for the growth recession were systematically summarized in this paper.In addition,measures for the rejuvenation of the ancient fragrant camphor

  12. Camphor Determination in Ambient Air by Capillary Gas Chromatography%毛细管柱气相色谱法测定环境空气中的樟脑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳丽; 李利荣

    2011-01-01

    Camphor in the air was determined by gas chromatograph of capillary column with hydrogen flame ionization detector, using silica gel as adsorbent, and desorbed by mixed solvent [ V( methanol): V( acetone) = 90:10] . Results of the method showed that good linearity was obtained in range from 0.544 mg/L to 109 mg/L, detection limit 0.06 mg/L, the lowest detection concentration 0. 003 mg/m3 at sampling 20 liters air, RSD of standard solution ≤3. 8% , spiked recovery of blank from 95.4% to 101% .%采用毛细管柱气相色谱氢火焰离子化检测器测定环境空气中的樟脑,选择硅胶为吸附剂,甲醇/丙酮混合溶剂(体积比90∶10)为解析剂.方法在0.544 mg/L~109 mg/L范围内线性良好,检出限为0.06 mg/L,当采样体积为20 L时,最低检出质量浓度为0.003 mg/m3,标准溶液平行测定的RSD≤3.8%,空白加标回收率为95.4%~101%.

  13. Inhibition of Anchorage-Independent Proliferation and G0/G1 Cell-Cycle Regulation in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells by 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-Methyl-l,3-Benzodioxole Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Antrodia camphorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Man Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1 was isolated from three different sources of dried fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate (AC. AC is a medicinal mushroom that grows on the inner heartwood wall of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae, an endemic species that is used in Chinese medicine for its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we demonstrated that SY-1 profoundly decreased the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (COLO 205 through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest (50–150 μM and induction of apoptosis (>150 μM. Cell-cycle arrest induced by SY-1 was associated with a significant increase in levels of p53, p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1, and a decrease in cyclins D1, D3 and A. In contrast, SY-1 treatment did not induce significant changes in G0/G1 phase cell-cycle regulatory proteins in normal human colonic epithelial cells (FHC. The cells were cultured in soft agar to evaluate anchorage-independent colony formation, and we found that the number of transformed colonies was significantly reduced in the SY-1-treated COLO 205 cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that SY-1 inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation through inhibition of cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. However, the detailed mechanisms of these processes remain unclear and will require further investigation.

  14. GC法测定特制狗皮膏中薄荷脑、冰片、水杨酸甲酯的含量%Determination of Peppermint Camphor,Borneol and Methy1 Salicylate in Tezhi Goupi Plaster by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓炜

    2013-01-01

    目的:测定特制狗皮膏中薄荷脑、冰片、水杨酸甲酯的含量.方法:采用气相色谱法,使用HP-IN-NOWAX柱,氮气(99.999%)为载气,检测器:FID.结果:薄荷脑、冰片、水杨酸甲酯分离完全,线性关系良好,薄荷脑的加样回收率为98.49%,RSD为2.86%,冰片的加样回收率为98.50%,RSD为1.47%,水杨酸甲酯的加样回收率为97.44%,RSD为2.68%.结论:方法简便快速,分离度好,结果稳定,可用于特制狗皮膏的质量控制.%Objective:The purpose is to develop GC method for the assay of Peppermint camphor,Borneol and Methyl Saliylate in Tezhi Goupi Plaster.Method:GC was applied to do quantitative analysis.Chromatographic conditions included resilience capillary of quartz with HP-INNOWAX.Flameionization detector(FID) was used for determination.Results:Peppermint camphor,Borneol and Methyl Saliylate were separated completely.The linear range of Peppermint camphor was 14.64 ~ 366.0 ng/mL.The average recovery of Peppermint camphor was 98.49% with RSD =2.86% (n =5).The linear range of Borneol was 28.48 ~ 712.0 ng/mL.The average recovery of Borneol was 98.50% with RSD =1.47% (n =5).The linear range of Methyl Salilylate was 42.912 ~ 1072.8 ng/mL.The average recovery of Methyl Salicylate was 97.44% with RSD =2.68% (n =5).Conclusion:The established method is accurate and it can be applied to control quality of Tezhi Goupi Plaster.

  15. Effects of Different Ratio of Wood Vinegar Fertilizer on Camphor Forest Soil%不同配比的木醋肥对香樟林土壤性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡妍玢; 陈杰; 杨学军; 李辉信

    2013-01-01

    将不同配比的木醋肥施用于香樟林地中,通过测定施肥后林地土壤微生物数量、酶活性、土壤部分化学性质以及植物黄化相关指标的变化情况,旨在选择效果明显的配比应用于城市绿地绿化植物的养护中.试验结果表明,6种试验配方均能不同程度地改善香樟林土壤性状,主要表现在:微生物数量增加、酶活性提高、化学性质得到改良,同时香樟黄化也得到有效控制.低浓度木醋液中加入低量有机肥,对土壤微生物有一定的抑制作用,并且化学性质和黄化改良效果不如其他处理明显;从生产应用、使用价值等综合效果来看,中低浓度木醋液中加入木炭粉(木醋液∶木炭粉比例为1∶5(V∶M))和中高量有机肥的处理改良效果最好.%By using different ratios of wood vinegar fertilizer in camphor forest,the changes of relevant indexes of soil microbial number,chemical properties,soil enzyme activity and chlorosis index was studied.The results showed that all the six different ratios of wood vinegar fertilizer could improve chemical properties of soil,increase soil microbial quantity,enhance soil enzyme activity and control etiolation of camphora trees.Compared with contrast,the ratio with low concentration of wood vinegar and low organic fertilizer treatment was not as good as other treatments in inhibiting soil microorganism,improving chemical properties and controlling etiolation.Based on an overall consideration of various factors,the ratios with middle or low concentration of wood vinegar added charcoal powder (wood vinegar:charcoal powder ratio =1 ∶ 5 (V / M) and middle or high organic fertilizer were better in use of urban afforesting and greening.

  16. 樟树籽仁油合成癸/月桂酰基谷氨酸钠工艺研究%Synthesis of sodium caprinoyl/lauroyl glutamate with camphor tree seed kernel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾哲灵; 王林林; 郑菲; 奚光兴

    2013-01-01

    Sodium caprinoyl/lauroyl glutamate was synthesized under alkaline condition with sodium glutamate and capric/lauric fatty acid chloride produced from camphor tree seed kernel oil by saponification and acyl chlorination. The effects of reaction temperature, pH, reaction time, volume ratio of acetone to water and molar ratio of sodium glutamate to capric/lauric fatty acid chloride on the synthesis rate of sodium caprinoyl/lauroyl glutamate were studied. The optimal synthesis conditions were as follows: reaction temperature 45℃,reaction time 3 h,pH 10-11 ,volume ratio of acetone to water 2:1 and molar ratio of sodium glutamate to capric/lauric fatty acid chloride 2:1. Under the optimal synthesis conditions,the synthesis rate reached 89.2%. The product was determined as sodium caprinoyl/lauroyl glutamate by infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry.%以樟树籽仁油为原料,通过皂化、酰氯化,碱性条件下与谷氨酸钠反应生成癸/月桂酰基谷氨酸钠盐.研究反应温度、pH、反应时间、丙酮与水体积比以及谷氨酸钠与癸/月桂脂肪酰氯摩尔比对癸/月桂酰基谷氨酸钠合成率的影响.得出最佳合成条件为:反应温度45℃,反应时间3h,pH10~11,丙酮与水体积比2∶1,谷氨酸钠与癸/月桂脂肪酰氯摩尔比2∶1.在此条件下,癸/月桂酰基谷氨酸钠的合成率为89.2%.经质谱及红外光谱分析,确定产物为癸/月桂酰基谷氨酸钠.

  17. Studies on soil temperature distribution of camphor plantations and forest clearance area%樟树人工林内和林内空地土壤温度分布的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴湘雄; 康文星; 傅强; 宿少峰; 王灿

    2012-01-01

    以一年的观测数据为依据,剖析了樟树人工林内和林内空地地表温、土壤温度、温度梯度分布及其波动状态和土壤热力流向.结果表明:林内和林内空旷地土壤温度特征不一样,林内空旷地的地表温和各层土温的年、月、日均值及其振幅,都显著高于树林内,两者的土壤温度梯度和热力流向与途径有着较大差异;林内和林内空旷地地表最高、低温出现时刻不一样,林冠有推迟地表最高温出现的作用;林冠的遮拦,以及枝叶凋落物对地表的覆盖,使林内土温振幅衰减速率加快,土温的波动幅度减少,为树木的生长创造了适宜的土壤环境.%Based on the observation data in one year, the surface temperature, soil temperature, distribution of temperature gradient and state of temperature fluctuation, and soil thermal flow direction in the clearance area of the camphor plantation were investigated and analyzed. The results show that the soil temperature characteristics of the plantation and the clearance area were unlike, the year, month and day values of the surface soil temperature, that of soil temperature in each layer and the amplitude in the clearance area were higher than those in the forest, the soil temperature gradient and heat flow direction and the way had a bigger difference; the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature didn't appeared at the same moment, the canopy delayed the highest surface temperature to appear, that the canopy blocked or the branches and leaves litter covered the earth's surface could make the plantations soil temperature amplitude decay to be faster, reduced the fluctuation range of soil temperature, and created the proper soil environment for the trees growth.

  18. 以3-乙酰基樟脑作为辅助配体的环金属铱配合物的合成及光电性能研究%Synthesis and Photoelectric Property of Bis-Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes with 3-Acetyl Camphor as the Ancillary Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娟; 骆开均; 陈艳芳; 赵白静; 李茂伟

    2012-01-01

    以立体位阻3-乙酰基樟脑为辅助配体合成了系列新型的环金属铱配合物3-乙酰基樟脑-2-(2,4-二氟)苯基吡啶环金属铱配合物[(46dfppy)2Ir(acam)],3-乙酰基樟脑-2-苯基吡啶环金属铱配合物[(ppy)2Ir(acam)],3-乙酰基樟脑-2-苯并噻吩吡啶环金属铱配合物[(btp)2Ir(acam)].将配合物的吸收光谱、光致发光光谱以及光致发光效率与辅助配体为乙酰丙酮(acac)的对应配合物进行了比较,发现在配合物中引入具有大空间位阻的3-乙酰基樟脑使配合物的光致发光效率均有所提高.并将(ppy)2Ir(acam)用于有机电致发光器件,电致发光光谱在516 nm处有一最大强度峰,驱动电压为12 V时最大亮度为10930 cd/m2,最大亮度效率达到14.6 cd/A,电压为10.7 V时最大功率为4.23 lm/W,亮度为698 cd/m2.%A series of bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes,iridium(III) bis(2-(2,4-difluoro)phenylpyridine-N,C2') 3-acetyl camphor [(46dfppy)2Ir(acam)],iridium(III) bis(2-phenylpyridinato-N,C2') 3-acetyl camphor [(ppy)2Ir(acam)] and iridium(III) bis(2-(2'-benzothienyl) pyridinato-N,C3') 3-acetyl camphor [(btp)2Ir(acam)] were synthesized with sterically 3-acetyl camphor as ancillary ligand.The absorption spectrum,PL spectra and photoluminescence efficiency of complexes were compared with the corresponding complexes with acetylacetone(acac) as the ancillary ligand.It was found that all of their photoluminescence efficiency could be improved when sterically hindered 3-acetyl camphor was introduced.When [(ppy)2Ir(acam)] was used as light-emitting devices,the EL spectra has the largest peak intensity at 516 nm.The device has the greatest brightness of 10930 cd/m2 and maximum brightness efficiency of 14.6 cd/A at 12 V.The highest power effciency and brightness are 4.23 lm/W and 698 cd/m2 respectively at 10.7 V.

  19. GC-MS法定性定量分析贴敷类医疗器械中樟脑、薄荷脑、冰片%Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Camphor, Menthol and Synthetic Borneol in Drug-free Cataplamat Medical Devices by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜敏; 刘园园; 黄海萍

    2012-01-01

    目的:利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)建立贴敷类医疗器械中樟脑、薄荷脑、冰片的定性和定量分析方法.方法:采用Agilent HP-INNOWax(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm)毛细管色谱柱;以氦气为载气,流量为1.0 ml·min -1;柱温80℃维持2 min,以10℃ ·min-1的升温速率升至120℃,维持12 min,再以30℃·min -1的升温速率升至200℃,维持3 min;离子源为电子轰击电离(EI)源,采集模式为全扫描/选择离子检测.结果:能检测出样品中是否添加樟脑、薄荷脑、冰片,并对其进行定量.3种化合物的线性范围分别为1.742 ~2.177×103(r =0.998 9),1.982 ~2.478 ×103(r=0.998 9),1.999 ~ 2.499×103 μg·ml-1(r =0.999 8),线性关系均良好;平均回收率分别为93.3%,98.8%,94.9%(n=9).结论:方法简便、灵敏、准确、快速,可用于贴敷类医疗器械中樟脑、薄荷脑、冰片的定性和定量检测.%Objective; To develop a GC-MS method for the determination of camphor, menthol and synthetic borneol in drug-free cataplamat medical devices. Method; The separation was accomplished successfully using an Agilent HP-INNOWa× (30 m × 0. 25 mm,0. 25 μm) column with temperature programming starting at 80 ℃ , keeping for 2 min, rising to 120 ℃ at a rate of 10℃· min'1 , keeping for 12 min, then rising to 200 ℃ at a rate of 30℃·min-1 and holding for 3 min. Helium was used as the carrier gas at the flow rate of 1.0 ml · min ~'. Gas chromatography coupled with EI-MS was established with full scan /selected ion monitoring mode. Result: Camphor, menthol and synthetic borneol could be detected with this method. The linear range of camphor, menthol and synthetic borneol was 1.742-2.177 × 103 (r = 0.998 9) , 1.982-2.478 × 103 (r = 0.998 9) and 1.999-2.499 × 103 μg · ml"' (r = 0.9998), respectively. The average recovery and the relative standard deviation were as follows; 93.3% and 2. 7% ( n = 9 ) for camphor, 98.8% and7.0% (n=9) for menthol, 94.9% and 2

  20. Properties of Camphorated Paramonochlorophenol and Camphorated Paramonochlorophenol Associated to Calcium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim NAGEM FILHO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the biocompatibility of camphoratedparamonochlorophenol (CMCP at a proportion of 3.5:6.5 andcamphorate paramonochlorophenol associated to calcium hydroxide(CMCP+Ca(OH2 in rat subcutaneous tissue, and the antimicrobialpotential of these medications against some microorganisms.Method: Ten Wistar rats were anesthetized and received anintravenous injection of Evan’s blue dye followed by inoculation of0.1 mL of the tested drugs in the dorsal region. The amount ofreleased dye bound to plasma proteins was evaluated underspectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of the substancesagainst S. aureus, S. mutans, B. subtilis and C. albicans wasverified by measuring the zones of bacterial growth inhibition usingthe agar diffusion test.Results: The mean optical density values for CMCP andCMCP+Ca(OH2 were 0.325±0.025 (moderate reaction and0.211±0.040 (mild reaction, respectively. The measurements ofthe zones of bacterial growth inhibition were as follows: CMCP =7.29 mm and CMCP+Ca(OH2 = 7.29 mm for S. aureus; CMCP = 8.57mm and CMCP+Ca(OH2 = 7.0 mm for S. mutans; CMCP = 8.57 mmand CMCP+Ca(OH2 = 7.43 mm for B. subtilis; and CMCP - 8.71 mmand CMCP+Ca(OH2 - 8.29 mm para C. albicans.Conclusion: The obtained data indicated that CMCP was moreirritating than CMCP+Ca(OH2, while no statistically significantdifference was observed between the tested substances regardingtheir antimicrobial activity (ANOVA.

  1. The Aromatic Laurel Camphor Tree——The Soong Ching Ling Camphor Tree Honorary Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENHAILING

    2005-01-01

    ANY award associated with the late Soong Ching Ling (1893-1981), widow of Chinese Republican leader Sun Yat-sen and a figure synonymous with world peace and the Chinese revolution,is of high eminence and prestige.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Borneol, Menthol ,Camphor, and Methylsalicylate in Zhenjiang Babu Plaster by GC%GC测定镇江巴布膏中冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑和水杨酸甲酯的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡铝铝; 潘金火; 金芝兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定镇江巴布膏中冰片、薄荷脑、樟脑和水杨酸甲酯含量的方法.方法 采用GC法,以萘为内标物,色谱柱为HP-INNOMAX毛细管柱(30 m×0.32 mm,1.0 μm),进样口温度为230 ℃,FID检测器温度为250 ℃;采用程序升温,起始温度为90℃,保持7 min,以5 ℃·min-1的速率升至140 ℃,保持13 min.结果 龙脑、异龙脑、樟脑、薄荷脑和水杨酸甲酯的线性范围分别为0.0330~0.3298 mg/mL(r=0.9990)、0.0159~0.1588 mg/mL(r=0.9990)、0.0507~0.5071 mg/mL(r=0.9991)、0.0600~0.5998 mg/mL(r=0.9992)、0.2470~2.4704 mg/mL(r=0.9990),平均加样回收率分别为99.12%、99.96%、100.53%、100.94%和104.58%,RSD均小于5%(n=6).结论 所建方法快速、简便、准确,可有效地控制镇江巴布膏的质量.%Objective To establish GC method for simultaneous determination of borneol, menthol,camphor and methylsalicylate contents in Zhenjiang Babu plaster. Methods The internal standard was Naphthalene. HP-INNOMAX quartz capillary column(30 m×0.32 mm, 1.0 μm) and FID were used. The injector temperature was 230 ℃ and the detector temperature was 250 ℃. Column temperature raised by programming with beginning temperature at 90 ℃, maintaining for 7 min, then increased the temperature to 140 ℃ at the rate of 5 ℃·min-1, maintaining for 13 min. Results The linear ranges of borneol, isoborneol, menthol, camphor and methylsalicylate were: 0.033 0~0.329 8 mg/mL(r=0.999 0),0.015 9~0.158 8 mg/mL(r=0.999 0),0.050 7~0.507 1 mg/mL(r=0.999 1), 0.060 0~0.599 8 mg/mL(r=0.999 2),0.247 0~2.470 4 mg/mL(r=0.999 0), The average recoveries were 99.12%、 99.96%、 100.53%、 100.94% and 104.58%, and all RSD were less than 5% (n=6). Conclusion This method is sensitive, accurate and reproducible. It can be used to control the quality of Zhenjiang Babu plaster.

  3. Vacuum thermal evaporation of polyaniline doped with camphor sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyne, Devon; Menegazzo, Nicola; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Rosenthal, Joel; Booksh, Karl S., E-mail: kbooksh@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Intrinsically conducting polymers belong to a class of organic polymers with intriguing electronic and physical properties specifically for electro-optical applications. Significant interest into doped polyaniline (PAni) can be attributed to its high conductivity and environmental stability. Poor dissolution in most solvents has thus far hindered the successful integration of PAni into commercial applications, which in turn, has led to the investigations of various deposition and acidic doping methods. Physical vapor deposition methods, including D.C. magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, have shown exceptional control over physical film properties (thickness and morphology). However, resulting films are less conductive than films deposited by conventional methods (i.e., spin and drop casting) due to interruption of the hyperconjugation of polymer chains. Specifically, vacuum thermal evaporation requires a postdoping process, which results in incorporation of impurities and oxidation of surface moieties. In this contribution, thermally evaporated films, sequentially doped by vacuum evaporation of an organic acid (camphorsulfonic acid, CSA) is explored. Spectroscopic evidence confirms the successful doping of PAni with CSA while physical characterization (atomic force microscopy) suggests films retain good morphology and are not damaged by the doping process. The procedure presented herein also combines other postpreparation methods in an attempt to improve conductivity and/or substrate adhesion.

  4. Collective Motion and Phase Transitions of Symmetric Camphor Boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Eric; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2012-07-01

    The motion of several self-propelled boats in a narrow channel displays spontaneous pattern formation and kinetic phase transitions. In contrast with previous studies on self-propelled particles, this model does not require stochastic fluctuations and it is experimentally accessible. By varying the viscosity in the system, it is possible to form either a stationary state, correlated or uncorrelated oscillations, or unidirectional flow. Here, we describe and analyze these self organized patterns and their transitions.

  5. Campho-Phenique overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campho-Phenique contains both camphor and phenol. For information on products containing camphor alone, see camphor overdose . ... Both camphor and phenol are in Campho-Phenique. However, camphor and phenol may be found separately in other products.

  6. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin TermehYousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  7. Synthesis molecular modeling and anticonvulsant activity of some hydrazone, semicarbazone, and thiosemicarbazone derivatives of benzylidene camphor

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Saurabh Agrawal,1 Jainendra Jain,2 Ankit Kumar,3 Pratibha Gupta,4 Vikas Garg5 1Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Ram–Eesh Institute of Vocational and Technical Education, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Kharvel Subharti College of Pharmacy, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4Atarra Degree College, Atarra, Banda, India; 5Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnata...

  8. Drug: D08714 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08714 Mixture, Drug d-Camphor - mentha oil mixt d-Camphor [DR:D06392], Mentha oil ... Peppermint rubber and camphor peppermint D08714 d-Camphor - mentha oil mixt PubChem: 96025397 ...

  9. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid extract, hexachlorophene, ichthammol, isobutamben... aminacrine hydrochloride, bismuth subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid...

  10. Determination of Camphor and Phenol in Camphor and Phenol Solution by HPLC%HPLC法测定樟脑苯酚溶液中樟脑和苯酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭社民

    2005-01-01

    建立高效液相色谱法同时测定樟脑苯酚溶液中樟脑和苯酚的含量.采用Spherisorb C18色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-水(60:40),流速1.0ml·min-1,检测波长268nm.樟脑和苯酚的线性范围分别为0.6084~1.825mg·ml-1,0.3012~0.9036mg·ml-1;平均回收率分别为99.81%(RSD=0.86%),100.2%(RSD=1.4%).本法操作简便,结果准确.

  11. 反相高效液相色谱法同时测定樟脑软膏中樟脑和氯霉素的含量%Determination of Camphor and Chloromycetin in Camphor Ointment by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玺; 姚晓颖; 徐莲琴; 李士峰; 王丽红; 崔玉红; 杨娇

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定樟脑软膏中樟脑和氯霉素含量的反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)法.方法 色谱柱为C18柱(150mm×4.6mm,5 μm),流动相为甲醇-水(60:40),流速为1.5 mL/min,检测波长为289 nm,柱温为25℃.结果 樟脑和氯霉素质量浓度分别在0.75~3.75 g/L(r=0.999 9)和0.3~1.5 g/L(r=0.999 8)范围内与峰面积线性关系良好;平均回收率分别为101.84%(RSD=0.57%)和97.13%(RSD=0.76%).结论 RP-HPLC法方便、准确,重现性好.可作为樟脑软膏的质量控制标准.

  12. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene.

  13. Asymmetric Synthesis of α, α′-Disubstituted α-Amino Acids Based on Natural (1R)-( + )-Camphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuo; LI Lei; XU Peng-Fei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Optically active nonproteinogenic amino acids[ 1] are valuable compounds of high interest not only owing to their remarkable pharmacological and biological activities, but also for their role as an investigative topographic probe for bioactive conformations of peptides and the mechanisms of enzyme reactions.[2

  14. Phase-field modeling of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition in neopentylglycol-camphor alloy solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viardin, A.; Sturz, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Apel, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have performed phase field simulations in order to explore the effect of equiaxed grain nucleation undercooling on the columnar to equiaxed transition "CET" in the NPG-DC alloy system. Our phase field model is based on the multiphase-field method. The simulation parameters are adapted to a microgravity experiment performed under purely diffusive growth conditions. The experimental investigation is made during the sounding rocket campaign TEXUS-47.

  15. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Energy of Solid Succinonitrile in Equilibrium with Succinonitrile-(D)Camphor-Aminomethylpropanediol Eutectic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Pınar; Karamazı, Yasin; Bayram, Ümit; Aksöz, Sezen; Keşlioğlu, Kazım; Maraşlı, Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid SCN in equilibrium with the eutectic liquid SCN-15.6 mol% DC-2.1 mol% AMPD have been directly observed by using a horizontal linear temperature gradient apparatus. The ratio of the thermal conductivity of the equilibrated liquid to the thermal conductivity of solid SCN has also been determined to be 0.89. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes and measured thermal conductivity ratio, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({{\\varGamma }}), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ _{SL}), and the grain boundary energy (σ _{gb}) have been determined to be (5.43 ± 0.54)× 10^{-8} K{\\cdot } m, (8.53 ± 1.28) × 10^{-3} J {\\cdot } m^{-2}, and (13.36 ± 2.14) × 10^{-3} J{\\cdot } m^{-2}, respectively, for equilibrated solid SCN in equilibrium with the eutectic liquid (SCN-15.6 mol% DC-2.1 mol% AMPD).

  16. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  17. Introducing Organic Chemistry Students to Natural Product Isolation Using Steam Distillation and Liquid Phase Extraction of Thymol, Camphor, and Citral, Monoterpenes Sharing a Unified Biosynthetic Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Katherine A.; Miller, Kenneth A.; Collins, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have provided and continue to provide the inspiration and foundation for modern medicines. Natural product isolation is a key component of the process of drug discovery from plants. The purpose of this experiment is to introduce first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students, who have relatively few lab techniques at their…

  18. Determination of Camphor in Herba Artemisiae Annuae and Herba Artemisiae Annuae Oil%青蒿及青蒿油的樟脑含量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田吉; 冯文宇; 邱华荣; 何兵

    2004-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法测定青蒿及青蒿油中樟脑的含量.方法:以聚乙二醇-20M为固定相,涂布浓度为10%,柱温为130℃,氢火焰离子化检测器,检测器温度为170℃.结果:樟脑与其他色谱峰的分离度和线性关系良好,回收率100.1%,RSD=0.56%.结论:该方法灵敏、快速、准确,可作为青蒿及青蒿油的质量控制标准.

  19. Treating chest cartilage tissue contusion with maneuver and camphor ointment%手法+樟脑膏治疗胸部软组织挫伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霞

    2002-01-01

    胸肋软组织挫伤,是对抗性较强的、运动员身体接触较频繁的运动项目中常见的一种损伤,理论结合实际,采用传统医学的手法加樟脑膏进行治疗,疗效显著,是一种容易掌握和便于推广的治疗方法.

  20. 气相色谱法测定冻疮膏中樟脑含量%Determination of Camphor in Dongchuang Ointment by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘泽华; 谢红星

    2008-01-01

    目的 建立冻疮膏樟脑含量测定方法.方法 采用气相色谱法测定樟脑的含量.结果 樟脑在浓度为0.505 5~5.055 mg·mL-1范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 5),平均回收率为98.72%,RSD=0.65%.结论 本法简便、准确、专属性强,可有效控制冻疮膏的质量.

  1. 气相色谱法测定治冻灵软膏中樟脑的含量%Determination of camphor in Zhidongling ointment by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴陈军; 吴迪宏; 桑小兵

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立治冻灵中樟脑含量的气相色谱测定法.方法:色谱柱:聚乙二醇 20 M 弹性石英毛细管柱(CP WAX 52 CB,30 m×0.25 mm,DF=0.25 μm);FID检测器;水杨酸甲酯为内标.结果:樟脑的线性范围0.975 5~4.877 6 mg·mL-1,r=0.999 9,平均加样回收率98.48%(RSD=1.29%,n=6).结论:该方法准确,简便,可有效控制制剂的质量.

  2. 21 CFR 216.24 - Drug products withdrawn or removed from the market for reasons of safety or effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Bromfenac sodium: All drug products containing bromfenac sodium. Butamben: All parenteral drug products containing butamben. Camphorated oil: All drug products containing camphorated oil. Carbetapentane citrate: All oral gel drug products containing carbetapentane citrate. Casein, iodinated: All drug...

  3. Soman

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tasteless liquid with a slight odor similar to camphor containing mothballs or rotten fruit. It can become ... of soman exposure Although soman can have a camphor or fruity odor, the odor may not be ...

  4. Drug: D08726 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08726 Mixture, Drug dl-Camphor - methyl salicylate - mentha oil - eucalyptus oil m... anti-inflammatory agents 2649 Others D08726 dl-Camphor - methyl salicylate - mentha oil - eucalyptus oil mixt PubChem: 96025409 ...

  5. Drug: D08722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08722 Mixture, Drug dl-Camphor - l-menthol - methyl salicylate - mentha oil mixt; ...flammatory agents 2649 Others D08722 dl-Camphor - l-menthol - methyl salicylate - mentha oil mixt PubChem: 96025405 ...

  6. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... formulated in a solid dosage form to be dissolved in the mouth. (u) Camphor identified in § 341.14(b)(1) may... aromatics (camphor (54 milligrams (mg)), menthol (80 mg), methyl salicylate (11 mg), and lavender oil (4...

  7. Shark cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, and camphor reportedly reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom relief is most likely due to the effect of camphor and not the other ingredients. Additionally, there is ...

  8. Chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  9. Drug: D04840 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04840 Mixture, Drug Dental phenol with camphor (JP16); Phenol - camphor; Camphenic...eutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 27 Dental preparations 27...3 Analgesics and sedatives 2730 Analgesics and sedatives D04840 Dental phenol with camphor (JP16) PubChem: 17398190 ...

  10. Drug: D04811 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04811 Mixture, Drug Sulfur and camphor (JP16); Sulfur and camphor (TN) Sulfur [DR:...1] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 26 Epidermides 266 Emollients 2669 Others D04811 Sulfur and camphor (JP16) PubChem: 17398180 ...

  11. Drug: D06392 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06392 Drug d-Camphor (JP16); d-Camphor (TN) C10H16O 152.1201 152.2334 D06392.gif Cinnamomum...phenic (TN), Sulfur and camphor [DR:D04811] In case of crude: Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum camphora

  12. Drug: D08723 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08723 Mixture, Drug dl-Camphor - capsicum extract - methyl salicylate mixt; Rakool... (TN) dl-Camphor [DR:D00098], Capsicum extract [DR:D06455], Methyl salicylate [DR:D01087] Therapeutic catego...hers D08723 dl-Camphor - capsicum extract - methyl salicylate mixt PubChem: 96025406 ...

  13. 714-X (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only. The main ingredient of 714-X is camphor , which comes from the wood and bark of the camphor tree (see Question 1 ). It is claimed that ... 714-X is made by combining chemicals with camphor , a natural substance that comes from the wood ...

  14. 21 CFR 341.85 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in part 356 of this chapter should be used. (5) For permitted combinations containing camphor... camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the warnings for... containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the...

  15. Environ: E00401 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00401 Camphor tree Crude drug d-Camphor [CPD:C00808], Comphene [CPD:C06076], Pinen...e [CPD:C06077] Cinnamomum camphora [TAX:13429] Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum camphora tree Major component: d-Camp...hor [CPD:C00808] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Lauraceae (laurel family) E00401 Camphor tree ...

  16. Acceleration or deceleration of self-motion by the Marangoni effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yui; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Nakata, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the water-depth dependence of the self-motion of a camphor disk and camphor boat. With increasing water depth, the speed of motion of the camphor disk increased, but that of the camphor boat decreased in an annular one-dimensional system. We discussed the difference in the water-depth dependence of the speed of the camphor objects in relation to Marangoni flow. We concluded that Marangoni flow, which became stronger with increasing the water depth, positively and negatively affected the speed of the disk and boat, respectively.

  17. The enhancing effects of 1 - menthol and camphor on skin permeation of nicotinamide%薄荷醇与樟脑对烟酰胺的促皮渗透作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧莲; 王宗锐; 何康; 陈海兴

    1998-01-01

    目的:研究薄荷醇和樟脑对烟酰胺透皮吸收的影响.方法:用两室扩散池体外透皮实验装置,以兔皮为屏障,使用不同浓度的薄荷醇和樟脑,测定烟酰胺的透皮百分率.结果:含1%薄荷醇组和含1%樟脑组的烟酰胺透皮百分率无显著增加,而含1%薄荷醇和1%樟脑组,含3%薄荷醇组,含3%樟脑组,含3%薄荷醇和3%樟脑组的烟酰胺透皮百分率明显增加.结论:薄荷醇和樟脑均对烟酰胺有促皮渗透作用,两药作用强度相似,两药使用时具有协同作用.

  18. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) - 2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor β. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1α1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2

  19. Enantioseparation of racemic Propranolol using D-10-camphor ammonium sulphonate by TLC%D-10-樟脑磺酸铵-薄层色谱法拆分普萘洛尔对映体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海英; 梁冰; 程德军

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究薄层色谱拆分普萘洛尔对映体的新方法.方法 采用D-10-樟脑磺酸铵手性离子对试剂-薄层色谱法,在硅胶GF254板上拆分普萘洛尔对映体;考察展开体系、温度、预饱和时间、pH、手性离子对试剂浓度以及湿度对拆分效果的影响.结果 最佳分离条件为D-10-樟脑磺酸铵溶液(0.85 mmol·L-1,pH8.0)-二氯甲烷-甲醇(0.3:1.95:0.75)在8℃下预饱和30 min,样品溶液的pH7.0,以1%香草醛浓硫酸溶液显色.结论 所用方法可拆分普萘洛尔.

  20. Determination of camphor, synthetic borneol, menthol in HanBi Ointment by GC%寒痹软膏中樟脑、冰片和薄荷脑含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 黄警

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立测定寒痹软膏中樟脑、冰片、薄荷脑含量的方法.方法 采用气相色谱法,毛细管柱为ZB-Wax(30m ×0.25mm ×0.5μm),萘为内标物,程序升温,FID检测器.结果 樟脑、冰片、薄荷脑分别在0.3209 ~0.6417mg·mL-1、0.2414 ~0.4828mg·mL-1、0.2392~0.4784mg·mL-1范围内呈良好线性关系.平均回收率分别为:樟脑102.54%,RSD为1.02%;冰片98.81%,RSD为1.05%;薄荷脑102.13%,RSD为1.53%.结论 本法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,可同时测定寒痹软膏中樟脑、冰片和薄荷脑的含量.

  1. Determination of the content of mentha-camphor in the export Jingwanhong Ointment by GC method%GC法测定出口京万红软膏中薄荷脑的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董村; 赵宇; 王赫男

    2016-01-01

    目的:测定出口京万红软膏中薄荷脑的含量.方法:采用气相色谱法(GC法),色谱柱为以聚乙二醇20000(PEG-20M)为固定相的毛细管柱(柱长30m,柱内径为0.32mm,膜厚度为0.25μ m),进样口温度为220℃,氢离子火焰检测器温度为250℃,柱温为110℃,分流比为5:1.结果:薄荷脑在0.04-0.40μg范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为r=0.9998,平均回收率为98.76%,RSD=1.43%.结论:本法重复性好,方法简洁,结果可靠,可作为出口京万红软膏中薄荷脑的含量测定方法.

  2. 气相色谱法对按摩膏中樟脑、异龙脑、龙脑的含量测定%Content Determination of Camphor, Isoborneol and Borneol in Anmo Ointment by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐必达; 张华林; 吴彦强; 苏子仁

    2005-01-01

    [目的]以气相色谱(GC)法测定按摩膏中的樟脑、异龙脑、龙脑的含量.[方法]来用程序升温法,以二甲基硅氧烷为固定液相,涂布浓度为体积分数100%;采用FID检测器,检测器温度为300℃.[结果]GC法测定3组分的分离度和线性关系良好,回收率分别为:樟脑100.5%,SR=1.4%;异龙脑99.1%,SR=1.8%;龙脑100.8%,SR=1.3%.[结论]该方法灵敏、快速、准确,可作为按摩膏的质量控制标准.

  3. 气相色谱法测定皮炎平软膏中樟脑、薄荷脑的含量%Determination of camphor and mentholum in piyanping ointment by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强

    2003-01-01

    目的用气相色谱法测定皮炎平软膏中樟脑、薄荷脑的含量.方法色谱柱为10%PEG-20M 3.2 mm×2.1m,玻璃柱,柱温150℃,检测器温度200℃.结果樟脑在0.4288~2.144 mg/ml,薄荷脑在0.4232~2.116 mg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,(r樟=0.9993,r薄=0.9995);回收率为樟脑98.8%、RSD=0.78%,薄荷脑99.2%、RSD=0.83%.结论本法简便、灵敏、准确,可用于皮炎平软膏樟脑、薄荷脑的含量测定.

  4. HPLC法同时测定复方鼻用软膏中樟脑和醋酸地塞米松的含量%Simultaneous determination of camphor and dexamethasone acetate in Compound Ointment for Nose by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明艳; 方艳红

    2009-01-01

    目的 采用高效液相色谱法测定复方鼻用软膏中樟脑和醋酸地塞米松的含量.方法 以C18柱为色谱柱,以乙腈-水(55:45)为流动相;检测波长为277 nm;柱温为30℃.结果 樟脑在50.2~1 004 mg·L-1范围内呈线性关系,回归方程为Y=202.09X+1 422.4,r=0.999 5,平均回收率为99.4%,RSD为2.7%;醋酸地塞米松在1.53~30.6 mg·L-1范围内呈线性关系,回归方程为Y=8 409.5X+1 421.2,r=0.999 8,平均回收率为99.8%,RSD为2.2%(n=7).结论 方法准确快速、操作简便,可用于复方鼻用软膏的质量控制.

  5. Systemic absorption of the sunscreens benzophenone-3, octyl-methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor after whole-body topical application and reproductive hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mogensen, Brian; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2004-01-01

    reproductive hormone levels in humans after topical application. In this 2-wk single-blinded study 32 healthy volunteers, 15 young males and 17 postmenopausal females, were assigned to daily whole-body topical application of 2 mg per cm(2) of basic cream formulation without (week 1) and with (week 2) the three...

  6. Camphor—A Fumigant during the Black Death and a Coveted Fragrant Wood in Ancient Egypt and Babylon—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Viljoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains. Camphor, traditionally obtained through the distillation of the wood of the camphor tree, is a major essential oil component of many aromatic plant species, as it is biosynthetically synthesised; it can also be chemically synthesised using mainly turpentine as a starting material. Camphor exhibits a number of biological properties such as insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoccidial, anti-nociceptive, anticancer and antitussive activities, in addition to its use as a skin penetration enhancer. However, camphor is a very toxic substance and numerous cases of camphor poisoning have been documented. This review briefly summarises the uses and synthesis of camphor and discusses the biological properties and toxicity of this valuable molecule.

  7. The in vivo antitumor effects on human COLO 205 cancer cells of the 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-1,3-benzodioxole (apiole) derivative of 5-substituted 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1) isolated from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorate

    OpenAIRE

    Po-Li Wei; Shih-Hsin Tu; Hsiu-Man Lien; Li-Ching Chen; Ching-Shyang Chen; Chih-Hsiung Wu; Ching-Shui Huang; Hui-Wen Chang; Chien-Hsi Chang; How Tseng; Yuan-Soon Ho

    2012-01-01

    Context: The compound 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propen-1-yl)-1,3-benzodioxole (apiole) has been isolated from several different plant species, including Petroselinum sativum. Our recent study found that apiole is a chemical derivative of 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1), which has been isolated from dried Antrodia camphorata (AC ) fruiting bodies, a traditional Chinese medicine with antitumor properties. Aims: Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that apiole inhibits the growth ...

  8. Analysis of the by-products of camphor manufacture by esterication-saponification process and study of catalysis dehydrogenation%酯化-皂化法合成樟脑副产物油分析及脱氢催化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海康; 吴冰; 姚健; 李骥; 陈菊

    2002-01-01

    通过色-质联用仪分析酯化-皂化法合成樟脑副产物油的主要成分,用气相色谱仪测定不同催化剂条件下副产油的组成,探讨了副产油主要成分产生的可能机理,对工业生产樟脑催化剂的选择有一定的参考价值.

  9. Detetmination of Camphor and Menthol in Compound Dexamethasone Ointment By Vino Analyzing Capillary%酒成分分析柱测定复方地塞米松乳膏中樟脑、薄荷脑含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊泽; 姜武民; 徐红霞; 胡斌; 李啸; 王川; 仇敏

    2009-01-01

    建立同时测定复方地塞米松乳膏中樟脑,薄荷脑含量的高效毛细管气相色谱法.以萘作内标物.采用AT.PEG-20M、50m×0.25mm×0.5u、涂布度10%的石英毛细管柱[1](酒精成分分析柱),以氢火焰离子检测器(FID)检测;柱温180℃,进样口和检测器温度分别为230℃、240℃.该色谱条件下,樟脑、薄荷脑在0.08~0.2mg·mL-1浓度范围内分别呈良好的线性;樟脑、薄荷脑精密度实验的RSD分别为1.91%(n=6)、1.61%(n=6);平均加样回收率实验中,樟脑回收率为99.66%、薄荷脑回收率为102.14%;最低检测限樟脑为0.216μg,薄荷脑为0.252μg.本方法快速可靠,简便易行,可用于复方地塞米松乳膏生产中的质量控制.

  10. Determination of Camphor, Isoborneol, Borneol, Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol in Tonglikang Ointment by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定通立康膏中樟脑、异龙脑、龙脑、桂皮醛、丁香酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华林; 李宗悟; 杨学斌; 李耿; 黄惠琴; 苏子仁

    2005-01-01

    目的建立气相色谱法测定通立康膏中的樟脑、异龙脑、龙脑、桂皮醛、丁香酚的含量.方法以聚乙二醇为固定液相,涂布浓度为100%,FID检测,检测器温度为250℃,采用程序升温法.结果 GC法测定五组分的分离度和线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为:樟脑96.21%,RSD=1.03%;异龙脑97.34%,RSD=0.99%;龙脑97.07%,RSD=1.00%;桂皮醛96.00%,RSD=1.37%;丁香酚100.99%,RSD=1.07%.结论该方法灵敏、快速、准确,可作为通立康膏的质量控制方法.

  11. GC同时测定消炎镇痛膏中的樟脑、薄荷脑、龙脑和水杨酸甲酯%Simultaneous determination of camphor,menthol,borneol and methyl salicylate in Xiaoyan Zhentong ointment by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江生; 张小松; 毛庆

    2008-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定消炎镇痛膏中樟脑、薄荷脑、龙脑和水杨酸甲酯含量的方法.方法 采用GC法,以萘为内标物,色谱柱为HP-INNOMAX毛细管柱(30 m×0.32 mm,1.0 μm),进样口温度为200℃,FID检测器温度为250℃;采用程序升温,起始温度为140℃,保持17 min,以50℃·min-1的速率升至180℃,保持5 min.结果 樟脑、薄荷脑、龙脑和水杨酸甲酯的线性范围分别为0.062~6.200 μg(r=0.9999)、0.097~9.700 μg(r:0.9998)、0.045~4.500 μg(r=0.9999)、0.045~4.500μg(r=0.9999),平均加样回收率分别为95.2%、96.8%、95.7%和96.4%,RSD均小于3%(n=9).结论 所建方法快速、简便、准确,可有效地控制消炎镇痛膏的质量.

  12. 宜宾油樟的现状及未来%The Status Quo and Future of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum in Yibin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗中杰; 李维一; 魏琴; 罗通

    2001-01-01

    介绍宜宾樟油及樟树资源的现状,分析了樟油生产的特点和存在的问题,提出了樟油发展的方向和应解决的问题,展示了樟油发展的前景.%The status quo of camphor oil in Yibin and the resources in camphor were described.The problems involved and their soulution in the camphor oil production were proposed.

  13. Environ: E00805 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00805 Feverfew Medicinal herb Parthenolide [CPD:C07609], Camphor [CPD:C00809], Bor...neol [CPD:C01411] Tanacetum parthenium [TAX:127999] Asteraceae Feverfew leaves Major component: Parthenolide [CPD:C07609] Medicina

  14. Environ: E00726 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00726 Sage oil (Dalmatian) Essential oil Thujone [CPD:C09906], (+)-Camphor [CPD:C0...eae (mint family) Salvia officinalis dried leaves Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Thujone [CPD:C09906] Essential

  15. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)2 and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)2 in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved.

  16. A Convenient Method for the Asymmetric Synthesis of KAD-1229

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Chao LIU; Yu She YANG; Ru Yun JI

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparation of the potent hypoglycemic KAD-1229 was developed.The key step of this method is diasteroselective alkylation in high optical purity and good yield by using easily available Oppolzer's camphor sultam as chiral auxiliary.

  17. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC)

  18. Biotransformations of (+/-)-geosmin by terpene-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Richard W; Sandusky, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Two terpene-degrading bacteria able to transform (+/-)-geosmin have been identified. Pseudomonas sp. SBR3-tpnb, following growth on gamma-terpinene, converts (+/-)-geosmin to several products; the major products are ketogeosmins. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis DLC-cam, isolated on D-camphor, also converts (+/-)-geosmin to several oxidation products, primarily ketogeosmins identical to those produced by strain SBR3-tpnb as well as hydroxygeosmins. This conversion appears to be inducible by (+/-)-geosmin and not by D-camphor.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0316 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0316 ref|YP_002130109.1| camphor resistance CrcB protein [Phenylobacte...rium zucineum HLK1] sp|B4R910|CRCB_PHEZH RecName: Full=Protein crcB homolog gb|ACG77680.1| camphor resistance CrcB protein [Phenylobacterium zucineum HLK1] YP_002130109.1 0.36 32% ...

  20. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-[(R/S-1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenylethyl]phenyl [(1R,4S-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C40H60O5S, comprises two diastereomers related, except for the chiral camphor groups, by a pseudo-inversion centre. In both diasteromers, the camphor sulfate moiety maintained the absolute configuartion (R,S of the precursor. However, the absolute configurations at the methine C atoms are of opposite chirality. Both molecules reveal intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, whereas van der Waals interactions define the crystal packing.

  1. Evaporation Behavior and Characterization of Eutectic Solvent and Ibuprofen Eutectic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun; Charoensuksai, Purin

    2016-10-01

    Liquid eutectic system of menthol and camphor has been reported as solvent and co-solvent for some drug delivery systems. However, surprisingly, the phase diagram of menthol-camphor eutectic has not been reported previously. The evaporation behavior, physicochemical, and thermal properties of this liquid eutectic and ibuprofen eutectic solution were characterized in this study. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that a eutectic point of this system was near to 1:1 menthol/camphor and its eutectic temperature was -1°C. The solubility of ibuprofen in this eutectic was 282.11 ± 6.67 mg mL(-1) and increased the drug aqueous solubility fourfold. The shift of wave number from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding of each compound in eutectic mixture. The weight loss from thermogravimetric analysis of menthol and camphor related to the evaporation and sublimation, respectively. Menthol demonstrated a lower apparent sublimation rate than camphor, and the evaporation rate of eutectic solvent was lower than the sublimation rate of camphor but higher than the evaporation of menthol. The evaporation rate of the ibuprofen eutectic solution was lower than that of the eutectic solvent because ibuprofen did not sublimate. This eutectic solvent prolonged the ibuprofen release with diffusion control. Thus, the beneficial information for thermal behavior and related properties of eutectic solvent comprising menthol-camphor and ibuprofen eutectic solution was attained successfully. The rather low evaporation of eutectic mixture will be beneficial for investigation and tracking the mechanism of transformation from nanoemulsion into nanosuspension in the further study using eutectic as oil phase.

  2. Evaporation Behavior and Characterization of Eutectic Solvent and Ibuprofen Eutectic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun; Charoensuksai, Purin

    2016-10-01

    Liquid eutectic system of menthol and camphor has been reported as solvent and co-solvent for some drug delivery systems. However, surprisingly, the phase diagram of menthol-camphor eutectic has not been reported previously. The evaporation behavior, physicochemical, and thermal properties of this liquid eutectic and ibuprofen eutectic solution were characterized in this study. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that a eutectic point of this system was near to 1:1 menthol/camphor and its eutectic temperature was -1°C. The solubility of ibuprofen in this eutectic was 282.11 ± 6.67 mg mL(-1) and increased the drug aqueous solubility fourfold. The shift of wave number from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding of each compound in eutectic mixture. The weight loss from thermogravimetric analysis of menthol and camphor related to the evaporation and sublimation, respectively. Menthol demonstrated a lower apparent sublimation rate than camphor, and the evaporation rate of eutectic solvent was lower than the sublimation rate of camphor but higher than the evaporation of menthol. The evaporation rate of the ibuprofen eutectic solution was lower than that of the eutectic solvent because ibuprofen did not sublimate. This eutectic solvent prolonged the ibuprofen release with diffusion control. Thus, the beneficial information for thermal behavior and related properties of eutectic solvent comprising menthol-camphor and ibuprofen eutectic solution was attained successfully. The rather low evaporation of eutectic mixture will be beneficial for investigation and tracking the mechanism of transformation from nanoemulsion into nanosuspension in the further study using eutectic as oil phase. PMID:26669887

  3. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study.

  4. Active-Site Hydration and Water Diffusion in Cytochrome P450cam: A Highly Dynamic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinglong [ORNL; Baudry, Jerome Y [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (300 ns) are performed on both the apo- (i.e., camphor-free) and camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). Water diffusion into and out of the protein active site is observed without biased sampling methods. During the course of the molecular dynamics simulation, an average of 6.4 water molecules is observed in the camphor-binding site of the apo form, compared to zero water molecules in the binding site of the substrate-bound form, in agreement with the number of water molecules observed in crystal structures of the same species. However, as many as 12 water molecules can be present at a given time in the camphor-binding region of the active site in the case of apo-P450cam, revealing a highly dynamic process for hydration of the protein active site, with water molecules exchanging rapidly with the bulk solvent. Water molecules are also found to exchange locations frequently inside the active site, preferentially clustering in regions surrounding the water molecules observed in the crystal structure. Potential-of-mean-force calculations identify thermodynamically favored trans-protein pathways for the diffusion of water molecules between the protein active site and the bulk solvent. Binding of camphor in the active site modifies the free-energy landscape of P450cam channels toward favoring the diffusion of water molecules out of the protein active site.

  5. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  6. Formulation Design and Optimization of Fast Dissolving Clonazepam Tablets by Sublimation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Shirsand, S. B.; Sarasija Suresh; Kusumdevi, V.; Swamy, P. V.

    2011-01-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3² full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w) was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly c...

  7. 不同化学型樟树对 SO2吸收的比较分析%Analysis of Different Chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora on SO2 Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞炎

    2013-01-01

      在密闭条件下,采用静态熏气法研究不同化学型(芳樟型、脑樟型)樟树1年生苗木、枝条在 SO2伤害阈值时(0.5 g/m3×4 h)对 SO2的吸收能力及熏气后的恢复能力,结果表明,芳樟型1年生苗木对 SO2吸收量为450.6 mg/m2,芳樟型枝条对 SO2吸收量为451.8 mg/m2;脑樟型1年生樟树苗对 SO2吸收量为597.6 mg/m2,脑樟型枝条对 SO2吸收量为809.4 mg/m2。芳樟型樟树1年生苗木、枝条与脑樟型樟树1年生苗木、枝条熏气后恢复能力无显著差异。%The resistance and absorbency to gaseous SO2 of linalool­type and camphor­type Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl were studied under airtight conditions. The results showed that the linalool­type of one year old camphor tree absorbed SO2 450.6 mg/m2, the linalool­type of camphor tree branches absorbed SO2 451.8 mg/m2; the camphor­type of one year old camphor tree absorbed SO2 597.6 mg/m2, the camphor­type of camphor tree branches absorbed SO2 809.4 mg/m2. There were not significantly differences between resistance of linalool­ type and of camphor­type C. camphora (L.).

  8. 龙脑烯腈的合成%Synthesis of Campholenonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷运璀; 宦月琴; 陶骅

    2013-01-01

    Perfume campholenonitrile was produced by oximation of camphor with oxyammonia hydrochloride and then rearrangement of produced camphoroxime.The total yield was up to 66% (according to the amount of camphor).%介绍以樟脑为原料,经过与盐酸羟胺发生肟化反应,再用酸催化脱水异构化合成日化用香料龙脑烯腈的方法.反应以樟脑计得率为66%.

  9. Synthesis and complexation characteristics of phenanthroline and bipyridine diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, B.; Boer, J.W. de; Meetsma, A.; Kellogg, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) 1 was converted to achiral and chiral tetradentate phenanthroline diols 3a-c by addition to benzophenone, adamantanone and camphor, respectively. Analogously 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine 2 was converted to diol 7a on base-induced addition to benzopheno

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor,

  11. Resilience Assessment of Lowland Plantations Using an Ecosystem Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As afforestation programs of former farmlands take hold in Taiwan to achieve a variety of ecological and socio-economic values, it is becoming necessary to define best forest management. Hence, we simulated mixed stands of Cinnamomum camphora and Fraxinus griffithii planted through a gradient of soil fertility and varying camphor/ash density ratios, but maintaining a fixed total stand density of 1500 trees ha−1. Total stand productivity was slightly lower in mixed stands than the combination of both monocultures in rich and poor sites. Maximum negative yield surpluses for 50-year old stands were 7 Mg ha−1 and 6 Mg ha−1 for rich and poor sites with a 1:1 camphor laurel/ash ratios. Maximum stand woody biomass in rich sites was reached in camphor laurel monocultures (120 Mg ha−1 and in poor sites for Himalayan ash monocultures (58 Mg ha−1. However, for medium-quality sites, a small yield surplus (11 Mg ha−1 was estimated coinciding with a maximum stand woody biomass of 95 Mg ha−1 for a 1:1 camphor laurel/ash density ratio. From an ecological resilience point of view, rotation length was more important than stand composition. Long rotations (100 years could improve soil conditions in poor sites. In rich sites, short rotations (50 years should be avoided to reduce risks or fertility loss.

  12. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.;

    1999-01-01

    from the aerial parts of feverfew plants and collected by the dynamic headspace technique a total of 41 compounds, mainly monoterpenes, were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. Alpha-Pinene, camphene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, p-cymene, (E)-chrysanthenol, camphor...

  13. In Situ Synthesis of Tetradentate Dye for Construction of Three-Dimensional Homochiral Phosphor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Tao; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional assembly of enantiopure D-camphoric acid and in situ synthesized tetradentate 1,2,4,5-tetra(4-pyridyl)benzene (TPB) ligand with tetrahedral Zn2+ leads to a new homochiral four-connected luminescent material from which the novel TPB ligand can be isolated in the hydrated crystalline form.

  14. Sample Preparation (SS): SE55_SS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .1% acetic acid, 0.5 mg/L of lidocaine, and d-camphor sulfonic acid (Tokyo Kasei) using a mixer mill (MM 300...,000g for 10 min and filtration (Ultrafree-MC filter, 0.2 mm, Millipore), the sample extracts were applied t

  15. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  16. Environ: E00091 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00091 Cyperus rhizome (JP16) Crude drug (alpha-Cyperone [CPD:C17090] | Cyperotundo...leanolic acid, Eucalyptol [CPD:C09844], Comphene [CPD:C06076], (+)-Camphor [CPD:C00808] Cyperus rotundus [TA...X:512623] Same as: D06719 Cyperaceae (sedge family) Cyperus rhizome Major component: Cyperol [CPD:C16945] ...

  17. Enantioselective recognition and separation of racemic 1-phenylethanol by a pair of 2D chiral coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Jian; Yao, Jia; Tao, Qian; Jiang, Long; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2013-10-21

    A pair of 2D chiral coordination polymers were constructed through the self-assembly of a chiral metal-camphor-10-sulfonate salt and a bidentate linker, which show selective inclusion of S and R enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol respectively with an enantioselectivity of 9:1. PMID:24083956

  18. Volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L. grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Stojanova, A.S.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Koulman, A; Quax, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L., obtained through hydrodistillation, were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oxygen-containing monoterpene fraction dominated (36.7%), while 1.8-cineole (14.1%) and camphor (13.9%) were the main components. Other relatively abundant

  19. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)(2) and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)(2) in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  1. Synthesis of (R)(E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-dioic Acid, a Copulation Released Pheromone Component of Azuki Bean Weevil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Started from 5-hydroxy-2-pentanone, (R)(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-dioic acid, callosobruchusic acid, was synthesized via five steps with D-(-)-camphor sultam as the chiral auxiliary. It was of good optical purity and yield.

  2. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N R; Kongshoj, B; Andersson, A-M;

    2008-01-01

    The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro. For all three...

  3. A Novel Synthesis of 3-O-Allyl-4, 5, 6-tri-O-benzyl-1-O-(p-methoxybenzyl)-D-myo-inositol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Zhou YUE; Yuan Chao LI

    2005-01-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of the entitled compound was achieved from a readily available myo-inositol derivative. The key step involved a desymmetrization with (+)-camphor dimethyl ketal to give two diastereomers. The two diastereomers could be used to synthesize the same compound by changing the orders to introduce the protective groups.

  4. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N.R.; Kongshoj, B.; Andersson, A.M.;

    2008-01-01

    Background The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro...

  5. Formulation design and optimization of orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate by sublimation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kalyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to formulate directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A full 3 2 factorial design was used to investigate the effect of two variables viz., concentration of Indion 414 and camphor. Indion 414 (3-5 % w/w was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (5-15 % w/w as subliming agent. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, porosity, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The formulation containing 5% w/w of Indion 414 and 5% w/w camphor was emerged as promising based on evaluation parameters. The disintegration time for optimized formulation was 18.66 s. The tablet surface was evaluated for presence of pores by scanning electron microscopy before and after sublimation. Differential scanning colorimetric study did not indicate any drug excipient incompatibility, either during mixing or after compression. The effect of independent variables on disintegration time, % drug release and friability is presented graphically by surface response plots. Short-term stability studies on the optimized formulation indicated no significant changes in drug content and in vitro disintegration time. The directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate with lower friability, greater drug release and shorter disintegration times were obtained using Indion 414 and camphor at optimum concentrations.

  6. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), published in the Federal Register of April 9, 1971 (36 FR 6842). (iv) Sulfo-Van Ointment (DESI 2230... identical, similar and related products (21 CFR 310.6). Deferral of requirements is not appropriate for the..., chlorobutanol, phenol, camphor, alum, and isopropyl alcohol. (b) Zirnox Topical Lotion,...

  7. Environ: E00344 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00344 Amomi rotundi fructus Amomum fruit Crude drug D-Borneol [CPD:C01765], D-Camphor [CPD:C00808] Amom...um kravanh [TAX:649195], Amomum compactum [TAX:252847] Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Amom...um mature fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) E00344 Amomum kravanh seed ...

  8. Mode of Antifungal Drugs Interaction with Cytochrome P- 450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Mahmodian

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer was used to identify the interactions of substrates and antifungal drugs with the enzyme, Cytochrome P-450; and then Molplot.bas computer program was applied to get three dimensional figures of 5-hydroxy camphor.oxidation products of camphor analogues, and antifungal drugs.Cartesian characteristics of atoms building molecules, are taken from Buildz. for program, which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates of atoms by Zmatrix data. The other program which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates, using fractional characteristics, is the Coord, for program that, gives our cartesian characteristics of the atoms of molecule, then by using these data, we obtain three dimensional figures and distance between active atoms in compounds under consideration. Results show that distance between two oxygen atoms in 5-exo-hydroxy- camphor and the other compounds obtained from oxidation of camphor analogues, with the distance of two oxygen atoms in antifungal compounds under discussion are equal. Therefore, we can conclude that, the antifungal molecule also interacts with enzyme's active site, by its own sites, in a similar manner to the 5-hydroxy camphor molecule, which is:"n1. Nitrogen atom (N of Imidazole and Triazole ring in antifungal molecule with Iron atom in heam molecule belonging to Cytochrome P-450 enzyme, are coordinated."n2. The other atoms such as : 0,S or N in structure of the antifungal drug are coordinated with hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group belong ing to Tyr-96 in the structure of enzyme, forming hydrogen bonding.

  9. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio.

  10. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  11. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25017866

  12. The disinfection effect of calcium hydroxides dressing using different vehicles on clinical root canal treatment%不同赋形剂氢氧化钙根管消毒效果的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国祥; 骆鸣宇; 高倩华; 廖雪峰; 王瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较生理盐水、碘甘油、樟脑对氯苯酚、樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等赋形剂对氢氧化钙消毒根管效果的影响,以期为临床工作提供参考.方法 选择单根管慢性根尖周炎患牙80颗,随机分成氢氧化钙加生理盐水、氢氧化钙加碘甘油、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等4组,观察封药1周后的临床疗效、封药1周前后的细菌学培养菌落数变化以及达到临床可充填的封药时间等评价指标.结果 氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油组明显优于氢氧化钙加生理盐水、氢氧化钙加碘甘油、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组(P<0.01);在封药1周的临床疗效(评分差值)方面,氢氧化钙加生理盐水组、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在达到临床可充填封药时间上,氢氧化钙加碘甘油组、氢氧化钙加樟脑对氯苯酚组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在生理盐水、碘甘油、樟脑对氯苯酚、樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油等赋形剂中,樟脑对氯苯酚/碘甘油可能是最为有效的赋形剂.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of root canal disinfection with calcium hydroxides dressing respectively in four different vehicles (physiological saline, iodine glycerin, camphorated para-monochlorophenol and camphorated para-monochlorophenol/iodine glycerin), in order to provide reference for clinical root canal treatment. Methods To divide 80 teeth of single-root canal teeth having chronic apical periodontitis randomly into four groups according to the vehicles (physiological saline, iodine glycerin, camphorated para-monochlorophenol and camphorated para-monochlorophenol/iodine glycerin), observing the clinical effect after 7 days, bacterial colony numbers of root canal contents before and 7 days after calcium hydroxides dressing, clinical duration of root canal treatment. Results The camphorated para

  13. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Janssen, Maurice H. M., E-mail: m.h.m.janssen@vu.nl [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Powis, Ivan [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  14. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Nacim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%, 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%, cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%, camphor (6.8-19.93%, 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%, terpenyl acetate (0-14.92% and viridiflorol (0-11.49%. Based on

  15. Simultaneous determination of borneol and its metabolite in rat plasma by GC–MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Man Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of natural borneol (NB and its metabolite, camphor, in rat plasma. Following a single liquid–liquid extraction, the analytes were separated using an HP-5MS capillary column (0.25 mm×30 m×0.25 μm and analyzed by MS in the selected ion monitoring mode. Selected ion monitor (m/z of borneol, camphor and internal standard was 95, 95 and 128, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery of the analytes were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of NB after oral administration to Wistar rats.

  16. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

  17. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

  18. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product. PMID:20614829

  19. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise

    2003-04-01

    The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

  20. Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

    2007-07-01

    Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

  1. Composition of the volatile oil of Achillea conferta DC. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Top flowered aerial parts of Achillea conferta DC. (Compositae, which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Taleghan area and the volatile oil was isolateds by hydrodistillation. The oil (0.2 % V/W was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. Forty-eight components, representing 91.4% of the oil were identified. The main components were camphor (22.1% and 1,8-cineole (10.0%. The percentage of oxygenated compounds was 79.0% of the total oil. The oil o was rich in monoterpenes with two typical major components of Achillea species, camphor (22.1% and 1, 8- cineole (10.0%.

  2. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  3. Simultaneous determination of borneol and its metabolite in rat plasma by GC-MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Man Sun; Qiong-Feng Liao; Yu-Ting Zhou; Xue-Jiao Deng; Zhi-Yong Xie

    2014-01-01

    A gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of natural borneol (NB) and its metabolite, camphor, in rat plasma. Following a single liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated using an HP-5MS capillary column (0.25 mm ? 30 m ? 0.25μm) and analyzed by MS in the selected ion monitoring mode. Selected ion monitor (m/z) of borneol, camphor and internal standard was 95, 95 and 128, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery of the analytes were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of NB after oral administration to Wistar rats.

  4. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Brkić; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Marina Soković; Petar D. Marin; Jasmina Glamočlija

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assay...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sokovic; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were assayed for inhibitory activity against the three major pathogens of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, i.e. the fungi Verticillium fungicola and Trichoderma...

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sokovic; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Antibacterial activity of these oils and their components; i.e. linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were assayed against a variety...

  7. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  8. Comparative mortality of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) exposed to monoterpenoids and low pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbata, George N; Pascual-Villalobos, Marie J; Payton, Mark E

    2012-04-01

    Monoterpenoids and low pressure have each been demonstrated to cause mortality of stored-product insect pests. The current report investigated the prospects of integrating the two methods in the management of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). In a separate experiment, the larvae were exposed to 35.5 mmHg in Erlenmeyer flasks at 19 and 28 degrees C for times ranging from 30 min to 96 h. Another set of experiments was conducted to investigate the toxicity of exposing P. interpunctella larvae to monoterpenoids including E-anethole, estragole, S-carvone, linalool, L-fenchone, geraniol, gamma-terpinene, and DL-camphor alone or in combination with low pressure (50 mmHg). Lethal times (LT) determined by subjecting time-mortality data to probit analyses were shortened to half when both diapausing and nondiapausing larvae were exposed to low pressure at 28 degrees C compared with 19 degrees C. Exposure of diapausing larvae to a monoterpenoid alone, with the exception of DL-camphor and estragole, at a concentration of 66.7 microl/1L of volume required > 30 h to generate 99% mortality at 19.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. However, the LT99 values for diapausing and nondiapausing larvae exposed to combinations of DL-camphor or estragole and low pressure were considerably shortened. Combinations involving the rest of the monoterpenoids investigated and low pressure did not generate LT99 that were shorter than those of the control, which was low pressure only. These results suggest that integrating low pressure with DL-camphor or estragole could be a new method for the control of diapausing larvae of P. interpunctella at cooler temperatures.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Aspergillus ochraceus Growth and Ochratoxin A Production

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan Hua; Fuguo Xing; Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj; Yan Wang; Yueju Zhao; Lu Zhou; Xiao Liu; Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumi...

  10. Preliminary Pharmacognostical a nd Physicochemical Analysis: A Poly Herbomineral Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Reena; Bhandari Anil; Gupta Mahesh Kumar; Gupta Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of Ayurvedic herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality, therapeutics efficacy and safety. Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation consists of Myristica fragrans (fruit),Myristica fragrans (flowering top),Datura metel (seed), Pueraria tuberosa (root), Asparagus racemosus(root),Grewia hirsuta(Bark), Barringtonia acutangula(seed), Tribulus terrestirs(Fruit), Abutilon indicum(root) Mercury, Sulphur, Abharak Bhasma and Camphor, and specifically used to treat cold an...

  11. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  12. UV Light Induces Dedoping of Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kaitsuka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV (Ultra-Violet light-driven change in optical absorption of polyaniline (PANI is reported. Irradiation of UV light to PANI/camphor sulfonic acid prepared by electrochemical polymerization allows dedoping of the PANI. Especially, UV light irradiation in the presence of a radical trap agent effectively reduces (dedoping the PANI. The result in this study is quite simple; however, this may be a first report for light-induced dedoping (color change of a conductive polymer.

  13. Environ: E00400 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00400 Santonica Wormseed Crude drug Cineole [CPD:C09844 C16909], alpha-Pinene [CPD...:C09880], Terpinene [CPD:C09898 C09900], (-)-alpha-Terpineol [CPD:C11393], (-)-Camphor [CPD:C00809], alpha-Santo...) Artemisia cina bud Major component: alpha-Santonin [CPD:C02206] Crude drugs [BR...:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00400 Santonica ...

  14. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833)

    OpenAIRE

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD

    2013-01-01

    In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae) and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules)...

  15. Syntheses and Reactions of Novel Oxidized Variants of Sterically-Crowded Chalcogenocarbonyl Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki Shimada

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction d-Camphor and their derivatives have been widely used as chiral auxiliaries and synthons for organic synthesis, and our attempts are focused onto the new functionalization of these skeletons through the generation of oxidized variants of thiones and selones through in situ generation of novel oxidized variants of bornane-2-thiones and selones. In this paper, a novel generation and chemical conversion of these reactive intermediates are presented.

  16. Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) from East Part of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Arben Haziri; Sevdije Govori-Odai; Murtezan Ismaili; Fatmir Faiku; Imer Haziri

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: We have analyzed the chemical nature of essential oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) from East part of Kosova. Approach: The essential oil from aerial part of Tanacetum parthenium (L.), obtained by hidro-distillation was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Results: Out of 25 peaks, 22 components, which constitute 88%, were identified in oil. The main compounds of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) from east region of Kosova, were camphor (63%) and camphene (9.6%). This study demonstrates the oc...

  17. A visualization of the eutectic solidification process

    OpenAIRE

    E. Olejnik; E. Fraś

    2007-01-01

    The study presents a visualization of the sequence of formation of eutectic grains during solidification in volume and directional solidification of model organic materials from the system of salol (faceted phase) - camphor (non-faceted phase) and carbon tetrabromide (non-faceted phase) - hexachloroethane (non-faceted phase). It has been proved that the faceted phase may act as a substrate for nucleation of the non-faceted phase, while the non-faceted phase in a eutectic grain is of polycryst...

  18. Variabilita obsahu silíc u vybraných druhov liečivých, aromatických a koreninových rastlín

    OpenAIRE

    Boško, Rastislav

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor theses is themed "Variability in the content of essential oils in selected plants used in herbal medicine, aromatic plants and spice plants" and deals with the variability of the content of essential oils in caraway (Carum carvi L.), where carvone and limonene are present, in chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), which contains farnesene, chamazulene, bisabolol oxide A and apigenin-7-glucoside, and in lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), which contains camphor, borneol, alpha-terpineol a...

  19. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  20. Surface tension of calcium hydroxide associated with different substances Tensão superficial do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Estrela; Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo Estrela; Luiz Fernando Guimarães; Reginaldo Santana Silva; Jesus Djalma Pécora

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface tension of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with different substances (deionized distilled water, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, Otosporin, 3% sodium lauryl ether sulphate; Furacin, PMC Furacin) using tensiometer. The action of the substances studied on the dentinal structure enhances the property of surface tension. This method consists in the application of force to separate a platinum ring immersed in t...

  1. The sonochemical synthesis and characterization of mesoporous chiral titania using a chiral inorganic precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabashvili, Alexandra; Major, Dan T; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents a successful sonochemical attempt to synthesize mesoporous chiral titania using a chiral inorganic precursor and dodecylamine, as the surfactant template. The resulting porous structure was characterized by nitrogen sorption experiments, transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle XRD. The enantioselectivity of this mesoporous titania after the extraction of the amine was examined by selective adsorption of enantiomers and racemic aqueous solution of camphor. The selective adsorption was measured by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. PMID:19942471

  2. 浅谈香樟树的特征特性及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明凤

    2013-01-01

      香樟 Cinnamomum Camphoral {L.}presl是樟科,lauraceae樟属Cinnamomn Trew植物,是常绿乔木,适应性强,生长较快,寿命较长.从香樟树的植物学特性、生物学习性等方面讲述了香樟作为园林绿化用树,总结了香樟树的栽培技术,以供参考.

  3. Synthesis of 2-azaspiro[4.4]nonan-1-ones via phosphine-catalysed [3+2]-cycloadditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Sarah R.; Williams, Morwenna C.; Pyne, Stephen G.; Ung, Alison T.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H.; Turner, Peter (UWA); (Wollongong); (Sydney)

    2008-10-03

    The phosphine-catalyzed [3+2]-cycloaddition of the 2-methylene {gamma}-lactams 4 and 5 and the acrylate 6 with the ylides derived from the ethyl ester, the amide or the chiral camphor sultam derivative of 2-butynoic acid (7a-c) give directly, or indirectly after reductive cyclization, spiro-heterocyclic products. The acid 32 underwent Curtius rearrangement and then acid hydrolysis to give two novel spiro-cyclic ketones, 41 and 42.

  4. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family. PMID:26876676

  5. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  6. Discriminative power of an assay for automated in vitro screening of teratogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, Peter S; Gravemann, Ute; Nau, Heinz;

    2004-01-01

    -trans-retinoic acid, pentyl-4-yn-valproic acid, saccharin, salicylic acid and valproic acid. All compounds, with the exception of dimethadione inhibited proliferation in a linear dose-dependent manner, and there were statistically significant compound class-dependent differences between the IC(50)-values...... to teratogenicity were: 5-bromo-2(')-deoxyuridine, 6-aminonicotinamide, acrylamide, boric acid, D-(+)-camphor, dimethadione, dimethyl phthalate, diphenhydramine, hydroxyurea, isobutyl-ethyl-valproic acid, lithium chloride, methyl mercury chloride, methotrexate, methoxyacetic acid, penicillin G, all...

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA Z. TOMAZONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae. Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae, which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  8. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  9. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism

  10. QUALI-QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF EIGHT ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS ESSENTIAL OILS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN. FIRST REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Miraldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is well known that the pharmacological activity of essential oils depends on their major components, which may vary enormously. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of samples of essential oil of rosemary of different origins, in order to identify the main therapeutic constituents, according to European Pharmacopoeian (EP. Material and Methods. Analytical GC/MS was carried out on a total of eight samples of essential oil of rosemary: seven samples were commercial products from producers located in different geographical areas; the last sample was prepared in our labo- ratory from fresh flowering terminal sprigs of rosemary collected in Siena’s Province. results. The most representative constituents of the essential oils tested, were 1,8-cineole and camphor. Other components also occurred in significant quantities in some samples, for example and α- and β-pinene, limonene and caryophyllene, in- dicating clear phytochemical differences among samples. discussion. The high quantity of eucalyptol and camphor detected in the samples made them particularly suited for treating minor respiratory disorders. Eucalyptol is expectorant and liquefies bronchial secretions; camphor increases the interval bet- ween inspiration and expiration and increases the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, facilitating respiration. On the other hand, the essential oils analyzed by us were not suitable for perfume production, because they contained little or no positive aromatic components.

  11. Bioactivity of Five Essential Oils Against Bruchidius incarnatus (Bohemann, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ahmed FOUAD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world, the faba bean beetle Bruchidius incarnatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is an important insect-pest, especially on faba bean Vicia faba (Leguminosae and it can infest field crops and cause severe damage in storage. Essential oils can be an alternative method to synthetic insecticides for pest management, due to their efficiency and environmental safety. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity and repellent activity of essential oils of camphor (Eucalyptus globules, castor (Ricinus communis, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove (Syzygium aromaticum and mustard (Brassica rapa against B. incarnatus adults. The treatments which contained essential oils at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and acetone (control were applied. All essential oils with 4% concentration repelled the B. incarnatus adult except castor oil. The percentage of repellence was higher when used essential oil of cinnamon with 2 and 4% concentration compared with other essential oils and concentrations. In residual film experiment, the cinnamon oil had the highest toxicity rate on B. incarnatus adult fallowed by clove, camphor, mustard and the lowest effect was by castor oil. Based on our results, I can conclude that essential oils of camphor, cinnamon, clove and mustard have potential for use in the integrated management of B. incarnatus adult.

  12. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%, linalool (22.92%, cineole (11.26%, and 3,7,11-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-6,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (4.50%. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of D-camphor and linalool. D-camphor and linalool showed strong fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 2.36 and 18.04 mg/L air, resp. and contact toxicity (LD50 = 13.44 and 12.74 μg/adult, resp. against L. serricorne. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. camphora and its active compounds had the potential to be developed as natural fumigants and insecticides for control of L. serricorne.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Biswajit; Bagadiya, Abhishek; Makwana, Sagar; Vipul, Vora; Batt, Devraj; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm(2), wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes. PMID:22247895

  14. Structure of fenchone by broadband rotational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loru, Donatella; Bermúdez, Miguel A; Sanz, M Eugenia

    2016-08-21

    The bicyclic terpenoid fenchone (C10H16O, 1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) has been investigated by chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 2-8 GHz frequency region. The parent species and all heavy atom isotopologues have been observed in their natural abundance. The experimental rotational constants of all isotopic species observed have been determined and used to obtain the substitution (rs) and effective (r0) structures of fenchone. Calculations at the B3LYP, M06-2X, and MP2 levels of theory with different basis sets were carried out to check their performance against experimental results. The structure of fenchone has been compared with those of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) and the norbornane derivatives camphor (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) and camphene (3,3-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptane), both with substituents at C2. The structure of fenchone is remarkably similar to those of camphor and camphene. Comparison with camphor allows identification of changes in ∠CCC angles due to the different position of the methyl groups. All norbornane derivatives display similar structural changes with respect to norbornane. These changes mainly affect the bond lengths and angles of the six-membered rings, indicating that the substituent at C2 drives structural adjustments to minimise ring strain after its introduction. PMID:27544109

  15. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3 2 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT, and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9 was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm 2 , wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes.

  16. Structure of fenchone by broadband rotational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loru, Donatella; Bermúdez, Miguel A.; Sanz, M. Eugenia

    2016-08-01

    The bicyclic terpenoid fenchone (C10H16O, 1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) has been investigated by chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 2-8 GHz frequency region. The parent species and all heavy atom isotopologues have been observed in their natural abundance. The experimental rotational constants of all isotopic species observed have been determined and used to obtain the substitution (rs) and effective (r0) structures of fenchone. Calculations at the B3LYP, M06-2X, and MP2 levels of theory with different basis sets were carried out to check their performance against experimental results. The structure of fenchone has been compared with those of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) and the norbornane derivatives camphor (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) and camphene (3,3-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptane), both with substituents at C2. The structure of fenchone is remarkably similar to those of camphor and camphene. Comparison with camphor allows identification of changes in ∠CCC angles due to the different position of the methyl groups. All norbornane derivatives display similar structural changes with respect to norbornane. These changes mainly affect the bond lengths and angles of the six-membered rings, indicating that the substituent at C2 drives structural adjustments to minimise ring strain after its introduction.

  17. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani. PMID:27254445

  18. 低磷胁迫对香樟土壤酶活性的影响%Influence under Low Phosphorus Stress on Soil Enzyme Activities of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欲晃

    2012-01-01

    For different soil phosphorus stress camphor acid phosphatase, catalase, urease activity were determined. Resuits showed that: phosphorus deficiency stress, camphor soil acid phosphatase activity than normal for the case of phosphorus significantly increased, and with the severity of stress, acid phosphatase activity increased significantly; camphor soil catalase, urease activity is than normal for phosphorus decreased significantly, negatively correlated with the degree of coercion.%对不同磷素胁迫下香樟土壤酸性磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶、脲酶活性进行测定。结果表明:缺磷胁迫下,香樟土壤酸性磷酸酶活性较正常供磷情况下明显增强,且随着胁迫程度的加重,酸性磷酸酶活性显著上升;香樟土壤过氧化氢酶、脲酶活性则较正常供磷明显下降,与胁迫程度呈负相关。

  19. Fumigant Compounds from the Essential Oil of Chinese Blumea balsamifera Leaves against the Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Sha Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Blumea balsamifera leaves, was found to possess fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. The main components of the essential oil of B. balsamifera were 1,8-cineole (20.98%, borneol (11.99%, β-caryophyllene (10.38%, camphor (8.06%, 4-terpineol (6.49%, α-terpineol (5.91%, and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the essential oil on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate five constituent compounds, namely, 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, α-terpineol, and 4-terpineol. 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 2.96 mg/L, 4.79 mg/L, and 7.45 mg/L air, resp. and were more toxic than camphor (LC50 = 21.64 mg/L air and borneol (LC50 = 21.67 mg/L air. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 10.71 mg/L air.

  20. Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Medium-chain Biodiesel from Cinnamonum camphora Seed Oil☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Liu; Li Deng; Meng Wang; Kaili Nie; Luo Liu; Tianwei Tan; Fang Wang

    2014-01-01

    The non-edible camphor tree seed oil was extracted and catalyzed by immobilized lipase for biodiesel produc-tion. The oil yield from camphor tree seeds reached 35.2%of seed weight by twice microwave-assisted extrac-tions. Gas chromatography showed that free fatty acid content in camphor tree seed oil was 1.88%, and the main fatty acids were capric acid (53.4%) and lauric acid (38.7%). With immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99–125 as catalyst, several important factors for reaction conditions were examined through orthogonal experiments. The optimum conditions were obtained:water content and enzyme loading were both 15%with a molar ratio of 1:3.5 (oil/ethanol), and the process of alcoholysis was in nine steps at 40 °C for 24 h, with agitation at 170 r·min−1. As a result, the medium-chain biodiesel yield was 93.5%. The immobilized lipase was stable when it was used repeatedly for 210 h.

  1. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Teng

    2007-12-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  2. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  3. The Application of Artificial Insemination Technology in Distant Hybridization Between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica%人工授精技术在柞蚕与栗蚕远缘杂交中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿桂梅; 刘凤云; 戚俐; 徐亮; 孟宪民; 焦阳

    2011-01-01

    研究柞蚕(Antheraea pernyi)与栗蚕(Dictyoploca japonica)的人工授精技术,并应用于柞蚕与栗蚕的种间杂交试验,为利用远缘杂交改良柞蚕的经济性状提供试验技术.从种内交配40~60min的柞蚕雌蛾交配囊中采集精子细胞用于对柞蚕处女蛾的人工授精,其受精蛾率为61.5%,受精卵率为70.5%,孵化卵率为60.8%.栗蚕精子可在种内交配40~75 min的雌蛾交配囊中采集.利用单蛾精液授精和单蛾与多蛾精液互补授精的方法,分别获得了栗蚕♀×柞蚕♂的越冬卵和蚁蚕及柞蚕♀×栗蚕♂的活胚胎.试验结果表明,采用初步建立的人工授精技术,可以进行柞蚕与栗蚕的远缘杂交.%In present study, the artificial insemination technique for tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) and camphor silkworm (Dictyoploca japonica) was studied and applied in interspecific hybridization between tussah silkworm and camphor silkworm to improve economic traits of tussah silkworm through distant hybridization. Sperm cells of tussah silkworm were collected from copulatory pouches of female tussah silkworm moths after 40 to 60 min of intraspecific mating and were used to artificially inseminate the unmated tussah silkworm moths, which could lead to 61.5% of moths fertilized, 70.5% of eggs fertilized, and 60.8% of eggs hatched. Sperm cells of camphor silkworm could be collected from copulatory pouches of female camphor silkworm moths after 40 to 75 min of intraspecific mating. By means of insemination with single moth's sperm and complementary insemination with single and multiple moths' sperm, hibernating eggs of camphor silkworm ♀ xtussah silkworm ♂ and live embryos of tussah silkworm ♀ xcamphor silkworm ♂ were obtained respectively. This result indicated that a distant hybridization between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica can be conducted based on the newly established artificial insemination technology.

  4. Synthesis of π-Oxocamphor%π-氧化樟脑的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄顺; 邓旭忠; 蔡泽勇

    2012-01-01

    π-Oxocdmphor in a total yield of 35% was synthesized by esterification, hydrolysis and oxidation from ( + )-π-bromocamphor which was prepared from ( + )-camphor by twice bromination and reduction reaction. The optimum reaction conditions were ascertained as follows: ( 1) Bromination; n [ ( + )-camphor]:n( bromine) = 1:1. 4,glacial acetic acid as solvent,reaction time being6 h at 80 °C , the yield of ( + )-α-bromination camphor was 88. 5% ;n( ( + )-a-bromination camphor) -n( bromine) = 1 = 1. 1, chlorosulfonic acid as adjuvant, reaction time being 2 h at room temperature, the yield of ( + )-α,π-dibromination camphor was 80. 1%. (2) Reduction;n( ( + )-α, π-dibromination camphor] : n ( zinc ) =1:3, glacial acetic acid as solvent, ice bath response for 3 h, the yield of ( + ) -π-bromination camphor was 66. 3%. (3) Esterification -hydrolysis; n( ( + )-π-bromination camphor] -n (potassium acetate) =1:1. 5,glacial acetic acid as solvent,esterification reaction time being 30 h at 190 t. Then, the solvent was removed, and the reaction took place at reflux temperature in the hydrolysate[ F(CH3CH2OH) :F(mass fraction 55% potassium hydroxide) =1=9] for about 2. 5 h to give the ( + ) -Tr-hydroxyl camphor in a yield of about 78. 1 %. (4) Oxidation; chlorine pyridine chromium acid salt ( PCC ) as oxygenant, n ( PCC): n [ ( + )-π-hydroxyl camphor] =2:l,CH2Cl2 as solvent, under the protection of nitrogen, the reactants reacted for 2 h at room temperature, and the yield of π-oxocamphor was 95. 5%. The structure of the intermediates and the target products was confirmed by IR,GC -MS and 'HNMR.%以(+)-樟脑为原料,先经二次溴化、还原得(+)-π-溴代樟脑,再经酯化、水解和氧化反应合成了强心药物π-氧化樟脑.确定了较佳丁艺条件:(1)溴化反应:n[(+)-樟脑]∶n(Br2)=1∶1.4,冰醋酸为溶剂,80℃下反应6h,(+)-α-溴代樟脑收率88.5%;n[(+)-α-溴代樟脑]∶n(Br2)=1∶1.1,氯磺酸为助剂,室温下反应2h

  5. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  6. THE YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SPLIT CORIANDER FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafayev S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of losses and the change of composition of essential oil from split coriander fruits. It is found, that in the fractions of split fruits, extracted from long-stored commercial lots of raw materials, mass fraction of essential oil is two or three times lower than in whole fruits. In the composition of essential oil from split fruits the content of valuable components - linalool, geraniol, geranyl acetate is slightly higher, and the content of undesirable hydrocarbons and camphor is lower. It is shown that from freshly split fruits, which were stored in a thin layer in the open air, the oil was intensively lost in the first three days, the losses reached 86 %. At the same time, the composition of the oil changed: the content of most volatile components - hydrocarbons decreased several times and the content of high-boiling linalool, geraniol, geranyl acetate significantly increased, which increased the quality of the oil smell. The change of composition is determined not only by the ratio of components volatility. The content of relatively high boiling camphor almost half decreased. This could be associated with less ability of fruit tissue to sorb and the ability of camphor to be easily sublimated. The content of volatile n-cymene over time increased with a simultaneous decrease in the content of γ– terpinene, which confirmed predominantly chemical way of n-cymene accumulation in coriander essential oil in conditions conducive to oxidation. It is recommended to separate the split fruits as soon as the raw materials come to the plant and to process immediately. Essential oil from split fruits can be used to adjust the composition of individual lots of oil in order to improve their quality, and to provide extraction of valuable components – linalool and geraniol by vacuum rectification method

  7. Formulation design and optimization of fast dissolving clonazepam tablets by sublimation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Shirsand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3² full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 11 s; the formulation containing 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium and 40% w/w camphor was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly nine-fold faster drug release (t 50% 1.8 min compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t 50% 16.4 min. Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05.

  8. Organic Matter Enrichment and Aggregate Stabilization in a Severely Degraded Ultisol After Reforestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; PENG Xin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Three types of soils: an eroded barren soil under continuous fallow, an eroded soil transplanted with Lespedeza shrubs(Lespedeza bicolor), and an eroded soil transplanted with camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) were investigated to quantify organic matter pools and aggregates in reforested soils using physical fractionation techniques and to determine aggregate stability in relation to the enrichment of soil organic carbon (SOC). Soil organic matter (SOM) was physically fractionalized into free particulate organic matter (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM), and mineralassociated organic matter (mOM). The SOM was concentrated on the surface soil (0-5 cm), with an average C sequestration rate of 20-25 g C m-2 year-1 over 14 years. As compared to the eroded barren land, organic C content of fPOM, oPOM,and mOM fractions of the soil under Lespedeza and under camphor tree increased 12-15, 45-54, and 3.1-3.5 times,respectively. A linear relationship was found between aggregate stability and organic C (r2 = 0.45, P < 0.01), oPOM(r2 = 0.34, P < 0.05), and mOM (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01) of aggregates. The enrichment of organic C improved aggregate stability of the soil under Lespedeza but not that under camphor tree. However, further research is needed on the physical and biological processes involved in the interaction of soil aggregation and SOC sequestration in ecosystem.

  9. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle. PMID:27071761

  10. The synthesis and microwave absorbing properties of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/ferromagnet composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi Gang; Qiao, Xiao Jing; Wan, Xiang; Ren, Qing Guo; Li, Wang Chang; Zhang, Shuai Zhong; Guo, Xiao Dang

    2016-02-01

    The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using camphor as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. The effect of different camphor/ferrocene ratio, calcination temperature and deposition substrates on the morphology and performance of the samples have been examined. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the structure and growing mechanism of the MWCNTs in detail. The optimized MWCNTs have been obtained at 900 °C by 100:1 camphor/ferrocene ratio, whose IR extinction coefficient(αe) can reach 0.66 m2/g at 1400 cm-1, with the bandwidth between 594 and 3233 cm-1. The magnetic properties and microwave absorbing capability of Fe NPs/MWCNTs and MWCNTs/ferrite composites have been investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer and Vector network analyzer. With the addition of MWCNTs, the dielectric properties of the FeNPs/MWCNTs are enhanced in the L, S and C bands. The bandwidth (BW) below -10 dB of the 2 mm thickness ranges from 6.50 to 9.15 GHz, with the maximum RL reaching -23.78 dB at 7.8 GHz. And the peak reflection loss (RL) of the MWCNTs/ferrite can reach -18.17 dB at 3.55 GHz under 5 mm thickness, with dual-frequency absorption appearing in Ku bands at 4 and 5 mm thickness. The difference in lower frequency between the two composites suggests that MWCNTs/ferrite is expected to be an excellent tunable and broadband absorber.

  11. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:27482698

  12. Polycyclic N-Hetero Compounds. XL. Reaction of Cyclic Ketones with Trisformylaminomethane

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Kenji; Hirota, Takashi; Iwado, Akimasa; Hirota, Kazuhiro

    1991-01-01

    Reactions of cyclic ketones such as α-tetralone, 1,3-cyclohexanedione, or naphthalenedione with formamide or trisformylaminomethane (TFAM) have shown to form polyclic fused pyrimidines by us. Reactions of terpene ketones like l-menthone, d-camphor, l-carvone with TFAM were performed, and 8-isopropyl-5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline, borno[2,3-d] pyrimidine, and 5-isopropenyl-8-methyl-5,6-dihydroquinazoline were expectedly obtained from three terpenes. Minor products of 5-isopropenyl-8-m...

  13. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1991--March 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  14. P450cam biocatalysis in surfactant-stabilized two-phase emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jessica D; Clark, Douglas S

    2008-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are powerful biocatalysts that have the ability to oxidize a broad range of substrates, often at non-reactive carbon centers. However, incorporation of P450s into synthetic schemes has so far been limited to a few whole-cell transformations. P450 substrates are often hydrophobic and have low water solubility, limiting the amount of product that can be produced. To help overcome this limitation, we have examined P450cam activity in two-phase hexane/water emulsions with and without the anionic surfactant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Hydroxylation of camphor to hydroxycamphor by the three- component P450cam system was chosen as the model reaction, and regeneration of NADH was accomplished with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). P450cam was activated in the surfactant-free emulsions, and addition of AOT improved the activity even further, at least over the range of camphor concentrations for which initial rates were readily measurable in all media. The largest observed rate enhancement was 4.5-fold. Nearly 50-times more product was formed in the surfactant-stabilized emulsions than was achieved in aqueous buffer, with total turnover numbers reaching 28,900 for P450cam and 11,800 for YADH. In the absence of surfactant, the two-phase reaction appeared to be mass-transfer limited, while inclusion of AOT alleviated transport limitations and/or afforded a larger interfacial area for P450 activation. The oxidation of hydroxycamphor to 2,5-diketocamphane was also observed, owing to the large concentration of hydroxycamphor relative to camphor in the aqueous phase of the two-phase emulsion. This competing reaction was accompanied by the uncoupled oxidation of NADH (i.e., NADH oxidation without formation of 2,5-diketocamphane), which reduced the availability of NADH for camphor oxidation and further limited the yield of hydroxycamphor in the two-phase emulsions. These results indicate that a surfactant

  15. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  16. An Investigation on the Formation of Carbon Nanotubes by Two-Stage Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shamsudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs has been synthesized from agricultural hydrocarbon: camphor oil using a one-hour synthesis time and a titanium dioxide sol gel catalyst. The pyrolysis temperature is studied in the range of 700–900°C at increments of 50°C. The synthesis process is done using a custom-made two-stage catalytic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The CNT characteristics are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that structural properties of CNT are highly dependent on pyrolysis temperature changes.

  17. Middle Path is the Way to Success——Leong Heng Keng and His Family Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Leung Kai Fook Medical Company (Pte) Ltd. (hereafter. LKF) is the maker of Axe Brand Universal Oil (also known as Axe Brand Medicated Oil), a popular brand of medicated oil which is instantly recognized by many pcople around the world by its logo, which features an arm holding an axe. Axe Brand Medicated Oil is colorless, mildly-scented medicated oil which is a unique blend of eucalyptus. menthol, camphor and other essential oils drawn from a variety of flora.For about 80 years, it has been used by both adults and children as a popuar treatment for giddiness, headache trtvel siekness. stomach-ache, insect bites and other minor ailments.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from the Rhizomes of Iris bulleyana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Guo-bin; ZHANG Han-bo; XUE Hong-fen; CHEN Shan-na; CHEN Xiao-lan

    2009-01-01

    Iris bulleyana has long been used as a remedy for detoxication and detumescence.Hydrodistillation was used to extract the essential oil from its rhizomes,and 0.23% oil yield was obtained.Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis,31 chemicals including aristolone,euparene,β-gurjunene,δ-amorphene,α-muurolene,α-cadinol,camphor,γ-elemene,and τ-eadinol were identified.The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Acetobacter calcoacetica,Bacillus subtillis,Clostridium sporogenes,Clostridium perfringens,Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhii,Staphylococcus aureus,and Yersinia enterocolitica.Its antifungal and antioxidant activities were also tested.

  19. Biodiversité, bioactivité et biosynthèse des composés terpéniques volatils des lavandes ailées, Lavandula stoechas sensu lato, un complexe d'espèces méditerranéennes d'intérêt pharmacologique

    OpenAIRE

    Benabdelkader, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have assessed the composition and the biological activities of essential oils (EO) extracted from L. stoechas collected from 11 locations in northern Algeria. The oils were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. A total of 121 compounds were identified that accounted for 69.88-91.2 % of the total oil contents. Major components were fenchone (11.27-37.48 %), camphor (1.94-21.8 %), 1,8-cineol (0.16-8.71 %) and viridiflorol (2.89-7.38 %). In vitro biological activities demonstrated that ...

  20. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material. PMID:26632947

  1. Fate of organic contaminants in the redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Samples from 75 sample locations in a landfill leachate pollution plume reveal a significant disappearance of specific organic compounds (SOC's) within the first 100 m of the plume. Only the herbicide Mecoprop® (MCPP) migrates further. Since sorption and dilution cannot account for the decreasing...... by a significant ferrogenic zone exhibiting a substantial capacity to degrade the SOC's. The presence of intermediary products (here an oxidized camphor compound) supports the concept of degradation within the ferrogenic zone. This investigation draws the attention to the significant natural attenuation of organic...

  2. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR. PMID:20487662

  3. Affordable Essential Oils for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Tribuiani, Yolani; Hoyte, Angel; Lukasz L Stelinski

    2014-01-01

    Plant essential oils are commonly used to manage insects; they are widely available and some are inexpensive.  In this research we have selected five botanical oils costing less than $100 US per kilogram, to evaluate for repellency to Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), the insect vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing.  In olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent; clove and camphor oils were attractive; and litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from ACP females.  In no-choice se...

  4. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ping Chen; Kai Yang; Chun Xue You; Ning Lei; Rui Qi Sun; Zhu Feng Geng; Ping Ma; Qian Cai; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%), linalool (22.92%), cineo...

  5. 氢氧化钙在根管内封药中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汉钢; 镇方汉

    2003-01-01

    @@ 通过有效的根管内封药预防根管治疗期间的急症(IAE)是提高根管治疗成功率的关键,使用传统药物樟脑对氯酚(camphorated paramon-chlorophenol,CMCP)、甲醛甲酚(formacresol,FC)、丁香油(oil of clove,OC)等进行根管内封药临床上IAE发生率较高,使治疗次数增多,患者痛苦加大.

  6. Drug: D06719 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06719 Crude, Drug Cyperus rhizome (JP16); Powdered cyperus rhizome (JP16); Xianghu...], (+)-Camphor [CPD:C00808] Cyperus rotundus [TAX:512623] Same as: E00091 Therapeutic category: 5100 Cyperaceae (sedge family) Cyperu...10 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06719 Cyperus rhizome (JP16); Powdered cyperus rhizome (JP16) Traditional C...hinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06719 Cyperus... rhizome; Powdered cyperus rhizome; Xianghu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Cyperaceae (sedge family) D06719 Cyperus rhizome PubChem: 47208370 ...

  7. Secondary Metabolites in Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium (L.) Growing Wild in East Part of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Arben I. Haziri; Nevzat Aliaga; Murtezan Ismaili; Sevdije Govori-Odai; Osman Leci; Fatmir Faiku; Valentina Arapi; Imer Haziri

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Chemical composition of essential oil of Achillea millefolium (L.), originated from east part of Kosova, was investigated. Approach: The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. Results: Analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 33 peaks, representing 81.4% of the oil. The main compounds of Achillea millefolium (L.) from east region of Kosova, were 1,8-cineole (22%), camphor (21%), borneol (7,6%) and β-pinene (5.3%). Conclusion: ...

  8. Effect of Plant Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Flavus Isolated from Wheat Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antifungal potential of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and camphor ( Eucalyptus rostrata L.) was determined on Aspergillus flavus link isolated from wheat grains on Potato dextrose agar (PDA). They inhibited completely mycelia growth of the fungus at 1000 and 2000 ppm, and prevented aflatoxin production at sub lethal dose 500 and 1000 ppm respectively. Gamma radiation was used to control mycelia growth of Aspergillus flavus Link and inhibiting aflatoxin production. A dose level of 3.5 KGy gamma radiation prevented the fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus link, where a dose of 2.5 K Gy ( the sub lethal dose) prevented about 85% of aflatoxin production

  9. Effect of CSA Concentration on the Ammonia Sensing Properties of CSA-Doped PA6/PANI Composite Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zengyuan Pang; Jiapeng Fu; Pengfei Lv; Fenglin Huang; Qufu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyamide 6/polyaniline (PA6/PANI) composite nanofibers were fabricated using in situ polymerization of aniline under different CSA concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) with electrospun PA6 nanofibers as templates. The structural, morphological and ammonia sensing properties of the prepared composite nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), four-point probe techniques, X-r...

  10. Crystal structure of cis-bis­{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-tri­methyl-2-oxobi­cyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thio­semicarbazidato-κ3 O,N 1,S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent mol­ecule

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Vanessa Senna; Bresolin, Leandro; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenyl­thio­semicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The CdII ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by two deprotonated thio­semicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are connected via pairs of N—H⋯S and C—H⋯S inter­actions, building centrosymmetric...

  11. di-4-amino-3(RS)-hydroxybutanoic acid maleateの合成および血液脳関門通過性についての研究

    OpenAIRE

    宮本, 茂敏

    1987-01-01

    Resolution of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide and 4-amino-3-hydroxybutananilide was carried out with optically active camphor-l0-sulfonic acid and tartaric acid, respectively. Hydrolysis of optically active 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanamide and 4-amino-3-hydroxybutananilide on a strongly acidic resin yielded 4-amino-3(R)-hydroxybutanoic acid (R-GABOB) and 4-amino-3(S)-hydroxybutanoic acid (S-GABOB). As Infrared absorption spectrums of R-GABOB and 4-amino-3(RS)-hydroxybutanoic acid (RS-GABOB) were diffe...

  12. Crystal structure of cis-bis{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-trimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thiosemicarbazidato-κ3O,N1,S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Senna Nogueira; Leandro Bresolin; Christian Näther; Inke Jess; Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenylthiosemicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The CdII ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral environment by two deprotonated thiosemicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the molecules are connected via pairs of N—H...S and C—H...S interactions, building centrosymmetric d...

  13. Optical activity and Alfred Werner's coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Berke, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted, that Pasteur's seminal discovery of the opposite optical activity of ammonium sodium tartrate enantiomorphs in solution gave the spark to organic stereochemistry and led to the development of the tetrahedron model by van't Hoff and Le Bel. The proof that chirality is inherently connected to octahedral coordination chemistry fostered greatly Werner's spatial views of metal complexes and his coordination theory. The actual proof of principle was established via separation of diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salts of racemic metal complexes. PMID:20928897

  14. Introduction to Dangerous Goods (43)%危险货物介绍(43)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫道

    2002-01-01

    @@ 莰酮-[2] 又称:合成树脑、树脑、樟脑 英文名称:Camphor 分子式:C10H16O 特性:呈无色至白色半透明颗粒状或碎块状结晶,也有呈粉状的.有刺激性芳香味,是易燃固体,能溶于酒精、乙醚、乙醇、氯仿,二硫化碳和油类中.难溶于水,常温下易挥发,蒸汽有麻醉性.

  15. Relationship between morphological traits and secondary metabolites in Artemisia annua L. by using correlation and path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Paul, A A Naqvi, Madan M Gupta, Suman P S Khanuja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis were performed for fifteen morphological and chemical (monoterpenes and sequeterpenes traits in Artemisia annua. Significant positive relationship and direct effect was observed of artemisinin yield with plant height, branching pattern (number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches, petiole length, ketone and 1, 8 cineol while negative association was observed with artemisinic acid, α-pinene and camphor. Oil content was negatively associated with leaf characters namely lamina length, lamina width and petiole length. Oil has negative effect on artemisinin content. The information can be used as a useful reference for elucidating relationship of Artemisinin (sesquiterpene, essential oil (monoterpene with m

  16. High thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocrystalline polyaniline at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in, E-mail: okram@csr.res.in [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784 028 (India); Kuo, Yung-Kang [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Okram, Gunadhor Singh, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in, E-mail: okram@csr.res.in [Electrical Transport Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)

    2014-09-29

    Thermoelectric coolers with figure of merit (ZT) close to unity at low temperatures are the need of the hour with new advances in high temperature superconductors, superconducting microelectronic circuits, quantum computers, and photonics. Here, we demonstrate that the conducting polymer polyaniline (Pani) doped with camphor sulfonic acid synthesized in semi-crystalline nanostructures, possesses a giant Seebeck effect at low temperatures. The resulting enormously large Seebeck coefficient (up to 0.6 V/K) combined with an intrinsically low electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity give rise to a ZT = 0.77 at 45 K and ZT = 2.17 at 17 K.

  17. Synthesis of Carbocyclic Hydantocidins via Regioselective and Diastereoselective Phosphine-Catalyzed [3 + 2]-Cycloadditions to 5-Methylenehydantoins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Tien Q.; Pyne, Stephen G.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H. (UWA); (Wollongong)

    2010-07-20

    The phosphine-catalyzed [3 + 2]-cycloaddition of 5-methylenehydantoins 4 with the ylides 5, derived from addition of tributylphosphine to the 2-butynoic acid derivatives, 6a-d, gives spiro-heterocyclic products. The camphor sultam derivative 6b gives optically active products. Noteable was that the ylides derived from ethyl 2-butynoate and the 3-(2-butynoyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one derivatives 6c and 6d gave spiro-heterocyclic products with reverse regioselectivities. The N,N-dibenzylprotected cycloadduct has been converted to carbocyclic hydantocidin and 6,7-diepi-carbocyclic hydantocidin.

  18. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.

  19. Preparation and Properties of Polyaniline Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua

    2002-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAn) was synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization. The conductive polymer doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and a matrix polymer,polyamide- 66, polyamide - 1010 or polyamide- 11, were dissolved in m-cresol and the blend solution was cast in a glass and dried for preparing polyaniline composite films.Conductivity was from 10 -6 to 10 0Ω-1·cm-1 with different weight fraction of PAn-CSA. The crystallizttion of the films was studied by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The treatment of the composite films in different pH value solution would result in decrease of conductivity, especially in an alkaline solution.

  20. Secondary Metabolites in Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium (L. Growing Wild in East Part of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben I. Haziri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Chemical composition of essential oil of Achillea millefolium (L., originated from east part of Kosova, was investigated. Approach: The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. Results: Analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 33 peaks, representing 81.4% of the oil. The main compounds of Achillea millefolium (L. from east region of Kosova, were 1,8-cineole (22%, camphor (21%, borneol (7,6% and β-pinene (5.3%. Conclusion: After comparison of our date with those reported in literature we can conclude that various chemotypes of Achillea millefolium (L. occur in nature.

  1. [Burn treatment in the renaissance by Fabricius Hildanus--a historical appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennekampff, H-O

    2009-12-01

    A first comprehensive textbook on burns treatment was written in 1607 by Fabry of Hilden (Fabricius Hildanus). This monograph describes cause, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of burn injuries. Besides a variety of topical ointments with promising herbal ingredients like onion and camphor, surgical procedures like necrectomies, escharotomies and syndactely treatment are described for the first time ever. Scar management including splinting devices is another interesting topic. Some of the therapeutic procedures are still valid today. Thus this renaissance piece of medical writing belongs to the pedigree of surgery. PMID:20017089

  2. Qualitative Identification of Piyan Ping Ointment by GC%皮炎平软膏气相色谱鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2001-01-01

    目的:用气相色谱法对皮炎平软膏中薄荷脑、樟脑进行鉴别。方法:采用气相色谱鉴别。结果:简便、快速、准确。结论:可作为该制剂的质控方法之一。%Menthol, camphor of Piyan Ping ointment were qualitativelyanalyzed by GC. This method is simple, fast with exact result. It is one of the quality control methods of this preparation.

  3. Phytotoxic and Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Extracts of Four Achillea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Çakır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils and hexane extracts of four Achillea species were analyzed by GC/MS. Achillea biserrata Bieb., Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Achillea biebersteinii Afan oils contained mainly 1,8-cineole (38.1-14.4%, camphor (46.6-23.6% and borneol (11.7-2.9%, . Achillea coarctata Poir. oil had more different composition, with its main components being viridiflorol (37.7%, α-cadinol (8.9% and cubenol (6.1%. The hexane extracts of A. wilhelmsii, A. coarctata and A. biebersteinii had high percentages of camphor (44.7%, 16.2% and 18.0%, respectively and 1,8-cineole (19.5%, 30.8% and 165.1%, respectively, whereas the most abundant components in A. biserrata extract were ethyl oleate (13.1%, n-nonadecane (11.3%, and n-eicosane (11.3%. Herbicidal activities of the oils and hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of four Achillea species were assessed against six weed species and germinations, root and shoot growths of weed species were significantly inhibited by both the oils and extracts. In the pest toxicity assay on Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the oils showed toxic effect against the pest. According to the present results, Achillea species could be used as alternative bio-insecticides and bio-herbicides.

  4. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%, methyleugenol (19.98%, linalool (14.66% and camphor (5.5%. In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment, respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86% was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  5. Studies on culture condition of new marine bacterium Zooshikella sp. SY01

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjian LAN; Linfeng MO; Chuanghua CAI; Yipin ZHOU; Junhua YAO; Houjin LI

    2008-01-01

    New marine bacterium Zooshikella sp. SY01, producer of prodigiosin, was isolated from the seawaters of Sanya Bay. The culture conditions of this bacterium were investigated. Zooshikella sp. SY01 was cultured in 2216E media which contained tryptophan, histidine, lac-tonic acid, camphor, limonene, casein, diphenyl guani-dine, coumarin and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. After 5 days cultivation, the extracts of different culture broths were detected by direct infusion mass spectroscopy using positive ESI mode. As the results, tryptophan, his-tidine and casein didn't show any observable influences on the biosynthesis of prodigiosin. Lactonic acid, camphor, limonene, diphenyl guanidine, coumarin could inhibit the bacterium growth and prodigiosin biosynthesis to a cer-tain extent, slower the culture broth to turn red. However, 1, 3-dinitrobenzene inhibited the bacteria to produce pro-digiosin completely. MS data suggested that various metabolites with chemodiversity were produced in differ-ent culture media. In particular, a series of high-molecu-lar-weight compounds with high relative abundances were observed in the medium containing limonene. To further optimize the culture condition, more new prodigiosin ana-logues and lead compounds can be obtained and the goal of "one strain-many compounds" can be achieved.

  6. Interlaboratory test study for ASTM E 2008 volatility rate by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Q.S.M.; Vachon, M.; Jones, D.E.G.

    2003-11-01

    The Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) led an interlaboratory test (ILT) to assess the stability of solids and liquids at given temperatures using thermogravimetry under specific experimental conditions.The objective was to determine the number of repetitive measurements needed on fresh specimens in order to satisfy end use requirements. The study involved isothermal constant heating rate tests to determine the volatility rates for camphor at 333 K and for squalane at 573 K using ASTM Standard Test Method E 2008 called Volatility Rate by Thermogravimetry. This paper listed the participating laboratories, the scientists, and their locations. Each laboratory conducted mass and temperature calibrations according to ASTME Standard E 1582 and manufacturer's recommendations. Five replicates were obtained from each laboratory and the volatility rates for water were determined at 323 and 353 K using the Method B Constant Heating Rate Test. The results from 8 laboratories were statistically analyzed using the ASTME E 691 Interlaboratory Data Analysis Software. The report includes a table of results for volatility rates for camphor, squalane, water at 323 K and water at 353 K. 4 tabs., 9 appendices.

  7. Differential Essential Oil Composition and Morphology between Perennial Satureja species Growing in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David García-Rellán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of thirty six samples of perennial Spanish savouries (Satureja montana L., Satureja innota (Pau G. López, Satureja cuneifolia Ten. and Satureja intricata Lange, was investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 72 compounds accounting between 98.25-99.55% of the total oil were identified. High content of carvacrol (59.72±1.50% followed by g -terpinene (17.40±1.11% were found in S.montana essential oils. S. cuneifolia yielded an oil rich in camphor (45.04±1.67% and camphene (12.42±1.71% whereas S. innota produces an essential oil with linalool (23.94±7.58% or geraniol (8.62±3.45% according to the locality of collection and S. intricata showed chemical polymorphism with camphor (16.02±1.75%, as the main compound followed with populations with myrcene (8.46±1.46% and populations with g -terpinene (8.22±1.33%. Although the morphological affinity between S. innota, S.cuneifolia and S. intricata could lead to consider the subspecies level, the phytochemical discriminant analysis support the taxonomic classification of Flora Iberica which ranks these taxa into species.

  8. Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from East Part of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Haziri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We have analyzed the chemical nature of essential oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from East part of Kosova. Approach: The essential oil from aerial part of Tanacetum parthenium (L., obtained by hidro-distillation was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Results: Out of 25 peaks, 22 components, which constitute 88%, were identified in oil. The main compounds of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from east region of Kosova, were camphor (63% and camphene (9.6%. This study demonstrates the occurrence of camphor/camphene chemotype of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from east part of Kosova. The present study showed the chemical composition of the hydro-distilled oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L. from East part of Kosova and the results are compared to those reported in the literature. Conclusion: After comparison of our date with those reported in literature we can conclude that genetic and environmental factors play role in determining the composition of essential oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L..

  9. Chemical compositions of the volatile extracts from seeds of Dendranthema nankingense and Borago officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile extracts from the seeds of Dendranthema nankingense Hand.-Mazz. and Borago officinalis L. were prepared using simultaneous distillation and extraction, and analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry on two capillary gas chromatography columns of different polarity. Ninety-five volatile compounds were identified in D. nankingense seeds, with hexanal, benzeneacetaldehyde, borneol, (−-camphor, and 3-methyl-1-butanol being the predominant species. Sixty-five volatile compounds were identified in B. officinalis seeds, with 2-pentanone, 2,3-dihydro-benzofuran, 3-methyl butanal, and hexanal being the most abundant species. Thirty-three compounds, including short-chain aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones, were common to both seeds. The volatile composition of both seeds varied significantly depending on their respective origins. The volatile terpenoids borneol and (−-camphor could be key bioactive contributors to the characteristic flavor and cooling effects of D. nankingense. For the first time, coumaran was identified as an abundant species in plant seeds.

  10. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    Full Text Available Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity.

  11. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  12. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Sarate, Priya; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  13. HS-SPME-GC/MS法分析风油精中挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Components in the Fengyoujing by HS-SPME-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀华; 邓冰; 孟丹; 邓义; 何小波

    2011-01-01

    The volatile components in the Fengyoujing were concentrated by head space solidphase micro-extraction(HS-SPME), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 27 components are identified. The principal components are methyl salicylate (25. 19%), menthol (23. 25%), eugenol (7. 86%), eucalyptol (7. 28%), camphor (6.62%), phenethyl alcohol (6.35%) and benzyl acetate (5.73%). Some components have the action of sterilization, diminishing inflammation, stanching itch and demulcent, such as methyl salicylate, menthol, eugenol and camphor. Many volatile components are sweetscented compounds.%采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析风油精中的挥发性成分.共检测出27种化合物,含量较高的有水杨酸甲酯(25.19%)、薄荷脑(23.25%)、丁香酚(7.86%)、桉树脑(7.28%)、樟脑(6.62%)、苯乙醇(6.35%)和乙酸苯甲酯(5.73%)等.水杨酸甲酯、薄荷脑、丁香酚和樟脑等均具有杀菌消炎和止痒镇痛的作用,并且多种成分具有特殊的香气.

  14. Ecosustainable Development of Novel Bio-inorganic Hybrid Materials as UV Protection Systems for Potential Cosmetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Carla; Lacapra, Chiara; Rosa, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A new organoclay, bio-inorganic hybrid material, was successfully prepared following the "green chemistry" principles, exploiting microwave irradiation (as an alternative energetic source) in both the solvent-free synthesis of the organic filler (UVB filter) and in its hydrothermal intercalation in a sodium Bentonite clay (renewable natural inorganic source at low temperature). The organic filler is a benzylidene camphor derivative with the same cationic moiety as the well- known UV filter camphor benzalkonium methosulfate. The aim of the research was the ecosustainable development of a new UV protection model, suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, with potential advantages of stability, efficiency and safety compared to the commercially available UVB sunscreens. The organically modified clay was thoroughly investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Results confirmed the complete intercalation of the organic filler in the interlayer region of the smectite clay, leading to a new bio-inorganic hybrid material with potential for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications in the UV protection field, as confirmed by preliminary photochemical studies. This work represents the first example in the use of Na-Bentonite cationic clay (usually employed as rheological additive) as hosting agent of the synthesized quaternary UVB filter, as well as in the complete MW-assisted preparation of the organoclay, starting from the synthesis of the organic UV sunscreen to its hydrothermal intercalation.

  15. Composition and intraspecific chemical variability of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in a Tunisian arid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighri, Hédi; Akrout, Ahmed; El-jeni, Hajer; Zaidi, Slah; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph; Neffati, Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    The intraspecific chemical variability of essential oils (50 samples) isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso growing wild in the arid zone of Southeastern Tunisia was investigated. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 54 essential oil components. The main compounds were β-thujone and α-thujone, followed by 1,8-cineole, camphor, chrysanthenone, trans-sabinyl acetate, trans-pinocarveol, and borneol. Chemometric analysis (k-means clustering and PCA) led to the partitioning into three groups. The composition of two thirds of the samples was dominated by α-thujone or β-thujone. Therefore, it could be expected that wild plants of A. herba-alba randomly harvested in the area of Kirchaou and transplanted by local farmers for the cultivation in arid zones of Southern Tunisia produce an essential oil belonging to the α-thujone/β-thujone chemotype and containing also 1,8-cineole, camphor, and trans-sabinyl acetate at appreciable amounts. PMID:21072770

  16. Benign synthesis of 2-ethylhexanoic acid by cytochrome P450cam: enzymatic, crystallographic, and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K J; Strickler, M D; Rock, D A; Rock, D A; Bennett, G A; Wahlstrom, J L; Goldstein, B M; Jones, J P

    2001-08-14

    This study examines the ability of P450cam to catalyze the formation of 2-ethylhexanoic acid from 2-ethylhexanol relative to its activity on the natural substrate camphor. As is the case for camphor, the P450cam exhibits stereoselectivity for binding (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol. Kinetic studies indicate (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid is produced 3.5 times as fast as the (S)-enantiomer. In a racemic mixture of 2-ethylhexanol, P450cam produces 50% more (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid than (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid. The reason for stereoselective 2-ethylhexanoic acid production is seen in regioselectivity assays, where (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises 50% of total products while (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises only 13%. (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol exhibit similar characteristics with respect to the amount of oxygen and reducing equivalents consumed, however, with (S)-2-ethylhexanol turnover producing more water than the (R)-enantiomer. Crystallographic studies of P450cam with (R)- or (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid suggest that the (R)-enantiomer binds in a more ordered state. These results indicate that wild-type P450cam displays stereoselectivity toward 2-ethylhexanoic acid synthesis, providing a platform for rational active site design. PMID:11583152

  17. Endocrine modulation and toxic effects of two commonly used UV screens on the aquatic invertebrates Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lumbriculus variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Claudia [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: claudia.schmitt@ua.ac.be; Oetken, Matthias; Dittberner, Olaf; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The two UV screens 3-benzylidene-camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) were tested regarding their toxicity and estrogenic activity. The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and two sediment assays with the freshwater invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Potamopyrgus antipodarum were performed. In the YES, both substances activated the human estrogen receptor {alpha} with EC{sub 50} values of 44.2 {mu}M for 3-BC and 44.3 {mu}M for 4-MBC, whereby 4-MBC attained only 8% of the maximal response of 17{beta}-estradiol. For P. antipodarum embryo production increased after exposure to both substances (EC{sub 50} of 4.60 {mu}M 4-MBC = 1.17 mg kg{sup -1} dw) while mortality increased at high concentrations. The reproduction of L. variegatus was decreased by 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 5.95 {mu}M (=1.43 mg kg{sup -1} dw) and also by 4-MBC, where no EC{sub 50} could be calculated. While reproduction decreased, the worms' weight increased after exposure to 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 26.9 {mu}M (= 6.46 mg kg{sup -1} dw), hence the total biomass remained unaffected. - UV screens can have a significant impact on reproduction and development of aquatic invertebrates.

  18. Machine Learning Based Dimensionality Reduction Facilitates Ligand Diffusion Paths Assessment: A Case of Cytochrome P450cam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, J; Nowak, W

    2016-04-12

    In this work we propose an application of a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method to represent the high-dimensional configuration space of the ligand-protein dissociation process in a manner facilitating interpretation. Rugged ligand expulsion paths are mapped into 2-dimensional space. The mapping retains the main structural changes occurring during the dissociation. The topological similarity of the reduced paths may be easily studied using the Fréchet distances, and we show that this measure facilitates machine learning classification of the diffusion pathways. Further, low-dimensional configuration space allows for identification of residues active in transport during the ligand diffusion from a protein. The utility of this approach is illustrated by examination of the configuration space of cytochrome P450cam involved in expulsing camphor by means of enhanced all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The expulsion trajectories are sampled and constructed on-the-fly during molecular dynamics simulations using the recently developed memetic algorithms [ Rydzewski, J.; Nowak, W. J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 ( 12 ), 124101 ]. We show that the memetic algorithms are effective for enforcing the ligand diffusion and cavity exploration in the P450cam-camphor complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that machine learning techniques are helpful in inspecting ligand diffusion landscapes and provide useful tools to examine structural changes accompanying rare events. PMID:26989997

  19. Artemisia arborescens Essential Oil Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antimicrobial Activity from Different Wild Populations from the Mediterranean Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Militello, Marcello; Saia, Sergio; Settanni, Luca; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Bombarda, Isabelle; Vanloot, Pierre; Roussel, Christian; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens were collected from different sites of the Mediterranean area (southwestern Algeria and southern Italy) and the chemical composition of their essential oil (EO) extracted by hydrodistillation was studied by both gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an enantioselective capillary column and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EOs obtained were tested against several Listeria monocytogenes strains. Using GC and GC/MS, 41 compounds were identified, accounting for 96.0 - 98.8% of the total EO. All EOs showed a similar terpene profile, which was rich in chamazulene, β-thujone, and camphor. However, the concentration of such compounds varied among the EOs. A. arborescens EO inhibited up to 83.3% of the L. monocytogenes strains, but the inhibitory spectrum varied among the EOs, with those from Algeria showing a higher inhibition degree than the Italian EOs. Such effect likely depended on the ketone (β-thujone + camphor) content of the EO. The differences in the EO composition support the hypothesis that A. arborescens has at least two different chemotypes: a β-thujone and a chamazulene type. The EO inhibitory spectrum indicates the A. arborescens EO as a valuable option in the control of the food-borne pathogens. PMID:27447740

  20. 亚热带3种森林类型土壤微生物碳、氮生物量特征比较%The Biomass Comparison of Soil Microbial Carbon and Nitrogen of 3 Kinds of Forest Types in Subtropics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多祎帆; 王光军; 闫文德; 刘亮

    2012-01-01

    为了比较不同森林类型土壤微生物数量和生物量的差异特征,揭示不同森林类型对微生物数量和生物量碳、氮的影响,采用稀释平板法和氯仿熏蒸浸提法,研究了湖南省长沙市天际岭国家森林植物园樟树人工林、马尾松人工林、樟树-马尾松混交林土壤微生物数量、碳氮生物量特征.结果表明:(1)樟树林、混交林和马尾松林中的土壤微生物总数量为樟树林>混交林>马尾松林,均呈显著差异(P<0.05);(2)林型对土壤微生物数量和比例有显著的影响.各类土壤微生物比例特征为:细菌为樟树林>马尾松林>混交林,真菌为混交林>马尾松>樟树林,放线菌为混交林>马尾松>樟树林;(3)3种林型土壤微生物生物量碳的特征为马尾松林>混交林>樟树林,其平均含量分别为543.01、421.48、370.95mg/kg;微生物生物量氮特征则为:樟树林>马尾松林>混交林,平均含量分别为37.28mg/kg、23.20mg/kg、15.12mg/kg.土壤微生物生物量碳、氮与土壤有机碳、全氮呈显著线性相关,与土壤水分相关关系不显著,土壤有机质是影响土壤微生物生物量的重要因素.%In order to research the characteristics of different types of forest soil microorganism quantity and biomass in the global climate characteristics, to reveal the different forest types on microbial number and biomass carbon, nitrogen effect, the author used the method of chloroform fumigation extraction and dilution plate on camphor forest plantations, pine plantations and camphor-artificial pine mixed forest with soil microbes, biomass and distribution of carbon and nitrogen in Forest Botanical Garden, Changsha, Hunan. The results showed that: (1) camphor forest, mixed forest and pine forest, the total number of microbial camphor forest>mixed forest>pine forest, showed a significant difference (Ppine forest>mixed forest; fungus was: mixed forest>pine forest>camphor forest

  1. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Salas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  2. Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M.; Zhang, G.L.; Zhang, Y.X.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Q.C.; Zhao, Y.D.; Ma, C.Y.; Han, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics

    2009-11-15

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO{sub 4}2{sup -}. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  3. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) were rarely detected. Additionally, the detection frequencies and measured concentrations of all targets were clearly higher in mussels than in fish. Spatial distribution of studied UV filters indicated a positive correlation between their measured concentrations and the anthropogenic activities responsible for their direct emission. The ecological risk assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. PMID:27235899

  4. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids. PMID:27043503

  5. Controlling of deposition time as an effective parameter on purified growth CNTs based on TCVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    According to the unique properties of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have been under scientific investigation for more than fifteen years in different applications. Here we reported the effect of temperature on camphor in a wide range of 500-1150 ˚C. The results indicate that camphor did not decompose below 500 ˚C but very short-length tubes emerged from the silicon substrate at 550 ˚C which is suggesting that the catalyst activity. According to the results, the CNT growth rate was abruptly increased at 600 ˚C. This process was done on the same condition by optimizing the temperature up to 900 ˚C. FESEM images indicate the highest catalyst activity at 850 ˚C which direct the experiment to grow purified CNT up to 3 µm in the length. This result suggests that, at low temperatures, the catalyst-support interaction is strong enough not to let the metal particles to involve in deposition process, but at 850 ˚C MWCNTs and SWCNTs can be selectively grown as a function of CVD temperature. The optimum deposition time was found in 30 minutes, which based on the Raman shift results the growth CNTs has shown high purity and crystallinity as well as high aspect ratio.

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of C1-Symmetric 3,3′-Bi(1,1′-dinaphthyl-camphopyrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Barrera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound 3,3′-bi(1,1′-dinaphthyl-camphopyrazole 1, C42H42O4, was obtained in good yield and structurally characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction. It consists of a 3,3′-bipyrazole group with each pyrazole ring containing a fused camphor group and a naphthalene ring bonded to the adjacent nitrogen atom in the ring. Both of the trimethyl, 5-membered rings of the fused camphor group form an envelope with the apex carbon atom as the flap in each case. In the crystal, weak π–π stacking interactions are observed between nearby 6-carbon rings of the two naphthalene rings linking the molecules into extended chains. Weak π–ring intermolecular interactions are also observed between naphthalene atoms and pyrazole rings from each of the groups helping to stabilize the crystal packing. No classical hydrogen interactions are formed.

  7. Detection of substrate-dependent conformational changes in the P450 fold by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthart, Allison M; Tietz, Drew R; Ni, Yuhua; Friedman, Jessica L; Dang, Marina; Pochapsky, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases typically catalyze the insertion of one atom of oxygen from O2 into unactivated carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds, with concomitant reduction of the other oxygen atom to H2O by NAD(P)H. Comparison of the average structures of the camphor hydroxylase cytochrome P450(cam) (CYP101) obtained from residual dipolar coupling (RDC)-restrained molecular dynamics (MD) in the presence and absence of substrate camphor shows structural displacements resulting from the essential collapse of the active site upon substrate removal. This collapse has conformational consequences that extend across the protein structure, none of which were observed in analogous crystallographic structures. Mutations were made to test the involvement of the observed conformational changes in substrate binding and recognition. All of the mutations performed based upon the NMR-detected perturbations, even those remote from the active site, resulted in modified substrate selectivity, enzyme efficiency and/or haem iron spin state. The results demonstrate that solution NMR can provide insights into enzyme structure-function relationships that are difficult to obtain by other methods. PMID:26911901

  8. Formulation and Evaluation Of Metformin HCl Mouth Dissolving Tablet Using Sublimating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiya Moris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the development of orodispersible tablets of Metformin HCl for improving patient compliance, especially pediatric and geriatric categories by sublimation technique and comparing the super disintegrating property of benzoic acid and camphor .The other ingredients used in the formulations are crosspovidone, xylitol, magnesium stearate, talc and directly compressible mannitol to enhance the mouth feel. The total seven batches were prepared (F1–F6 and F7 (without superdisintegrant. Tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, hardness, drug content uniformity, in-vitro disintegration and dissolution studies. Among all the formulated tablets F3 which is based on Metformin Hcl with 40 mg benzoic acid was found to be the highest dissolution (92.56% in 10 mins. From the dissolution result it is clear that the benzoic acid at different concentration showed better dissolution rate as a disintegrant as compare to camphor. Hence, benzoic acid was a good alternative as a disintegrant for the preparation of directly compressible mouth dissolving tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride.

  9. 预防性护理干预对紫杉烷类化疗性静脉炎的效果观察%Curative observation on preventive nursing intervention for taxane chemotherapy phlebitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立新

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the preventive effect of paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with Compound Camphor Cream coated, Hirudoid external coating, 50% Magnesium sulfate coated for leakage. Methods:according to the different processing method, divided into Compound Camphor Cream group, Hirudoid ointment group, Magnesium sulfate group and the control group without any intervention. The leakage cases and to assess local venous response statistics group. Results: in the control group and three different preventive treatment group paclitaxel chemotherapy extravasation occurred in patients with no significant difference (X=0.223, 0.003, 0.247, P>0.05) and analysis of local vein showed, compound Camphor Ointment pretreatment can significantly reduce the damage paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with local vein ((X=4.202, 3.193, 4.385, P<0.05). Conclusion: Compound Camphor Cream coated, Hirudoid external coating, Magnesium sulfate coated to prevent leakage and can reduce extravasation paclitaxel chemotherapy patients the incidence, but the compound Camphor Ointment and Hirudoid external coating can reduce the damage of paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with local vein.%目的:对紫杉烷类化疗患者采用复方樟脑乳膏外涂、喜疗妥外涂、50%硫酸镁外涂进行外渗预防效果观察。方法:按照处理方法不同,分为复方樟脑乳膏组、喜疗妥软膏组、硫酸镁组及对照组不作任何干预。统计各组发生外渗例数及评估局部静脉反应情况。结果:对照组和三种不同预防处理组的紫杉醇类化疗药患者外渗发生无显著性差异(X=0.223、0.003、0.247,P﹥O.05)而对局部静脉的分析结果显示,复方樟脑软膏预处理可显著减少紫杉醇类化疗药患者局部静脉损伤((X=4.202、3.193、4.385,P<0.05)。结论:复方樟脑乳膏外涂、喜疗妥外涂、硫酸镁外涂预防外渗并不能减少紫杉醇类化疗药患者的外渗发生率,但采用复方樟脑软

  10. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Physiologically Etiolated Cinnamomum camphora leaves%生理性黄化香樟叶绿素荧光特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁梦; 陈晓娟; 秦金舟; 刘桂华

    2013-01-01

    The daily changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Cinnamomum camphora leaves at different levels of etiolation were studied .The results showed that the F0(minimal fluorescence ),Fm(maximal flu-orescence),Fm′(actual maximal fluorescence ),Fv(variable fluorescence ),Fv/Fm(optimal/maximal photochemi-cal efficiency of PSⅡ),Fm/F0(electron transfer rate ),and Fv/F0(potential activity of PSⅡ) first increased and then descended in the healthy and light-etiolated camphor leaves between 08:00-16:00,and the highest values occurred between 12:00 to 14:00.The daily change trend of N P,Q(non-photochemical quenching ) was contrary to those parameters mentioned above ,the trend was first increasing and then descending ,and the lowest values of Fm/F0 and Fv/F0 occurred in the period of 12:00 to 14:00,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed a flat trend in moderate-and severe-etiolated camphor leaves .The average values of Fv/Fm in health camphor leaves were obviously higher than those in the etiolated camphor leaves .The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡin the healthy camphor leaves was higher ,the average electron transfer rate and the potential activity of PSⅡshowed a descending trend .The daily average value of N P,Q in the etiolated camphora leaves was obviously higher than that in the healthy camphor leaves ,and increased with the increase of etiolation degree ,indicating that the more seriously the leaves were etiolated the higher proportion of light energy was absorbed by camphor leaves to avoid the destruction of photosynthetic tissue through hot dissipation .%对冬季不同黄化等级的香樟叶片主要叶绿素荧光参数的日变化进行了测定。结果表明:从08:00-16:00,健康和轻度黄化香樟F0(最小荧光)、Fm(最大荧光)、Fm′(光适应下的最大荧光)、Fv(可变荧光)、Fv/Fm (PSⅡ最大光能转换效率)、Fm/F0(电子传递效率)、Fv/F0(PSⅡ潜在活性)均呈现

  11. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  12. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  13. 气相色谱法同时测定三川丹皮酚膏中4种成分含量%Simultaneous Quantification of Four Compounds in Sanchuan Paeonol Ointment by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔松芝; 易宇阳; 石书江; 黄思涵; 冯学轩; 苏子仁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an efficacious gas chromatography(GC) method for the determination of camphor, menthol, borneol and paeonol in Sanchuan paeonol ointment. Methods The GC method was applied and the separation was performed by means of temperature programming on ZB-WAX capillary column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 pm). The analysis was carried out by external standard method on FID detector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. Results Camphor, menthol, borneol and paeonol in the ointment had a good linear relationship within the specific range, and the average recovery was 99.82%, 99.28%, 98.72% and 97.35%, respectively. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate, with good reproducibility and sensitivity, therefore can be used as a quality control method for the quantitative determination of camphor, menthol, borneol and paeonol in Sanchuan paeonol ointment.%目的 建立同步测定三川丹皮酚膏中樟脑、薄荷脑、龙脑和丹皮酚4种成分含量的气相色谱法.方法 使用气相色谱仪,ZB-WAX毛细管柱(30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm).以氮气为载气,氢火焰离子化检测器,采用程序升温,外标法测定含量.结果三川丹皮酚膏中的樟脑、薄荷脑、龙脑和丹皮酚等4种物质在规定范围内有良好的线性关系,平均加样回收率分别为99.82%、99.28%、98.72%、97.35%.结论 本方法 简便,灵敏度高,重复性好,结果准确,适合于三川丹皮酚膏中樟脑、薄荷脑、龙脑和丹皮酚的含量测定.

  14. 南京梅花谷道路景观分析%Landscape Analysis of Nanjing Plum Valley Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春彦; 常俊丽; 施小青; 韩淼

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the landscape along the Nanjing Plum Valley Road and its sur-rounding areas.The results show that there are abundant plant species,including 25 families,27 genera,32 species totally;evergreen and deciduous plants are also common there,with the green and colorful combination.Scenic area is divided into 4 parts as Willow Road,Palm Beach, Camphor and Luan Garden.Plum Slope and Plum Valley are on the southern slope,while Wa-terside Pavilion,the Fir Forest,and Monster Island are on the lake.Each spot is unique,and the four seasons landscapes are clearly seen.In spring,Willow Road,Plum Slope are full of vitality;in summer,Willow Road,Camphor and Luan Garden are lush;in autumn,Camphor and Luan Garden show colorful landscape;in winter,all the Plum Valley becomes serene.Palm Beach, Waterside Pavilion,and Monster Island on the lake seems to contain life in peace.%以南京梅花谷道路两侧风光带为研究对象,研究其四季景观特点。结果表明:所调查的梅花谷道路及周边所用植物种类丰富,涵盖25个科,27个属,共32种植物;梅花谷道路两侧植物常绿与落叶、绿化与彩化相结合。景区内分为柳道、棕榈滩、香栾园、梅花坡等4个景点,每个景点独具特色,且四季景观分明,春季梅花谷的柳道、梅花坡充满生机;夏季柳道、香栾园葱葱茏茏;秋季香栾园尽显层林尽染的彩色景观;冬季整个梅花谷变得宁静安详,棕榈滩等景点使梅花谷在宁静中又蕴藏着生机。

  15. Deoximation Reaction in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids under Mild Conditions%Deoximation Reaction in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Lu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2011-01-01

    Deoximation in metal chloride ionic liquids based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium and triethylene ammonium cations, such as AmimBr(Cl)-MClx (A=ethyl, butyl, benzyl; M=Al, Fe, Cu, Sn and Zn; x=2, 3) and Et3NHCl-FeCl3 were investigated under mild conditions. Ferrate chloride ionic liquid was proved to be an effective catalyst for deoximation of cyclohexanone oxime, exhibiting high conversion of oximes and selectivity to cyclo- hexanone. Good performance for the deoximation of other oximes such as salicylald oxime, acetone oxime, benzo- phenone oxime, 4-nitrobenzald oxime, acetophenone oxime, 2-chlorobenzaldehyde oxime, Acetald oxime, 2-butanone oxime and (1R)-camphor oxime was also achieved with bmimBr-FeCl3 as catalyst and solvent. The de- oximation was determined to carry out via acid-catalytic hydrolysis and the reaction mechanism was proposed.

  16. Preliminary Pharmacognostical a nd Physicochemical Analysis: A Poly Herbomineral Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Reena.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of Ayurvedic herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality, therapeutics efficacy and safety. Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation consists of Myristica fragrans (fruit,Myristica fragrans (flowering top,Datura metel (seed, Pueraria tuberosa (root, Asparagus racemosus(root,Grewia hirsuta(Bark, Barringtonia acutangula(seed, Tribulus terrestirs(Fruit, Abutilon indicum(root Mercury, Sulphur, Abharak Bhasma and Camphor, and specifically used to treat cold and cough. This study was aimed at standardization of Ayurvedic herbal formulation with respect to study of powder Morphology, Microscopy, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Water soluble and Alcohol soluble extractive value, Bulk density, Tapped density, Carr’s index, Hausner ratio, Phytochemical test, and Thin layer chromatography (TLC parameters. These result of parameters obtained may be serve as diagnostic tools for assistance to the regulatory authorities, scientific organizations and manufacturers for authentication and developing standard herbomineral formulation of great efficacy

  17. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

  18. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  19. Study on quality standard of essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf in Guangxi%广西芳樟醇型樟叶油的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠云; 李桂珍; 陈海燕; 覃子海; 文彩琳

    2012-01-01

    用水蒸气蒸馏提取芳樟醇型樟叶油,用芳樟油对其进行主成分对照,并采用气相色谱测定不同产地精油成分,提出芳樟醇型樟叶油的质量标准的建议,叶油中芳樟醇含量大于80%,樟脑含量小于2.0%.%The essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf was extracted by steam distillation. The method compared with C. camphora (Linn) Presl oil was adopted to analyze and identity the oil and GC was used to determine the relative content of commom ( main) constituents from different fields in Guangxi. We gave the quality standard proposal of essential oil of linalool type Cinnamomum caphora leaf of relative content of higher 80% linalool and lower 2. 0% camphor.

  20. Essential oils of Chiliadenus lopadusanus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Scirica, Elena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-08-01

    The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Chiliadenus lopadusanus growing on Lampedusa Island were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major component was camphor (39.4% in the leaves and 24.0% in the flowers), followed in the leaves by torreyol (6.7%), t-cadinol (5.2%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8%), while in the flowers by t-cadinol (15.2%), t-muurolol (5.1%) and torreyol (4.5%). Among the compounds identified, several seem to play a role in antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and spasmolytic activity. In addition, several compounds identified in this study seem to influence the attraction of Megachile (Eutricharaea) apicalis (Megachilidae) and Halictus (Seladonia) gemmeus (Halictidae), two hymenopteran here identified as pollinators of Chiliadenus lopadusanus. PMID:24079193

  1. 1,2-diketones promoted degradation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, Martin; Borska, Katarina; Ragab, Sherif Shaban; Janigova, Ivica; Mosnacek, Jaroslav [Polymer Institute, Center of Excellence GLYCOMED, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Photochemistry Department, Chemical Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.P.O. Box: 12622 (Egypt); Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Polymer Institute, Center of Excellence GLYCOMED, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-11

    Photochemical reactions of Benzil and Camphorquinone were used for modification of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) polymer films. Photochemistry of dopants was followed by infrared spectroscopy, changes on polymer chains of matrix were followed by gel permeation chromatography. Benzoyl peroxide was efficiently photochemically generated from benzyl in solid polymer matrix in the presence of air. Following decomposition of benzoyl peroxide led to degradation of matrix. Photochemical transformation of benzil in vacuum led to hydrogen abstraction from the polymer chains in higher extent, which resulted to chains recombination and formation of gel. Photochemical transformation of camphorquinone to corresponding camphoric peroxide was not observed. Only decrease of molecular weight of polymer matrix doped with camphorquinone was observed during the irradiation.

  2. Nondoped Electrophosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Platinum Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Gang; ZHANG Di; WANG Jun; JIANG Quan; ZHONG Jian; YU Jun-Sheng; ZHU Feng-Zhi; LUO Kai-Jun; XIE Yun; XU Ling-Ling

    2009-01-01

    An undoped electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diode is fabricated using a pure platinum(Ⅱ)(2-phenylpyridinato-N, C2) (3-benzoyl-camphor) [(ppy)pt(bcam)] phosphorescent layer acting as the emitting layer. A maximum power efficiency ηp of 6.62lm/W and current efficiency of 14.78cd/A at 745 cd/m2 are ob-tained from the device. The roll-off percentage of ηp of the pure phosphorescent phosphor layer device is reduced to 5% at a current density of 20 mA/cm2, which is about 11% for conventional phosphorescent devices. The low roll-off efficiency is attributed to the phosphorescent material, which has the molecular structure of a strong steric hindrance effect.

  3. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Brkić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  4. Seasonal Variation of Essential Oil Yield and Composition of Sage (Salvia officinalis L. Grown in Castilla - La Mancha (Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. ARRAIZA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Links between phenology, yield and composition of the essential oil of common sage, Salvia officinalis L., grown in Guadalajara (Central Spain were determined in the different phases of the biological cycle during one year. Data showed an average yield about 1.0%. The analysis of the oil components was carried out by GC-FID and GC/MS. The main oil constituent was alpha thujone (40.1-46.5%. Other identified compounds are beta pinene (2.6-4.5%, cineole (3.5-8.7%, beta thujone (4.1-5.6%, camphor (4.1-8.0%, borneol (1.3-3.7%, alpha humulene (3.8-7.3%, viridiflorol (3.4-12.6% and manool (0.1-4.5%. The highest yield of oil was obtained in the period of full flowering and the highest concentration of alpha thujone in the period of initial flowering.

  5. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  6. Role of mesoscopic morphology in charge transport of doped polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Mukherjee; Reghu Menon

    2002-02-01

    In doped polyaniline (PANI), the charge transport properties are determined by mesoscopic morphology, which in turn is controlled by the molecular recognition interactions among polymer chain, dopant and solvent. Molecular recognition plays a significant role in chain conformation and charge delocalization. The resistivity of PANI doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)/2-acrylo-amido-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPSA)/dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) is around 0.02 cm. PANI-CSA and PANI-AMPSA show a metallic positive temperature coefficient of resistivity above 150 K, with a finite value of conductivity at 1.4 K; whereas, PANI-DBSA shows hopping transport at low temperatures. The magnetoresistance is positive (negative) for PANI-CSA (PANIAMPSA); and PANI-DBSA has a large positive MR. The behavior of MR suggests subtle variations in mesoscopic morphology between PANI-CSA and PANI-AMPSA.

  7. Vertical flow soil filter for the elimination of micro pollutants from storm and waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Banzhaf, Stefan; Scheytt, Traugott;

    2009-01-01

    A technical scale activated soil filter has been used to study the elimination rates of diverse environmentally relevant micro pollutants from storm and waste water. The filter was made of layers of peat, sand and gravel. The upper (organic) layer was planted with reed (phragmites australis) to p...... rates of the most analytes decreased to 79–96%. The elimination performance of the hydrophilic compound NBBS declined to 21%. Balancing studies including the soil of the filter system revealed that degradation or transformation were both relevant elimination mechanism.......) to prevent clogging and was spiked with activated sludge to enhance microbial biomass and biodegradation potential. Compounds used as UV filters, antioxidants or plasticizers, namely 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS...

  8. Structural and Thermal Behaviours of Iron-filled Align Carbon Nano tubes Formulated by Two-stage Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents finding on the one-dimensional purified align carbon nano tubes (ACNT) are prepared using botanical hydrocarbon: camphor powder in a two-stage catalytic chemical vapor deposition. For the first time, the hydrocarbon source and catalyst are patterning at different alumina boats in the system. The growth of ACNT has achieved free standing formation with higher aspect ratio. In contrast, unpurified carbon nano tubes have some drawbacks and require some treatments to fully utilize their capabilities in various applications. The results reveal that the crystallinity and purity of functionalized align carbon nano tubes is increase after wet-chemical technique and heat treatment process. In this paper, the results provide evidence showing that it is good agreement with the field emission scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  9. Influence of Increasing Deposition Temperature on Electrical Properties of Amorphous Carbon Thin Film Prepared by Aerosol-Assisted Thermal CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the successful deposition of p-type semiconducting amorphous carbon (paC) films fabricated onto the glass substrate by Aerosol-Assisted Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using natural source of camphor oil as the precursor material. The analyze reveal that conductivity and resistivity shows some changes at different deposition temperature, that is the conductivity increase as temperature increase from 350 to 550 degree Celsius, but drop slightly at 550 degree Celsius. Other than that, optical and structural properties were also characterized by using UV-VIS-NIR system and Atomic Force Microscopy. The same trend of optical and electrical can be seen when the measurement from the Taucs plot expose a decreasing value of optical band gap as temperature increase, but slightly increase when temperature increase to 550 degree Celsius. (author)

  10. (3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-olato-κ2O,Obis[2-(2-pyridylphenyl-κ2C1,N]iridium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Luo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ir(C11H8N2(C17H19O2], has an octahedral coordination geometry around the IrIII atom, retaining the cis-C,C,trans–N,N chelate disposition of the two 2-phenylpyridine ligands. The chelate rings are nearly mutually perpendicular [the interplanar angles range from 85.48 (17 to 89.17 (19°]. The two 2-(2-pyridylphenyl ligands are approximately planar, with the plane of the phenyl ring being inclined to that of the pyridine ring by 2.3 (3 and 5.1 (3° in the two ligands. The interplanar angle between the phenyl ring in 3-benzoyl-camphor and the IrO2C3 chelate ring is 35.5 (2°.

  11. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  12. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  13. Dynamics of low anisotropy morphologies in directional solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, B; Bodenschatz, E

    2002-11-01

    We report experimental results on quasi-two-dimensional diffusion limited growth in directionally solidified succinonitrile with small amounts of poly(ethylene oxide), acetone, or camphor as a solute. Seaweed growth, or dense branching morphology, is selected by growing grains close to the [111] plane, where the in-plane surface tension is nearly isotropic. The observed growth morphologies are very sensitive to small anisotropies in surface tension caused by misorientations from the [111] plane. Different seaweed morphologies are found, including the degenerate, the stabilized, and the strongly tilted seaweeds. The degenerate seaweeds show a limited fractal scaling range and, with increased undercooling, suggests a transition from "fractal" to "compact" seaweed. Strongly tilted seaweeds demonstrate a significant twofold anisotropy. In addition, seaweed-dendrite transitions are observed in low anisotropy growth.

  14. A visualization of the eutectic solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Olejnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a visualization of the sequence of formation of eutectic grains during solidification in volume and directional solidification of model organic materials from the system of salol (faceted phase - camphor (non-faceted phase and carbon tetrabromide (non-faceted phase - hexachloroethane (non-faceted phase. It has been proved that the faceted phase may act as a substrate for nucleation of the non-faceted phase, while the non-faceted phase in a eutectic grain is of polycrystalline character. The directional solidification of non-faceted/non-faceted eutectic enabled disclosing various structural defects, while solidification in volume explained in what way the, so called, halo effect is formed.

  15. The antimutagenic effect of monoterpenes against UV-irradiation-, 4NQO- and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antimutagenic potential of monoterpenes from sage and basil in Escherichia coli. The mutagenic potential of monoterpenes was pre-screened with Salmonella/microsome reversion assay in strain TA100 and no mutagenic effect was detected. The antimutagenic potential against UV- 4NQO- and t-BOOH induced mutagenesis was evaluated in E. coli K12 and E. coli WP2 by reversion assays. The obtained results indicate that camphor and thujone reduce UV- and 4NQO-induced mutations; myrcene reduces t-BOOH-induced mutations, while eucalyptol and linalool reduce mutagenicity by all tested mutagens. Considering evolutionary conservation of DNA repair and antioxidative protection, the obtained results indicate that further antigenotoxicity studies should be undertaken in eukaryotes.

  16. [Some glass instruments of Arabic alchemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    From an as yet unpublished collection, kept in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, of some 20 Islamic glass items, 12 objects with an alchemical background have been selected and studied in detail. The most important items are two alchemical still heads which, according to an alchemical manuscript of al-Kindī, a significant 9th century Arabian philosopher, natural scientist, mathematician, physician and musician, are identified as still heads for the watersteam distillation of camphor in particular. Additionally the publication presented here features a medical utensil (probably recent), a measuring jug, a funnel, a mortar, a pestle, a test tube most probably 19th century and four small bottles--probably for perfume. Most of the objects originate in Iran, but some are from Egypt, Afghanistan and Palestine and date mainly from the 9th to the 13th century AD. Some misinterpretations and ambiguities to be found in the literature have been corrected and eliminated. PMID:20336929

  17. Organometallic complexes of thiocarbanilides and substituted thiocarbanilides using manganese (II) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organo-metallic complexes of substituted thiocarbanilide using manganese (II) chloride were prepared, these are: (VIII) 3:3'-Dichloro thiocarbanilide. Manganese (II) chloride. (IX) 3:3'-Dimethyl thiocarbanilide. Manganese (II) chloride. (X) 2:2'-dimethyl thiocarbanilide. Manganese (II) chloride. These compounds are coloured, soluble in most organic solvents, insoluble in water, decomposed by hot solvents. The physical properties of compounds (IX) and (X) were studied by UV and IR spectra, and the physical properties of compound (VIII) were studied by UV, IR, mass spectra and NMR. The molecular weight of the compound (VIII) was determined by three different methods; Rast's camphor method, mass spectra and the nitrogen contents. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 2:1, and the coordination is from sulphur atom more than nitrogen.(Author)

  18. Effects of preparation temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuar Kassim; Zarina Bte Basar; H N M Ekramul Mahmud

    2002-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole conducting polymer films prepared by an electrochemical method in an aqueous medium using camphor sulfonate as the dopant. The polymer was grown from aqueous solutions employing a range of temperatures (1-60°C). It was found that with increase in temperature the conductivity decreased and the optimum temperature was found to be between 10 and 30°C. The results show that the polymer formed at low temperature has higher conductivity and is stronger than that formed at higher temperatures. Characterization by X-ray scattering shows that interlayer distance, Bragg (Å), increases with increasing temperature. The morphology of the films formed was studied by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The changes in conductivity and physical appearance were interpreted as being due to compactness in the molecular packing and formation of linkages in the film.

  19. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  20. Extraction of ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora nees and eberm var. Linaloolifera fujita essential oil with supercritical CO2: experiments and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Steffani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from the leaves of a variety of camphor tree known as Ho-Sho was studied. Experiments were carried out within the following ranges: CO2 flow rate (1 - 4 mL/min; pressure (80 - 100 bar; temperature (40 - 60 ºC and particle size (0.37 - 1.0 mm. The equipment used was an HP 8670 T extractor module with an extraction cell volume of 7 mL. Two mathematical models of the process were proposed. Model 1 was a modified version of the traditional shrinking core model with effective diffusivity and the external mass transfer coefficient as the fitting parameters. Model 2 used an additional kinetic parameter based on an Arrhenius-like expression. Both models took into account the cell pressurization step. The best fit between the extraction model curves and the experimental data was obtained using model 2.

  1. Pharmacological activities of Curcuma caesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Singh Baghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a perennial, erect rhizomatous herb with large leaves. Fresh rhizomes are aromatic with intense camphoraceous odour, cultivated for its rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine. The plant is reported to contain camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z-ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1, 8-cineole, elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate and curcumene as the major constituents. The plant has been reported to have antifungal activity, anti-asthmatic, smooth muscle relaxant, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, anti-inflammatory properties. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases. This review gives a view mainly on the meditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of the plant.

  2. Avaliação do potencial de processos oxidativos avançados para remediação de águas contaminadas com geosmina e 2-MIB Evaluation of advanced oxidation processes for remediation of contamined water with geosmin and 2-MIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Martins de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficiency of some homogeneous advanced oxidation processes (UVC/H2O2, Fe2+/H2O2, UVC/Fe2+/H2O2, UVA/Fe2+/H2O2, solar/Fe2+/H2O2 was investigated toward the degradation of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB. The effect of relevant experimental parameters (ie. pH, Fe2+ and H2O2 concentration was first investigated by factorial design, using camphor as a model substrate. In the geosmin and 2-MIB degradation studies the Fenton processes assisted by solar and UVA radiation offered the most promising results, mainly on account of high degradation capacity (higher than 80% at a reaction time of 60 min, high operational simplicity and low cost.

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE IN DIFFER ENT VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of ca lcium hydroxide in different vehicles in an in vitro model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Calcium hydroxide paste prepared with two conventionally used vehicles namely, campho rated monochlophenol, distilled water and also propylene glycol. The antibacterial activity of these paste were tested against five micro- organisms that can commonly occur in the inf ected root canals. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study indicate that a paste of ca lcium hydroxide made with propylene glycol exerts significant antibacterial act ion. Hence, it can be recommended for use as an intracanal medicament in preference to a paste prepa red with a tissue toxic phenolic compound like camphorated mono chlorophenol

  4. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S

    1997-11-01

    The pharmacological activity of nine commercial essential oils was studied on the rat isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation and compared with activity on field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum preparations. The essential oils at final bath concentrations of 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-4) g/ml produced four different effects on skeletal muscle, whilst only a contracture with or without a decrease in response to field stimulation in smooth muscle. The first type of effect on skeletal muscle involved a contracture and inhibition of the twitch response to nerve stimulation shown by a sample of clary sage, dill, fennel, frankincense and nutmeg; a second, shown by thyme produced a contracture without a change in the twitch response; a third, shown by lavender reduced the twitch response alone and the fourth, shown by camphor, increased the size of the twitch response. Angelica root oil at the highest concentration studied showed no response on skeletal muscle. PMID:9421254

  5. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of α- and β-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2013-09-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including α-, β-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to α- and β-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed.

  6. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Alvarez, David; Garrison, Virginia H.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r2 = 0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  7. Raman, IR and DFT studies of mechanism of sodium binding to urea catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Partha P.; Kumari, Gayatri; Chittoory, Arjun K.; Rajaram, Sridhar; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2015-12-01

    Bis-camphorsulfonyl urea, a newly developed hydrogen bonding catalyst, was evaluated in an enantioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction. We observed that complexation of the sulfonyl urea with a sodium cation enhanced the selectivity of reactions in comparison to reactions performed with urea alone. To understand the role of sodium cation, we performed Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies. The detailed band assignment of the molecule was made by calculating spectra using Density Functional theory. Our studies suggest that the binding of the cation takes place through the oxygen atoms of carbonyl and sulfonyl groups. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis shows the expected charge distribution after sodium binding. The changes in the geometrical parameter and charge distribution are in line with the experimentally observed spectral changes. Based on these studies, we conclude that binding of the sodium cation changes the conformation of the sulfonyl urea to bring the chiral camphor groups closer to the incipient chiral center.

  8. Photoelectron circular dichroism of bicyclic ketones from multiphoton ionization with femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Christian; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Sarpe, Cristian; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-12

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a CD effect up to the ten-percent regime and shows contributions from higher-order Legendre polynomials when multiphoton ionization is compared to single-photon ionization. We give a full account of our experimental methodology for measuring the multiphoton PECD and derive quantitative measures that we apply on camphor, fenchone and norcamphor. Different modulations and amplitudes of the contributing Legendre polynomials are observed despite the similarity in chemical structure. In addition, we study PECD for elliptically polarized light employing tomographic reconstruction methods. Intensity studies reveal dissociative ionization as the origin of the observed PECD effect, whereas ionization of the intermediate resonance is dominating the signal. As a perspective, we suggest to make use of our tomographic data as an experimental basis for a complete photoionization experiment and give a prospect of PECD as an analytic tool. PMID:25492564

  9. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Progress report, [March 15, 1993--March 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1994-03-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that the cyclases ((+){minus}bornyl pyrophosphate cyclases and ({minus}){minus}limonene cyclases) catalyze the rate-limiting steps of monoterpene biosynthesis in sage and mint, respectively. Similar evidence indicates that camphor hydroxylase, and the reductases that control the disposition of methone, are the critical steps of monoterpene catabolism in these systems. Related studies, based on in vitro assay of enzyme activities, have suggested that the accumulation and the compartmentation of these processes. Further studies directed toward localizing the pathways and determining the relevant protein and transcript levels require pure enzymes for antibody preparation and amino determining the relevant protein and transcript levels require pure enzymes for antibody preparation and amino acid sequence determination.

  10. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  11. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Nepeta deflersiana Growing in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Ahmed Mothana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of our phytochemical studies of essential oils, the oil obtained from the aerial part of Nepeta deflersiana (Lamiaceae was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In parallel to that, evaluation of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities was also carried out. The investigation led to the identification of 51 components. The oil was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (31.4%. The oil contained as well a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (28.2%. Hexadecanoic acid (8.0%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4%, 2-methoxy-p-cresol (5.6%, camphor (4.7% and eugenol (4.7% were the most abundant constituents. In antimicrobial investigation, the essential oil has shown strong activity for Gram-positive bacteria with MIC-value of 0.4 mg/mL. Moreover, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity (38% at 1.0 mg/mL.

  12. 1-Magnesiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines as Chiral Nucleophiles in Stereoselective Additions to Aldehydes: Auxiliary Optimization, Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-Corlumine, (+)-Bicuculline, (+)-Egenine, and (+)-Corytensine, and Preliminary (13)C NMR Studies of 1-Lithio- and 1-Magnesiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawley, Robert E.; Zhang, Pingsheng

    1996-11-15

    Transmetalation of 1-lithiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines with magnesium halides affords Grignard reagents that add to aldehydes with up to 80% selectivity for one of the four possible diastereomeric products. An oxazoline chiral auxiliary derived from camphor provides an optimal blend of diastereoselectivity and isomer separability. Synthetic applications of the optimal auxiliary, patterned after a literature approach in the racemic series, comprise an improved (formal) synthesis of bicuculline, egenine, and corytensine, as well as an efficient synthesis of corlumine. Preliminary NMR studies show that both 1-lithio- and 1-magnesiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines are dynamic mixtures in THF solution at low temperatures. The barrier to pyramidal inversion of the secondary Grignard reagent is in the 9.8-10.1 kcal/mol range, while an upper limit of about 8.2 kcal/mol can be assigned to the barrier to the organolithium inversion. PMID:11667797

  13. Composition, enantiomeric distribution, and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica All. from Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Lanfranchi, Don-Antoine; Prado, Soizic; Baldovini, Nicolas; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2006-08-23

    The essential oil of Achillea ligustica from Corsica was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds representing 94.0% of the oil were tentatively identified. The main constituents were the camphane derivatives, representing >30% (camphor, 21.3%; borneol, 6.2%; bornyl acetate, 3.5%) of the whole oil, and santolina alcohol (19.3%). The enantiomeric distribution of 8 chiral constituents was determined by GC-MS using two enantioselective stationary phases (DIME-beta-CD and Lipodex-E). Racemic santolina alcohol, required for optimization of the enantioselective GC conditions, was prepared by an original two-step synthesis from 2,5-dimethylhexa-2,4-diene. The whole essential oil was tested for its antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria using a paper disk method. The results show a promising activity against Streptomyces species. PMID:16910724

  14. Application of the Taguchi analytical method for optimization of effective parameters of the chemical vapor deposition process controlling the production of nanotubes/nanobeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Apte, P R; Purandare, S C; Zacharia, Renju

    2005-02-01

    Seven variable parameters of the chemical vapor deposition system have been optimized with the help of the Taguchi analytical method for getting a desired product, e.g., carbon nanotubes or carbon nanobeads. It is observed that almost all selected parameters influence the growth of carbon nanotubes. However, among them, the nature of precursor (racemic, R or Technical grade camphor) and the carrier gas (hydrogen, argon and mixture of argon/hydrogen) seem to be more important parameters affecting the growth of carbon nanotubes. Whereas, for the growth of nanobeads, out of seven parameters, only two, i.e., catalyst (powder of iron, cobalt, and nickel) and temperature (1023 K, 1123 K, and 1273 K), are the most influential parameters. Systematic defects or islands on the substrate surface enhance nucleation of novel carbon materials. Quantitative contributions of process parameters as well as optimum factor levels are obtained by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of mean (ANOM), respectively. PMID:15853150

  15. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present. PMID:26581812

  16. Solid-State and Solution Structures of Glycinimine-Derived Lithium Enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kyoung Joo; Collum, David B

    2015-11-18

    A combination of crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational studies was applied to study the structures of lithium enolates derived from glycinimines of benzophenone and (+)-camphor. The solvents examined included toluene and toluene containing various concentrations of tetrahydrofuran, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), (R,R)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylcyclohexanediamine [(R,R)-TMCDA], and (S,S)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylcyclohexanediamine [(S,S)-TMCDA]. Crystal structures show chelated monomers, symmetric disolvated dimers, S4-symmetric tetramers, and both S6- and D3d-symmetric hexamers. (6)Li NMR spectroscopic studies in conjunction with the method of continuous variations show how these species distribute in solution. Density functional theory computations offer insights into experimentally elusive details. PMID:26554898

  17. Growth of well-oriented VACNTs using thermal chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them attractive for biosensor applications, especially for medical detecting devices. In this paper, we describe a process to grow high oriented ratio CNT arrays to improve the electrical properties of the devices based on CNTs. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to grow highly oriented CNT using camphor as the carbon source, and argon and hydrogen as carrier gases to grow perpendicular CNTs on the surface of the silicon substrate in presence of ferrocene as a metallic catalyst. Images were revealed by FESEM indicates that the formation mechanism of oriented CNTs with high morphological purity nanotubes, which is depends significantly on deposition time and applied temperature to the furnaces. This method might be an effective method to produce oriented MWCNT in different length.

  18. A high sensitivity nanomaterial based SAW humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-T; Chou, T-H [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wutt@ndt.iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2008-04-21

    In this paper, a highly sensitive humidity sensor is reported. The humidity sensor is configured by a 128{sup 0}YX-LiNbO{sub 3} based surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator whose operating frequency is at 145 MHz. A dual delay line configuration is realized to eliminate external temperature fluctuations. Moreover, for nanostructured materials possessing high surface-to-volume ratio, large penetration depth and fast charge diffusion rate, camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres are synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method and further deposited on the SAW resonator as selective coating to enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor is used to measure various relative humidities in the range 5-90% at room temperature. Results show that the PANI nanofibre based SAW humidity sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and short-term repeatability.

  19. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  20. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF FAST DISSOLVING TIZANIDINE TABLETS BY SUBLIMATION TECHNIQUE: FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF MUSCLE SPASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Chandrashekhar B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present invention Fast dissolving tablets of Tizanidine were prepared for the immediate and effective treatment of muscle spam by adopting sublimation method. Formulations were evaluated for precompressional parameters such as angle of ripose, % compressibility and hausner’s ratio. Tablets were also subjected to post compress ional analysis for the parameters like hardness, friability, thickness, wetting time, water absorption ratio ,in-vitro disintegration time and in-vitro dissolution study. The results obtained showed that quantity of camphor is significantly affecting the response variables. Stability study carried out as per ICH guidelines for three months and results reveled that upon storage disintegration time of tablets decreased significantly(p<0.05

  2. Studies of optical, morphological and electrical properties of POMA/PMMA blends, using two different levels of doping with CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamara S. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(o-methoxyaniline (POMA was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of the monomer o-methoxyaniline. POMA/poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA blends were produced by dissolving both polymers in chloroform (CHCl3.The amount of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA used as dopant of POMA was different, providing two methods for preparation of the blends. Solutions were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and then deposited on glass substrate by spin coating for characterization by atomic force microscope (AFM and current versus voltage (I × V curves. FTIR spectra of solutions were similar as expected. In the AFM images a reduction and/or loss of globules common in conducting polymers (CP such as polyaniline (PANI and its derivatives was observed. Films produced with different amounts of CSA presented distinct, linear and non-linear I × V curves.

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Aceclofenac by using Sublimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of Aceclofenac were prepared by subliming method with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this paper, two super-disintegrants, viz., crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate were used in different ratio (2-8 % w/w with camphor (30 % w/w as subliming agent. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for thickness, weigh variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in-vitro disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. Based on disintegration time (approximately 21 second, three formulations were tested for the in-vitro drug release pattern (in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Among the three promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 8% w/w of crospovidone and emerged as the overall best formulation based on the in-vitro drug release characteristics.

  4. Development of mouth dissolving tablets of clozapine using two different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masareddy R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouth dissolving tablets constitute an innovative dosage form that overcomes the problems of swallowing and provides a quick onset of action. In view of enhancing bioavailability an attempt has been made to study two different methods direct compression and sublimation in formulation of mouth dissolving tablets of clozapine. Total four formulations using various superdisintegrants and subliming agents were prepared. All prepared formulations were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters. The formulations exhibited good disintegration properties with total disintegration time in the range of 25 to 35 s. Comparative evaluation of two methods showed direct compression method is a better alternative to sublimation method as its formulations rapidly disintegrate in oral cavity. In vitro cumulative percentage drug release for formulations prepared by direct compression with explotab superdisintegrants shows 99.79 while sublimation method using camphor 93.58 release in 12 min. Kinetic studies indicated that all the formulations followed first order release with diffusion mechanism.

  5. Fabrication of particular structures of hexagonal boron nitride and boron-carbon-nitrogen layers by anisotropic etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Sharma, Kamal P.; Thangaraja, Amutha; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    Anisotropic etching of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) basal plane can be an exciting platform to develop well-defined structures with interesting properties. Here, we developed an etching process of atomically thin h-BN and BCN layers to fabricate nanoribbons (NRs) and other distinct structures by annealing in H2 and Ar gas mixture. BCN and h-BN films are grown on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using solid camphor and ammonia borane as carbon, nitrogen and boron source, respectively. Formation of micron size well-defined etched holes and NRs are obtained in both h-BN and BCN layers by the post growth annealing process. The etching process of h-BN and BCN basal plane to fabricate NRs and other structures with pronounced edges can open up new possibilities in 2D hybrid materials.

  6. Evaluation of residual iron in carbon nanotubes purified by acid treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, E.R., E-mail: eliltonedwards@hotmail.com [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Antunes, E.F. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Aeronautical Institute of Technology - ITA, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP: 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Botelho, E.C. [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Baldan, M.R.; Corat, E.J. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-01

    A detailed analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces after non-oxidative and oxidative purification treatments in liquid-phase. The MWCNT were produced by pyrolysis of camphor and ferrocene, that provides a high yield but with high iron contamination ({approx}15% wt). The elimination and/or oxidation of iron nanoparticles were monitored by Fe2p and O1s core level. Oxygen-based functional groups attachment was also investigated by C1s fitting. The effectiveness of each treatment in iron removal was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The integrity of the MWCNT structure was verified by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A purity degree higher than 98% was achieved only with non-oxidative treatments using sonification process.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of meclizine hydro chloride mouth dissolving tablets: An attempt to enhance patient compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to develop mouth dissolving tablets of Meclizine HCL by superdisintegrant addition and sublimation method. Meclizine HCl is an anti-emetic drug used for management of dyspepsia, heartburn, epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Sodium starch glycolate was used as super disintregrant and camphor used for enhancement of porosity of the tablets Disintegration time of tablets prepared by superdisintegrant addition were significantly less (P 0.05 and were found to have good physical integrity. Stability studies showed that the physical and chemical properties of the tested tablets were not altered significantly and all the test formulations were found to be stable. The dissolution profile of fresh and aged Meclizine HCl. MDT showed no significant effect on drug release (P > 0.05.

  8. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  9. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  10. EPR investigations of silicon carbide nanoparticles functionalized by acid doped polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karray, Fekri [Laboratoire des materiaux Ceramiques Composites et Polymeres, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 802, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Kassiba, Abdelhadi, E-mail: kassiba@univ-lemans.fr [Institute of Molecules and Materials of Le Mans (I3M), UMR-CNRS 6283, Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2012-06-15

    Nanocomposites (SiC-PANI) based on silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC) encapsulated in conducting polyaniline (PANI) are synthesized by direct polymerization of PANI on the nanoparticle surfaces. The conductivity of PANI and the nanocomposites was modulated by several doping levels of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations were carried out on representative SiC-PANI samples over the temperature range [100-300 K]. The features of the EPR spectra were analyzed taking into account the paramagnetic species such as polarons with spin S=1/2 involved in two main environments realized in the composites as well as their thermal activation. A critical temperature range 200-225 K was revealed through crossover changes in the thermal behavior of the EPR spectral parameters. Insights on the electronic transport properties and their thermal evolutions were inferred from polarons species probed by EPR and the electrical conductivity in doped nanocomposites.

  11. Theoretical description of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distributions of randomly oriented chiral molecules after multi-photon photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, R E; Nikoobakht, B; Berger, R; Koch, C P

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism refers to the forward/backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution with respect to the propagation axis of circularly polarized light. It has recently been demonstrated in femtosecond multi-photon photoionization experiments with randomly oriented camphor and fenchone molecules [C. Lux et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 5001 (2012);C. S. Lehmann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234307 (2013)]. A theoretical framework describing this process as (2+1) resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization is constructed, which consists of two-photon photoselection from randomly oriented molecules and successive one-photon ionisation of the photoselected molecules. It combines perturbation theory for the light-matter interaction with ab initio calculations for the two-photon absorption and a single-center expansion of the photoelectron wavefunction in terms of hydrogenic continuum functions. It is verified that the model correctly reproduces the basic symmetry behavior expected un...

  12. Doping dependence of electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoscale polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jiezhu; Wang Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haque, M A [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    We performed simultaneous characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline (PANI) thin films doped with different levels of camphor sulfonic acids (CSAs). The effect of the doping level is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity of PANIs, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% (the molar ratio of CSA to phenyl-N repeat unit of PANI) doping level, PANI exhibited the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized structures. Whereas polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, phonons are believed to play a dominant role in the heat conduction in nanoscale doped PANI thin films.

  13. IR and py/GC/MS examination of amber relics excavated from 6th century royal tomb in Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongseo; Yun, Eunyoung; Kang, Hyungtae; Ahn, Jooyoung; Kim, Gyuho

    2016-08-01

    Relics of amber were excavated from King Muryeong's tomb constructed in the 6th century on the Korean peninsula. To estimate the provenance, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and py/GC/MS (pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analysis were utilized. The reference Baltic amber sample was also analyzed with the same method for comparison. The relics were confirmed to be amber from the FTIR analysis where an absorption band near 1150 cm- 1, characteristic one in Baltic amber, was also observed. In py/GC/MS analysis, pyrolyzed products like butanedioic acid and dehydroabietic acid, known constituents of amber, were observed. In addition, D-fenchyl alcohol, camphor, borneol and butanedioic acid, typical constituents of Baltic amber, were observed in some samples. From this, it appears that some of relics were made from Baltic amber and that Baltic amber was transported to the Korean peninsula in the time of tomb construction.

  14. Novel microstructure in spin coated polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2007-05-08

    Polyaniline (Pani) thin films doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) have been deposited on glass substrates using the spin coating technique. Pani is chemically synthesized by an oxidation method at {approx}0 deg. C. Pani-CSA films show a hexagonal structure in scanning electron micrographs, which occurs due to the crystalline growth of CSA. A dense hexagonal structure is visible for film deposited at 800 rpm, but it becomes sparser as the revolutions per minute are increased (1200, 1500 and 2000 rpm). Electronic transition of quinoid units cause an absorption shoulder at {approx}900 nm for films deposited at 1200, 1500 and 2000 rpm, which is not observed for film deposited at 800 rpm.

  15. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream. PMID:26775961

  16. Bioactivity, proximate, mineral and volatile profiles along the flowering stages of Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.): defining potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Flamini, Guido; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Opuntia spp. flowers have been traditionally used for medical purposes, mostly because of their diversity in bioactive molecules with health promoting properties. The proximate, mineral and volatile compound profiles, together with the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties were characterized in O. microdasys flowers at different maturity stages, revealing several statistically significant differences. O. microdasys stood out mainly for its high contents of dietary fiber, potassium and camphor, and its high activities against HCT15 cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium funiculosum. The vegetative stage showed the highest cytotoxic and antifungal activities, whilst the full flowering stage was particularly active against bacterial species. The complete dataset has been classified by principal component analysis, achieving clearly identifiable groups for each flowering stage, elucidating also the most distinctive features, and comprehensively profiling each of the assayed stages. The results might be useful to define the best flowering stage considering practical application purposes. PMID:26876160

  17. The Preparation of Dried Ginger Ointment%干姜软膏的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管晓飞

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the preparation of dried ginger ointment .METHODS Using wet distillation to extract the volatile oil of dried ginger and camphor ,then prepare the ointment .RESULTS The preparation was exquisite ,good stability and easy to coating .CONCLUSION The ointment preparation technology is feasible ,stable nature ,has a certain economic benefits .%目的:研究干姜软膏的制备。方法用水蒸气蒸馏法提取干姜的挥发油与樟脑,通过乳化方法制成O/W的软膏。结果该软膏细腻,稳定性好,易于涂布。结论该软膏制备工艺可行,性质稳定,具有一定的经济效益。

  18. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Sun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2004-01-01

    Natural fragrances from lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) were studied by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) techniques followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with six different fibre coatings being tested to evaluate the extraction efficiencies of several selected compounds. A total of 14 compounds were identified in the fragrances of lemon verbena. Geranial and neral were detected as major components and alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene, and curcumene as minor components. Enantiomeric analysis of chiral compounds from lemon verbena was carried out on a chiral column. alpha-Pinene, limonene, and camphor in the fragrances emitted from lemon verbena were found in the (+), (-), and (-) forms, respectively. PMID:15335064

  19. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects. PMID:17583499

  20. Application of Essential Oil of Artemisia Herba Alba as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouachikh, O.; Bouyanzer, A.; Bouklah, M.; Desjobert, J.-M.; Costa, J.; Hammouti, B.; Majidi, L.

    Essential oil from Artemisia herba alba (Art) was hydrodistilled and tested as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization methods. Results gathered show that this natural oil reduced the corrosion rate by the cathodic action. Its inhibition efficiency attains the maximum (74%) at 1 g/L. The inhibition efficiency of Arm oil increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption isotherm of natural product on the steel has been determined. A. herba alba essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition oil was investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The major components were chrysanthenone (30.6%) and camphor (24.4%).

  1. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Some Thiosemicarbazones and Their Applications as Intermediates for 5-Arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem E. Gaffer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid-solid reactions of thiosemicarbazide with 4-formylantipyrine, 2-acetylpyrrole and camphor were performed to afford the thiosemicarbazones 1–3 which underwent hetero-cyclization with phenacyl bromide to furnish the corresponding thiazole derivatives 4–6. The yields of the reactions are quantitative in all cases and the products do not require further purification. A series of 5-arylazo-2-(substituted ylidene-hydrazinyl-thiazole dyes 7–9 was then prepared by diazo coupling of thiazole derivatives 4–6 with several diazonium chlorides. The synthesized dyes were applied as disperse dyes for dyeing polyester fabric. The dyed fabrics exhibit good washing, perspiration, sublimation and light fastness properties, with little variation in their moderate to good rubbing fastness.

  2. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  3. DC Electrical Conductivity Retention, Optical Properties and Ammonia Sensing Analysis of Naturally Degraded CSA-Doped Graphene/polyaniline Composite Nanofibers Prepared with CTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Sayyed; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Mohd Y.; Hasan, Mudassir

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report surfactant-mediated synthesis of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PANI/GN) composite nanofibers as an electrical conductor and excellent ammonia sensor. The synthesis was mediated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. The as-synthesized composite nanofibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The electrical conductivity of the CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers was found to be remarkably enhanced as compared to the CSA-doped PANI. The boost in electronic conductivity could be attributed to an improved electronic interaction between CSA-doped PANI backbone and GN present in the composite system. The naturally degraded CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers showed a decrease in electrical conductivity but worked as a good ammonia sensor in open atmospheric conditions.

  4. Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Woody Odorants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Goeke

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Woody odorants constitute an important olfactory family in perfumery[1]. Essential wood oils, traditionally being obtained by steam distillation of plant materials, are extensively being used in a variety of perfumes.Patchouli oil (e. g. in "Gentlemen", Givenchy), vetiver oil ("Vetiver", J. P. Guerlain) and cedar wood oil ("Déclaration", Cartier) are classics in this field. On the other hand, many terpenic hydrocarbons which are perse not particularly useful as perfume ingredients, have been functionalized in order to obtain more sophisticated scents. Javanol(R), Belambre(R), Ysamber K(R) and Ambrocenide(R) (prepared from pinene, camphor,logifolene and cedrene) are the names of potent and recently commercialized wood odorants. However, due to variable qualities of the natural starting materials, it has been an important task in fragrance research to find inexpensive but fully synthetic alternatives which, in light of the complexity of the structures, remains challenging. See Fig. 1.

  5. Molecular photoionisation using synchrotron radiation. Photoelectron photoion coincidence and circular dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Macias, G A

    2002-01-01

    The first ionisation potential of the CF sub 3 radical has been determined in this work from the appearance potential of the CF sub 3 sup + fragment, formed in the photofragmentation of CF sub 3 Br. In obtaining this value special care has been taken in removing the contributions from second order light and internal energy of the fragmenting parent ion. The resulting ionisation potential was found to be in very good agreement with a number of recent theoretical calculations. The valence photoelectron spectra of three monoterpenes such as limonene, carvone and camphor have been recorded along with their mass spectra taken in coincidence with energy selected photoelectrons, providing information about state selected parent ion fragmentation channels. A new photoelectron spectrometer based on the Alien box design has been studied by ray-tracing simulations. It will include a two dimensional position sensitive detector system consisting in two micro channel plates in a chevron stack and a delay-line anode to enco...

  6. A solid fuel which has good flamability, stability and combustability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iketani, Yu.; Masunetaka, K.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Ya.

    1983-09-27

    A solid fuel is patented which contains a carbon material, an oxidizing agent which has a breakdown point above the flash point of the carbon bearing material, a sublimating organic product and a binder. Coal, heat treated coal, coke and so on may be used for the carbon bearing material. The oxidizing agent consists of Ca (NO3)2, Ba (NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2, KCLO4, KCLO3 and bichromates and is used in a volume of 5 to 35 percent. The sublimating product may contain at least one of the following substances: camphor, metaldehyde, hexamethylendiamine, hexamethylentetraline and n-benzoquinone and is added in a volume of greater than or equal to 4 percent. The binder may be one of the following substances: tar, natural cellulose (Ts), rubber, cement, colloidal SG, colloidal ammonium and phosphates.

  7. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  8. Determining Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Essential Oil on Some Microbial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Izadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. is a herbal plant that has anti- septic, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory effects. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of shoot essential oil (essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant of the feverfew on a number of microorganisms including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Materials and Methods: In this empirical study, plant samples were collected at the full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted using hydro-distillation technique and Clevenger apparatus. Components of the extract were identified using GC and GC/MS apparatus and its antimicrobial properties were evaluated using diffusion in Agar method (disk diffusion and dilution in the well (Micro-broth dilution.Results: Among 35 compounds identified in the essential oil of the feverfew, camphor (45%, chrysanthenyl acetate (21.5 and camphene (9.6%, were the main components respectively. Essential oil showed very good antifungal effect which was stronger than its antibacterial effect. Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive to the essential oil than gram-positive bacteria. The mean diameter of inhibition zone, in the bio-assessment of the effect of feverfew essential oil on gram-positive bacteria and fungi was respectively more than the effect of vancomycin and amphotericin B and this effect on gram-negative bacteria was less than the effect of gentamicin. This effect is attributed to the high value of camphor, chrysanthenyl acetate and camphene found in the essential oil.Conclusion: Feverfew essential oil could be utilized as a sound and harmless substitute for the antibiotics.

  9. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes: Stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphane and isocamphane monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; Gershenzon, J.; Wheeler, C.J.; Satterwhite, D.M. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (+)-camphene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate and the subsequent cyclization of this bound intermediate. In the case of (-)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (-)-camphene, isomerization of the substrate to the (+)-(3S)-linalyl intermediate precedes cyclization. The geranyl and linalyl precursors were shown to be mutually competitive substrates (inhibitors) of the relevant cyclization enzymes isolated from Salvia officinalis (sage) and Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) by the mixed substrate analysis method, demonstrating that isomerization and cyclization take place at the same active site. Incubation of partially purified enzyme preparations with (3R)-(1Z-3H)linalyl pyrophosphate plus (1-14C)geranyl pyrophosphate gave rise to double-labeled (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (+)-camphene, whereas incubation of enzyme preparations catalyzing the antipodal cyclizations with (3S)-(1Z-3H)-linalyl pyrophosphate plus (1-14C)geranyl pyrophosphate yielded double-labeled (-)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (-)-camphene. Each product was then transformed to the corresponding (+)- or (-)-camphor without change in the 3H:14C isotope ratio, and the location of the tritium label was deduced in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogen of the derived ketone. The finding that the 1Z-3H of the linalyl precursor was positioned at the endo-alpha-hydrogen of the corresponding camphor in all cases, coupled to the previously demonstrated retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl substrate in these transformations, confirmed the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate and the cyclization of the latter via the anti,endo- conformer.

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  11. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; Satterwhite, D.M.; Wheeler, C.J.; Felton, N.M.

    1989-02-05

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and to (-)-beta-pinene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)- and to (+)-(3S)-linalyl pyrophosphate, respectively, and the subsequent cyclization of the anti, endo-conformer of these bound intermediates by mirror-image sequences which should result in the net retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl precursor. Incubation of (1R)-(2-14C,1-3H)- and (1S)-(2-14C,1-3H)geranyl pyrophosphate with (+)-pinene cyclase and with (-)-pinene cyclase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) gave labeled (+)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene of unchanged 3H/14C ratio in all cases, and the (+)- and (-)-olefins were stereoselectively converted to (+)- and (-)-borneol, respectively, which were oxidized to the corresponding (+)- and (-)-isomers of camphor, again without change in isotope ratio. The location of the tritium was determined in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogens of these derived ketones. The results indicated that the configuration at C1 of the substrate was retained in the enzymatic transformations to the (+)- and (-)-pinenes, which is entirely consistent with the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate, transoid to cisoid rotation, and anti, endo-cyclization of the latter. The absolute stereochemical elements of the antipodal reaction sequences were confirmed by the selective enzymatic conversions of (3R)- and (3S)-1Z-(1-3H)linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively, and by the location of the tritium in the derived camphors as before. The summation of the results fully defines the overall stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to the antipodal pinenes.

  12. Essential oils and chemical diversity of southeast European populations of Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones.

  13. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taieb Tounekti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges. Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and beta-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment, while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts contained also several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA, carnosol (CAR and 12- and #1054;-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA. The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact soil salinity may favour a directional production of particular components of interest. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 208-216

  14. Estudio clínico comparativo entre colutorio de p-clorofenol y peróxido de hidrógeno con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12% en el crecimiento de placa microbiana y gingivitis Mouthwash comparative study between p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide with chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.12% in the growth of microbial plaque and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PD Jaña

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se formuló un colutorio a base de p-clorofenol alcanforado y peróxido de hidrógeno, y considerando que no se disponían de antecedentes de eficacia y seguridad del colutorio, se realizó un ensayo clínico para medirlas utilizando un modelo de formación de placa microbiana y gingivitis en un período de cuatro días, como control positivo se uso un colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12%. Participaron 26 sujetos en un estudio doble ciego cruzado y con distribución aleatoria. El colutorio en base a p-clorofenol alcanforado y peróxido de hidrógeno y el de clorhexidina tuvieron un similar efecto en el control de la formación de placa y antigingivitis. No hubo diferencias entre los acontecimientos adversos observados para el colutorio y el control. Por consiguiente, el colutorio en estudio podría ser una alternativa para el control químico de la placa microbiana y gingivitis en el tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal.A camphorated p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide-based mouthwash was prepared, and a clinical trial to measure the efficiency and safety records of the mouthwash -considering the lack of them- was carried out using a formation model of microbial plaque and gingivitis over a 4-day period, with a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash as positive control. Twenty-six individuals participated in the randomized double-blind crossover study. The camphorated p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide-based and chlorhexidine mouthwash had a similar effect in controlling the formation of plaque and antigingivitis. There was no difference between the adverse events observed for the mouthwash and the control. Therefore, the mouthwash in study might be an alternative to the chemical control of microbial plaque and gingivitis in the periodontal desease treatment.

  15. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and to (-)-beta-pinene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)- and to (+)-(3S)-linalyl pyrophosphate, respectively, and the subsequent cyclization of the anti, endo-conformer of these bound intermediates by mirror-image sequences which should result in the net retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl precursor. Incubation of (1R)-[2-14C,1-3H]- and (1S)-[2-14C,1-3H]geranyl pyrophosphate with (+)-pinene cyclase and with (-)-pinene cyclase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) gave labeled (+)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene of unchanged 3H/14C ratio in all cases, and the (+)- and (-)-olefins were stereoselectively converted to (+)- and (-)-borneol, respectively, which were oxidized to the corresponding (+)- and (-)-isomers of camphor, again without change in isotope ratio. The location of the tritium was determined in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogens of these derived ketones. The results indicated that the configuration at C1 of the substrate was retained in the enzymatic transformations to the (+)- and (-)-pinenes, which is entirely consistent with the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate, transoid to cisoid rotation, and anti, endo-cyclization of the latter. The absolute stereochemical elements of the antipodal reaction sequences were confirmed by the selective enzymatic conversions of (3R)- and (3S)-1Z-[1-3H]linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively, and by the location of the tritium in the derived camphors as before. The summation of the results fully defines the overall stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to the antipodal pinenes

  16. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes: Stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphane and isocamphane monoterpenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (+)-camphene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate and the subsequent cyclization of this bound intermediate. In the case of (-)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (-)-camphene, isomerization of the substrate to the (+)-(3S)-linalyl intermediate precedes cyclization. The geranyl and linalyl precursors were shown to be mutually competitive substrates (inhibitors) of the relevant cyclization enzymes isolated from Salvia officinalis (sage) and Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) by the mixed substrate analysis method, demonstrating that isomerization and cyclization take place at the same active site. Incubation of partially purified enzyme preparations with (3R)-[1Z-3H]linalyl pyrophosphate plus [1-14C]geranyl pyrophosphate gave rise to double-labeled (+)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (+)-camphene, whereas incubation of enzyme preparations catalyzing the antipodal cyclizations with (3S)-[1Z-3H]-linalyl pyrophosphate plus [1-14C]geranyl pyrophosphate yielded double-labeled (-)-bornyl pyrophosphate and (-)-camphene. Each product was then transformed to the corresponding (+)- or (-)-camphor without change in the 3H:14C isotope ratio, and the location of the tritium label was deduced in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogen of the derived ketone. The finding that the 1Z-3H of the linalyl precursor was positioned at the endo-alpha-hydrogen of the corresponding camphor in all cases, coupled to the previously demonstrated retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl substrate in these transformations, confirmed the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate and the cyclization of the latter via the anti,endo- conformer

  17. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  18. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers. PMID:26197558

  19. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands. PMID:25843283

  20. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  1. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological risk of personal care products in urban river-groundwater interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Pau Serra, Maria; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban groundwater and river samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of River Besòs that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results shown that most of compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 30 ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, named as benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000 ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the temporal variability of the River Besòs. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles MeBZT and BZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-Fs (e.g. benzophenone derivatives) in the river-groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for diferent aquatic species were calculated in order to characterise the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values will be presented and discussed in the presentation.

  2. Holistic Control of Herbal Teas and Tinctures Based on Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) for Compounds with Beneficial and Adverse Effects using NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Monakhova, Yulia B

    2012-01-01

    A methodology that utilizes (1)H-NMR spectroscopy has been developed to simultaneously analyze toxic terpenes (thujone and camphor), major polyphenolic compounds, the total antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index in foods and medicines containing sage. The quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid (limit of detection (LOD) = 10 mg/L) and total thujone (LOD = 0.35 mg/L) was possible using direct integration of the signals. For other parameters (derivatives of rosmarinic acid, carnosol and flavone glycosides, ORAC and FC index), chemometric regression models obtained separately for alcohol-based tinctures (R(2) = 0.94-0.98) and aqueous tea infusions (R(2) = 0.79-0.99) were suitable for screening analysis. The relative standard deviations for authentic samples were below 10%. The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of a wide variety of sage products (n = 108). The total thujone content in aqueous tea infusions was found to be in the range of not detectable (nd) to 37.5 mg/L (average 9.2 mg/L), while tinctures contained higher levels (range nd-409 mg/L, average 107 mg/L). The camphor content varied from 2.1 to 43.7 mg/L in aqueous infusions and from not detectable to 748 mg/L in tinctures (averages were 14.1 and 206 mg/L, respectively). Phenolic compounds were also detected in the majority of the investigated products. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy was proven to have the ability to holistically control all important adverse and beneficial compounds in sage products in a single experiment, considerably saving time, resources and costs as NMR replaces four separate methodologies that were previously needed to analyze the same parameters.

  3. 不同类型茶园节肢动物群落结构研究%Research on Structure of Arthropod Community in Different Tea Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉香甩; 冉隆繤; 刘关所; 浦恩达; 李慧; 孙雪梅; 刘本英; 陈剑锋

    2016-01-01

    A three -year investigation on the structure of arthropod community was carried out in three different tea gardens,i.e.pure tea garden,camphor tree -tea and mango tree -tea intercropping gardens. The analysis was conducted from aspects of richness,evenness,dominance index,stability coefficient (Ss /Si ) and variation coefficient (ds /dm ).The results indicated that the diversity indexes of arthropod communities in tea gardens intercropped with camphor and mango tree were higher,and they possessed better richness,diver-sity and evenness.It showed that the restrictive interactions among different species in arthropod communities in intercropping tea gardens were stronger than those in pure tea garden,and the structures were better.%连续三年分别对樟-茶间作茶园、芒果-茶间作茶园和纯茶园中节肢动物群落结构进行系统调查,并从丰富度、均匀度、优势度指数、稳定性系数值 Ss /Si 和变异系数 ds /dm 等方面进行了分析。结果表明:樟-茶间作茶园和芒果-茶间作茶园中节肢动物群落的多样性指数较高,具有更大的丰富度、更丰富的多样性和更高的均匀性,表明樟与茶间作、芒果与茶间作后茶园节肢动物群落内各物种间制约关系强于纯茶园,结构更趋合理。

  4. Clinical effect of calcium hydroxide paste combined with triple antibiotic paste on root canal disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the efficacy in disinfection and pain control of calcium hydroxide paste and triple antibiotic paste (ornidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline used individually or jointly for root canal disinfection. Methods Two hundred and thirty-five patients with chronic apical periodontitis (235 teeth were involved in the present study and divided into 2 groups: fistula group (n=118 and no fistula group (n=117. Each group was then randomly divided into 4 subgroups: calcium hydroxide paste group, triple antibiotic paste group, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste group, and camphor phenol group. After regular root canal preparation, root canals of patients in 4 groups were filled with tiny paper ends impregnated with fore 4 different drugs respectively. Visual analogue scales (VAS of pain were given to the patients with a guide for filling the scale. One week later, both the data of the scales and the effects of root canal disinfection were recorded and analyzed. Results Seven days after treatment, the clinical efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste was similar (P>0.05 either in fistula group or in no fistula group, but all better than that of camphor phenol (P<0.05. VAS score analysis showed that, at least on the first 3 days after sealing medicine in the root canal, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste achieved better result of pain control than the other three groups (P<0.05 no matter with or without fistula. Conclusions  Calcium hydroxide paste, triple antibiotic paste, calcium hydroxide + triple antibiotic paste are effective in treatment of chronic apical periodontitis whether with or without fistula. However, the combined use of calcium hydroxide and three antibiotic pastes is better for controlling the pain after root canal preparation than other treatments, which is therefore worthy of clinical application. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.12

  5. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of personal care products in river-groundwater interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Roig, Maria Pau; Jurado, Anna; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-15

    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban river and groundwater samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of Besòs River that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results have shown that most of the compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 200ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, namely benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the seasonal variability of the Besòs River. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles BZT and MeBZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC and the paraben MePB. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-filters and parabens in the river and groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for different aquatic species were calculated in order to characterize the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values were always below 1 indicating that at the concentrations observed in the surface or aquifer water of Besòs River these compounds pose no risk to

  6. Quality of control of compound chlorhexidine acetate ointment%复方醋酸氯己定软膏质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文军; 邓朝晖; 李爱红; 慈薇

    2016-01-01

    目的 提高复方醋酸氯己定软膏的质量控制标准.方法 增补处方中薄荷脑、樟脑的薄层色谱(T LC)法鉴别;建立高效液相色谱法同时测定处方中醋酸氯已定、盐酸丁卡因含量的方法.结果 薄荷脑、樟脑薄层色谱斑点清晰,可用于鉴别;醋酸氯己定在10.01~160.14μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为101.5%,RSD为1.8%;盐酸丁卡因在10.01~160.14μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为100.5%,RSD为2.8%.结论 提高后的质量标准可行.%Objective To improve the standard of the quality control of compound chlorhexidine acetate ointment . Methods TLC was used to control the quality of menthol crystal and camphor .A method to determine chlorhexidine acetate and cocaine hydrochloride simultaneously by HPLC was established .Results The spots of menthol crystal and camphor in TLC were clear .Chlorhexidine acetate and cocaine hydrochloride showed excellent linearity ,which were at the range of 10.01-160.14 μg/ml and 10 .01-160 .14 μg/ml ,respectively .The average recoveries were 101 .5% (RSD=1 .8% ) and 100 .5% (RSD=2 .8% ) .Conclusion The methods were simple ,sensitive and with good reproducibility and could be used to control the quality of compound chlorhexidine acetate ointment .

  7. Landscape and Spatial Structure Of Dong Ethnic Group Traditional Village---A Case Study on Gaoding Sanjiang%侗族传统村落地景与空间结构研究--以广西三江高定侗寨为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈容娟

    2015-01-01

    The multiple landscapes contain “a door , a bridge , a temple , a forest , two stockades , a double creeks , three tracks , seven floors and seven wells” in Dongzhai Gaoding ,which constructs an unique multilevel and multidimensional spatial structure .On the one hand , the village gate , wind-rain bridge , streams and stone paths and other landscapes separate the Human world and Non-human world , which makes people and ghosts stay in their places;On the other hand , flying mountain temples and camphor forests as gods walled places to reside with the male form corresponding to the male world and the spirit world . Finally , the isolation of the village gate , camphor forests and wind-rain bridges , the differentiation of floors , the integration of stone roads all have made the villages spatial structure of Gaoding form a triple concentric structure like kaleidoscope .%高定侗寨“一门一桥一庙一林双寨双溪三径七楼七井”的多重地景构建了独特的多层次多维度的空间结构。一方面,寨门、风雨桥、小溪和石径等地景将阴界和阳界进行分离,让人和鬼各居其所、秩序分明;另一方面,飞山庙和樟树林作为神灵的居住场所与阳寨形成阳界与神界的对应。最后,寨门、樟树林和风雨桥的分隔、鼓楼的分化和石径的融合使得高定侗寨的村落空间结构形成一个万花筒状的三重同心圆结构。

  8. Effect of Location, Harvest Season and Plant Age on Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Rosmarinus officinalis%栽培地区、采收季节和株龄对迷迭香精油成分和抑菌活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘岩; 白红彤; 李慧; 姜闯道; 石雷

    2012-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用的方法,研究了不同提取部位、栽培地区、采收季节和株龄对迷迭香精油提取率、成分和抑菌活性的影响.结果表明,在贵州栽培的迷迭香叶子中精油的主要成分为α-蒎烯(31.88%-39.09%)、1,8-桉叶素(8.82%-10.97%)和樟脑(7.63%-11.59%);茎中精油的主要成分为龙脑(26.62%-39.05%)、樟脑(11.41%-15.27%)和α-蒎烯(7.23%-17.80%);茎中精油的抑菌活性强于叶中精油.北京地区栽培的迷迭香,其叶子中精油的主要成分为樟脑(27.92%)和L-β-蒎烯(25.28%),抑菌活性强;茎中精油和贵州栽培的成分和活性均相似.对于采收季节,夏季采收的迷迭香精油提取率高,抑菌活性强.而株龄对精油的成分和抑菌活性影响不大.该研究为我国引种迷迭香的合理配置栽培、采收、生产条件和高效开发利用其抑菌活性提供了科学的依据.%We examined the effect of plant part, cultivating location, harvest season and plant age on the oil yield, chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). We analyzed essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. All oil samples showed antibacterial ability against the 4 strains. For Guizhou rosemary, the major compounds of leaf oils were a-pinene (31.88%-39.09%), 1,8-cineole (8.82%-10.97%) and camphor (7.63%-11.59%), whereas those of stem oils were borneol (26.62%-39.05%), camphor (11.41%-15.27%) and a-pinene (7.23%-17.80%). Antibacterial activity was greater for oils from stems than leaves. For oils from Beijing rosemary, the major compounds of leaf oils were camphor (27.92%) and L-β-pinene (25.28%), and the oils showed higher antibacterial activity than those from Guizhou, whereas oils from Beijing plant stems were similar to those from Guizhou

  9. 蒿属植物的农药活性及其有效成分%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Artemisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利娟; 桑晓清; 孙永艳; 杨文杰

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on pesticidal activities and the corresponding active ingredients of Artemisia are presented. Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia vestita, Artemisia parvijlora, Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia capillarie, Artemisia mongoli-ca, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia monosperma and Artemisia judaica possess insecticidal activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, borneol, camphor, caryophyllene, isoaryophyllene and farnesene. Artemisia annua, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia tournefortiana, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia taurica, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia molinieri, Artemisia stolonifera show fungicidal activities and the main active ingredients are camphor, cineole, borneol, flavonoids, olefins, terpene hydrocarbons, alkanes and organic acids. Artemisia caerulescens subsp. gallica, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia roxburghiana,Artenisia annua, Artemisia tridentate, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia taurica exhibit herbicide activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, camphor, arteether, monoterpenes and ses-quiterpenes. Artemisia absinthium shows nematicidal activity. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia dracunculus have mollusicidal activities. In all, Artemisia annua, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia borealis and Artemisia judaica show multiple activities and may be used as botanical pesticides.%综述了蒿属植物的杀虫、杀螨、杀菌、除草、杀线虫和杀软体动物活性及相应的有效成分.该属中具有杀虫杀螨活性的主要有黄花蒿、野艾蒿、苦艾、蒌蒿、毛莲蒿、西南牡蒿、大籽蒿、猪毛蒿、茵陈蒿、蒙古蒿、巴儿古津蒿、南亚蒿、犹地蒿和Artemisia monsperma等,其主要有效成分是桉树脑、龙脑、樟脑、石竹烯、异石竹烯和β-法呢烯等.该属中具有杀菌活性的主要有黄花蒿、银叶艾蒿

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity. PMID:20405142

  11. Analysis of main component and the essential oil chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora in Guangxi%广西樟树精油的主成分分析及其化学型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 莫建光; 周翔

    2013-01-01

    Through the 64 essential oil samples from different areas of Guangxi principal component analysis,five principal extracted components of major interrelated changes in chemical composition were evaluated, α-pinene and terpinen-4-ol played main role in the first main component,nerolidol and α-caryophyllene played main role in the second main component,eucalyptol and α-terpineol played main role in the third main component,camphor and linalool played main role in the fourth main component, and myrcenet played main role in the fifth main component.Combined with GC-MS analysis results, selected the Ward' s method and the squared Euelidean distance method for clustering analysis.The results showed that the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphorastem in Guangxi were clustered into five chemotypes( Num = 22): linalool type, nerolidol type, eucalyptol type, camphor type and the pinene-terpineol type.The linalool type were distributed most widely and linalool contented were the highest.%通过对64份广西不同产地樟树枝叶精油样品的主成分分析,提取出五个主成分评价原主要化学成分间的相关变化.第一主成分中主要起作用的是α-蒎烯和4-萜烯醇,第二主成分中主要起作用的是橙花叔醇和α-律草烯,第三主成分中主要起作用的是α-松油醇和桉叶油素,第四主成分中主要起作用的是樟脑和芳樟醇,第五主成分中主要起作用的是月桂烯.结合GC-MS分析结果,选取欧氏距离平方距离测度法和离差平方和的聚类方法对樟树精油主成分进行聚类分析,结果表明,当聚类水平为22时,将广西樟树分为五种化学类型:芳樟醇型、橙花叔醇型、桉叶油素型、樟脑型和蒎烯-萜烯醇型.其中芳樟醇型分布最广泛,芳樟醇含量占绝对优势.

  12. Clinical Study on the Treatment of Epidemic Parotitis by Indigo Naturalis Paste%青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎的临床疗效.方法:100例患者随机分为治疗组50例和对照组50例,治疗组用贴敷青黛膏(方药组成:青黛、乳香、没药、琥珀、松香、樟脑、冰片、黄蜡),配合口服双黄连口服液治疗,对照组单纯口服双黄连口服液治疗.观察两组用药3d后有效率.结果:治疗组50例,有效率为94%,对照组50例,有效率为84%.经统计学处理,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,组间比较有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎有显著疗效.%Objective:To observe the clinical effects of Indigo Naturalis Paste on the treatment of epidemic parotitis. Methods: 100 patients of epidemic parotitis were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group with 50 cases in each group. The treatment group was applied Indigo Naturalis Paste ( composed of Indigo Naturalis, Frankincense, Commiphora molmol, Succinum, Collopho-ny,Camphor,Malayan camphor,Beeswax) and given oral administration of Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid;the control group was only given Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid,then the effective rate of two groups was observed after three days. Results:The effective rate in the treatment group(50 cases) and the control group(50 cases) was 94% and 84% respectively. Curative effect of the treatment group was superior to the control group after statistical analysis,and both groups had significant difference(P <0.05). Conclusion:Indigo Naturalis Paste has remarkable effects on the treatment of epidemic parotitis.

  13. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  14. Fungitoxidade in vitro de extratos vegetais sobre Exserohilum turcicum (Pass Leonard & Suggs In vitro fungitoxicity of plant extracts on Exserohilum turcicum (Pass Leonard & Suggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R Scapin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A helmintosporiose, causada pelo fungo Exserohilum turcicum, é uma das principais doenças do milho-pipoca cultivado no Brasil. Devido às características da cultura, como porte da planta, extensão da área de plantio e rentabilidade econômica, o emprego de resistência genética e controle químico têm sido as principais formas de controle da doença. O emprego de agrotóxicos na agricultura tem levado riscos à saúde humana e freqüentes danos ao meio ambiente. Assim, na busca de métodos alternativos para o controle da helmintosporiose foi avaliado o efeito fungitóxico dos extratos vegetais das plantas Achillea milefollium (mil-folhas, Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão, Artemisia camphorata (cânfora e Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim no crescimento micelial de E. turcicum, em dois meios de cultura (BDA - batata-dextrose-ágar; e LCH - lactose caseína hidrolisada. Os extratos de alecrim e cânfora foram os que apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento micelial nos dois meios de cultura, enquanto que os extratos de mil-folhas e capim limão estimularam o crescimento micelial em meio LCH.Helminthosporiose is caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum and represents one of the main diseases in popcorn grown in Brazil. Due to its characteristics, such as plant size, planting area extension and economic profitability, the use of genetic resistance and chemical control has constituted the main procedure against such disease. The use of pesticides in agriculture has resulted in risks to the human health and frequent damages to the environment. Thus, the fungitoxic effect of plant extracts of Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass, Artemisia camphorata (camphor and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary on the mycelial growth of E. turcicum was evaluated by using two culture media (PDA - potato dextrose agar, and LCH - lactose-casein hydrolysate in order to set alternative methods for controlling helminthosporiose. Rosemary

  15. Usage of equivalent numerical method based on entropy weight in evaluating comprehensively the promoting effect of transdermal enhancers%基于熵权的等效数值法在促透剂促透效果综合评价中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志平; 林燕群; 王晖; 梁庆

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨基于熵权的等效数值法在促透剂促透效果综合评价中的运用.方法:以扑热息痛为模型药物,利用离体透皮吸收装置,研究氮酮、薄荷醇、樟脑、油酸、丁香油、荆芥油、藿香油促透剂在离体免背部皮肤上的透皮行为,计算渗透系数、稳态流量、滞后时间、增渗倍数,运用基于熵权的等效数值法对促透效果进行综合评价.结果:2%丁香和2%樟脑对扑热息痛的促透效果最好,1%氮酮、2%荆芥油、2%薄荷醇、2%油酸次之,2%广藿香最差.结论:基于熵权的等效数值评价法可客观地、公正地评价促透剂的促透效果.%AIM: To investigate the use of equivalent numerical method based on entropy weight in evaluating comprehensively the promoting effect of transdermal enhancers.METHODS: Using paracetamol as model drug, the promoting effects of azone, menthol, camphor,oleic acid, clove oil, nepeta oil, patchouli oil were detected by transdermal absorption experimentation in rabbit skin in vitro, indexes such as cumulative permeation quantity, penetrating rates, enhancement ratio and lag time were calculated, finally the equivalent numerical method based on entropy weight was used to evaluate the promoting effects of those transdermal enhancers.RESULTS: The promoting effect of 2% camphor and 2% cloves promoted paracetamol was best, 1% Azone, 2% nepeta oil, 2% menthol, 2 % oleic acid in sequence,2 % patchouli oil was worst.CONCLUSION: The equivalent numerical method based on entropy weight could evaluate the promoting effect of transdermal enhancers objectively and fairly.

  16. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  17. Strong non-linear effects in the chiroptical properties of the ligand-exchanged Au38 and Au40 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppe, Stefan; Dass, Amala; Bürgi, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Ligand exchange reactions on size-selected Au38(2-PET)24 and Au40(2-PET)24 clusters (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiol) with mono- and bi-dentate chiral thiols were performed. The reactions were monitored with MALDI mass spectrometry and the arising chiroptical properties were compared to the number of incorporated chiral ligands. Only a small fraction of chiral ligands is needed to induce significant optical activity to the clusters. The use of bidentate 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dithiol (BINAS) leads to slow exchange, but the optical activity measured is strong. Moreover, a non-linear behaviour between optical activity and the number of chiral ligands is found in the BINAS case for both Au38 and Au40, which may indicate different exchange rates of enantiopure BINAS with the enantiomers of inherently chiral (but racemic) clusters. This is ascribed to effects arising from the bidentate nature of BINAS. In contrast, the use of monodentate camphor-10-thiol (CamSH) leads to comparably fast exchange on both clusters. The arising optical activity is weak. This is the first study where chiroptical effects are directly correlated with the composition of the ligand shell.Ligand exchange reactions on size-selected Au38(2-PET)24 and Au40(2-PET)24 clusters (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiol) with mono- and bi-dentate chiral thiols were performed. The reactions were monitored with MALDI mass spectrometry and the arising chiroptical properties were compared to the number of incorporated chiral ligands. Only a small fraction of chiral ligands is needed to induce significant optical activity to the clusters. The use of bidentate 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dithiol (BINAS) leads to slow exchange, but the optical activity measured is strong. Moreover, a non-linear behaviour between optical activity and the number of chiral ligands is found in the BINAS case for both Au38 and Au40, which may indicate different exchange rates of enantiopure BINAS with the enantiomers of inherently chiral (but racemic) clusters

  18. Co-calibrating quality-of-life scores from three pulmonary disorders: implications for comparative-effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, M; Twiss, J; McKenna, S P

    2016-06-01

    Background Efficient use of health resources requires accurate outcome assessment. Disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are designed to be highly relevant to patients with a specific disease. They have advantages over generic PROs that lack relevance to patient groups and miss crucial impacts of illness. It is thought that disease-specific measurement cannot be used in comparative effectiveness research (CER). The present study provides further evidence of the value of disease-specific measures in making valid comparisons across diseases. Methods The Asthma Life Impact Scale (ALIS, 22 items), Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (LCOPD, 22 items) scale, and Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR, 25 items) were completed by 140, 162, and 91 patients, respectively. The three samples were analyzed for fit to the Rasch model, then combined into a scale consisting of 58 unique items and re-analyzed. Raw scores on the three measures were co-calibrated and a transformation table produced. Results The scales fit the Rasch model individually (ALIS Chi(2) probability value (p-Chi(2)) = 0.05; LCOPD p-Chi(2 )=( )0.38; CAMPHOR p-Chi(2 )=( )0.92). The combined data also fit the Rasch model (p-Chi(2 )=( )0.22). There was no differential item functioning related to age, gender, or disease. The co-calibrated scales successfully distinguished between perceived severity groups (p < 0.001). Limitations The samples were drawn from different sources. For scales to be co-calibrated using a common item design, they must be based on the same theoretical construct, be unidimensional, and have overlapping items. Conclusions The results showed that it is possible to co-calibrate scores from disease-specific PRO measures. This will permit more accurate and sensitive outcome measurement to be incorporated into CER. The co-calibration of needs-based disease-specific measures allows the calculation of γ scores that can be

  19. Mosquito knock-down and adulticidal activities of essential oils by vaporizer, impregnated filter paper and aerosol methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from 12 medicinal plants were evaluated by three different bioassay methods (Vaporizer, Filter paper and Aerosol for Knock-down and adulticidal efficacy on the filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on screening results the effective plants were selected for investigating Knock-down and adulticidal potential against adult female of the laboratory-reared mosquito species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. In vaporizer bioassay method four different doses (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used. Four different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 10% were used both filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods. Five essential oils (calamus, camphor, citronella, clove and eucalyptus were identified as potential treatments in vaporizer bioassay. The result showed that the knock down time decreased with increased concentration in clove oil treatment; the Knock-down time (KT 50 = 46.1 ± 0.1, 38.5 ± 0.1, 30.7 ± 0.2, and 20.1 ± 0.1 minutes was recorded at 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% /cm3 respectively. In filter paper method nine essential oils were identified as potential treatments. After 1 hr exposure period clove oil recorded the lowest median Knock-down time (KT50 which was calculated as 9.15 ± 0.1min/cm2. Followed by citronella (KT50 =11.4 ± 0.1 min and eucalyptus (KT50 =11.4 ±0.1min oils since they recorded lower median Knock-down time. All the twelve essential oils were identified as potential treatments in aerosol activity. The lethal time decreased when the concentration increased. At 5 % concentration the median lethal time (LT50 for clove oil was calculated as (LT50=3.80 ± 0.1minutes. The Cinnamon oil was effective which recorded (LT50 = 1.99 mins as median lethal time. Camphor (LT50 =19.6± 0.1 min oil were found to be less toxic by aerosol method. These results suggest that clove oil and cinnamon oil have the potential to be used as a eco-friendly approach for the control of the major important filaria vector Cx. quinquefasciatus

  20. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331