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Sample records for camp-induced mmp-2 expression

  1. Expression and prognostic impact of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in astrocytomas

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    Ramachandran, Rahimsan K.; Sørensen, Mia D.; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    of this tumor. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an extracellular matrix degrading enzyme which has been shown to play important roles in different cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic potential of MMP-2 in astrocytomas. Tissue samples from 89 patients diagnosed...... with diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma were stained immunohistochemically using a monoclonal MMP-2 antibody. The MMP-2 intensity in cytoplasm/membrane was quantified by a trained software-based classifier using systematic random sampling in 10% of the tumor area. We found MMP-2......Astrocytomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors in adults, and despite aggressive treatment patients often experience recurrence. Survival decreases with increasing tumor grade, and especially patients with grade IV glioblastoma have poor prognosis due to the aggressive character...

  2. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression

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    Li FJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fu-Jun Li, Xin-Juan Wang, Xiao-Li Zhou Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China Background: WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC cells.Methods: In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated.Results: It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21, associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells.Conclusion: We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy. Keywords: WISP-1, SGCs, proliferation, MMP-2

  3. WISP-1 increases MMP-2 expression and cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells.

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    Hou, Chun-Han; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2011-06-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. Chondrosarcoma shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matricellular proteins. However, the effect of WISP-1 on migration activity in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here we found that WISP-1 increased the migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in human chondrosarcoma cells (JJ012 cells). We also found that human chondrosarcoma tissues had significant expression of the WISP-1 which was higher than that in normal cartilage. α5β1 monoclonal antibody and MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) inhibited the WISP-1-induced increase of the migration and MMP-2 up-regulation of chondrosarcoma cells. WISP-1 stimulation increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In addition, NF-κB inhibitors also suppressed the cell migration and MMP-2 expression enhanced by WISP-1. Moreover, WISP-1 increased NF-κB luciferase activity and binding of p65 to the NF-κB element on the MMP-2 promoter. Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 expression through the α5β1 integrin receptor, FAK, MEK, ERK, p65 and NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of p53 protein and MMP-2 tumor/stromal cells expression on progressive growth of ovarian neoplasms.

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    Grelewski, Piotr Grzegorz; Bar, Julia Krystyna

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate p53 gene/protein status and MMP-2 expression in respect to ovarian tumors progress to define the role of these markers in the metastasis of ovarian carcinomas. MMP-2 and p53 alterations were evaluated on 80 malignant, 30 benign ovarian tumors, and 62 metastatic lesions by using HRM method for mutations in p53 gene and by using RT-PCR for mRNA MMP-2 level. Our data indicate that parallel expression of MMP-2 epithelial/stromal cells and p53 may enhance cells invasion and metastasis in ovarian carcinoma.

  5. HOXA11 and MMP2 gene expression in uterosacral ligaments of women with pelvic organ prolapse.

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    Yılmaz, Nafiye; Ozaksit, Gülnur; Terzi, Yunus Kasım; Yılmaz, Saynur; Budak, Burcu; Aksakal, Orhan; Sahin, Feride İffet

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common disorder that negatively impacts the quality of life in many women. Uterosacral ligaments (USLs) are supportive structures of the pelvic organs that are often attenuated in women with POP. The HOXA genes regulate the development of the uterosacral ligaments. We compared expression of HOXA11 and MMP2 in USLs of women with and without POP. A prospective sequential cross sectional study was conducted in ZTB Women's Health Research and Education Hospital. We compared expression of HOXA11 and MMP2 in USLs of women with (n:18) and without (n: 15) POP. Total RNA was isolated from patient (n:18) and control (n:15) uterosacral ligament tissues with TriPure isolation reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions. Expression levels of HOXA11 and MMP2 were determined using semiquantitative RT-PCR in a Light Cycler 480 system. Real-time ready catalog assays, which are short FAM-labeled hydrolysis probes containing locked nucleic acid, were used for RT-PCR reactions. There was no difference in patients' mean age, parity, body mass indexes, and menopausal status between two groups. Means of RNA expression of MMP2 were 1.27±0.6 and 0.75±0.4 in the POP group vs control group, respectively (p:0.007). Means of RNA expression of HOXA 11 were 2.57±2.4 and 1.94±1.4 in the POP group vs control group, respectively (p:0.376). The POP group was divided as mild and severe POP; there was no difference in HOXA11 and MMP2 RNA expression between groups (p>0.05). Although there was no difference HOXA11 RNA expression in USLs with the POP group vs control, there was a significant difference MMP2 RNA expression in USLs with the POP group vs control. There are limited studies on this subject, and study results are contradictory. Further investigations with larger numbers of cases are needed to clarify this subject.

  6. Effect of Qingguangan on the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in filtering bleb after trabeculectomy in rabbits

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    Wen-Juan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effect of Qingguangan on the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in filtering bleb scarring area after trabeculectomy in rabbit model.METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomized into four groups: control group, experimental group, MMC group (ocular trabeculectomy in combination with MMC, and Qingguangan group. Trabeculectomy was performed on both eyes in each group except control group. Qingguangan group was mouth-fed with Qingguangan (solution. On postoperative day 14, the appearances of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on filtrating blebs were observed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Statistical differences of the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were noted among groups on day 14 following surgery. Histology immunohistochemistry showed significant differences on the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 between each group (P<0.05.CONCLUSION: Qingguangan can promote the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

  7. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Jun; Wang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) cells. In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated. It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21), associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells. We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  8. Gentamicin supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials enhance tissue integration due to a transcriptionally reduced MMP-2 protein expression

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    Binnebösel Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the significance of the MMP-2-specific regulatory element (RE-1 that is known to mediate 80% of the MMP-2 promoter activity, the spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of the MMP-2 gene was analyzed at the cellular level. Methods A PVDF mesh material was surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc. Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5 and 8 μg/mg. 75 male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ mice harbouring the LacZ reporter gene under control of MMP-2 regulatory sequence -1241/+423, excluding the RE-1 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription (anti-ß-galactosidase staining and MMP-2 protein expression (anti-MMP-2 staining were analyzed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. Results The perifilamentary ß-galactosidase expression as well as the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications, whereas no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 protein expression between days 21 and 90. Both the 5 and 8 μg/mg gentamicin group showed significantly reduced levels of ß-galactosidase expression and MMP-2 positive stained cells when compared to the PVDF group on day 7, 21 and 90 respectively (5 μg/mg: p Conclusions Our current data indicate that lack of RE-1 is correlated with increased mesh induced MMP-2-gene expression for coated as well as for non-coated mesh materials. Gentamicin

  9. Gentamicin supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials enhance tissue integration due to a transcriptionally reduced MMP-2 protein expression.

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    Binnebösel, Marcel; von Trotha, Klaus T; Ricken, Christina; Klink, Christian D; Junge, Karsten; Conze, Joachim; Jansen, Marc; Neumann, Ulf P; Lynen Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-13

    A beneficial effect of gentamicin supplemented mesh material on tissue integration is known. To further elucidate the interaction of collagen and MMP-2 in chronic foreign body reaction and to determine the significance of the MMP-2-specific regulatory element (RE-1) that is known to mediate 80% of the MMP-2 promoter activity, the spatial and temporal transcriptional regulation of the MMP-2 gene was analyzed at the cellular level. A PVDF mesh material was surface modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF+PAAc). Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5 and 8 μg/mg). 75 male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ mice harbouring the LacZ reporter gene under control of MMP-2 regulatory sequence -1241/+423, excluding the RE-1 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription (anti-ß-galactosidase staining) and MMP-2 protein expression (anti-MMP-2 staining) were analyzed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry 7, 21 and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. The perifilamentary ß-galactosidase expression as well as the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications, whereas no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 protein expression between days 21 and 90. Both the 5 and 8 μg/mg gentamicin group showed significantly reduced levels of ß-galactosidase expression and MMP-2 positive stained cells when compared to the PVDF group on day 7, 21 and 90 respectively (5 μg/mg: p < 0.05 each; 8 μg/mg: p < 0.05 each). Though the type I/III collagen ratio increased over time for all mesh modifications significant differences to the PVDF mesh were only detected for the 8 μg/mg group at all 3 time points (p < 0

  10. Impact of gentamicin-supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride mesh materials on MMP-2 expression and tissue integration in a transgenic mice model.

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    Binnebösel, Marcel; Ricken, Christina; Klink, Christian D; Junge, Karsten; Jansen, Marc; Schumpelick, Volker; Lynen Jansen, Petra

    2010-04-01

    Reinforcement of the abdominal wall by alloplastic mesh material results in a chronic foreign body reaction which is characterized by a transcriptionally induced overexpression of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Mesh modification represents a new approach to normalize the MMP-2 expression and thereby to reduce the foreign body reaction. Because of its proven beneficial effect on tissue integration, the influence of gentamicin-supplemented polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) mesh materials on MMP-2 transcription and protein expression was investigated in transgenic reporter mice harboring MMP-2 regulatory sequence-1686/+423. A PVDF mesh material was surface-modified by plasma-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PVDF + PAAc). Three different gentamicin concentrations were bound to the provided active sites of the grafted mesh surfaces (2, 5, and 8 microg/mg). Seventy-five male transgenic MMP-2/LacZ CD1-tg mice harboring MMP-2 regulatory sequences -1686/+423 were randomized to five groups. Bilateral of the abdominal midline, one of the five different meshes was implanted subcutaneously in each animal. MMP-2 gene transcription and protein expression were analyzed semiquantitatively 7, 21, and 90 days after mesh implantation. The collagen type I/III ratio was analyzed by cross-polarization microscopy to determine the quality of mesh integration. The perifilamentary MMP-2 protein expression as well as the MMP-2 promoter activity decreased over time, whereas the collagen type I/III ratio increased up to the 90th day for all mesh modifications. The 8-microg/mg mesh material showed significantly reduced levels of MMP-2-positive stained cells when compared with the PVDF group on days 7, 21, and 90 (p = 0.008; p = 0.016; p = 0.016). In accordance, the 8-microg/mg group revealed a significant reduction of beta-galactosidase-positive stained cells at each time point in comparison with the PVDF group (p = 0.008; p = 0.047; p = 0.016). Though the type I/III collagen

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 fused to GFP, expressed in E. coli, successfully tracked MMP-2 distribution in vivo.

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    Azevedo, A; Prado, A F; Issa, J P M; Gerlach, R F

    2016-08-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in many physiological and pathological processes. One major limitation to a better understanding of the role MMPs play in these processes is the lack of well-characterized chimeric proteins and characterization of their fluorescence. The specialized literature has reported on few constructs bearing MMPs fused to the sequence of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), but none of the described constructs have been intended for expression in bacteria or for purification and use in vivo. This work has tested a recombinant reporter protein containing the MMP-2 catalytic domain fused to GFP in terms of purification efficiency, degradation of substrates in solution and in zymograms, kinetic activity, GFP fluorescence, and GFP fluorescence in whole animals after injection of the purified and lyophilized fluorescent protein. This work has also characterized rhMMP-2 (recombinant human MMP-2) and inactive clones and used them as negative controls in experiments employing catMMP-2/GFP and rhMMP-2. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has fully characterized a chimeric protein with the MMP-2 catalytic domain fused to GFP, that has efficiently purified such protein from bacteria in a single-step, and that has obtained an adequate chimeric protein for injection in animals and tracking of MMP-2 fate and activity in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TGF superfamily and MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 genes expression in the endometrium of women with impaired reproduction.

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    Przemysław Wirstlein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During the putative "implantation window", a period of maximal endometrial receptivity that spans 7-9 days after ovulation, a series of changes on the structural and molecular level occur that render the endometrium susceptible to implantation for the human embryo. Many members of the TGFbetas are expressed by human endometrium at different stages of menstrual cycle. Also studies regarding the MMP2 gene expression and activity of MMP2 in the implantation window have shown a higher expression and activity of MMP2 in women with impaired fertility. We have examined by RT-PCR the expression of TGFbeta2 and MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 in 28 patients with idiopathic infertility, 16 patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 16 control women were enrolled in this study. Seven to nine days after ovulation endometrial biopsy by Pipelle or hysteroscopy was performed to assess the expression of TGFbeta2 , MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1. We found that in endometria from women with idiopathic infertility TGFbeta2 expression was 2.8 fold higher than in endometria from control group and 2.1 fold higher in endometrial samples from women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage compared to the control group. The MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 expression in endometrial samples revealed no significant differences between the study groups and control group. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between TGFbeta2 and MMP9 expression in endometria from women in control group. The present investigations suggest that dysregulated TGFbeta2, MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP1 expression are associated with infertility and early pregnancy loss. However the exact mechanism of how overexpression of endometrial TGFbetaand MMPs interferes with implantation may be more complex.

  13. S100A8/A9 regulates MMP-2 expression and invasion and migration by carcinoma cells.

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    Silva, Emmanuel J; Argyris, Prokopios P; Zou, Xianqiong; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2014-10-01

    Intracellular calprotectin (S100A8/A9) functions in the control of the cell cycle checkpoint at G2/M. Dysregulation of S100A8/A9 appears to cause loss of the checkpoint, which frequently characterizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, we analyzed carcinoma cells for other S100A8/A9-directed changes in malignant phenotype. Using a S100A8/A9-negative human carcinoma cell line (KB), transfection to express S100A8 and S100A9 caused selective down-regulation of MMP-2 and inhibited in vitro invasion and migration. Conversely, silencing of endogenous S100A8 and S100A9 expression in TR146 cells, a well-differentiated HNSCC cell line, increased MMP-2 activity and in vitro invasion and migration. When MMP-2 expression was silenced, cells appeared to assume a less malignant phenotype. To more closely model the architecture of cell growth in vivo, cells were grown in a 3D collagen substrate, which was compared to 2D. Growth on 3D substrates caused greater MMP-2 expression. Whereas hypermethylation of CpG islands occurs frequently in HNSCC, S100A8/A9-dependent regulation of MMP-2 could not be explained by modification of the upstream promoters of MMP2 or TIMP2. Collectively, these results suggest that intracellular S100A8/A9 contributes to the cancer cell phenotype by modulating MMP-2 expression and activity to regulate cell migration and mobility. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effects of angiotensin II intervention on MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and collagen expression in rats with pulmonary hypertension.

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    Wang, X M; Shi, K; Li, J J; Chen, T T; Guo, Y H; Liu, Y L; Yang, Y F; Yang, S

    2015-03-06

    This study investigated the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) intervention, using captopril and losartan, on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and collagen in rats with pulmonary hypertension, in an effort to understand mechanisms underlying pulmonary vascular remodeling. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, captopril group, and losartan group. After 5 weeks, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular index, and neointima formation in each group were determined. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine the degree of pulmonary arterial muscularization as well as MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein expression in lung tissue. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, COL1A1, and COL4A1 mRNA expression. Picro-sirius red staining was performed to detect collagen protein expression. Neointima formation was observed in the model group. Moreover, the mPAP, right ventricular index, degree of arterial muscularization, and collagen deposition, as well as mRNA and protein expression of MMP2, MMP9, and TIMP1 were significantly higher than those in the other groups (P pulmonary vascular remodeling, indicating a possible mechanism that can be targeted in pulmonary hypertension intervention.

  15. GM-CSF enhances tumor invasion by elevated MMP-2, -9, and -26 expression

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    Gutschalk, Claudia M; Yanamandra, Archana K; Linde, Nina; Meides, Alice; Depner, Sofia; Mueller, Margareta M

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes tumor progression in different tumor models in an autocrine and paracrine manner. However, at the same time GM-CSF is used in cancer therapies to ameliorate neutropenia. We have previously shown in GM-CSF and G-CSF expressing or negative skin or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that GM-CSF expression is associated with a highly angiogenic and invasive tumor phenotype. To determine the functional contribution of GM-CSF to tumor invasion, we stably transfected a GM-CSF negative colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 with GM-CSF or treated the same cell line with exogenous GM-CSF. While GM-CSF overexpression and treatment reduced tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, respectively, it contributed to tumor progression. Together with an enhanced migratory capacity in vitro, we observed a striking increase in tumor cell invasion into the surrounding tissue concomitant with the induction of an activated tumor stroma in GM-CSF overexpressing or GM-CSF treated tumors. In a complex 3D in vitro model, enhanced GM-CSF expression was associated with a discontinued basement membrane deposition that might be mediated by the increased expression and activation of MMP-2, -9, and -26. Treatment with GM-CSF blocking antibodies reversed this effect. The increased presence and activity of these tumor cell derived proteases was confirmed in vivo. Here, expression of MMP-26 protein was predominantly located in pre- and early-invasive areas suggesting MMP-26 expression as an early event in promoting GM-CSF dependent tumor invasion. PMID:23634280

  16. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

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    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship...

  17. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in odontogenic myxoma in a child: report of a clinical case.

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    Mauro, Annamaria; Lipari, Luana; Tortorici, Silvia; Leone, Angelo; Gerbino, Aldo; Buscemi, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a benign, locally invasive, non-metastasizing neoplasm of the jaw bones. Despite the benign nature of these lesions, there is a high rate of recurrence and the current recommended therapy, depending on the size and behaviour of the lesion, can vary from curettage with peripheral ostectomy, segmental resection up to radical resections for more aggressive lesions. OM is a rare tumour which occurs predominantly in the third decade of life and it is rare in children. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular endopeptidases responsible for the degradation and remodelling of extracellular matrix, they are known to be involved in the progression and invasiveness of many types of tumour. MMPs have been studied in OM because of their well-known role in extracellular matrix degradation, tumour invasion and recurrence. We report a case of OM in a 6-year-old boy. A conservative excision was accomplished. The mass was excised without affecting the mandibular bone and the inferior alveolar nerve. Curettage and removal of the first right inferior molar were performed. After 6-month follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. We investigated the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in this case of OM in a child. RT-PCR showed the expression of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs. Immunohistochemistry showed a weak MMP-2 protein expression while MMP-9 protein was not detected. In this case of OM in a child, we report lack of recurrence after excision associated with low MMP-2 protein expression and absence of MMP-9. We believe it is worthy to deeply investigate the relationship between MMPs expression and OM behaviour with the aim to use MMPs as prognostic and/or therapeutic markers in OM.

  18. [The expression level of MMP-2 and collagen of hydroxyapatite modified titanium for keratoprosthesis in the corneal stroma of rabbits].

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    Yang, Min; Du, Gai-ping; Wang, Li-qiang; Wang, Xiao-ping; Cui, Fu-zhai; Lu, Yu-jie; Huang, Yi-fei

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the expression level of metalloproteinases-2(MMP-2) and Collagen in a hydroxyapatite surfaced-modified of three Pan type titanium keratoprosthesis after that implanted into the corneal stroma of rabbits, further evaluate its biological compatibility. Experimental study. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits, 2.0-2.5 kg, were respectively divided into three groups. Surgery was performed in right eye of all animals. skirt of HA-Ti and Ti were respectively inserted into the corneal stroma of rabbit of experimental group A and group B; only a sack was made without implantation in control group C . Cornea edema and corneal neovascularization were observed at scheduled times after operation; animals were sacrificed 2, 4 and 16 weeks after operation and their cornea was removed and examined under light microscopy; the surface of skirt was observed under scanning electron microscope. During the study period, all skirts were stable without infected, dissolved and excluded. Different degree of cornea edema and neovascularization was revealed after surgery. MMP-2 were absent in the normal corneal matrix. The expression level of MMP-2 in group A was higher than group C at all time points (F = 6.083, P collagen and yellow red type I collagen, 16 weeks corneal mainly for bright red when within the collagen type I, still have a small amount of collagen type III. Rabbit cornea implanted HA-Ti skirts cause MMP-2 activation, continuous high expression didn't cause the cornea to dissolve; Collagen -III turned into collagen-I gradually in the extracellular matrix around the skirts. Hydroxyapatite modified titanium for Keratoprosthesis promoted the corneal neovascularization and improve the interfacial bio integration of skirt and host cornea.

  19. A comparative study of MMP-1, MMP-2, and TNF-α expression in different acne vulgaris lesions.

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    Ozkanli, Seyma; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Ozlu, Emin; Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Takci, Zennure; Zemheri, Ebru; Zindancı, Ilkin; Akdeniz, Necmettin

    2016-12-01

    Many inflammatory mediators and cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris (AV). Information about the roles of these factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in AV lesions. We selected 80 patients who presented at our dermatology department with AV. Their lesions included papules, pustules, nodules, and comedones. Each specimen was evaluated by histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and subsequently by immunohistochemical analysis for MMP-1, MMP-2, and TNF-α antibodies. A statistically significant difference between lesion groups emerged for MMP-1 (P = 0.012) and TNF-α (P = 0.029) scores. The MMP-1 score was highest in nodules and lowest in comedones. The TNF-α score was also highest in nodules but lowest in papules. We conclude that different levels of MMP expression can contribute to the development of different types of acne lesion and that the amount of TNF-α released may contribute to lesion development. Further studies of novel treatment modalities might evaluate the different clinical types of AV. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas: expression of extracellular matrix factors MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1

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    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  1. Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 and Their Inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Katarzyna Jakubowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC belong to a group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. The study group comprised 34 patients with UC and 10 patients with CD. Evaluation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expression in tissue samples was performed using immunohistochemistry. The overexpression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was dominant in both the glandular epithelium and inflammatory infiltration in UC patients. In contrast, in CD subjects the positive expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 was in glandular tubes while mainly MMP-7 and TIMP-2 expression was in inflammatory infiltration. Metalloproteinases’ expression was associated with the presence of erosions, architectural tissue changes, and inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of UC patients. The expression of metalloproteinase inhibitors correlated with the presence of eosinophils and neutrophils in UC and granulomas in CD patients. Our studies indicate that the overexpression of metalloproteinases and weaker expression of their inhibitors may determine the development of IBD. It appears that MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 may be a potential therapeutic target and the use of their inhibitors may significantly reduce UC progression.

  2. SIRT1 attenuates PAF-induced MMP-2 production via down-regulation of PAF receptor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Kim, Yun H; Bae, Jin U; Lee, Seung J; Park, So Y; Kim, Chi D

    2015-09-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) is known as a key regulator in the protection of various vascular disorders, however, no direct evidences have been reported in the progression of atherosclerosis. Considering the pivotal role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in plaque destabilization, this study investigated the role of SIRT1 on MMP-2 production in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by platelet activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). In VSMCs stimulated with resveratrol, SIRT1 activator, PAF receptor (PAFR) was internalized and then its protein levels were diminished. It was attenuated in cells pretreated with proteasome or lysosome inhibitor. Also, the degradation of PAFR in SIRT1-stimulated cells was significantly attenuated by β-arrestin2 depletion. In cells treated with nicotinamide, SIRT1 deacetylase inhibitor, PAFR internalization by resveratrol or reSIRT1 was inhibited, demonstrating that deacetylation of SIRT1 is an important step in SIRT1-induced PAFR down-regulation. Moreover, PAF-induced MMP-2 production in VSMCs and aorta was attenuated by resveratrol. In the aorta of SIRT1 transgenic mice, the PAF-induced MMP-2 expression was prominently attenuated compared to that in wild type mice. Taken together, it was suggested that SIRT1 down-regulated PAFR in VSMCs via β-arrestin2-mediated internalization and degradation, leading to an inhibition of PAF-induced MMP-2 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA against expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in model mice (Rattus norvegicus periodontitis

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    Ilma Soraya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is a condition of inflammation of the tooth supporting tissues generally caused by bacteria Phorphyromonas gingivalis (Pg. and is usually characterized by the occurrence of the alveolar bone resorption. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is an enzyme that plays an important role in inflammatory conditions. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a metabolite of vitamin A which plays a role in healing the inflamed tissue and maintain the immune system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ATRA on the expression of MMP-2 in mouse models Rattus norvegicus of periodontitis. Methods: Experimental laboratory by using post test only with control group design. This study used 25 male Wistar mice (Rattus norvegicus that divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (G1 is a group of healthy mice, group 2 (G2 is a group of sick mice as induced periodontitis without treatment, group 3 (G3 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 5 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 4 (G4 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 10 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 5 (G5 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 20 mg/kg dose of ATRA. Periodontitis induction was induced by Pg. bacteria every 3 days for 28 days and followed by administration of ATRA for 7 days. Expression of MMP-2 from gingival tissues and periodontal ligament was obtained by immunohistochemical methods. Results were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk Test and Mann-Whitney Test. Results: The results showed there were significant differences in the positive area of MMP-2 and MMP-2 color intensity (p < 0.05 between groups. Conclusion: ATRA dose of 20 mg/kg is the most effective dose in inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 in mice models of periodontitis when compared with the dose on other groups.

  4. Protein expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and basal cell carcinoma.

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    de Oliveira Poswar, Fabiano; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Gomes, Emisael Stênio Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; de-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2015-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are 2 skin neoplasms with distinct potentials to invasion and metastasis. Actinic keratosis (AK) is a precursor lesion of SCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in samples of BCC (n = 29), SCC (n = 12), and AK (n = 13). The ratio of positive cells to total cells was used to quantify the staining. Statistical significance was considered under the level P < .05. We found a higher expression of MMP-2 in tumor stroma and parenchyma of SCC as compared to BCC. The expression of this protein was also similar between SCC and its precursor actinic keratosis, and it was higher in the stroma of high-risk BCC when compared to low-risk BCC. MT1-MMP, which is an activator of MMP-2, was similarly expressed in all groups. Our results suggest that MMP-2 expression may contribute to the distinct invasive patterns seen in SCC and BCC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and TIMP-2 by cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts under mechanical stretch.

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    Liu, Chengxing; Feng, Pengfei; Li, Xiaona; Song, Jie; Chen, Weiyi

    2014-08-01

    Refractive surgery not only leads to tissue injury but also evokes mechanical stress increase of the cornea. How the mechanical stress affects the corneal matrix remodeling, specifically, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; TIMPs) is not well understood. In this study, cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts in vitro were subjected to regimen of 5%, 10%, or 15% equibiaxial stretch at 0.1 Hz for 3 or 24 h. MMP-2 protein level was measured by gelatin zymography and Western blotting. MMP-2, membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), and TIMP-2 mRNA levels were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation protein levels were assessed by Western blotting. Our results showed that a 15% stretch resulted in increases in MMP-2 protein, MMP-2 mRNA, and MT1-MMP mRNA levels, but a decrease in TIMP-2 mRNA level. However, a 5% stretch caused decreases in MMP-2 protein and mRNA level, but an increase in TIMP-2 mRNA level, and no change in MT1-MMP mRNA level. A 15% stretch also caused a significant increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MEK) pathway with PD98059 attenuated stretch-induced increase in MMP-2 production and ERK activity. These results suggest that small-magnitude stretching may promote corneal matrix synthetic events, whereas large-magnitude stretching promotes corneal matrix degradation by changing the balance between MMPs and TIMPs in corneal fibroblasts. Large-magnitude stretch-induced increase in pro-MMP-2 production was in an ERK-dependent manner. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  6. Catalpol Suppresses Proliferation and Facilitates Apoptosis of OVCAR-3 Ovarian Cancer Cells through Upregulating MicroRNA-200 and Downregulating MMP-2 Expression

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    Na Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalpol is expected to possess diverse pharmacological actions including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic properties. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is closely related to the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. In addition, microRNA-200 (miR-200 can modulate phenotype, proliferation, infiltration and transfer of various tumors. Here, OVCAR-3 cells were employed to investigate whether the effect of catalpol (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL promoted apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and to explore the potential mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that catalpol could remarkably reduce the proliferation and accelerate the apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells. Interestingly, our findings show that catalpol treatment significantly decreased the MMP-2 protein level and increased the miR-200 expression level in OVCAR-3 cells. Further, microRNA-200 was shown to regulate the protein expression of MMP-2 in OVCAR-3 cells. It is concluded that catalpol suppressed cellular proliferation and accelerated apoptosis in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells via promoting microRNA-200 expression levels and restraining MMP-2 signaling.

  7. Salinomycin causes migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

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    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-06-01

    Salinomycin (SAL) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses in various human cancer cells. However, the effects of SAL on metastatic capacity of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells have not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of SAL on migration and invasion, with emphasis on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of SAL promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as detected by western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SAL also increased metastatic capacities, as determined by an increase in the migration and invasion of cells using the wound healing assay and the invasion assay, respectively. To confirm the detailed molecular mechanisms of these effects, we measured the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s (ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase), as detected by the phosphorylated proteins through western blot analysis. SAL treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2, and p38 kinase with LY294002, PD98059, and SB203580, respectively, in the presence of SAL suppressed the metastatic capacity by reducing MMP-2 expression, as determined by gelatin zymography. Our results indicate that the PI3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in migration and invasion of HT1080 through induction of MMP-2 expression and activation. In conclusion, SAL significantly increases the metastatic capacity of HT1080 cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that SAL may be a potential agent for the study of cancer metastatic capacities.

  8. Local Inflammation Alters MMP-2 and MMP-9 Gelatinase Expression Associated with the Severity of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: a Rat Model Study.

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    Li, Wu-Li; Wu, Cheng-Hai; Yang, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Long-Jie; Zhao, Shou-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth (NIGO) is characterized by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) component accumulation in gingival connective tissues, with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Impaired collagen and ECM homeostasis may be among the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the fibrotic changes that occur in drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO). Because matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play vital roles in regulating collagen and ECM metabolism, many studies have been performed to reveal the relationship between MMPs and DIGO. It is thought that the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, both type IV collagenases, are involved in the development of tissue inflammation and organ fibrosis. However, the few studies regarding gelatinase expression in DIGO are controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) on gelatinase expression and/or activity; however, similar changes have yet to be detected in Nif-treated gingival tissues. In this study, we verified that Nif treatment could lead to gingival overgrowth in rats and that gingival inflammation played a pro-proliferative role in NIGO development. Additionally, we examined the temporal expression of gelatinases on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 40 during NIGO development. The aim was to investigate whether MMP-2 and MMP-9 played significant roles in regulating NIGO development and progression. MMP-2 gene expression was not altered by Nif treatment alone but was significantly inhibited by Nif treatment for 30 days in the presence of local inflammation. However, no significant alterations in MMP-2 protein expression were detected in the Nif-treated gingival tissue, regardless of the presence or absence of local inflammation. Moreover, Nif treatment could lead to transient and significant increases in MMP-9 gene and protein expression levels in the presence of local inflammation. In particular, active MMP-9 expression increased significantly

  9. GHGKHKNK Octapeptide (P-5m Inhibits Metastasis of HCCLM3 Cell Lines via Regulation of MMP-2 Expression in in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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    Xun Zhu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P-5m, an octapeptide derived from domain 5 of HKa, was initially found to inhibit the invasion and migration of melanoma cells. The high metastatic potential of melanoma cells was prevented by the HGK motif in the P-5m peptide in vitro and in an experimental lung metastasis model, suggesting that P-5m may play an important role in the regulation of tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of P-5m on tumor metastasis of human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HCCLM3 in vitro and in vivo in a nude mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and detect the mechanisms involved in P-5m-induced anti-metastasis. By gelatin zymography, matrix metallo-proteinases 2 (MMP-2 activity in HCCLM3 was dramatically diminished by P-5m peptide. In addition, the migration and metastasis of HCCLM3 cells was also inhibited by the peptide in vitro. In an orthotopic model of HCC in nude mice, P-5m treatment effectively reduced the lung metastasis as well as the expression of MMP-2 in the tumor tissues. Overall, these observations indicate an important role for P-5m peptide in HCC invasion and metastasis, at least partially through modulation MMP-2 expression. These data suggests that P-5m may have therapeutic potential in metastatic human hepatocarcinoma.

  10. Full-length soluble CD147 promotes MMP-2 expression and is a potential serological marker in detection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As a surface glycoprotein, CD147 is capable of stimulating the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from neighboring fibroblasts. The aim of the present study is to explore the role of soluble CD147 on MMPs secretion from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and to investigate the diagnostic value of serum soluble CD147 in the HCC detection. Methods We identified the form of soluble CD147 in cell culture supernate of HCC cells and serum of patients with HCC, and explored the role of soluble CD147 on MMPs secretion. Serum CD147 levels were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the value of soluble CD147 as a marker in HCC detection was analyzed. Results Full length soluble CD147 was presented in the culture medium of HCC cells and serum of patients with HCC. The extracellular domain of soluble CD147 promoted the expression of CD147 and MMP-2 from HCC cells. Knockdown of CD147 markedly diminished the up-regulation of CD147 and MMP-2 which induced by soluble CD147. Soluble CD147 activated ERK, FAK, and PI3K/Akt pathways, leading to the up-regulation of MMP-2. The level of soluble CD147 in serum of patients with HCC was significantly elevated compared with healthy individuals (P Soluble CD147 levels were found to be associated with HCC tumor size (P = 0.007) and Child-Pugh grade (P = 0.007). Moreover, soluble CD147 showed a better performance in distinguishing HCC compared with alpha-fetoprotein. Conclusions The extracellular domain of soluble CD147 enhances the secretion of MMP-2 from HCC cells, requiring the cooperation of membrane CD147 and activation of ERK, FAK, and PI3K/Akt signaling. The measurement of soluble CD147 may offer a useful approach in diagnosis of HCC. PMID:24996644

  11. Activation of Toll-like receptor-9 promotes cellular migration via up-regulating MMP-2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Min Ruan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Activation of Toll like receptors (TLRs signaling has been implicated in promoting malignant cell invasion and metastatic potential. Previously we demonstrated that increased TLR-9 expression predicted poor survival in oral cancer patients. The objective of this study is to further investigate the roles and potential molecular mechanisms of TLR-9 signaling in human oral cancer cell invasion. METHODS: Cell migration, invasion and protein expression were detected by wound healing assay, Transwell chambers model and western blot. The secretion and activity levels of metalloproteinases-2/9 were quantified by ELISA and Gelatin zymography. EMSA and ChIP assays were employed to detect the activity of AP-1signal pathway. TLR-9 siRNA transfection was used to regulate the expression and activity of TLR-9 in oral cancer cell line HB cells. RESULT: The results of both wound healing assay and in vitro Transwell assay revealed that activation of TLR-9 induced dose- and time- dependent migration and invasion of HB cells. An increased expression, secretion and activity of MMP-2 were observed upon the treatment of CpG-ODN. The TLR-9 signaling-mediated MMP-2 expression appeared to be a consequence of AP-1 activation, because that their DNA binding activity was enhanced by CpG-ODN treatment. All these influences were efficiently repressed by the knockdown of TLR-9 through siRNA or pretreatment of an AP-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Activation of TLR-9 signaling could promote human oral cancer HB cells invasion with the induction of MMP-2 presentation by attenuating AP-1 binding activity, suggesting a novel anti-metastatic application for TLR-9 targeted therapy in oral cancer in the future.

  12. Osthole ameliorates acute myocardial infarction in rats by decreasing the expression of inflammatory-related cytokines, diminishing MMP-2 expression and activating p-ERK.

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    Duan, Juan; Yang, Yu; Liu, Hong; Dou, Peng-Cheng; Tan, Sheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Osthole, the active constituent of Cnidium monnieri extracts, has been shown to have a diverse range of pharmacological properties. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of osthole in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The rats with AMI were treated with 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg of osthole or the vehicle for 4 weeks. The infarct size of the rats with AMI was measured, and casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) activities in the rats with AMI were analyzed using commercially available kits. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in whole blood from rats with AMI were also detected using commercially available kits. The levels of Toll-like receptors 2/4 (TLR2/4) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1/2 (NOD1/2) were also detected by RT-qPCR. Moreover, the protein expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were all assayed by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that osthole markedly reduced the infarct size, and the levels of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT in the rats with AMI, and that these cardioprotective effects may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory reactions, the reduction in MMP-2 activity and the activation of MAPK cascades.

  13. Expression and Complex Formation of MMP9, MMP2, NGAL, and TIMP1 in Porcine Myocardium but Not in Skeletal Muscles in Male Pigs with Tachycardia-Induced Systolic Heart Failure

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    Kiczak, Liliana; Tomaszek, Alicja; Bania, Jacek; Paslawska, Urszula; Zacharski, Maciej; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Janiszewski, Adrian; Skrzypczak, Piotr; Ardehali, Hossein; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their functioning could be related to the formation of complexes, containing MMP9, MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Such complexes have not been investigated in either myocardial or skeletal muscles. We examined 20 male pigs with heart failure (HF), and 5 sham-operated animals. There were no differences in the mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP2, TIMP1, and NGAL between diseased and healthy animals, in either left ventricle (LV) myocardium or skeletal muscles. In LV from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes (130, 170, and 220 kDa) containing MMP9, TIMP1, and NGAL (also MMP2 in 220 kDa complex) without proteolytic activity, and a proteolytically active 115 kDa MMP9 form together with 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2). Proteolytically active bands were also spontaneously released from HMW complexes. In skeletal muscles from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we found no HMW complexes, and proteolytic activity was associated with the presence of 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2). PMID:23710440

  14. Expression and complex formation of MMP9, MMP2, NGAL, and TIMP1 in porcine myocardium but not in skeletal muscles in male pigs with tachycardia-induced systolic heart failure.

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    Kiczak, Liliana; Tomaszek, Alicja; Bania, Jacek; Paslawska, Urszula; Zacharski, Maciej; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Janiszewski, Adrian; Skrzypczak, Piotr; Ardehali, Hossein; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their functioning could be related to the formation of complexes, containing MMP9, MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Such complexes have not been investigated in either myocardial or skeletal muscles. We examined 20 male pigs with heart failure (HF), and 5 sham-operated animals. There were no differences in the mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP2, TIMP1, and NGAL between diseased and healthy animals, in either left ventricle (LV) myocardium or skeletal muscles. In LV from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes (130, 170, and 220 kDa) containing MMP9, TIMP1, and NGAL (also MMP2 in 220 kDa complex) without proteolytic activity, and a proteolytically active 115 kDa MMP9 form together with 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2). Proteolytically active bands were also spontaneously released from HMW complexes. In skeletal muscles from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we found no HMW complexes, and proteolytic activity was associated with the presence of 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2).

  15. Expression and Complex Formation of MMP9, MMP2, NGAL, and TIMP1 in Porcine Myocardium but Not in Skeletal Muscles in Male Pigs with Tachycardia-Induced Systolic Heart Failure

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    Liliana Kiczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their functioning could be related to the formation of complexes, containing MMP9, MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Such complexes have not been investigated in either myocardial or skeletal muscles. We examined 20 male pigs with heart failure (HF, and 5 sham-operated animals. There were no differences in the mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP2, TIMP1, and NGAL between diseased and healthy animals, in either left ventricle (LV myocardium or skeletal muscles. In LV from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight (HMW complexes (130, 170, and 220 kDa containing MMP9, TIMP1, and NGAL (also MMP2 in 220 kDa complex without proteolytic activity, and a proteolytically active 115 kDa MMP9 form together with 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2. Proteolytically active bands were also spontaneously released from HMW complexes. In skeletal muscles from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we found no HMW complexes, and proteolytic activity was associated with the presence of 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2.

  16. The Expression of MMP-2 Following Immobilization and High-Intensity Running in Plantaris Muscle Fiber in Rats

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    Eli Carmeli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-week, high-intensity running and a 2-week immobilization on muscle fiber type composition of the plantaris muscle from 18 female, 6-month-old Wistar rats (running, n = 6; immobilization, n = 6; sedentary control, n = 6 was bio- and histochemically investigated. The high-intensity treadmill running began with 20 min (32 m/min, 0% gradient, 75% VO2 max, up to 50 min/day. Right hind limbs were immobilized by an external fixation procedure for 13 days. Muscle mass of the plantaris muscle in the immobilized groups was reduced by 16% in comparison with the sedentary control group. High-intensity running and immobilization increased both mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP-2 in plantaris. Running and immobilization decreased the percentages of transverse sectional area of fast-twitch glycolytic (FG type IIb fibers, running increased relative cross-sectional area of fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG type IIa muscle fibers, whereas immobilization increased relative cross-sectional area of slow-twitch oxidative (SO muscle fibers (type I. Our results suggest that both high-intensity running and immobilization are enough to induce overwhelming changes in plantaris.

  17. Taiwanin E inhibits cell migration in human LoVo colon cancer cells by suppressing MMP-2/9 expression via p38 MAPK pathway.

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    Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Li, Shin-Yi; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Shih, Hui-Nung; Chen, Ray-Jade; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-08-01

    Taiwanin E is a natural compound which is structurally analogous to estrogen II and is abundantly found in Taiwania cryptomerioides. It has been previously reported for its anticancer effects; however, the pharmaceutical effect of Taiwanin E on Human LoVo colon cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Taiwanin E on metastasis and the associated mechanism of action on Human LoVo colon cancer cells with respect to the modulations in their cell migration and signaling pathways associated with migration. The results showed that Taiwanin E inhibited cell migration ability correlated with reduced expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In addition, Taiwanin E induced activation of p38 through phosphorylation. Inhibition of p38α/β significantly abolished the effect of Taiwanin E on cell migration and MMP-2/-9 activity. Our results conclude that Taiwanin E inhibited cell migration chiefly via p38α MAPK pathway and in a lesser extend via p38β MAPK. The results elucidate the potential of the phytoestrogen natural compound Taiwanin E as a cancer therapeutic agent in inhibiting the cell migration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 2021-2031, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Piperine inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells via G2/M phase arrest and metastasis by suppressing MMP-2/-9 expression.

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    Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Xiaobing; Li, Hengyuan; Li, Binghao; Sun, Lingling; Xie, Tao; Zhu, Ting; Zhou, Hong; Ye, Zhaoming

    2015-01-01

    The piperidine alkaloid piperine, a major ingredient in black pepper, inhibits the growth and metastasis of cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro, although its mechanism of action is unclear. Furthermore, its anticancer activity against osteosarcoma cells has not been reported. In this study, we show that piperine inhibited the growth of HOS and U2OS cells in dose- and time-dependent manners but had a weaker effect on the growth of normal hFOB cells. Piperine inhibited osteosarcoma cell proliferation by causing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest associated with decreased expression of cyclin B1 and increased phosphorylation of Cyclin-dependent kinase-1(CDK1) and checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2). In addition, piperine treatment inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and activated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HOS and U2OS cells. Piperine induced colony formation in these two cell types. We proved that piperine could suppress the metastasis of osteosarcoma cells using scratch migration assays and Transwell chamber tests. Moreover, gelatin zymography showed that piperine inhibited the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9 and increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2. Taken together, our results indicate that piperine inhibits proliferation, by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, and the migration and invasion of HOS and U2OS cells, via increased expression of TIMP-1/-2 and down-regulation of MMP-2/-9. These findings support further study of piperine as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MyD88 and TRIF mediate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP induced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH expression in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cell line

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    Kocak Hande

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically protein kinase A (PKA and transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1 mediate the cyclic AMP (cAMP induced-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH expression in the placenta. However enteric Gram (- bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS may also induce-CRH expression via Toll like receptor (TLR4 and its adaptor molecule Myd88. Here we investigated the role of MyD88, TRIF and IRAK2 on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of LPS/TLR4 stimulation. Methods JEG3 cells were transfected with CRH-luciferase and Beta-galactosidase expression vectors and either empty or dominant-negative (DN-MyD88, DN-TRIF or DN-IRAK2 vectors using Fugene6 (Roche. cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation was examined by using a luminometer and luciferase assay. Calorimetric Beta-galactosidase assays were performed to correct for transfection efficiency. Luciferase expression vectors of cAMP-downstream molecules, CRE and AP-1, were used to further examine the signaling cascades. Results cAMP stimulation induced AP-1 and CRE promoter expression and led to dose-dependent CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells. Inhibition of MyD88 signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRE and CRH promoter activation. Inhibition of TRIF signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRH but not CRE expression, while inhibition of IRAK2 did not have an effect on cAMP-induced CRH expression. Conclusion MyD88 and TRIF exert direct regulatory effect on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of infection. MyD88 most likely interacts with molecules upstream of IRAK2 to regulate cAMP-induced CRH expression.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 expression in the central nervous system following infection with viral and bacterial meningitis.

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    Lech Chyczewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in the central nervous system during viral and bacterial meningitis. Specifically, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of MMPs and TIMPs in various cell types in brain parenchyma and meninges obtained from autopsy tissues. We found that a higher proportion of endothelial cells were positive for MMP-9 during meningitis when compared to controls. In addition, the immunoreactivity of MMP-9 decreased and the immunoreactivity of TIMP-1 increased in astrocytes upon infection. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed that mononuclear cells were highly immunoreactive for TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MMP-9 during viral meningitis and that the expression of TIMPs in polymorphonuclear cells was even higher during bacterial meningitis. Taken together the results of this study indicated that the central nervous system resident cells and inflammatory infiltrates contribute to MMPs activity and that the expression patterns vary between cell types and in response to viral and bacterial meningitis.

  1. Baicalein inhibits pulmonary carcinogenesis-associated inflammation and interferes with COX-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in-vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekar, Naveenkumar; Selvamani, Asokkumar; Subramanian, Raghunandhakumar; Pandi, Anandakumar; Thiruvengadam, Devaki, E-mail: devakit@yahoo.co.uk

    2012-05-15

    -α, IL-1β, i-NOS and NF-κBp65 at protein levels. ► BE modulates the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and COX-2 at protein and mRNA levels. ► BE decreases LPO levels and enhances antioxidant status.

  2. Effects of loss of occlusal contact on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, membrane type 1-MMP, tissue inhibitor of the MMP-2, eruption rate, organization and resistance of collagen fibers of the rat incisor periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N F; Gomes, J R; Neves, J S; Novaes, P D

    2017-10-17

    This study investigated the effect of occlusal contact loss (induced by tooth shortening), on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and tissue inhibitor of the MMP-2 (TIMP-2) expressions in the periodontal ligament of the rat incisor, as well as eruption rate, resistance and collagen organization. Male Wistar rats were distributed into a control group, denominated normofunctional group, whose lower teeth underwent a normal eruption process; and a hypofunctional group, whose lower left incisor teeth were shortened every 2 days during 14 days. Parameters were evaluated on the first, seventh and 14th days and the eruption rate was determined according to the size of the incisor during the eruption process. MMP-2 activity was determined by zymography and the expressions of the MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 proteins were quantitated by western blot. Collagen protein organization, as indicated by the birefringence of the periodontal ligament, was analyzed under polarized light and the periodontal ligament's resistance was determined from the load necessary to inject the incisor into its alveolar space, before extraction. Loss of occlusal contact, in rats submitted to hypofunctional eruption, increased MMP-2 activity and eruption rate, but decreased MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 expression and disrupted collagen organization in the periodontal ligament, consequently reducing periodontal ligament resistance. We conclude that, after incisor eruption, occlusal contact may be an important factor for regulating the remodeling and the physiological resistance of the periodontal ligament against the continuous eruption process observed in rat incisors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Carvedilol decrease IL-1β and TNF-α, inhibits MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL expression, and up-regulates OPG in a rat model of periodontitis.

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    Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo Júnior

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are initiated primarily by Gram-negative, tooth-associated microbial biofilms that elicit a host response that causes osseous and soft tissue destruction. Carvedilol is a β-blocker used as a multifunctional neurohormonal antagonist that has been shown to act not only as an anti-oxidant but also as an anti-inflammatory drug. This study evaluated whether Carvedilol exerted a protective role against ligature-induced periodontitis in a rat model and defined how Carvedilol affected metalloproteinases and RANKL/RANK/OPG expression in the context of bone remodeling. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10/group: (1 non-ligated (NL, (2 ligature-only (LO, and (3 ligature plus Carvedilol (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg daily for 10 days. Periodontal tissue was analyzed for histopathlogy and using immunohistochemical analysis characterized the expression profiles of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL/RANK/OPG and determined the presence of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO, malonaldehyde (MDA and, glutathione (GSH. MPO activity in the group with periodontal disease was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05. Rats treated with 10 mg/kg Carvedilol presented with significantly reduced MPO and MDA concentrations (p<0.05 in addition to presenting with reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and TNF-α (p<0.05. IL-10 levels in Carvedilol-treated rats remained unaltered. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, RANK, RANKL, COX-2, and OPG in rats treated with 10 mg/kg Carvedilol. This study demonstrated that Carvedilol affected bone formation/destruction and anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of periodontitis.

  4. Niflumic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through affecting the expression of ERK1/2 and the activity of MMP2 and MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengqun; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Ziyou; Wan, Zheng; Chen, Hua; Liao, Dan; Chen, Chuyan; Li, Huahui; Li, Binbin; Chen, Liyong; Huang, Zunnan; He, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Niflumic acid (NFA) was known to inhibit cell proliferation or migration in several types of cancer. However, the function of NFA in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells was not clarified. The proliferation of NPC cell line CNE-2Z cells with NFA treatment was detected using the cell counting kit-8 method and transwell assay was employed to assess the effect of NFA on the CNE-2Z cell migration and invasion. The activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was detected by Gelatin Zymography. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. In vitro pull-down assay, western blot, and computational technique were applied to investigate the NFA regulating signaling pathway. Our results indicated that the growth capacity and colony formation potential of CNE-2Z cells in soft agar were significantly suppressed by treatment with NFA. NFA inhibited the proliferation of CNE-2Z cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. NFA exerted an S phase arrest on the CNE-2Z cells in a concentration-dependent manner, while promoting apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Migration and invasion potential of CNE-2Z cells were decreased by NFA treatment in vitro. In vitro pull-down assay and molecular modeling indicated that NFA directly bound with early respond kinase 1 (ERK1). Finally, the anti-tumor effect of NFA was suggested to be mediated by inhibiting early respond kinases (ERK) expression and the MMP2 and MMP9 activities. NFA has proliferation-inhibiting, invasion-suppressing, cell cycle-blocking and apoptosis-promoting effects on CNE-2Z cells through regulation of ERK/MAPK and our results indicates that NFA may serve as a candidate of anticancer drug for NPC.

  5. Imagerie moleculaire de la MMP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Rejean

    MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) are enzymes involved in tissue architecture remodelling and cell migration. MMP-2, particularly, was found to be a biomarker of the progression or prognosis of several pathologies, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, infarct and cancer. Yet, its exact role in these pathologies is still uncertain. For these reasons, it is critical to develop new tools to enable the specific and non invasive study of MMP-2. As of now, a large number of optical probes (optical imaging), contrast agents (magnetic resonance imaging) and radiotracers (positron emission tomography, single photon emission tomography) have been published in the literature. However, none of the molecules allows for the specific quantification of MMP-2, particularly against MMP-9 which cleaves similar substrates. This thesis describes our progress in the development of new molecules capable of targeting and allowing the imaging of MMP-2. All tested molecules were fond to be quickly activated by MMP-2 and to be selective when compared with MMP3, MMP-7 and MMP-9. First, a contrast agent named PCA2-switch is tested in a mouse subcutaneous tumor model, and allows us to differentiate between tumors with low or high levels of MMP-2 activity. We also developed a panel of activatable fluorescent probes, one of which was found to be highly specific to MMP-2 (low activation by MMP9, efficient quenching). However, an extensive set of control experiments does not enable to conclude on the specificity of the probes in vivo. One of the principal limitations of many studies in the field of MMP imaging is the lack of proper controls, including unspecific uptake controls. The last section of this thesis discusses the impact of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect on the uptake of a non-specific probe in a subcutaneous tumor model treated with radiotherapy. Proper control experiments that should be performed when testing new MMP-2 probes are discussed. Keywords: Matrix

  6. MMP-2 siRNA inhibits radiation-enhanced invasiveness in glioma cells.

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    Aruna Venkata Badiga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous work and that of others strongly suggests a relationship between the infiltrative phenotype of gliomas and the expression of MMP-2. Radiation therapy, which represents one of the mainstays of glioma treatment, is known to increase cell invasion by inducing MMP-2. Thus, inhibition of MMP-2 provides a potential means for improving the efficacy of radiotherapy for malignant glioma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested the ability of a plasmid vector-mediated MMP-2 siRNA (p-MMP-2 to modulate ionizing radiation-induced invasive phenotype in the human glioma cell lines U251 and U87. Cells that were transfected with p-MMP-2 with and without radiation showed a marked reduction of MMP-2 compared to controls and pSV-transfected cells. A significant reduction of proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of cells transfected with p-MMP-2 and in combination with radiation was observed compared to controls. Western blot analysis revealed that radiation-enhanced levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2, pVEGFR-2, p-FAK, and p-p38 were inhibited with p-MMP-2-transfected cells. TUNEL staining showed that radiation did not induce apoptosis in U87 and U251 cells while a significant increase in TUNEL-positive cells was observed when irradiated cells were simultaneously transfected with p-MMP-2 as compared to controls. Intracranial tumor growth was predominantly inhibited in the animals treated with p-MMP-2 alone or in combination with radiation compared to controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: MMP-2 inhibition, mediated by p-MMP-2 and in combination with radiation, significantly reduced tumor cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis and tumor growth by modulating several important downstream signaling molecules and directing cells towards apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate the efficacy of p-MMP-2 in inhibiting radiation-enhanced tumor invasion and progression and suggest that it may act as a potent adjuvant for radiotherapy in

  7. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. Treatment with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, galardin, delays wound healing in wildtype mice and completely arrest wound healing in plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice, indicating a functional overlap between plasmin- and galardin......During healing of incisional skin wounds, migrating keratinocytes dissect their way under the crust to re-epithelialize the wounded area. The efficiency of this tissue remodelling process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen......-sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...

  8. Ovarian carcinoma cells in serous effusions show altered MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Reich, R; Berner, A; Givant-Horwitz, V; Goldberg, I; Risberg, B; Kristensen, G B; Trope, C G; Bryne, M; Kopolovic, J; Nesland, J M

    2001-11-01

    The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitor TIMP-2 in serous effusions from patients with ovarian carcinoma and its association with clinico-pathological parameters were analysed. The findings in carcinoma cells in effusions were compared with corresponding primary and metastatic lesions. Sixty-six effusions and 96 tissue sections were stained for MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) and analysed for MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 expression using mRNA in situ hybridisation (ISH). MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA levels in 30 effusions were subsequently analysed using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MMP and TIMP expression was detected in both carcinoma and mesothelial cells in effusions. The levels were consistently higher in malignant cells, significantly so for MMP-1 (P=0.016) and MMP-2 (P=0.036) proteins, as well as for TIMP-2 mRNA (P=0.008). In tissue sections, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression was mostly localised to tumour cells, while MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA were predominantly detected in stromal cells. Adenocarcinoma cells in effusions showed a significant upregulation of MMP-2 expression compared with primary tumours, with a concomitant downregulation of TIMP-2. RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in 28/30 and 0/30 specimens, respectively. MMP and TIMP are thus mainly synthesised by cancer cells in effusions, while stromal cells have a similar role in solid tumours. MMP-1 and MMP-2 production predominates over that of MMP-9 in effusions. Increased MMP-2 and reduced TIMP-2 levels are seen in ovarian carcinoma cells in effusions, possibly marking the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 gene polymorphisms affect circulating MMP-2 levels in patients with migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Lacchini, Riccardo; Belo, Vanessa A; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabíola; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) during migraine attacks. In the present study, we hypothesized that two functional polymorphisms (C(-1306)T and C(-735)T) in MMP-2 gene and MMP-2 haplotypes are associated with migraine and modify MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-2 levels in migraine. Genotypes for MMP-2 polymorphisms were determined by real time-PCR using Taqman allele discrimination assays. Haplotypes were inferred using the PHASE program. Plasma MMP-2 and TIMP-2 concentrations were measured by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively, in 148 healthy women without history of migraine and in 204 women with migraine (153 without aura; MWA, and 51 with aura; MA). Patients with MA had higher plasma MMP-2 concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios than patients with MWA and controls (P0.05), we found that the CC genotype for C(-735)T polymorphism and the CC haplotype were associated with higher plasma MMP-2 concentrations in MA group (P<0.05). Our findings may help to understand the role of MMP-2 and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of migraine and to identify a particular group of migraine patients with increased MMP-2 levels that would benefit from the use of MMP inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MMP-1 and MMP-2 in the cervix uteri in different steps of malignant transformation--an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Oliver; Böhmer, Gerd; Hollwitz, Bettina; Flemming, Peer; Petry, K-Ulrich; Kühnle, Henning

    2002-02-01

    Enzymatic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a key element in the multistage process of tumor invasion and metastasis. This process requires extensive degradation of ECM components such as basement membrane collagen (type IV) and interstitial collagen (type I, II, III). Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) specifically cleaves collagen type IV, the major collagen of the basement membrane. MMP-1 digests interstitial collagen type I and III, the main collagen types of the stromal extracellular matrix. We investigated protein levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in different stages of malignant transformation. Using the APAAP method we analyzed 10 normal cervical tissues, 11 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1), 8 CIN 2 and 10 CIN 3 lesions, and 15 invasive squamous cell carcinomas. These data were compared with the HPV DNA status tested by hybrid capture II. Only a few isolated epithelial cells stained positively for MMP-1 and MMP-2 in normal cervical tissue and CIN 1 lesions. The CIN 2 and CIN 3 group displayed a heterogeneous distribution of MMP expression. 3 CIN 2 and 8 CIN 3 lesions showed strong MMP-2 and weak MMP-1 expression in the dysplastic epithelial cells. 5 CIN 2 and 2 CIN 3 lesions stained negatively. Invasive carcinomas showed a coexpression for MMP-1 and MMP-2 in malignant epithelial cells and peritumoral stroma cells. All MMP-2-positive cases tested positive for the HPV high-risk group. The expression of MMP-2 protein in preinvasive lesions of the cervix uteri and a consecutive coexpression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in invasive cancer suggest a gradually increasing invasive potential. MMP-2 expression, when focally observed in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, may indicate tumor areas with an increased risk for invasive growth. ©2002 Elsevier Science.

  11. PEITC inhibits human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cell migration and invasion through the inhibition of uPA, Rho A, and Ras with inhibition of MMP-2, -7 and -9 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Meng-Ya; Wang, Mei-Jen; Yu, Fu-Shun; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Harnod, Tomor; Hung, Chih-Huang; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain malignancy, and the efficacy of multimodality treatments remains unsatisfactory. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), one member of the isothiocyanate family, was found to inhibit the migration and invasion of many types of human cancer cells. In our previous study, PEITC induced the apoptosis of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells through the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways. In the present study, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the migration and invasion of GBM 8401 cells. PEITC decreased the migration of GBM 8401 cells in a dose-dependent manner as determined from scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. The percentage of inhibition ranged from 46.89 to 15.75%, and from 27.80 to 7.31% after a 48-h treatment of PEITC as determined from the Transwell migration assay and invasion assay, respectively. The western blot analysis indicated that PEITC decreased the levels of proteins associated with migration and invasion, Ras, uPA, RhoA, GRB2, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, p65, SOS1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that PEITC reduced the mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and RhoA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PEITC exhibited potent anticancer activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion in the GBM 8401 cells. Our findings elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of the anti-metastatic effects of PEITC on human brain glioblastoma cells, and PEITC may be considered as a therapeutic agent.

  12. In vitro modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pediatric human sarcoma cell lines by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomi, M W; Kalinovsky, T; Rath, M; Niedzwiecki, A

    2014-01-01

    The highly aggressive pediatric sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effects of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on MMP-2 and -9 expression in osteosarcoma (U2OS) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD). The selected compounds included natural cytokines and growth factors, as well as chemical compounds applied in therapy of sarcoma and natural compounds that have demonstrated anticancer therapeutic potential. These cell lines were cultured in their respective media to near confluence and the cells were washed with PBS and incubated in serum-free medium with various concentrations of several cytokines, mitogens and inhibitors. After 24 h the media were removed and analyzed for MMP-2 and -9 by gelatinase zymography and quantitated by densitometry. Osteosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma showed bands corresponding to MMP-2 and -9 with dose-dependent enhancement of MMP-9 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and LPS enhanced osteosarcoma U2OS MMP-9 secretion but had no effect on MMP-2 secretion. Tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated rhabdomyosarcoma MMP-2 expression, but had no effect on MMP-9 secretion. Doxycycline, epigallocatechin gallate, nutrient mixture (NM), actinomycin-D, cyclohexamide, retinoic acid and dexamethasone inhibited MMP-2 and -9 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. PMA-treated RD cells showed dose-response inhibition of MMP-9 by doxycycline and epigallocatechin gallate and both MMPs by NM. Dexamethasone and actinomycin-D showed inhibition of MMP-2 secretion of RD cells. Our results show that cytokines, mitogens and inducers show variable upregulation of U2OS osteosarcoma and RD rhabdomyosarcoma MMP-2 and -9 secretion, and inhibitors demonstrate downregulation under stimulatory conditions

  13. Gamma-linolenic acid inhibits both tumour cell cycle progression and angiogenesis in the orthotopic C6 glioma model through changes in VEGF, Flt1, ERK1/2, MMP2, cyclin D1, pRb, p53 and p27 protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colquhoun Alison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-linolenic acid is a known inhibitor of tumour cell proliferation and migration in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which gamma-linolenic acid (GLA osmotic pump infusion alters glioma cell proliferation, and whether it affects cell cycle control and angiogenesis in the C6 glioma in vivo. Methods Established C6 rat gliomas were treated for 14 days with 5 mM GLA in CSF or CSF alone. Tumour size was estimated, microvessel density (MVD counted and protein and mRNA expression measured by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR. Results GLA caused a significant decrease in tumour size (75 ± 8.8% and reduced MVD by 44 ± 5.4%. These changes were associated with reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (71 ± 16% and the VEGF receptor Flt1 (57 ± 5.8% but not Flk1. Expression of ERK1/2 was also reduced by 27 ± 7.7% and 31 ± 8.7% respectively. mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 was reduced by 35 ± 6.8% and zymography showed MMP2 proteolytic activity was reduced by 32 ± 8.5%. GLA altered the expression of several proteins involved in cell cycle control. pRb protein expression was decreased (62 ± 18% while E2F1 remained unchanged. Cyclin D1 protein expression was increased by 42 ± 12% in the presence of GLA. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 responded differently to GLA, p27 expression was increased (27 ± 7.3% while p21 remained unchanged. The expression of p53 was increased (44 ± 16% by GLA. Finally, the BrdU incorporation studies found a significant inhibition (32 ± 11% of BrdU incorporation into the tumour in vivo. Conclusion Overall the findings reported in the present study lend further support to the potential of GLA as an inhibitor of glioma cell proliferation in vivo and show it has direct effects upon cell cycle control and angiogenesis. These effects involve changes in protein

  14. Characterization of porcine MMP-2 and its association with immune traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Zhao, Weimin; Tang, Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    cloned the 5'-upstream sequence, 3'-downstream sequence as well as other missed genomic sequences of porcine MMP-2, the genomic structure and the promotor sequence were analyzed and found to share high similarity with those of human MMP-2. Porcine MMP-2 was assigned to SSC6p14-p15, and closely linked...... to microsatellite SW1108 (53cR, LOD score 7.59) by IMpRH panel. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of porcine MMP-2 was remarkably different in diverse tissues, a high level expression was observed in the testis and uterus, relatively low expression in other tissues. Allele frequencies...... determination in different pig breeds and association study were performed on the selected SNP and indel. The results showed that the SNP AcyI in exon 12 was significantly associated with white blood cell count (WBC) of neonate piglets at 0 day (P=0.0079), and classical swine fever virus antibody level (CSFV...

  15. In vitro modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pediatric human sarcoma cell lines by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    ROOMI, M.W.; KALINOVSKY, T.; RATH, M.; NIEDZWIECKI, A.

    2013-01-01

    The highly aggressive pediatric sarcomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degradation of the extracellular membrane leading to cancer cell spread to distal organs. We examined the effects of cytokines, mitogens, inducers and inhibitors on MMP-2 and -9 expression in osteosarcoma (U2OS) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD). The selected compounds included natural cytokines and growth factors, as wel...

  16. Studies on the relationship of pleiotrophin and MMP2 with the clinicopathological features of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo ZHANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the correlation between the expressions of both pleitropin (PTN and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 to the clinicopathological features of patients with breast cancer. Methods The pathological specimens were collected from 103 cases of invasive breast cancer, including 51 cases of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, i.e. all the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 were negatively expressed and 52 cases of non-TNBC. Ten specimens of paraneoplastic tissue were also collected as controls. The expressions of PTN and MMP2 were detected with immunohistochemical method, and the correlation of PTN and MMP2 expressions to the clinicopathological features of breast cancer (age, tumor size, histopathological grading and axillary lymph node metastases was assessed. Results Among the 103 patients with breast cancer, no statistical difference was found between TNBC group and non-TNBC group in age of onset, tumor size and the axillary lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05, but significant difference was found in histopathological grading (P < 0.05. The positive rate of PTN expression was 83.5% (86/103, and of MMP2 expression was 68% (70/103, and no significant difference was found between TNBC group and non-TNBC group. The expressions of PTN and MMP2 were correlated with the age of onset, histopathological grading and axillary lymph node metastasis, but showed poor consistency in breast cancer (Kappa coefficient=0.1817, 95% CI=-0.0091-0.3726; Z=2.0212, P=0.0433. Conclusions The expression of PTN and MMP2 is correlated with the age, histopathological grading and axillary lymph node metastasis of patients with invasive breast cancer, and not correlated with TNBC. The expression of PTN and MMP2 shows poor consistency in invasive breast cancer.

  17. A PKC-dependent recruitment of MMP-2 controls semaphorin-3A growth-promoting effect in cortical dendrites.

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    Bertrand Gonthier

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for a crucial role of proteases and metalloproteinases during axon growth and guidance. In this context, we recently described a functional link between the chemoattractive Sema3C and Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3. Here, we provide data demonstrating the involvement of MMP-2 to trigger the growth-promoting effect of Sema3A in cortical dendrites. The in situ analysis of MMP-2 expression and activity is consistent with a functional growth assay demonstrating in vitro that the pharmacological inhibition of MMP-2 reduces the growth of cortical dendrites in response to Sema3A. Hence, our results suggest that the selective recruitment and activation of MMP-2 in response to Sema3A requires a PKC alpha dependent mechanism. Altogether, we provide a second set of data supporting MMPs as effectors of the growth-promoting effects of semaphorins, and we identify the potential signalling pathway involved.

  18. Multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis, arthritis, and cardiac defect syndrome: loss of MMP2 leads to increased apoptosis with alteration of apoptotic regulators and caspases and embryonic lethality

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    Mosig RA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca A Mosig,1 Richard Schulz,2,3 Zamaneh Kassiri,4 Mitchell B Schaffler,5 John A Martignetti1 1Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology; 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Inactivating mutations of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 cause multicentric osteolysis with nodulosis and arthritis, one of a group of inherited osteolytic and arthritic disorders. We have previously shown that mice lacking Mmp2 share similar syndromic features with the human disorder, and at the cellular level, Mmp2-/- mouse osteoblasts and osteoclasts have reduced numbers and proliferation rates at critical developmental time points. While previously hypothesized, the effect of MMP2 loss on apoptosis has not been examined in this system. We therefore sought to clarify its role in mediating the developmental defects in Mmp2-/- mice using immunohistochemistry, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. We also explored the effects of MMP2 inhibition in the osteogenic sarcoma cell line SaOS2. Loss of MMP2 resulted in increased apoptosis and caspase activation both in vitro and in vivo. MMP2-deficient cells had increased Fas expression and reduced levels of the key survival signals p-FAK, p-ERK, cFLIP, and Bcl-2. Notably, and in marked contrast to their original characterization, there was a significant increase in the in utero demise of homozygous Mmp2-/- embryos. Specifically, litters from heterozygous crosses consistently yielded nearly 85% fewer than expected homozygous Mmp2-/- pups. Taken together, our findings highlight a new role for MMP2 in preventing apoptosis during development and growth. Keywords

  19. miR-155 promotes cutaneous wound healing through enhanced keratinocytes migration by MMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longlong; Zheng, Zhao; Zhou, Qin; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; Yang, Chen; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation, re-epithelization and tissue remodeling are three essential steps during wound healing. The re-epithelization process plays the most important role which mainly involves keratinocyte proliferation and migration. miR-155 has been reported to participate in cell migration and transformation, however, its function in skin wound healing is largely unknown. Here we hypothesize that overexpression of miR-155 at wound edges could accelerate wound healing mediated by enhanced keratinocyte migration. To test this hypothesis, direct local injection of miR-155 expression plasmid to wound edges was conducted to overexpress miR-155 in vivo. Results shown that miR-155 significantly promoted wound healing and re-epithelization compared to control, while did not affect wound contraction. Also, miR-155 overexpression accelerated primarily cultured keratinocyte migration in vitro, but had no effect on cell proliferation. Importantly, western blot analysis shown that MMP-2 was significantly upregulated whiles its inhibitor TIMP-1 downregulated after miR-155 treatment. Moreover, the use of ARP-101, an MMP-2 inhibitor, effectively attenuated the accelerative effects on cell migration induced by miR-155. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-155 has the promote effect on wound healing that is probably mediated by accelerating keratinocyte migration via upregulated MMP-2 level. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic effect of miR-155 on wound healing.

  20. Electroacupuncture ameliorates post-stroke learning and memory through minimizing ultrastructural brain damage and inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruhui; Yu, Kunqiang; Li, Xiaojie; Tao, Jing; Lin, Yukun; Zhao, Congkuai; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Li-Dian

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and to elucidate the association between this neuroprotective effect and brain ultrastructure and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and 9. Rats underwent focal cerebral I/R injury by arterial ligation and received in vivo therapeutic EA at the Baihui (DU20) and Shenting (DU24) acupoints. The therapeutic efficacy was then evaluated following the surgery. The results of the current study demonstrated that EA treatment significantly ameliorated neurological deficits and reduced cerebral infarct volume compared with I/R injured rats. Furthermore, EA improved the learning and memory ability of rats following I/R injury, inhibited blood brain barrier breakdown and reduced neuronal damage in the ischemic penumbra. Furthermore, EA attenuated ultrastructural changes in the brain tissue following ischemia and inhibited MMP‑2/MMP‑9 expression in cerebral I/R injured rats. The results suggest that EA ameliorates anatomical deterioration, and learning and memory deficits in rats with cerebral I/R injury.

  1. Development of an aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe for MMP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) plays critical roles in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer, and has been suggested to contribute to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque. To visualize MMP2 in pathologic tissues, we developed an aptamer targeting MMP2 protein by performing eight rounds of modified DNA systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The aptamer showed high affinity for MMP2 (Kd = 5.59 nM), precipitated MMP2, and detected MMP2 protein in pathological tissues such as atherosclerotic plaque and gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, a MMP2 aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoprobe successfully visualized atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice. These results suggest that the devised MMP2 aptamer could be useful for the development of various diagnostic tools. PMID:24589243

  2. Finasteride inhibits human prostate cancer cell invasion through MMP2 and MMP9 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Delella, Flávia K; Almeida, Rodrigo; Lacorte, Lívia Maria; Fávaro, Wágner José; Deffune, Elenice; Felisbino, Sérgio L

    2013-01-01

    The use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention is still under debate. The FDA recently concluded that the increased prevalence of high-grade tumors among 5-ARI-treated patients must not be neglected, and they decided to disallow the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention. This study was conducted to verify the effects of finasteride on prostate cell migration and invasion and the related enzymes/proteins in normal human and tumoral prostatic cell lines. RWPE-1, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells were cultivated to 60% confluence and exposed for different periods to either 10 µM or 50 µM finasteride that was diluted in culture medium. The conditioned media were collected and concentrated, and MMP2 and MMP9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression were determined. Cell viability, migration and invasion were analyzed, and the remaining cell extracts were submitted to androgen receptor (AR) detection by western blotting techniques. Experiments were carried out in triplicate. Cell viability was not significantly affected by finasteride exposure. Finasteride significantly downregulated MMP2 and MMP9 activities in RWPE-1 and PC3 cells and MMP2 in DU145 cells. TIMP-2 expression in RWPE-1 cells was upregulated after exposure. The cell invasion of all four tested cell lines was inhibited by exposure to 50 µM of finasteride, and migration inhibition only occurred for RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells. AR was expressed by LNCaP, RWPE-1 and PC3 cells. Although the debate on the higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer among 5-ARI-treated patients remains, our findings indicate that finasteride may attenuate tumor aggressiveness and invasion, which could vary depending on the androgen responsiveness of a patient's prostate cells.

  3. Finasteride inhibits human prostate cancer cell invasion through MMP2 and MMP9 downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Moroz

    Full Text Available The use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention is still under debate. The FDA recently concluded that the increased prevalence of high-grade tumors among 5-ARI-treated patients must not be neglected, and they decided to disallow the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention. This study was conducted to verify the effects of finasteride on prostate cell migration and invasion and the related enzymes/proteins in normal human and tumoral prostatic cell lines.RWPE-1, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells were cultivated to 60% confluence and exposed for different periods to either 10 µM or 50 µM finasteride that was diluted in culture medium. The conditioned media were collected and concentrated, and MMP2 and MMP9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression were determined. Cell viability, migration and invasion were analyzed, and the remaining cell extracts were submitted to androgen receptor (AR detection by western blotting techniques. Experiments were carried out in triplicate.Cell viability was not significantly affected by finasteride exposure. Finasteride significantly downregulated MMP2 and MMP9 activities in RWPE-1 and PC3 cells and MMP2 in DU145 cells. TIMP-2 expression in RWPE-1 cells was upregulated after exposure. The cell invasion of all four tested cell lines was inhibited by exposure to 50 µM of finasteride, and migration inhibition only occurred for RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells. AR was expressed by LNCaP, RWPE-1 and PC3 cells.Although the debate on the higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer among 5-ARI-treated patients remains, our findings indicate that finasteride may attenuate tumor aggressiveness and invasion, which could vary depending on the androgen responsiveness of a patient's prostate cells.

  4. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: ywlee@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  5. LPS Induces Occludin Dysregulation in Cerebral Microvascular Endothelial Cells via MAPK Signaling and Augmenting MMP-2 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-hui Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity contributes to cerebral edema during central nervous system infection. The current study explored the mechanism of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced dysregulation of tight junction (TJ proteins. Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 were exposed to LPS, SB203580 (p38MAPK inhibitor, or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor, and cell vitality was determined by MTT assay. The proteins expressions of p38MAPK, JNK, and TJs (occludin and zonula occludens- (ZO- 1 were determined by western blot. The mRNA levels of TJ components and MMP-2 were measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and MMP-2 protein levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. LPS, SB203580, and SP600125 under respective concentrations of 10, 7.69, or 0.22 µg/mL had no effects on cell vitality. Treatment with LPS decreased mRNA and protein levels of occludin and ZO-1 and enhanced p38MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and MMP-2 expression. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580 or SP600125, but not in ZO-1 expression. Both doxycycline hyclate (a total MMP inhibitor and SB-3CT (a specific MMP-2 inhibitor partially attenuated the LPS-induced downregulation of occludin. These data suggest that MMP-2 overexpression and p38MAPK/JNK pathways are involved in the LPS-mediated alterations of occludin in hCMEC/D3; however, ZO-1 levels are not influenced by p38MAPK/JNK.

  6. MiR-519d-3p suppresses invasion and migration of trophoblast cells via targeting MMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ding

    Full Text Available Our study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Tang Du Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University and complied strictly with national ethical guidelines. Preeclampsia (PE is a specific clinical disorder characterized by gestational hypertension and proteinuria and is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. The miR-519d-3p is upregulated in the maternal plasma of patients with PE which indicates a possible association between this microRNA and the pathogenesis of PE. No studies to date have addressed the effect of miR-519d-3p on the invasion and migration of trophoblast cells. In our study, we found that miR-519d-3p expression was elevated in placental samples from patients with PE. In vitro, overexpression of miR-519d-3p significantly inhibited trophoblast cell migration and invasion, whereas transfection of a miR-519d-3p inhibitor enhanced trophoblast cell migration and invasion. Luciferase assays confirmed that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is a direct target of miR-519d-3p. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot assays showed that overexpression of miR-519d-3p downregulated MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of MMP-2 using a siRNA attenuated the increased trophoblast migration and invasion promoted by the miR-519d-3p inhibitor. In placentas from patients with PE or normal pregnancies, a negative correlation between the expression of MMP-2 and miR-519d-3p was observed using the Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis. Our present findings suggest that upregulation of miR-519d-3p may contribute to the development of PE by inhibiting trophoblast cell migration and invasion via targeting MMP-2; miR-519d-3p may represent a potential predictive and therapeutic target for PE.

  7. Enhancement of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as a Potential Chondrogenic Marker during Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yoshie; Park, Sunghyun; Choi, Bogyu; Ko, Kyoung-Won; Choi, Won Chul; Lee, Joong-Myung; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Hun-Kuk; Han, Inbo; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2016-06-17

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have a capacity to undergo adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Recently, hASCs were applied to various fields including cell therapy for tissue regeneration. However, it is hard to predict the direction of differentiation of hASCs in real-time. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one family of proteolytic enzymes that plays a pivotal role in regulating the biology of stem cells. MMPs secreted by hASCs are expected to show different expression patterns depending on the differentiation state of hASCs because biological functions exhibit different patterns during the differentiation of stem cells. Here, we investigated proteolytic enzyme activity, especially MMP-2 activity, in hASCs during their differentiation. The activities of proteolytic enzymes and MMP-2 were higher during chondrogenic differentiation than during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. During chondrogenic differentiation, mRNA expression of MMP-2 and the level of the active form of MMP-2 were increased, which also correlated with Col II. It is concluded that proteolytic enzyme activity and the level of the active form of MMP-2 were increased during chondrogenic differentiation, which was accelerated in the presence of Col II protein. According to our findings, MMP-2 could be a candidate maker for real-time detection of chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs.

  8. Effects of therapy with two combinations of antibiotics on the imbalance of MMP-2÷TIMP-2 in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bătăiosu, Marilena; Taisescu, Citto Iulian; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; Pascu, Eugen IonuŢ; Ţuculină, Mihaela Jana; Dăguci, LuminiŢa; Dăguci, Constantin; BaniŢă, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis represents a chronic bacterial infection that induces immuno-inflammatory conditions affecting gingiva and tooth-supporting tissues. The role of some biological mediators in periodontal disease was widely investigated, especially that of MMP-8 and MMP-9. Recently, MMP-2 was also considered to be an appropriate therapeutic target for prevention of periodontal disease progression. However, effects of the combination of metronidazole with amoxicillin or spiramycin on the release and activation of MMP-2 and the balance MMP-2÷TIMP-2 were rarely studied. This study was designed to assess the influence of two combinations of antibiotics used for treatment of periodontitis on the balance MMP-2÷TIMP-2. Gingival samples obtained from patients with no pharmacological treated chronic periodontitis and those receiving either the association between amoxicillin-metronidazole and spyramicin-metronidazole were processed for paraffin embedding and then used to perform immunohistochemical reactions in order to detect MMP-2 and TIMP-2. All subjects were evaluated clinically and radiographic at the first visit and after treatment completed, the Loe & Silnees gingival index at six sites per tooth for the whole mouth being recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametrical techniques. Gingiva samples from untreated chronic periodontitis patients revealed a diffuse positive reaction for MMP-2 in the epithelium and also in fibroblasts and macrophages from the lamina propria. For gingiva samples from patients treated with antibiotics, MMP-2 positive reaction was restricted to deep epithelial layers and few cells of the connective tissue. No significant difference was observed for TIMP-2 expression. The clinical indexes were in accordance with immunohistochemical results. After treatment, gingival index values were significantly lower then before (pantibiotics. The two combinations of antibiotics tested in our study seem to have a dual ability to reduce

  9. Subthreshold nitric oxide synthase inhibition improves synergistic effects of subthreshold MMP-2/MLCK-mediated cardiomyocyte protection from hypoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil-Lula, Iwona; Lin, Han-Bin; Biały, Dariusz; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Diebel, Lucas; Sawicka, Jolanta; Woźniak, Mieczyslaw; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Injury of myocardium during ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a complex and multifactorial process involving uncontrolled protein phosphorylation, nitration/nitrosylation by increased production of nitric oxide and accelerated contractile protein degradation by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). It has been shown that simultaneous inhibition of MMP-2 with doxycycline (Doxy) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) with ML-7 at subthreshold concentrations protects the heart from contractile dysfunction triggered by I/R in a synergistic manner. In this study, we showed that additional co-administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (1400W or L-NAME) in subthreshold concentrations improves this synergistic protection in the model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R)-induced contractile dysfunction of cardiomyocytes. Isolated cardiomyocytes were subjected to 3 min. of hypoxia and 20 min. of reoxygenation in the presence or absence of the inhibitor cocktails. Contractility of cardiomyocytes was expressed as myocyte peak shortening. Inhibition of MMP-2 by Doxy (25-100 μM), MLCK by ML-7 (0.5-5 μM) and NOS by L-NAME (25-100 μM) or 1400W (25-100 μM) protected myocyte contractility after H-R in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of these activities resulted in full recovery of cardiomyocyte contractility after H-R at the level of highest single-drug concentration. The combination of subthreshold concentrations of NOS, MMP-2 and MLCK inhibitors fully protected cardiomyocyte contractility and MLC1 from degradation by MMP-2. The observed protection with addition of L-NAME or 1400W was better than previously reported combination of ML-7 and Doxy. The results of this study suggest that addition of NOS inhibitor to the mixture of inhibitors is better strategy for protecting cardiomyocyte contractility. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Cigarette smoke exposure inhibits extracellular MMP-2 (gelatinase A activity in human lung fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello Francesco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for the development of lung diseases, since its causative role has been assessed in the induction and maintenance of an inflamed state in the airways. Lung fibroblasts can contribute to these processes, due to their ability to produce proinflammatory chemotactic molecules and extracellular matrix remodelling proteinases. Among proteolytic enzymes, gelatinases A and B have been studied for their role in tissue breakdown and mobilisation of matrix-derived signalling molecules. Multiple reports linked gelatinase deregulation and overexpression to the development of inflammatory chronic lung diseases such as COPD. Methods In this study we aimed to determine variations in the gelatinolytic pattern of human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 cell line exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Gelatinolytic activity levels were determined by using gelatin zymography for the in-gel detection of the enzymes (proenzyme and activated forms, and the subsequent semi-quantitative densitometric evaluation of lytic bands. Expression of gelatinases was evaluated also by RT-PCR, zymography of the cell lysates and by western blotting. Results CSE exposure at the doses used (1–10% did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts. Zymographic analysis showed that CSE exposure resulted in a linear decrease of the activity of gelatinase A. Control experiments allowed excluding a direct inhibitory effect of CSE on gelatinases. Zymography of cell lysates confirmed the expression of MMP-2 in all conditions. Semi-quantitative evaluation of mRNA expression allowed assessing a reduced transcription of the enzyme, as well as an increase in the expression of TIMP-2. Statistical analyses showed that the decrease of MMP-2 activity in conditioned media reached the statistical significance (p = 0.0031 for 24 h and p = 0.0012 for 48 h, while correlation analysis showed that this result was

  11. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Su [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yun [Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyo-Jin [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  12. Leptin promotes human endometriotic cell migration and invasion by up-regulating MMP-2 through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Choi, Youn Seok; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-10-01

    Despite evidence that leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, the specific function of leptin in the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on the migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression levels of human endometriotic cells. We found that leptin stimulated the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells (11Z, 12Z and 22B) in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin receptor (ObR) siRNA significantly inhibited the migration and invasion induced by leptin in 11Z and 12Z cells. Leptin-induced migration and invasion were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SB-3CT, a specific gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) inhibitor. In addition, leptin-induced increases in the mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 in 11Z and 12Z cells. Selectively inhibiting MMP-2 using siRNA and an inhibitor (GM6003), impaired the ability of leptin to stimulate the migration and invasion of endometriotic cells, suggesting that MMP-2 plays an essential role in leptin-induced migration and invasion. Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) inhibitor (AG490) significantly inhibited the migration, invasion and MMP-2 expression induced by leptin in endometriotic cells. Furthermore, the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase inhibitor PD98059 neutralized the migration and invasion promoting effects of leptin. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin may contribute to the migration and invasion abilities of endometriotic cells via the up-regulation of MMP-2 through an ObR-dependent JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. PAF enhances MMP-2 production in rat aortic VSMCs via a β-arrestin2-dependent ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun H; Lee, Seung J; Seo, Kyo W; Bae, Jin U; Park, So Y; Kim, Eun K; Bae, Sun S; Kim, Jae H; Kim, Chi D

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, is a potent phospholipid mediator and has been reported to be localized in atherosclerotic plaque. However, its role in the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of PAF in the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). When rat aortic primary VSMCs were stimulated with PAF (1 nmol/l), the expressions of MMP-2 mRNA and protein, but not of MMP-9, were significantly increased, and these upregulations were markedly attenuated by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) using molecular and pharmacological inhibitors, but not by using inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Likewise, ERK phosphorylation was markedly enhanced in PAF-stimulated VSMCs, and this was attenuated by WEB2086, but not by EGF receptor inhibitor, demonstrating the specificity of PAF receptor (PAFR) in PAF-induced ERK phosphorylation. In immunofluorescence studies, β-arrestin2 in PAF-stimulated VSMCs colocalized with PAFR and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK). Coimmunoprecipitation results suggest that β-arrestin2-bound PAFRs existed as a complex with P-ERK. In addition, PAF-induced ERK phosphorylation and MMP-2 production were significantly attenuated by β-arrestin2 depletion. Taken together, the study shows that PAF enhances MMP-2 production in VSMCs via a β-arrestin2-dependent ERK signaling pathway.

  14. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  15. Is cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes associated with serum levels of MMP-2, LOX, and the elastin degradation products ELM and ELM-2?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Faarvang Thorsen, Anne-Sofie; Christiansen, Anne Lindegaard

    2017-01-01

    RNA-expression in diabetic patients, namely matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), lysyl oxidase (LOX) and elastin itself. In this study we investigate whether the serum concentrations of elastin-related proteins correlate to signs of CVD in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Blood samples from 302 type 2 diabetic patients were...

  16. Investigation of a MMP-2 activity-dependent anchoring probe for nuclear imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temma, Takashi; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Aki; Kondo, Naoya; Sano, Kohei; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP), for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments. We designed and synthesized MDAP(1000), MDAP(3000), and MDAP(5000), which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111)In hydrophilic chelate), MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide), anchoring unit (alkyl chain), and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000). Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates. MDAP(1000), MDAP(3000), and MDAP(5000) were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP(3000) pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP(3000) exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP(3000) exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP(3000) existed in tumor xenografts in vivo. The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging.

  17. Investigation of a MMP-2 activity-dependent anchoring probe for nuclear imaging of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Temma

    Full Text Available Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP, for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments.We designed and synthesized MDAP(1000, MDAP(3000, and MDAP(5000, which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111In hydrophilic chelate, MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide, anchoring unit (alkyl chain, and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000. Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates.MDAP(1000, MDAP(3000, and MDAP(5000 were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP(3000 pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP(3000 exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP(3000 exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP(3000 existed in tumor xenografts in vivo.The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging.

  18. Increased plasma matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of proteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, and urine MMP-2 concentrations correlate with proteinuria in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanowska, O; Zabińska, M; Kościelska-Kasprzak, K; Kamińska, D; Krajewska, M; Banasik, M; Madziarska, K; Zmonarski, S C; Chudoba, P; Biecek, P; Boratyńska, M; Klinger, M

    2014-10-01

    The most frequent cause of kidney allograft loss is chronic allograft injury, often with proteinuria as the clinical feature. Occurrence of proteinuria late after kidney transplantation is associated with worse graft function and patient survival. The aim of the study was to assess plasma and urine matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in proteinuric renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The factors were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 150 RTRs (51 women and 99 men), aged 49.2 ± 11.5 years, at mean 73.4 ± 41.2 months after kidney transplantation (range: 12 to 240 months). Proteinuric RTRs compared with non-proteinuric RTRs had higher median plasma MMP-2 (P = .012), TIMP-1 (P = .0003), and TIMP-2 (P = .0021) concentrations, as well as higher urine MMP-2 (P excretion. The presence of proteinuria had no impact on plasma MMP-9 and urine MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. Proteinuria and estimated daily proteinuria (uPr:uCr) correlated positively with plasma MMP-2 (rs = 0.226, P = .0054 and rs = 0.241, P = .003), TIMP-1 (rs = 0.305, P = .00015 and rs = 0.323, P = .000055), TIMP-2 (rs = 0.273, P = .0007 and rs = 0.269, P = .001) and urine MMP-2 (rs = 0.464, P urine MMP-2. Findings strongly emphasize increased plasma TIMPs in proteinuric RTRs that inhibit degradation of ECM by MMPs and favor excessive deposition of ECM proteins.

  19. RNAi knockdown of Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein) decreases invasion via MMP-2 down regulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2011-07-28

    We previously identified Hop as over expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines and malignant tissues of pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting an important role for Hop in the biology of invasive pancreatic cancer. Hop is a co-chaperone protein that binds to both Hsp70\\/Hsp90. We hypothesised that by targeting Hop, signalling pathways modulating invasion and client protein stabilisation involving Hsp90-dependent complexes may be altered. In this study, we show that Hop knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA reduces the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in decreased expression of the downstream target gene, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Hop in conditioned media co-immunoprecipitates with MMP-2, implicating a possible extracellular function for Hop. Knockdown of Hop expression also reduced expression levels of Hsp90 client proteins, HER2, Bcr-Abl, c-MET and v-Src. Furthermore, Hop is strongly expressed in high grade PanINs compared to lower PanIN grades, displaying differential localisation in invasive ductal pancreatic cancer, indicating that the localisation of Hop is an important factor in pancreatic tumours. Our data suggests that the attenuation of Hop expression inactivates key signal transduction proteins which may decrease the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the modulation of Hsp90 activity. Therefore, targeting Hop in pancreatic cancer may constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  20. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinases (ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like) characterization during intestine regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting; Wan, Zixuan; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Bai, Yucen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A. japonicus by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-2 like is 2733bp and contains a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 1716bp encoding 572 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-16 like is 2705bp and contains an ORF of 1452bp encoding 484 amino acids. The predicted protein sequences of each MMP contain two conserved domains, ZnMc_MMP and HX. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like share high sequence similarity with MMP-2 and MMP-16 from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, respectively. Then we investigated spatio-temporal expression of ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like during different regeneration stages by qRT-PCR and IHC. The expression pattern of them showed a roughly opposite trend from that of ECM components. According to our results, a fibronectin-dominate temporary matrix is created in intestine regeneration, and it might provide structural integrity for matrix and promote cell movement. We also hypothesize that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like could accelerate cell migration and regulate interaction between ECM components and growth factors. This work provides new evidence of ECM and MMPs involvement in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding.

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    Andrea Petznick

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. METHODS: Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18. Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5 served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. RESULTS: The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding. Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively as compared to procedural controls (p0.05. Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. CONCLUSIONS: Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following corneal wounding are the lacrimal gland and CALT. Other

  2. Clinical importance of serum HE4 and MMP2 levels in endometrial cancer patients

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    Cymbaluk-Ploska A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska,1 Anita Chudecka-Głaz,1 Ewa Pius-Sadowska,2 Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła,3 Bogusław Machaliński,2 Anna Surowiec,1 Janusz Menkiszak1 1Department of Gynecological Surgery and Gynecological Oncology of Adults and Adolescents, 2Department of General Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, 3Department of Statistics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the one of the most common cancers of the genital organ. HE4 and MMP2 are both proteins whose serum levels increase in endometrial cancer.Aim: To explore the diagnostic potential of the serum levels of HE4 and MMP2 in patients with endometrial cancer and benign endometrial diseases. To assess the relationship between the serum levels of HE4 and MMP2 and the typical prognostic factors in patients with endometrial cancer.Materials and methods: Included in the study was a group of 112 patients presenting with bleeding abnormalities at the Pomeranian Medical University in years 2012–2016. Serum HE4 concentrations were measured using the Elecsys Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA. MMP2 concentrations were quantified in the serum using multiplex immunoassays.Results: We observed statistically significant differences in mean serum levels of HE4 and MMP2 between the group of endometrial cancer patients and the group of patients with no changes in the endometrium (P=0.002/0.003. The diagnostic potential of HE4 and MMP2 in differentiation of high (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] III and IV vs low (FIGO I and II clinical stage of tumor and prediction of cellular differentiation grade (G1 vs G3 on the basis of the analysis of the area under the curve is, respectively, 0.86 and 0.82 for HE4 and 0.82 and 0.74 for MMP2. The HE4 marker was significantly more specific than MMP2 in every study group and amounted to 93% vs 86% in all patients included in the analysis, 94% vs 84% in pre

  3. The chemokine CXCL6 restricts human trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Hou, L; Li, C M; Zhang, W Y

    2013-09-01

    Can the chemokine CXCL6 affect trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta? Chemokine CXCL6 inhibits trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity in human first-trimester placenta. Several chemokines including CXCL8, CXCL12, CXCL14, CXCL16, CX3CL1, CCL14 and CCL4 can promote or inhibit trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta. We used the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells, primary trophoblast cells and villi explants to investigate the effect of rhCXCL6 on trophoblast cell migration and invasion. First, the CXCL6 RNA transcript level was detected in HTR8/SVneo cells derived from human first-trimester, second-trimester and third-trimester placenta by RT-PCR. Protein expression of CXCL6 and its receptors was tested in first-trimester placenta by immunohistochemistry. Secreted CXCL6 protein was detected in HTR8/SVneo cell supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secondly, the effect of rhCXCL6 on HTR8/SVneo cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Thirdly, the effect of rhCXCL6 on cell migration and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells, primary trophoblast cells and villi explants was tested by transwell migration and invasion assays, respectively. Last, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo and primary trophoblast cells treated by rhCXCL6 in the invasion assay was assessed by gelatin zymography. Abundance of the CXCL6 RNA transcript increased with pregnancy development. CXCL6 and its receptor were expressed in several cells at the human maternal-fetal interface. RhCXCL6 inhibited trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity. These experiments are only in vitro. According to the literature, CXCL6 could promote tumour cell migration and invasion by accelerating MMP-9 activity. However, CXCL6 inhibited trophoblast cell migration and

  4. Serum matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-3 levels in dialysis patients vary independently of CRP and IL-6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Gloria A; Barrett, Cheri V; Alcorta, David A; Hogan, Susan L; Dinwiddie, Lesley; Jennette, J Charles; Falk, Ronald J

    2002-12-01

    Patients on chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis often develop an inflammatory state that causes morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients have determined that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of morbidity. Little is known as to whether CRP, cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-1beta that stimulate the synthesis of CRP, or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are markers of inflammation in patients on dialysis. We assayed by ELISA serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, IL-6 and CRP in healthy individuals and in patients with pre-end-stage renal disease (pESRD, n = 10), peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 11), hemodialysis (HD, n = 17) and renal transplant (TX, n = 10). MMP-2 was significantly elevated before dialysis, perhaps indicative of progressive chronic renal sclerosis. MMP-3 was markedly elevated in hemodialysis patients but not in pESRD or PD patients, and may be related to the hemodialysis process and/or accelerated atherogenesis in these patients. IL-6 was significantly elevated in all patient groups, including pESRD patients. There were no statistically significant differences in CRP levels among the study groups. CRP correlated with IL-6, but not with MMP-2 or MMP-3. The data indicate that there are measurable differences in the expression of MMPs within the dialysis patient population. Because dialysis can be associated with local and systemic inflammation, increased levels of MMP-3 in the hemodialysis group may be a reflection of gene stimulation induced by inflammatory cytokines and should be considered as a marker of chronic, local inflammation. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Zinc-chelation contributes to the anti-angiogenic effect of ellagic acid on inhibiting MMP-2 activity, cell migration and tube formation.

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    Sheng-Teng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA, a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2 activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined by gelatin zymography, which was reversed dose-dependently by adding zinc chloride. In addition, EA was demonstrated to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs as analyzed by Western blot method, which was also reversed by the addition of zinc chloride. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK, known to down-regulate the MMP-2 activity, was induced by EA at both the mRNA and protein levels which was correlated well with the inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Interestingly, zinc chloride could also abolish the increase of EA-induced RECK expression. The anti-angiogenic effect of EA was further confirmed to inhibit matrix-induced tube formation of endothelial cells. The migration of endothelial cells as analyzed by transwell filter assay was suppressed markedly by EA dose-dependently as well. Zinc chloride could reverse these two effects of EA also in a dose-dependent manner. Since magnesium chloride or calcium chloride could not reverse the inhibitory effect of EA, zinc was found to be involved in tube formation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these results demonstrated that the zinc chelation of EA is involved in its anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting MMP-2 activity, tube formation and cell migration of vascular endothelial cells. The role of zinc was confirmed to be important in the process of angiogenesis.

  6. Phosphorylation status of 72 kDa MMP-2 determines its structure and activity in response to peroxynitrite.

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    Anna Laura Jacob-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is a key intra- and extra-cellular protease which contributes to several oxidative stress related pathologies. A molecular understanding of 72 kDa MMP-2 activity, directly mediated by S-glutathiolation of its cysteine residues in the presence of peroxynitrite (ONOO(- and by phosphorylation of its serine and threonine residues, is essential to develop new generation inhibitors of intracellular MMP-2. Within its propeptide and collagen binding domains there is an interesting juxtaposition of predicted phosphorylation sites with nearby cysteine residues which form disulfide bonds. However, the combined effect of these two post-translational modifications on MMP-2 activity has not been studied. The activity of human recombinant 72 kDa MMP-2 (hrMMP-2 following in vitro treatments was measured by troponin I proteolysis assay and a kinetic activity assay using a fluorogenic peptide substrate. ONOO(- treatment in the presence of 30 µM glutathione resulted in concentration-dependent changes in MMP-2 activity, with 0.1-1 µM increasing up to twofold and 100 µM attenuating its activity. Dephosphorylation of MMP-2 with alkaline phosphatase markedly increased its activity by sevenfold, either with or without ONOO(-. Dephosphorylation of MMP-2 also affected the conformational structure of the enzyme as revealed by circular dichroism studies, suggesting an increase in the proportion of α-helices and a decrease in β-strands compared to the phosphorylated form of MMP-2. These results suggest that ONOO(- activation (at low µM and inactivation (at high µM of 72 kDa MMP-2, in the presence or absence of glutathione, is also influenced by its phosphorylation status. These insights into the role of post-translational modifications in the structure and activity of 72 kDa MMP-2 will aid in the development of inhibitors specifically targeting intracellular MMP-2.

  7. A novel MMP-2 inhibitor 3-azidowithaferin A (3-azidoWA abrogates cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis by modulating extracellular Par-4.

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    Bilal Rah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Withaferin A, which is a naturally derived steroidal lactone, has been found to prevent angiogenesis and metastasis in diverse tumor models. It has also been recognized by different groups for prominent anti-carcinogenic roles. However, in spite of these studies on withanolides, their detailed anti-metastatic mechanism of action remained unknown. The current study has poised to address the machinery involved in invasion regulation by stable derivative of Withaferin A, 3-azido Withaferin A (3-azidoWA in human cervical HeLa and prostate PC-3 cells. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sub-toxic concentration of 3-azidowithaferin A (3-azido WA inhibited cancer cell motility and invasion in wound healing and Boyden chamber invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity in gelatin zymography and its expression has proved to be a major obstacle in chemo-sensitivity. We have uncovered a novel mechanism of 3-azidoWA induced extracellular pro-apoptotic candidate tumor suppressor Par-4 protein stimulation in conditioned media and also noticed a concomitant marked reduction in pAkt and pERK signaling by immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, our zymography results suggest 3-azidoWA induced MMP-2 inhibition was mediated through secretory Par-4. The inhibition of apoptosis by 3-azidoWA could not restore MMP-2 gelatinase activity. In addition to this, our in vivo animal experiments data showed 3-azidoWA abrogated neovascularisation in dose dependent manner in mouse Matrigel plug assay. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: For this report, we found that 3-azidoWA suppressed motility and invasion of HeLa and PC-3 cells in MMP-2 dependent manner. Our in vitro result strongly suggests that sub-toxic doses of 3-azidoWA enhanced the secretion of extracellular Par-4 that abolished secretory MMP-2 expression and activity. Depletion of secretory Par-4 restored MMP-2 expression and invasion capability of HeLa and PC-3 cells. Further, our findings implied that 3-azidoWA attenuated

  8. The zymographic evaluation of gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9) levels in acute and chronic periapical abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoglu, Hatice Dogan; Unal, Hasan; Ulger, Celal; Mert, Safak; Kücükyildirim, Sibel; Er, Nuray

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the presence and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 in periapical abscesses. Eighteen samples of intracanal exudates containing pus were collected from teeth with clinically and radiographically verified primary or secondary acute and chronic apical abscesses. Pro- and active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were analyzed by using substrate gel zymography followed by an image analysis system. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni adjustment. Both forms of MMP-9 were detected in all pus samples and demonstrated marked differences among the experimental groups (P abscess samples demonstrated significantly higher MMP-9 levels compared with MMP-2 levels (P chronic apical abscesses. According to the results of this study, gelatinases might affect the pathogenesis of acute and chronic periapical abscesses.

  9. Genetic Polymorphism of MMP2 Gene and Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Zahra; Mohsen Ziaei, Seyed Amir; Imani, Mahdieh; Samzadeh, Mohammad; Narouie, Behzad; Jamaldini, Seyed Hamid; Afshari, Mahdi; Safavi, Majid; Roshandel, Mohammad Reza; Hasanzad, Mandana

    2015-10-01

    The polymorphic genetic variants of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) can play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate if any association exists between MMP2 -1306/T and risk of prostate cancer (PCa). This case-control study comprised a total number of 241 subjects, including 102 patients with PCa and 139 controls with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MMP2 genotypes were detected by RFLP. There is no significant difference between different genotypes of MMP2 polymorphism and risk of developing PCa (p = 0.08). Although these genotypes increased the risk of developing PCa 79% (CT vs. CC) and 54% (TT vs. CC), none had a significant effect (p = 0.09 and p = 1 respectively). There were no significant differences in genotype frequencies between patients with low and high degrees of PCa (p = 0.4). Therefore, this polymorphism cannot be considered as a protective factor for PCa metastasis. It seems that MMP2 polymorphism has no protective effect on the grading of the tumor (p = 0.8). Our results indicated that MMP2 polymorphism had no role in the vascular invasion of PCa. We found no association between MMP2 polymorphism and cancer risk, overall or by grade, stage or age of diagnosis. Finally, there was no association between the different genotypes and PSA plasma levels among cases or controls. Further evaluations with larger samples from our population may illuminate the effects of polymorphisms on PCa risk and thus help early diagnosis, follow-up and prognostic determinations for PCa patients. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Madigan, Michele C; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F; Evans, Margaret D M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18). Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5) served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding). Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively) as compared to procedural controls (pTears from wounded and procedural control eyes showed no statistical differences for pro-MMP-2 and MMP-9 (p>0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following

  11. MMP-2 and MMP-9 as prognostic factors in ischaemic stroke

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    Justyna Zielińska-Turek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: No widely available, adequately sensitive diagnostic test to establish prognosis in stroke patients has been developed thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in plasma levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 as potential prognostic factors in patients with ischaemic stroke. Methods: The study included 56 patients presenting with the signs of ischaemic stroke for less than 24 hours, and 60 healthy controls without a history of neurological and/or inflammatory disorders. Plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined immunoenzymatically at admission (i.e. within 24 hours of the cerebrovascular episode and on the 7th day of hospital stay. Results: Median concentrations of MMP-9 in stroke patients were significantly lower than in the controls, both at admission and on the 7th day of hospital stay. No significant changes in the concentration of MMP-2 in ischaemic stroke patients were observed during the course of hospital stay. No significant association was found between both MMP concentrations and neurological status of patients with cerebrovascular episodes. Conclusions: The lack of significant associations between plasma concentrations of MMP-2/MMP-9 and clinical status suggests that these metalloproteinases should not be used as prognostic factors in patients with ischaemic cerebral episodes.

  12. The High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) gene is highly overexpressed in human uterine serous carcinomas and carcinosarcomas and drives Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in a subset of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillion, Joelle; Roy, Sujayita; Heydarian, Mohammad; Cope, Leslie; Xian, Lingling; Koo, Michael; Luo, Li Z; Kellyn, Kathleen; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Huso, Tait; Armstrong, Deborah; Reddy, Karen; Huso, David L; Resar, L M S

    2016-06-01

    Although uterine cancer is the fourth most common cause for cancer death in women worldwide, the molecular underpinnings of tumor progression remain poorly understood. The High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) gene is overexpressed in aggressive cancers and high levels portend adverse outcomes in diverse tumors. We previously reported that Hmga1a transgenic mice develop uterine tumors with complete penetrance. Because HMGA1 drives tumor progression by inducing MatrixMetalloproteinase (MMP) and other genes involved in invasion, we explored the HMGA1-MMP-2 pathway in uterine cancer. To investigate MMP-2 in uterine tumors driven by HMGA1, we used a genetic approach with mouse models. Next, we assessed HMGA1 and MMP-2 expression in primary human uterine tumors, including low-grade carcinomas (endometrial endometrioid) and more aggressive tumors (endometrial serous carcinomas, uterine carcinosarcomas/malignant mesodermal mixed tumors). Here, we report for the first time that uterine tumor growth is impaired in Hmga1a transgenic mice crossed on to an Mmp-2 deficient background. In human tumors, we discovered that HMGA1 is highest in aggressive carcinosarcomas and serous carcinomas, with lower levels in the more indolent endometrioid carcinomas. Moreover, HMGA1 and MMP-2 were positively correlated, but only in a subset of carcinosarcomas. HMGA1 also occupies the MMP-2 promoter in human carcinosarcoma cells. Together, our studies define a novel HMGA1-MMP-2 pathway involved in a subset of human carcinosarcomas and tumor progression in murine models. Our work also suggests that targeting HMGA1 could be effective adjuvant therapy for more aggressive uterine cancers and provides compelling data for further preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human monocytes down-regulate microglial MMP-2 secretion in CNS tuberculosis via TNFα, NFκB, p38 and caspase 8 dependent pathways

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    Elkington Paul T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB of the central nervous system (CNS is a deadly disease characterized by extensive tissue destruction, driven by molecules such as Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 which targets CNS-specific substrates. In a simplified cellular model of CNS TB, we demonstrated that conditioned medium from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected primary human monocytes (CoMTb, but not direct infection, unexpectedly down-regulates constitutive microglial MMP-2 gene expression and secretion by 72.8% at 24 hours, sustained up to 96 hours (P M.tb-infected monocyte-dependent networks paradoxically involves the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, p38 MAP kinase and NFκB in addition to a novel caspase 8-dependent pathway.

  14. Schwann Cell Migration Induced by Earthworm Extract via Activation of PAs and MMP2/9 Mediated through ERK1/2 and p38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Shih, Ying-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Liang; Fang, Wen-Kuei; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm, which has stasis removal and wound-healing functions, is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine in China. Schwann cell migration is critical for the regeneration of injured nerves. Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive activity for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular migration mechanisms induced by earthworms in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we investigate the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) pathways for earthworm-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production in Schwann cells. Moreover, earthworm induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs and MMPs in a time-dependent manner. Earthworm-stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and SB203580, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. The results were confirmed using small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA. These results demonstrated that earthworms can stimulate Schwann cell migration and up-regulate PAs and MMP2/9 expression mediated through the MAPK pathways, ERK1/2 and p38. Taken together, our data suggests the MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38)-, PAs (uPA, tPA)-, MMP (MMP2, MMP9) signaling pathway of Schwann cells regulated by earthworms might play a major role in Schwann cell migration and nerve regeneration. PMID:19808845

  15. Inhibition of pro-/active MMP-2 by green tea catechins and prediction of their interaction by molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Nandy, Suman Kumar; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2017-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in developing different types of lung diseases, e.g., pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Green tea polyphenolic catechins such as EGCG and ECG have been shown to ameliorate various types of diseases including PAH. Our present study revealed that among the four green tea catechins (EGCG, ECG, EC, and EGC), EGCG and ECG inhibit pro-/active MMP-2 activities in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) culture supernatant. Based on the above, we investigated the interactions of pro-/active MMP-2 with the green tea catechins by computational methods. In silico analysis revealed a strong interaction of pro-/active MMP-2 with EGCG/ECG, and galloyl group has been observed to be responsible for this interaction. The in silico analysis corroborated our experimental observation that EGCG and ECG are active in preventing both the proMMP-2 and MMP-2 activities. Importantly, these two catechins appeared to be better inhibitors for proMMP-2 in comparison to MMP-2 as revealed by gelatin zymogram and also by molecular docking studies. In many type of cells, activation of proMMP-2 occurs via an increase in the level of MT1-MMP (MMP-14). We, therefore, determined the interactions of MT1-MMP with the green tea catechins by molecular docking analysis. The study revealed a strong interaction of MT1-MMP with EGCG/ECG, and galloyl group has been observed to be responsible for the interaction.

  16. Pre-Treatment of Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 Inhibitor Prior to Cisplatin Enhances Cytotoxicity as Determined by High Content Screening

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    John J. O'Leary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated.

  17. Rosmarinic acid counteracts activation of hepatic stellate cells via inhibiting the ROS-dependent MMP-2 activity: Involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant system.

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    Lu, Changfang; Zou, Yu; Liu, Yuzhang; Niu, Yingcai

    2017-03-01

    Recently, oxidative stress is involved in hepatofibrogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is required for activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) on HSCs activation might mainly result from its antioxidant capability by increasing the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Here, we demonstrate that RA reverses activated HSCs to quiescent cells. Concomitantly, RA inhibits MMP-2 activity. RNA interference-imposed knockdown of NF-κB abolished down-regulation of MMP-2 by RA. RA-mediated inactivation of NF-κB could be blocked by the diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI; a ROS inhibitor). Conversely, transfection of dominant-negative (DN) mutant of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 2 (ERK2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), or p38α kinase had no such effect. Simultaneously, RA suppresses ROS generation and lipid peroxidation (LPO) whereas increases cellular GSH in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, RA significantly increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated luciferase activity, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and catalytic subunits from glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) expression, but not modulatory subunits from GCL (GCLm). RA-mediated up-regulation of GClc is inhibited by the shRNA-induced Nrf2 knockdown. The knocking down of Nrf2 or buthionine sulfoximine (a GCL inhibitor) abolished RA-mediated inhibition of ROS. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of RA as an antifibrogenic candidate in the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Including Receptor Flexibility and Induced Fit Effects into the Design of MMP-2 Inhibitors

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    Durrant, Jacob D.; de Oliveira, César Augusto F.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a class of flexible proteins required for normal tissue remodeling. Overexpression of MMPs is associated with a wide range of pathophysiological processes, including vascular disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. Nearly all MMP inhibitors have failed in clinical trials, in part due to lack of specificity. Due to the highly dynamic molecular motions of the MMP-2 binding pockets, the rational drug design of MMP inhibitors has been very challenging. To address these challenges, in the current study we combine computer docking with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to incorporate receptor-flexibility and induced-fit effects into the drug-design process. Our strategy identifies molecular fragments predicted to target multiple MMP-2 binding pockets. PMID:19882751

  19. Toxicity reduction and MMP-2 stimulation of papain and bromelain loaded in elastic niosomes.

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    Manosroi, Aranya; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2012-10-01

    The elastic niosomes (Tween 61/cholesterol/sodium cholate at 1:1:0.1 molar ratio) loaded with the protease enzymes (papain and bromelain) gave the vesicular sizes of 109.5 to 143.9 nm with the negative zeta potential of -14.7 to -30.1 mv. The elastic niosomes loaded with the standard papain (PS), extracted papain (PE), standard bromelain (BS) and extracted bromelain (BE) showed deformability index (DI values) of 1.35, 1.81, 1.22 and 1.61 times higher than their corresponding non-elastic niosomes, respectively. The elastic niosomes did not only improve the entrapment efficiency of the enzymes over the non-elastic niosomes of about 1.35 times, but also reduced the toxicity on skin human fibroblasts by SRB assay of the PS, PE, BS and BE at 1.68, 2.10, 1.56 and 1.52 times, respectively. The relative MMP-2 stimulation of PS, PE, BS and BE loaded in elastic niosomes were 1.26 +/- 0.14, 1.34 +/- 0.15, 1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.20 +/- 0.04 for the pro MMP-2 and 1.26 +/- 0.12, 1.41 +/- 0.23, 1.01 +/- 0.08 and 1.03 +/- 0.12 for the active MMP-2, respectively in comparing to the control which were similar activity to their free enzymes. The PE loaded in elastic niosomes gave superior characteristics (low cytotoxicity and high MMP-2 stimulation) to other enzymes. The elastic niosomes can enhance the chemical stability of PE, which exhibited higher remaining contents than the free PE of 1.36 times when kept at 27 +/- 2 degrees C after 8 weeks. Therefore, the extracted papain loaded in elastic niosomes appeared to have potential to be developed as a topical product for scar treatment.

  20. Activity of MMP2 and MMP9 matrix metalloproteinases in patients with myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative diseases

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    I. A. Gordiienko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available MMP2 and MMP9 matrix metalloproteinases due to their ability to destroy basement membranes collagen and remodeling extracellular matrix (ECM in the micro-environment of blood progenitor cells in the bone marrow play the important role in hematopoiesis. Displacement of normal hematopoiesis and dissemination of malignant cells in proliferative diseases of blood is also accompanied by catalytic ECM rearrangement. However, it is not known exactly how activity of MMP2 and MMP9 changes in various forms of leukemia and how it is affected by chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of anthracycline antibiotics (daunorubicin and adriablastin on MMP2 and MMP9 activity in blood plasma of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. It was established that proMMP9 activity was significantly reduced (0,03 ± 0,01 rel. u. in patients with acute myeloid leukemia before the treatment, however, after chemotherapy, it increased approximately 7 times. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma were accompanied by significant increase of MMP9 activity. Application of daunorubicin led to decrease of proMMP9 activity (0,25 ± 0,10 rel. u. in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ProMMP9 activity was significantly reduced (16 times and that of MMP9 increased in case of multiple myeloma. In studying of MMP2 activity it did not significantly change. The conclusion is that the ratio of proMMP9/MMP9 can be used as the additional criterion for monitoring the effectiveness of chemotherapy of proliferative diseases of blood.

  1. Polymorphisms in MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in Turkish patients with prostate cancer

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    YAYKAŞLI, Kürşat Oğuz; KAYIKÇI, Muhammet Ali; YAMAK, Nesibe; SOĞUKTAŞ, Hatice; DÜZENLİ, Selma

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the Western male population. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) modulate the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs may lead to an emergence of pathological processes such as cancer. In this study, the association between TIMP-2 (-418 G/C) and MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) polymorphisms and prostate cancer in the Tur...

  2. The Inhibitory Effect of C-phycocyanin Containing Protein Extract (C-PC Extract) on Human Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line (HepG2).

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    Kunte, Mugdha; Desai, Krutika

    2017-06-01

    Spirulina platensis :have been studied for several biological activities. In the current study C-phycocyanin containing protein extract (C-PC extract) of Spirulina platensis have been studied for its effect on human matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). In the present study, breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB 231) and hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) were examined for inhibition of MMPs at different levels of expression after C-PC extract treatment. Herein, we have demonstrated that C-PC extract significantly reduced activity of MMP-2 by 55.13% and MMP-9 by 57.9% in HepG2 cells at 15 μg concentration. Additionally, the treatment has reduced mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 20 μg concentration by 1.65-folds and 1.66-folds respectively. The C-PC extract treatment have also downregulated a mRNA expression of TIMP-2 by 1.12 folds at 20 μg concentration in HepG2 cells. Together, these results indicate that C-PC, extract successfully inhibited MMP-2 and -9 at different levels of expression and TIMP-2 at a mRNA expression level; however, extract did not have any effect on MMP-1 expressed in MDA-MB231 and TIMP-1 expressed in HepG2 cells as well as the exact mechanism of inhibition of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 remained unclear.

  3. Involvement of CD147 in overexpression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and enhancement of invasive potential of PMA-differentiated THP-1

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    Tang Hao

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During infection and inflammation, circulating blood monocytes migrate from the intravascular compartments to the extravascular compartments, where they mature into tissue macrophages. The maturation process prepares the cells to actively participate in the inflammatory and immune responses, and many factors have been reported to be involved in the process. We found in our study that CD147 played a very important role in this process. Results By using PMA-differentiated human monocyte cells line THP-1, we found that CD147 mediated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs expression of the leukemic THP-1 cells and thus enhanced the invasiveness of THP-1 cells. After 24 hours of PMA-induced monocyte differentiation, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD147 in differentiated THP-1 cells (289.61 ± 31.63 was higher than that of the undifferentiated THP-1 cells (205.1 ± 19.25. There was a significant increase of the levels of proMMP-2, proMMP-9 and their activated forms in the differentiated THP-1 cells. Invasion assays using reconstituted basement membrane showed a good correlation between the invasiveness of THP-1 cells and the production of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The difference in the MMPs expression and the invasive ability was significantly blocked by HAb18G/CD147 antagonistic peptide AP-9. The inhibitory rate of the secretion of proMMP-9 in the undifferentiated THP-1 cells was 45.07%. The inhibitory rate of the secretion of proMMP-9, the activated MMP-9 and proMMP-2 in the differentiated THP-1 cells was 52.90%, 53.79% and 47.80%, respectively. The inhibitory rate of invasive potential in the undifferentiated cells and the differentiated THP-1 cells was 41.82 % and 25.15%, respectively. Conclusion The results suggest that the expression of CD147 is upregulated during the differentiation of monocyte THP-1 cells to macrophage cells, and CD147 induces the secretion and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and enhances the invasive ability of THP-1

  4. Therapy of psoriasis with narrowband ultraviolet-B light influences plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in patients

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    Głażewska EK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Edyta Katarzyna Głażewska,1 Marek Niczyporuk,1 Sławomir Ławicki,2 Maciej Szmitkowski,2 Monika Zajkowska,2 Grażyna Ewa Będkowska,3 Andrzej Przylipiak1 1Department of Esthetic Medicine, 2Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, 3Department of Haematological Diagnostics, Medical University, Białystok, Poland Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which show a significant ability to cleave the components of extracellular matrix, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs, which slow down the activity of those enzymes, may be implicated in the pathogenesis and spread of psoriatic disease. This study aims to analyze plasma levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in plaque psoriasis patients before and after the course of narrowband ultraviolet-B (NBUVB therapy with respect to disease advancement. Patients and methods: A total of 49 patients suffering from plaque psoriasis and 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled into the study. Plasma levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI was used to define the disease advancement. Results: The results showed increased plasma levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2, but this change was significant only in case of MMP-2 in total psoriatic group compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, there was an increase in the concentrations of chosen factors with an increase in the severity of the disease. The NBUVB therapy causes a decline in the concentration of the analyzed enzyme and its inhibitor, although this change was statistically significant in the total psoriatic group only in case of MMP-2. There was also a positive correlation between MMP-2, TIMP-2, and PASI score value. Conclusion: Our study highlights a possible important role of MMP-2 in the activity of psoriasis and clearance of disease symptoms. Moreover, plasma MMP-2 seems to be a valuable psoriasis biomarker. Keywords: gelatinase A, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of

  5. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

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    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) and calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd{sup 2+} intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl{sub 2} intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd{sup 2+} treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl{sub 2} within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its

  6. Type IV collagen α1-chain noncollagenous domain blocks MMP-2 activation both in-vitro and in-vivo.

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    Sudhakar, Yakkanti Akul; Verma, Raj Kumar; Pawar, Smita C

    2014-03-26

    α1(IV)NC1 inhibits angiogenesis by regulating MAPK activation, this biological function was partly attributed α1(IV)NC1 binding to α1β1-integrin. However, its potent antiangiogenic activity and the molecular targets of α1(IV)NC1 has not been investigated. In the present study, the regulation of MMP-2 activation by α1(IV)NC1 was evaluated. α1β1-integrin which is required for inhibition of angiogenesis is not playing a role in cellular invasion and inhibition of MMP-2 activation by α1(IV)NC1. We found that α1(IV)NC1 binds the CBD of MMP-2 and forming a stable complex that prevents activation of MMP-2. The antiangiogenic activity of α1(IV)NC1 is mediated, in part, by this binding activity. In addition, up-regulation of TIMP-2 by α1(IV)NC1 led to saturation of MT1-MMP binding sites, which in turn led to inhibition of MMP-2 activation. In-vivo studies using α1-integrin null-mice treated with higher doses of α1(IV)NC1 showed integrin independent inhibition of tumor growth and active-MMP-2, without affecting MMP-9, MMP-7 and angiostatin.

  7. Transcription activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 metalloproteinase genes and their tissue inhibitor (TIMP-2 in acute coronary syndrome patients

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    J Dabek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS are a consequence of coronary vessel atherosclerosis and they are a leading cause of death in industrialized countries. One of the ACS causative factors is the deranged ratio equilibrium of the matrix metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (MMPs/TIMPs. Aims: Assessment of transcriptional activity of metalloproteinase genes using Human Genome-U133A oligonucleotide microarrays and selection of candidate genes differentiating ACS patients from healthy subjects and finally, QRT-PCR (quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction confirmation of the results. Settings and Design: The study involved 67 ACS patients, admitted on a consecutive basis, to the Cardiology Clinic as well as 24 healthy subjects (control. Materials and Methods: Ribonucleic acid isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by QRT-PCR. Transcriptional activity of the analyzed gene was assessed with TaqMan gene expression assays. Statistical Analysis: U Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the results. Results: Homogeneity of the investigated group was assessed through hierarchical clusterization whereas the nine genes differentiating ACS patients from healthy persons were selected using the Bland-Altman technique. Among these genes three (platelet derived growth factor D, NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 and peroxisomal biogenesis factor 1 showed decreased transcriptional activity whereas the remaining six genes (MMP-2 and MMP-9, CDK5RAP3, transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 and TIMP-2 were increased. MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were further characterized by QRT-PCR. Conclusions: The obtained results permit to conclude that the increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitor (TIMP-2 is responsible for disturbed equilibrium of the metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitors system and as a consequence, for destabilization of

  8. P-REX1 amplification promotes progression of cutaneous melanoma via the PAK1/P38/MMP-2 pathway.

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    Wang, Jinhua; Hirose, Hajime; Du, Guanhua; Chong, Kelly; Kiyohara, Eiji; Witz, Isaac P; Hoon, Dave S B

    2017-10-28

    P-REX1 (PIP3-dependent Rac exchange factor-1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates Rac by catalyzing exchange of GDP for GTP bound to Rac. Aberrant up-regulation of P-REX1 expression has a role in metastasis however, copy number (CN) and function of P-REX1 in cutaneous melanoma are unclear. To explore the role of P-REX1 in melanoma, SNP 6.0 and Exon 1.0 ST microarrays were assessed. There was a higher CN (2.82-fold change) of P-REX1 in melanoma cells than in melanocytes, and P-REX1 expression was significantly correlated with P-REX1 CN. When P-REX1 was knocked down in cells by P-REX1 shRNA, proliferation, colony formation, 3D matrigel growth, and migration/invasiveness were inhibited. Loss of P-REX1 inhibited cell proliferation by inhibiting cyclin D1, blocking cell cycle, and increased cell apoptosis by reducing expression of the protein survivin. Knockdown of P-REX1 expression inhibited cell migration/invasiveness by disrupting P-REX1/RAC1/PAK1/p38/MMP-2 pathway. Assessment of patient tumors and disease outcome demonstrated lower distant metastasis-free survival among AJCC stage I/II/III patients with high P-REX1 expression compared to patients with low P-REX1 expression. These results suggest P-REX1 plays an important role in tumor progression and a potential theranostic target. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Azilsartan increases levels of IL-10, down-regulates MMP-2, MMP-9, RANKL/RANK, Cathepsin K and up-regulates OPG in an experimental periodontitis model.

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    Aurigena Antunes de Araújo

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of azilsartan (AZT on bone loss, inflammation, and the expression of matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK, osteoprotegerin (OPG, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and cathepsin K in periodontal tissue in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each: (1 nonligated, water; (2 ligated, water; (3 ligated, 1 mg/kg AZT; (4 ligated, 5 mg/kg AZT; and (5 ligated, 10 mg/kg AZT. All groups were treated with saline or AZT for 10 days. Periodontal tissues were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANKL, RANK, OPG, and cathepsin K. Levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and glutathione (GSH were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Treatment with 5 mg/kg AZT resulted in reduced MPO (p<0.05 and IL-1β (p<0.05, increased levels of IL-10 (p<0.05, and reduced expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, RANK, RANKL, cathepsin K, and increased expression of OPG. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that AZT increases anti-inflammatory cytokines and GSH and decreases bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats.

  10. Inhibition of MMP-2-mediated cellular invasion by NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ in 3D culture of breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells: A model for early phase of metastasis.

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    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2017-03-25

    The three-dimensional (3D) culture of cancer cells provides an environmental condition closely related to the condition in vivo. It would especially be an ideal model for the early phase of metastasis, including the detachment and invasion of cancer cells from the primary tumor. In one hand, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an NF-κB inhibitor, is known to inhibit cancer progression and late phase metastasis in animal experiments. In the present research, we studied the inhibitory activity on the 3D invasion of breast carcinoma cells. Breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells showed the most active invasion from spheroid among the cell lines tested. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of cells at the 3D-nontoxic concentrations. The PCR array analysis using RNA isolated from the 3D on-top cultured cells indicated that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression is lowered by DHMEQ. Knockdown of MMP-2 and an MMP inhibitor, GM6001, both inhibited the invasion. DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the promoter activity of MMP-2 in the reporter assay. Thus, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit NF-κB/MMP-2-dependent cellular invasion in 3D-cultured MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that DHMEQ would inhibit the early phase of metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role Of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in Resistance to Drug Therapy in Patients with Resistant Hypertension

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    Leandro Lacerda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the increased evidence of the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP‑2 in the pathophysiology of hypertension, the profile of these molecules in resistant hypertension (RHTN remains unknown. Objectives: To compare the plasma levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and of their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, respectively, as well as their MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios, between patients with controlled RHTN (CRHTN, n=41 and uncontrolled RHTN (UCRHTN, n=35. In addition, the association of those parameters with clinical characteristics, office blood pressure (BP and arterial stiffness (determined by pulse wave velocity was evaluate in those subgroups. Methods: This study included 76 individuals diagnosed with RHTN and submitted to physical examination, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests to assess biochemical parameters. Results: Similar values of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios were found in the UCRHTN and CRHTN subgroups (P>0.05. A significant correlation was found between diastolic BP (DBP and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (r=0.37; P=0.02 and DPB and MMP-2 (r=-0.40; P=0.02 in the UCRHTN subgroup. On the other hand, no correlation was observed in the CRHTN subgroup. Logistic regression models demonstrated that MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and their ratios were not associated with the lack of BP control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that neither MMP-2 nor MMP-9 affect BP control in RHTN subjects.

  12. Deep sea water prevents balloon angioplasty-induced hyperplasia through MMP-2: an in vitro and in vivo study.

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    Pei-Chuan Li

    Full Text Available Major facts about the development of restenosis include vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs proliferation and migration. A previous study showed that in vitro treatment with magnesium chloride has the potential to affect the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Magnesium is the major element in deep sea water (DSW and is a biologically active mineral. It is unclear whether DSW intake can prevent abnormal proliferation and migration of VSMCs as well as balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Thus, we attempted to evaluate the anti-restenotic effects of DSW and its possible molecular mechanisms. Several concentrations of DSW, based on the dietary recommendations (RDA for magnesium, were applied to a model of balloon angioplasty in SD rats. The results showed that DSW intake markedly increased magnesium content within the vascular wall and reduced the development of neointimal hyperplasia. The immunohistochemical analysis also showed that the expression of proteins associated with cell proliferation and migration were decreased in the balloon angioplasty groups with DSW supplement. Furthermore, in vitro treatment with DSW has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on serum-stimulated proliferation and migration of VSMCs, whose effects might be mediated by modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling and of the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. Our study suggested that DSW intake can help prevent neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis, whose effects may be partially regulated by magnesium and other minerals.

  13. MMP-2 and Notch signal pathway regulate migration of adipose-derived stem cells and chondrocytes in co-culture systems.

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    Zhang, Qi; Deng, Shuwen; Sun, Ke; Lin, Shiyu; Lin, Yunfeng; Zhu, Bofeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2017-12-01

    The crosstalk between chondrocytes and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could regulate the secretion of multiple growth factors. However, it is not clear how the paracrine action in co-culture systems affect cell migration. This study focused on the changes of cell migration of ADSCs and chondrocytes in co-culture conditions. Primary ADSCs and chondrocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat. Transwell co-culture systems, inoculated with ADSCs and chondrocytes, were established in vitro. The morphology of the cells was observed 7 days post-seeding by inverted phase-contrast microscope. Additionally, the cytoskeleton changes were investigated by immunofluorescence staining. To detect the abundance of Vinculin, we used immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Additionally, the expression level of MMP-2, Hey1 and Hes1 was examined to determine the mechanisms of co-culture-induced cell migration changes. The migration of ADSCs and chondrocytes in co-culture conditions significantly decreased compared with that in mono-culture groups, accompanied by the decrease of filopodia and the expression level of MMP-2. The overall study showed that the migration of ADSCs and chondrocytes differs significantly depending on culture conditions. Moreover, the Notch signalling pathway may be involved in this process. Accordingly, by studying changes in migration caused by co-culture, we obtained new insight into the crosstalk between ADSCs and chondrocytes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Channel Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion through the Hsp90α/uPA/MMP2 pathway

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    Pierre Rybarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is an aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate PDAC cell aggressiveness. The transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7 is a nonselective cationic channel that mainly conducts Ca2+ and Mg2+. TRPM7 is overexpressed in numerous malignancies including PDAC. In the present study, we used the PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines to specifically assess the role of TRPM7 in cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. We show that TRPM7 regulates Mg2+ homeostasis and constitutive cation entry in both PDAC cell lines. Moreover, cell invasion is strongly reduced by TRPM7 silencing without affecting the cell viability. Conditioned media were further studied, by gel zymography, to detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion in PDAC cells. Our results show that MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, and heat-shock protein 90α (Hsp90α secretions are significantly decreased in TRPM7-deficient PDAC cells. Moreover, TRPM7 expression in human PDAC lymph node metastasis is correlated to the channel expression in primary tumor. Taken together, our results show that TRPM7 is involved in PDAC cell invasion through regulation of Hsp90α/uPA/MMP-2 proteolytic axis, confirming that this channel could be a promising biomarker and possibly a target for PDAC metastasis therapy.

  15. High levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 mRNA correlate with poor survival in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Goldberg, I; Gotlieb, W H; Kopolovic, J; Ben-Baruch, G; Nesland, J M; Berner, A; Bryne, M; Reich, R

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study was to analyze the potential association between the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP and TIMP-2, and disease outcome in advanced-stage ovarian carcinomas. Sections from 70 paraffin-embedded blocks (36 primary ovarian carcinomas and 34 metastatic lesions) from 45 patients diagnosed with advanced stage ovarian carcinomas (FIGO stages III-IV) were studied using mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. Patients were divided retrospectively in two groups based on disease outcome. Long-term survivors (21 patients) and short-term survivors (24 patients) were defined using a double cut-off of 36 months for disease-free survival (DFS) and 60 months for overall survival (OS). Mean follow-up period for patients that were diagnosed with advanced-stage carcinoma was 70 months. The mean values for DFS and OS were 109 and 125 months for long-term survivors, as compared to 3 and 21 months for short-term survivors, respectively. Intense mRNA signals were detected more frequently in tumor cells of short-term survivors with use of all four probes. Comparable findings were observed in peritumoral stromal cells with ISH for MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA. Notably, primary tumors with intense mRNA signal for TIMP-2 (No = 14) were uniformly associated with a fatal outcome. In univariate analysis of primary tumors, mRNA levels of TIMP-2 in stromal cells (P = 0.0002), as well as for MMP-9 (P = 0.012) and TIMP-2 (P = 0.02) in tumor cells, correlated with poor outcome. In univariate analysis of metastatic lesions, mRNA levels of TIMP-2 in stromal cells (P = 0.031), as well as for MMP-2 (P = 0.027) and MT1-MMP (P = 0.008) in tumor cells, correlated with poor outcome. Interestingly, the presence of MT1-MMP in stromal cells correlated with longer survival (P = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis of ISH results for primary tumors, TIMP-2 levels in stromal cells (P = 0.006) and MMP-9 levels in tumor cells (P = 0.011) retained their predictive value. We conclude that

  16. Neutralization of MMP-2 protects Staphylococcus aureus infection induced septic arthritis in mice and regulates the levels of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sahin; Adhikary, Rana; Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial players in Staphylococcus aureus mediated synovial tissue destruction in the pathogenesis of septic arthritis. Bacterial insult increases proteolytic matrix fragments by activated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts leading to induction of matrix metalloproteinases. Tissue destruction via MMPs induced by bacterial products, necrotic tissues and proinflammatory cytokines have been reported. Cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1β released from host cells in response to S. aureus infection promote cartilage degradation by stimulating the production of MMPs. Antibiotic treatment can eradicate invading bacteria but elevated levels of cytokines and cytokines induced MMPs activation lead to progressive and devastating bone and cartilage destruction even after bacterial clearance. Like other MMPs, MMP-2 also contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in different types of arthritis. Release of certain pro inflammatory cytokines can also be regulated by MMP-2 activation leading to further tissue destruction. The role of MMP-2 in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection induced septic arthritis and its influence on cytokines regulation needs further investigation. Whether neutralization of MMP-2 provides protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection induced septic arthritis in mice is an obvious question. Here we reported that neutralization of MMP-2 during S. aureus infection induced septic arthritis might be beneficial for preventing infection induced extracellular matrix destruction thereby decreasing bacterial burden in synovial tissues and regulating inflammatory cytokines in arthritic mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tissue remodeling following acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury is characterized by a severe disruption of alveolo-capillary structures and includes a variety of changes in lung cell populations. Evidence suggests the occurrence of rupture of the basement membranes and interstitial matrix remodeling during acute lung injury. The dynamic equilibrium of the extracellular matrix (ECM under physiological conditions is a consequence of the balance between the regulation of synthesis and degradation of ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs represent a group of enzymes involved in the degradation of most of the components of the ECM and therefore participate in tissue remodeling associated with pathological situations such as acute lung injury. MMP activity is regulated by proteolytic activation of the latent secreted proenzyme and by interaction with specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This review details our knowledge of the involvement of MMPs, namely MMP-2 and MMP-9, in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  18. Seeking for Non-Zinc-Binding MMP-2 Inhibitors: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modelling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ammazzalorso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors. In the present work, simplified analogues of previously-identified hits have been synthesized and tested in enzyme inhibition assays. Docking and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to rationalize the activity data.

  19. Tumour-targeting properties of antibodies specific to MMP-1A, MMP-2 and MMP-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffen, Stefanie; Frey, Katharina; Stutz, Irene; Roesli, Christoph; Neri, Dario [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of more than 20 zinc-containing endopeptidases, are upregulated in many diseases, but several attempts to use radiolabelled MMP inhibitors for imaging tumours have proved unsuccessful in mouse models, possibly due to the limited specificity of these agents or their unfavourable pharmacokinetic profiles. In principle, radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies could be considered for the selective targeting and imaging of individual MMPs. We cloned, produced and characterized high-affinity monoclonal antibodies specific to murine MMP-1A, MMP-2 and MMP-3 in SIP (small immunoprotein) miniantibody format using biochemical and immunochemical methods. We also performed comparative biodistribution analysis of their tumour-targeting properties at three time points (3 h, 24 h, 48 h) in mice bearing subcutaneous F9 tumours using radioiodinated protein preparations. The clinical stage L19 antibody, specific to the alternatively spliced EDB domain of fibronectin, was used as reference tumour-targeting agent for in vivo studies. All anti-MMP antibodies and SIP(L19) strongly stained sections of F9 tumours when assessed by immunofluorescence methods. In biodistribution experiments, SIP(SP3), specific to MMP-3, selectively accumulated at the tumour site 24 and 48 h after intravenous injection, but was rapidly cleared from other organs. By contrast, SIP(SP1) and SIP(SP2), specific to MMP-1A and MMP-2, showed no preferential accumulation at the tumour site. Antibodies specific to MMP-3 may serve as vehicles for the efficient and selective delivery of imaging agents or therapeutic molecules to sites of disease. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of a MMP-2 degraded Titin fragment in serum reflects changes in muscle turnover induced by atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Henriksen, K; Karsdal, M A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study we sought to determine whether a Titin peptide fragment can serve as a clinical biomarker for changes in muscle mass. METHODS: Mass spectrometry was used to identify Titin fragment in urine. An antibody against this Titin sequence was raised and used to develop a competitive...... used to assess biological and clinical relevance. RESULTS: A technically robust ELISA measuring the Titin fragment was developed against a Titin peptide fragment identified in human urine. The fragment was shown to be produced primarily by MMP-2 cleavage of Titin. In the rat muscle DEX induced atrophy...... model, Titin-MMP2 fragment was decreased in the beginning of DEX treatment, and then significantly increased later on during DEX administration. In the human bed rest study, the Titin-MMP2 fragment was initially decreased 11.9 (±3.7) % after 1day of bed rest, and then gradually increased ending up...

  1. Differential actions of the endocytic collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180 and the collagenase MMP-2 in bone homeostasis.

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    Daniel H Madsen

    Full Text Available A well-coordinated remodeling of uncalcified collagen matrices is a pre-requisite for bone development and homeostasis. Collagen turnover proceeds through different pathways, either involving extracellular reactions exclusively, or being dependent on endocytic processes. Extracellular collagen degradation requires the action of secreted or membrane attached collagenolytic proteases, whereas the alternative collagen degradation pathway proceeds intracellularly after receptor-mediated uptake and delivery to the lysosomes. In this study we have examined the functional interplay between the extracellular collagenase, MMP-2, and the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP, by generating mice with combined deficiency of both components. In both uPARAP-deficient and MMP-2-deficient adult mice the length of the tibia and femur was decreased, along with a reduced bone mineral density and trabecular bone quality. An additional decrease in bone length was observed when combining the two deficiencies, pointing to both components being important for the remodeling processes in long bone growth. In agreement with results found by others, a different effect of MMP-2 deficiency was observed in the distinct bone structures of the calvaria. These membranous bones were found to be thickened in MMP-2-deficient mice, an effect likely to be related to an accompanying defect in the canalicular system. Surprisingly, both of the latter defects in MMP-2-deficient mice were counteracted by concurrent uPARAP deficiency, demonstrating that the collagen receptor does not support the same matrix remodeling processes as the MMP in the growth of the skull. We conclude that both uPARAP and MMP-2 take part in matrix turnover processes important for bone growth. However, in some physiological situations, these two components do not support the same step in the growth process.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 as inflammation markers of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Bianchi, C; Fornaro, M; Naccarato, G; Menicagli, M; Gomez-Morales, M A; Pozio, E; Pinto, B

    2014-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibit differences in the host-parasite relationship such as the inflammatory response in parasitized muscles. Several studies indicate that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a marker of inflammation since they regulate inflammation and immunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of gelatinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) in mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis, to elucidate the involvement of these molecules during the inflammatory response to these parasites. Gelatin zymography on SDS polyacrilamide gels was used to assess the serum levels and in situ zymography on muscle histological sections to show the gelatinase-positive cells. In T. spiralis infected mice, the total MMP-9 serum level increased 6 days post-infection whereas, the total MMP-2 serum level increased onward. A similar trend was observed in T. pseudospiralis infected mice but the MMP-9 level was lower than that detected in T. spiralis infected mice. Significant differences were also observed in MMP-2 levels between the two experimental groups. The number of gelatinase positive cells was higher in T. spiralis than in T. pseudospiralis infected muscles. We conclude that MMP-9 and MMP-2 are markers of the inflammatory response for both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives on Dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Scaffa, P.; Carrilho, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Polimeni, A.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives. PMID:23128110

  4. Effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Scaffa, P; Carrilho, M; Tjäderhane, L; Di Lenarda, R; Polimeni, A; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives.

  5. Inhibition of Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) by Withania somnifera Phytochemicals Confers Neuroprotection in Stroke: An In Silico Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2017-05-09

    A stroke or cerebrovascular accident is a serious, life-threatening medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is severely reduced or cut off, depriving brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients. Studies suggested that level of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) usually increases in the brain after stroke. The elevated activity of gelatinases plays the deleterious role in ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Therefore, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 inhibition have therapeutic importance in stroke condition. Present in silico study investigates whether Withania somnifera (WS) phytochemicals inhibit the MMP-2 and MMP-9 by binding to the catalytic domain, as similar to their inhibitor or not. For that, we performed molecular docking study to evaluate the gelatinases-inhibitory potential of 36 WS phytochemicals, which compared with gelatinases inhibitors viz. hydroxamic acid, quercetin, doxycycline, minocycline and reverse hydroxamate. The results suggest that 28 out of 36 WS phytochemicals show higher affinity for MMP-2 owing to bind with active site residues of S1'-pocket with lower binding energy and smaller inhibition constant (Ki) than considered inhibitors. As well as, withanolide G and withafastuosin E show higher affinity for MMP-9 than reverse hydroxamate inhibitor. These phytochemicals have neuroprotective potential as an inherently useful oral drug to combat ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke mediated by gelatinases.

  6. Enhanced expression of two discrete isoforms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in experimental and human diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Kim

    Full Text Available We recently reported on the enhanced expression of two isoforms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in human renal transplantation delayed graft function. These consist of the conventional secreted, full length MMP-2 isoform (FL-MMP-2 and a novel intracellular N-Terminal Truncated isoform (NTT-MMP-2 generated by oxidative stress-mediated activation of an alternate promoter in the MMP-2 first intron. Here we evaluated the effect of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus on the in vitro and in vivo expression of the two MMP-2 isoforms.We quantified the abundance of the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcripts by qPCR in HK2 cells cultured in high glucose or 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE and tested the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC. The streptozotocin (STZ murine model of Type I diabetes mellitus and renal biopsies of human diabetic nephropathy were used in this study.Both isoforms of MMP-2 in HK2 cells were upregulated by culture in high glucose or with HHE. PDTC treatment did not suppress high glucose-mediated FL-MMP-2 expression but potently inhibited NTT-MMP-2 expression. With STZ-treated mice, renal cortical expression of both isoforms was increased (FL-MMP-2, 1.8-fold; NTT-MMP-2, greater than 7-fold. Isoform-specific immunohistochemical staining revealed low, but detectable levels of the FL-MMP-2 isoform in controls, while NTT-MMP-2 was not detected. While there was a modest increase in tubular epithelial cell staining for FL-MMP-2 in STZ-treated mice, NTT-MMP-2 was intensely expressed in a basolateral pattern. FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 isoform expression as quantified by qPCR were both significantly elevated in renal biopsies of human diabetic nephropathy (12-fold and 3-fold, respectively.The expression of both isoforms of MMP-2 was enhanced in an experimental model of diabetic nephropathy and in human diabetic nephropathy. Selective MMP-2 isoform inhibition could offer a novel approach for the treatment of diabetic renal

  7. Arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., inhibits metastasis of human breast cancer cells through the downregulation of MMP-2/-9 and heparanase in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chenghua; Zhu, Zhihui; Zhao, Yaping; Zhu, Rui; Zhao, Huajun

    2017-01-01

    Arctigenin is a bioactive lignan isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa L. which has been widely used as a diuretic and a diaphoretic in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of arctigenin on tumor migration and invasion in aggressive human breast cancer cells. The MTT assay results showed that arctigenin did not show a significant cytotoxic effect on the cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. However, wound healing migration and Boyden chamber invasion assays demonstrated that arctigenin significantly inhibited in vitro migration and invasion of the MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, gelatin zymography results showed that arctigenin reduced the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis results demonstrated that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and heparanase proteins was significantly downregulated following the treatment of arctigenin. Finally, the antiangiogenic activity of arctigenin was also examined by the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM. In conclusion, the results revealed that arctigenin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating MMP-2, MMP-9 and heparanase expression. However, further studies are still necessary to investigate the exact mechanisms involved and to explore signal transduction pathways to better understand the biological mechanisms.

  8. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Chang

    Full Text Available Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1. Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.

  9. Dimerization of endogenous MT1-MMP is a regulatory step in the activation of the 72-kDa gelatinase MMP-2 on fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Madsen, Daniel H.; Hillig, Thore

    2008-01-01

    that proMMP-2 activation is governed by dimerization of MT1-MMP on the surface of fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells. Even in the absence of transfection and overexpression, dimerization of MT1-MMP markedly stimulated the formation of active MMP-2 products. The effect demonstrated here was brought about...

  10. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Disseminated Tumor Cells and Micrometastasis in Bone Marrow of Patients with Nonmetastatic and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications—An Immunocytochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. Murray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is important in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells and activates angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of MMP-2 expression in circulating prostate cells (CPCs, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs, and micrometastasis (mM in bone marrow of men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. Tumor cells were identified with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent processing with anti-MMP-2, its expression was compared with Gleason score, concordance of expression, and metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Results. 215 men participated, CPCs were detected in 62.7%, DTCs in 62.2%, and mM in 71.4% in nonmetastatic cancer; in metastatic cancer all had CPCs, DTCs, and mM detected. All CPCs and DTCs expressed MMP-2; in mM MMP-2 expression was positively associated with increasing Gleason score. MMP-2 expression in CPCs and DTCs showed concordance. In low grade tumors, mM and surrounding stromal cells were MMP-2 negative, with variable expression in high grade tumors; in metastatic disease, both mM and stromal cells were MMP-2 positive. Conclusions. CPCs and DTCs are different from mM, with inhibition of MMP-2 expression in mM of low grade tumors. With disease progression, MMP-2 expression increases in both mM and surrounding stromal cells, with implications for the use of bisphosphonates or MMP-2 inhibitors.

  11. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Disseminated Tumor Cells and Micrometastasis in Bone Marrow of Patients with Nonmetastatic and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications—An Immunocytochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P.; Reyes, Eduardo; Tapia, Pablo; Badínez, Leonardo; Orellana, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is important in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells and activates angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of MMP-2 expression in circulating prostate cells (CPCs), disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), and micrometastasis (mM) in bone marrow of men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. Tumor cells were identified with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent processing with anti-MMP-2, its expression was compared with Gleason score, concordance of expression, and metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Results. 215 men participated, CPCs were detected in 62.7%, DTCs in 62.2%, and mM in 71.4% in nonmetastatic cancer; in metastatic cancer all had CPCs, DTCs, and mM detected. All CPCs and DTCs expressed MMP-2; in mM MMP-2 expression was positively associated with increasing Gleason score. MMP-2 expression in CPCs and DTCs showed concordance. In low grade tumors, mM and surrounding stromal cells were MMP-2 negative, with variable expression in high grade tumors; in metastatic disease, both mM and stromal cells were MMP-2 positive. Conclusions. CPCs and DTCs are different from mM, with inhibition of MMP-2 expression in mM of low grade tumors. With disease progression, MMP-2 expression increases in both mM and surrounding stromal cells, with implications for the use of bisphosphonates or MMP-2 inhibitors. PMID:23227342

  12. Hyperglycemic condition during puberty increases collagen fibers deposition in the prostatic stroma and reduces MMP-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sérgio Alexandre Alcantara Dos; Porto Amorim, Elaine Manoela; Ribeiro, Larissa Mayume; Rinaldi, Jaqueline Carvalho; Delella, Flávia Karina; Justulin, Luis Antonio; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis

    2017-12-02

    Puberty is an important period for the growth and maturation of the male reproductive system, and is also a critical window for endocrine or environmental interference. The physiological levels of circulating insulin and hyperglycemic control are important factors for a normal prostate growth. Hyperglycemia during puberty is reported to retard the growth of the prostate gland, with remarkable effects on the epithelial compartment. Here, we investigated the impact of hyperglycemia along with a simultaneous or late insulin replacement on the ventral prostate growth in rats during puberty, paying special attention to the deposition of collagen fibers and activities of gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and -9 (MMP-9). Hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) administration in 40-day-old male Wistar rats. A subset of hyperglycemic rats underwent an early insulin replacement (three days after the STZ administration), and another subset underwent a late insulin replacement (twenty days after the STZ administration). Animals were euthanized at 60 and/or 80 days of age. The ventral prostatic lobe was processed for picrosirius red staining, type I and III collagen immunohistochemistry, and gelatin zymography. Hyperglycemic animals showed an increased area of collagen fibers in the prostate, which was composed both types of collagens. MMP-2 activity was significantly reduced in the hyperglycemic animals, while MMP-9 activity was very low and showed no alteration. The simultaneous and late insulin administration restored collagen content and MMP-2 activity. In conclusion, puberty is a critical window for prostate maturation and type-1 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia affects the ratio of the prostatic parenchymal and stromal growth, leading to fibrotic tissues by also MMP-2 down regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-2, -9 and -14) and β2 Integrin Targeting as Potential Anticancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Juho

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), are associated to the progression of several cancers. They degrade extracellular components, which helps tumors to expand and cancer cells to escape from the primary site. Of all MMPs, gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9) and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), in particular, are often associated to more aggressive types of head and neck carcinomas as well as to a poorer outcome in patient survival. Although therapies...

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in the forming rat incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michel; Septier, Dominique; Bourd, Katia; Hall, Rachel; George, Anne; Goldberg, Harvey; Menashi, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Western blots analyses and gelatin zymography established the presence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in the forming zone of rat incisor. Light microscope immunohistochemistry carried out on undemineralized material provided evidence for strong MMP-2 staining in the secretory ameloblasts, odontoblasts, in the enamel organ, and in the pulp. A weaker staining was observed in predentin and in the outer part of the forming enamel. Using MMP-9 antibodies, the staining was generally weak, except for the secretory ameloblasts that were positively stained. Electron microscopic immunohistochemistry of undemineralized sections revealed a close association between gold-antibodies complexes and cytoskeletal microfilaments in the cytosol of secretory ameloblasts and odontoblasts, within the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the plasma membrane. The striking feature of MMP-2 and -9 electron immunostaining was the particularly high labeling in the mantle dentin. By contrast, staining of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and -2) was lowest in this region. We suggest that this uneven distribution may have some functional implications.

  15. Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8 and MMP-2) activity in gingival crevicular fluid from children with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki-Kubota, T; Miyamoto, M; Sano, Y; Kusumoto, M; Yonezu, T; Sugita, K; Okuda, K; Yakushiji, M; Ishihara, K

    2010-04-01

    High levels of colonization by periodontopathic bacteria and a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease have been reported in children with Down's syndrome. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are mediators of extracellular matrix degradation and remodelling, and are deeply involved in the course of periodontal disease. To clarify the relationship between Down's syndrome and periodontitis, we investigated levels of MMP-2 and MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and detection of periodontopathic bacteria from subgingival plaque. Samples of GCF and plaque were isolated from central incisors. Levels of MMPs were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and periodontopathic bacteria were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Levels of MMP-2 and MMP-8 in Down's syndrome patients were higher than those in healthy control subjects. In the Down's syndrome group, increases in these MMPs were observed in GCF from patients with an oral hygiene index score of syndrome patients was higher than that in the control subjects. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in sites harbouring Porphyromonas gingivalis or Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans were lower than in those without these microorganisms. These results suggest an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-8 in Down's syndrome patients, regardless of whether inflammation of periodontal tissue is present or not.

  16. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  17. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a novel target of sulforaphane via COX-2/MMP2, 9/Snail, ZEB1 and miR-200c/ZEB1 pathways in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yujuan; Zhang, Lanwei; Bao, Yongping; Li, Baolong; He, Canxia; Gao, Mingming; Feng, Xue; Xu, Weili; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shuran

    2013-06-01

    Metastasis and recurrence of bladder cancer are the main reasons for its poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Because of its biological activity and high metabolic accumulation in urine, sulforaphane, a phytochemical exclusively occurring in cruciferous vegetables, has a powerful and specific potential for preventing bladder cancer. In this paper, sulforaphane is shown to significantly suppress a variety of biochemical pathways including the attachment, invasion, migration and chemotaxis motion in malignant transitional bladder cancer T24 cells. Transfection with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression plasmid largely abolished inhibition of MMP2/9 expression as well as cell invasive capability by sulforaphane. Moreover, sulforaphane inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process which underlies tumor cell invasion and migration mediated by E-cadherin induction through reducing transcriptional repressors, such as ZEB1 and Snail. Under conditions of over-expression of COX-2 and/or MMP2/9, sulforaphane was still able to induce E-cadherin or reduce Snail/ZEB1 expression, suggesting that additional pathways might be involved. Further studies indicated that miR-200c played a role in the regulation of E-cadherin via the ZEB1 repressor but not by the Snail repressor. In conclusion, the EMT and two recognized signaling pathways (COX-2/MMP2,9/ ZEB1, Snail and miR-200c/ZEB1) are all targets for sulforaphane. This study indicated that sulforaphane may possess therapeutic potential in preventing recurrence of human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cleft lip and/or palate genetic conditioning – is MMP2 gene polymorphism important for thisdefect development?

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    Marzena Zalewska-Ziob

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip/palate is one of the most common congenital malformations. In Poland, approximately 500 children with an orofacial cleft are born every year. Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in periodontal tissue remodelling and degradation. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the MMP2 gene may affect transcription and activity of the protein produced by this gene. The aim of the study was to examine 1306 C/T MMP2 gene promoter polymorphisms in the group of children with cleft lip/palate and in the control group as well as to determine the frequency of individual genotypes in different types of orofacial clefts. Material and methods: The study was conducted in the group of 150 children with cleft lip/palate and 102 children without an orofacial cleft. Genomic DNA was obtained from oral mucosa epithelium. The MMP2 gene promoter polymorphism was genotyped by tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Results: There are no significant differences in the frequency of individual alleles in different types of orofacial clefts. The occurrence of the CC genotype was significantly higher in the group with cleft lip and palate than in the healthy group (p = 0.005. Conclusion: Determining the polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase gene promoter sequence can contribute to the elucidation of cleft lip/palate aetiopathogenesis.

  19. Effects of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives on Dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoni, A.; Scaffa, P.; Carrilho, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; R. Di Lenarda; Polimeni, A.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentspl...

  20. GPNMB/OA protein increases the invasiveness of human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 through MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Bodei, Serena; Bedussi, Francesca; Fragni, Martina; Bonini, Sara Anna [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Simeone, Claudio; Zani, Danilo [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Radiology and Public Health, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Berruti, Alfredo [Medical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Radiology, and Public Health, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Missale, Cristina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, PierFranco [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Sigala, Sandra, E-mail: sigala@med.unibs.it [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    Non-metastatic glycoprotein melanoma protein B (GPNMB), also known as osteoactivin (OA) is expressed in a wide array of tumors and represents an emerging target for drug development. In this study, we investigated the role of GPNMB/OA in the progression of human metastatic DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. GPNMB/OA contribution in PCa malignant phenotype has been analyzed by small interfering RNA-induced GPNMB/OA silencing. We found that following GPNMB/OA silencing the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells, evaluated by using in vitro invasivity assay, as well as the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were equally strongly inhibited. By contrast knocking down GPNMB/OA weakly attenuated cell proliferation rate of DU145, an effect that paralleled with an increase number of apoptotic cells. However, PC3 cell growth seems to be not affected by GPNMB/OA. Together, these data reveal that GPNMB/OA acts as a critical molecular mediator promoting the acquisition of the more aggressive, pro-metastatic phenotype distinctive of human DU145 and PC3 cell lines. - Highlights: • GPNMB/OA expression correlates with DU145 and PC3 cells malignant phenotype. • GPNMB/OA silencing affects the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells. • GPNMB/OA increases invasiveness by up-regulating MMPs activity. • GPNMB/OA promotes DU145 and PC3 cells progression into a more aggressive phenotype.

  1. Exogenous coenzyme Q10 modulates MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line as a breast cancer cellular model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiranpour Hossein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 is a key molecule in cellular invasion and metastasis. Mitochondrial ROS has been established as a mediator of MMP activity. Coenzyme Q10 contributes to intracellular ROS regulation. Coenzyme Q10 beneficial effects on cancer are still in controversy but there are indications of Coenzyme Q10 complementing effect on tamoxifen receiving breast cancer patients. Methods In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation of the effects of co-incubation of coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC on intracellular H2O2 content and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line. Results and Discussion Our experiment was designed to assess the effect in a time and dose related manner. Gelatin zymography and Flowcytometric measurement of H2O2 by 2'7',-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate probe were employed. The results showed that both coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduce MMP-2 activity along with the pro-oxidant capacity of the MCF-7 cell in a dose proportionate manner. Conclusions Collectively, the present study highlights the significance of Coenzyme Q10 effect on the cell invasion/metastasis effecter molecules.

  2. Role of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 in the development of recurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobińska, Kinga; Szemraj, Janusz; Czarny, Piotr; Gałecki, Piotr

    2016-11-15

    MMPs play a role in modulating inflammation and their impact in many inflammatory diseases has been investigated. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the relationship between selected polymorphisms for MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T) and TIMP-2 (G-418C) and depression, as well as between the importance of distribution of genotypes and alleles for the examined polymorphisms and the risk of depression occurrence. The examined population comprised 203 individuals suffering from depression and 99 individuals who formed a control group. Designations were carried out for MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T) and TIMP-2 (G-418C). The distribution of haplotypes of the MMP-9T-1702A and MMP-9 C1562T was specified for MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T). In rDD group and in the control group the presence of the T-1702A polymorphism for MMP-9 increases the risk of rDD development for the T/T genotype and T allele (OR=2.191). The A/A genotype (OR=0.120) and A allele (OR=0.442) reduce the risk of disease occurrence in the examined polymorphisms for MMP-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9. The C/C genotype and C allele of the C1562T MMP-9 polymorphism increase the risk of middle-age depression, while the T allele makes this risk smaller. The incidence of rDD was greater for the C/T C-735T/MMP-2/genotype and G/G A-181G /MMP-7/genotype. A similarly high risk of incidence was confirmed for the C/T - T/T genotypes of the MMP-2C-735T and MMP-9T-1702A polymorphisms. A higher risk of incidence (OR=9.376) was confirmed in the case of a set of T/T-G/C genotypes of the MMP-9T-1702A and TIMP-2G-418C polymorphisms. For the gene-gene interactions presented above, a statistically significant difference was found between the examined group and the control group. A small group of examined patients and the need for conducting the study in other populations in order to determine the impact of the stratification factor. 1. The evaluated polymorphisms in MMP genes have significant

  3. Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in retinoblastoma

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    Yu-Hong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer(EMMPRINin retinoblastoma(Rband the relationships between MMP-2, EMMPRIN and tumor development.METHODS:Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in 39 cases of paraffin embedded Rb samples. Quantitative analysis of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were assessed by measuring the mean gray scale of Rb tissue with LEICA IM50 Color Pathologic Analysis System. The differences of expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN in each clinical and pathological stage were statistically analyzed, and the same step was also undertaken to study the relationship between Rb with MMP-2 positive expression and that with EMMPRIN positive expression.RESULTS: The positive expression rate of MMP-2 was 90%(Gray value: 109.64±14.52; 35/39, and that of EMMPRIN was 85%(Gray value: 108.01±13.60; 33/39. The expressions of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN were significantly higher in tumors of glaucomatous stage(Gray value: 108.21±11.47 and 107.56±14.32than those in intraocular stage(Gray value: 121.13±11.32 and 119.34±12.66; PPPPPPCONCLUSION: The positive expression levels of MMP-2 and EMMPRIN may correlate with tumor infiltration and metastasis.

  4. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudalkar, Mithun D.; Nayak, Aarati; Bhat, Kishore S.; Nayak, Ranganath N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test. Results: The results showed that the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly decreased by the use of doxycycline, Neem and Aloe vera. A 53.5% reduction in the MMP-2 and 52.5% reduction in the MMP-9 activity was seen when samples were subjected to Neem treatment at the concentration of 1500 μg/ml. Tissues treated with Aloe vera in the concentration of 2000 μg/ml showed a 20.09% reduction in the MMP-2 and 20.4% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Doxycycline in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, showed an 82.1% reduction in the MMP-2 and 82.6% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Neem and Aloe vera on MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during periodontitis. PMID:25364206

  5. Sulfonamide derivatives containing dihydropyrazole moieties selectively and potently inhibit MMP-2/MMP-9: Design, synthesis, inhibitory activity and 3D-QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Li, Zhen; Wang, Peng-Fei; Qiu, Han-Yue; Chen, Long-Wang; Lu, Xiao-Yuan; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2015-10-15

    New series of sulfonamide derivatives containing a dihydropyrazole moieties inhibitors of MMP-2/MMP-9 were discovered using structure-based drug design. Synthesis, antitumor activity, structure-activity relationship and optimization of physicochemical properties were described. In vitro the bioassay results revealed that most target compounds showed potent inhibitory activity in the enzymatic and cellular assays. Among the compounds, compound 3i exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.21 μM inhibiting MMP-2 and 1.87 μM inhibiting MMP-9, comparable to the control positive compound CMT-1 (1.26 μM, 2.52 μM). Docking simulation was performed to position compound 3i into the MMP-2 active site to determine the probable binding pose. Docking simulation was further performed to position compound 3i into the MMP-2 active site to determine the probable binding model the 3D-QSAR models were built for reasonable design of MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitors at present and in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BubR1 Acts as a Promoter in Cellular Motility of Human Oral Squamous Cancer Cells through Regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Kit Chou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BubR1 is a critical component of spindle assembly checkpoint, ensuring proper chromatin segregation during mitosis. Recent studies showed that BubR1 was overexpressed in many cancer cells, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC. However, the effect of BubR1 on metastasis of OSCC remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the role of BubR1 in the progression of OSCC and confirm the expression of BubR1 in a panel of malignant OSCC cell lines with different invasive abilities. The results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level of BubR1 was markedly increased in four OSCC cell lines, Ca9-22, HSC3, SCC9 and Cal-27 cells, compared to two normal cells, normal human oral keratinocytes (HOK and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF. Moreover, the expression of BubR1 in these four OSCC cell lines was positively correlated with their motility. Immunofluorescence revealed that BubR1 was mostly localized in the cytosol of human gingival carcinoma Ca9-22 cells. BubR1 knockdown significantly decreased cellular invasion but slightly affect cellular proliferation on both Ca9-22 and Cal-27 cells. Consistently, the activities of metastasis-associated metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were attenuated in BubR1 knockdown Ca9-22 cells, suggesting the role of BubR1 in promotion of OSCC migration. Our present study defines an alternative pathway in promoting metastasis of OSCC cells, and the expression of BubR1 could be a prognostic index in OSCC patients.

  7. CCR7 Mediates TGF-β1-Induced Human Malignant Glioma Invasion, Migration, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Activating MMP2/9 Through the Nuclear Factor KappaB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Miu, Yiting; Yang, Xiaokai; Yang, Xiaoguo; Zhu, Meijia

    2017-10-01

    Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) has emerged as an inducer of invasion, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. In this research, human malignant glioma cells were stimulated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and siCCR7. The data show that CCR7 mediates TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration, and invasion in U251 and U87 cells and that these effects of TGF-β1 were reversed by treatment with siCCR7 or a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. Importantly, the TGF-β1-mediated increase in nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity in human glioma cells was reduced by treatment with siCCR7 or a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, CCR7 was shown to mediate TGF-β1-induced glioma cancer cell migration by activating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)/9. Our results indicate that CCR7 mediates TGF-β1-induced MMP2/9 expression through NF-κB signaling, thus facilitating glioma cell migration, invasion, and EMT, all of which progressively increase with glioblastoma progression. These findings indicate that CCR7 is a potential therapeutic target for malignant glioma.

  8. Worse prognosis in breast cancer patients can be predicted by immunohistochemical analysis of positive MMP-2 and negative estrogen and progesterone receptors

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    Edneia A. S. Ramos

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Breast cancer is the most cause of death, and approximately 90% of these deaths are due to metastases. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 gelatinase activity is able to degrade a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, type IV collagen. Two well-established proteins used as markers in clinical practice for breast cancer are the receptors for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR. Although the presence of these receptors has been associated with a better prognosis, loss of these proteins can occur during tumor progression, with subsequent resistance to hormone therapy. Objective: To study the correlation among MMP-2, ER, and PR, as well as the establishment of the metastatic process in primary breast tumors. Method: Breast cancer samples (n=44 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, ER, and PR. Results: We observed that 90% of patients who had metastases and died showed positive staining for MMP-2 (p=0.0082 for both. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that negative ER patients who were also positive for MMP-2 had even worse disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (p= 0.012 and p=0.005, respectively. Similar results were found in PR-negative patients for DFS (a trend p=0.077 and OS (p=0.038. Conclusion: Regardless of our small sample size (n=44, the data obtained strongly suggest that MMP-2 in combination with already well-established markers could help to predict the emergence of metastases and death in patients with breast cancer.

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage.

  10. MMP-2 Induced Vein Relaxation via Inhibition of [Ca2+]e-Dependent Mechanisms of Venous Smooth Muscle Contraction. Role of RGD Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffetto, Joseph D.; Barros, Yaskara V. R.; Wells, Amanda K.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of varicose veins. We have shown that MMP-2 causes relaxation of venous segments and suggested a role of venous smooth muscle (VSM) hyperpolarization; however, the downstream mechanisms are unclear. We tested whether MMP-2 induced venous relaxation involves inhibition of the Ca2+ mobilization mechanisms of VSM contraction due to generation of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides. Methods Circular segments of inferior vena cava (IVC) were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, suspended between two wires in a tissue bath, and isometric contraction was measured. Contraction data in mg/mg tissue were presented as means±SEM. Results In IVC incubated in normal Krebs (2.5 mM Ca2+), the α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (Phe, 10-5 M) caused initial peak (133.2±17.5) followed by a maintained contraction (73.4±11.6), that was inhibited by MMP-2 (1 μg/mL) to 32.4±12.8 in 30 min. The inhibitory effects of MMP-2 were reversible by washing the tissue with Krebs or in the presence of the MMP inhibitors TIMP-1 (1 μg/ml), Ro 28-2653 and BB-94 (10-6 M), and were not associated with changes in IVC structure, demonstrating specificity. Angiotensin II (AngII, 10-6 M) caused a monophasic contraction (114.2±12.2), that was also inhibited by MMP-2 (66.0±7.4), suggesting a post-receptor effect on the downstream mechanisms of VSM contraction. To test the role of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, IVC was incubated in Ca2+-free (2 mM EGTA) Krebs with or without MMP-2. In Ca2+-free Krebs, caffeine did not cause contraction, suggesting limited role of the Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release mechanism, and Phe and AngII caused a small contraction (7.2±1.7 and 14.9±2.8) that was slightly increased by MMP-2 (10.4±3.0 and 33.8±10.0), suggesting little effect on IP3-induced Ca2+ release. To test the role of Ca2+ entry through membrane channels, after eliciting a transient Phe contraction in nominally 0

  11. PRL-3 promotes the motility, invasion, and metastasis of LoVo colon cancer cells through PRL-3-integrin β1-ERK1/2 and-MMP2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3 plays a causative role in tumor metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In our previous study, we observed that PRL-3 could decrease tyrosine phosphorylation of integrin β1 and enhance activation of ERK1/2 in HEK293 cells. Herein we aim to explore the association of PRL-3 with integrin β1 signaling and its functional implications in motility, invasion, and metastasis of colon cancer cell LoVo. Methods Transwell chamber assay and nude mouse model were used to study motility and invasion, and metastsis of LoVo colon cancer cells, respectively. Knockdown of integrin β1 by siRNA or lentivirus were detected with Western blot and RT-PCR. The effect of PRL-3 on integrin β1, ERK1/2, and MMPs that mediate motility, invasion, and metastasis were measured by Western blot, immunofluorencence, co-immunoprecipitation and zymographic assays. Results We demonstrated that PRL-3 associated with integrin β1 and its expression was positively correlated with ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer tissues. Depletion of integrin β1 with siRNA, not only abrogated the activation of ERK1/2 stimulated by PRL-3, but also abolished PRL-3-induced motility and invasion of LoVo cells in vitro. Similarly, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 or MMP activity with GM6001 also impaired PRL-3-induced invasion. In addition, PRL-3 promoted gelatinolytic activity of MMP2, and this stimulation correlated with decreased TIMP2 expression. Moreover, PRL-3-stimulated lung metastasis of LoVo cells in a nude mouse model was inhibited when integrin β1 expression was interfered with shRNA. Conclusion Our results suggest that PRL-3's roles in motility, invasion, and metastasis in colon cancer are critically controlled by the integrin β1-ERK1/2-MMP2 signaling.

  12. Molecular Modeling and Docking Studies on the First Chlorotoxin-Like Peptide from Iranian Scorpion Mesobuthuseupeus (Meict and SNP Variants of Matrix Methaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2

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    Farzaneh Mohammadi Farsani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: MeICT is the first chlorotoxin-like peptide isolated from the Iranian Scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus. Chlorotoxin (CTX is a neurotoxin that specially binds to (MMP-2 on ma-lignant cells and now is used in treatment of glioma. In the present study, we have used homology modeling to propose the 3D structure of MeICTand analyze its interaction with MMP-2 and its SNP types. Methods: The structure of MeICT was modeled by using homology modeling through the Swiss-Model workspace. Structural evaluation and stereo-chemical analysis of modeled struc-ture of MeICT was performed using ProSA-web Z-scores and Mol Probity Ramachandran plots. Hex Server was used to investigate the interactions between MeICT and catalytic domain of MMP-2 and SNP types. Binding energies calculation and complementarity scores were used for evaluation of protein docking. Results:The comparable Z-scores, Ramachandran plot characteristics and RMSD values confirmed the quality of the homology model of MeICT. About 17 SNP variants in catalytic domain of MMP2 were detected. According to the total and electrostatic energies and the number of interactive residues by hydrogen bond, the structure of MeICT-rs200271857, MeICT-rs144334568, MeICT-rs111590299 and MeICT-rs201083413complexes are more stable. Conclusion: The structure of MeICT is similar to CTX, somight be used as therapeutic agent in glioma. We could find some variants of MMP-2 that can bind to MeICT with more or less af-finity and can affect treatment pathway.

  13. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function......, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents...... and then its well-controlled conversion into the mature MMP-2 enzyme. In sum, understanding of the structural requirements for the 9E8 antibody specificity may pave the way for the focused design of the inhibitory antibodies against other individual MMPs....

  14. Effect of Androgen Blockade on HER-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression on Bone Marrow Micrometastasis and Stromal Cells in Men with Prostate Cancer

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    N. P. Murray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HER-2 has been associated with castrate resistant prostate cancer and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells as well as activating angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of the effect of androgen blockade on the expression of HER-2 and MMP-2 in bone marrow micrometastasis and the surrounding stromal cells in men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. A cross-sectional study of men with prostate cancer. Touch preps were obtained from bone marrow biopsies of men with prostate cancer, before and after radical prostatectomy and during androgen blockade. Micrometastasis detected with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry underwent processing with anti-HER-2 and anti-MMP-2 immunocytochemistry. Patients were defined as HER-2 positive or negative, MMP-2 negative or an MMP-2 pattern described as border or central and stromal MMP-2 defined as positive or negative. The expression of the biomarkers was compared before and after primary treatment and during androgen blockade in relation to the serum PSA at the time of sampling and duration of androgen blockade. Results. 191 men participated, 35 men before surgery and 43 after surgery; there were no significant differences in HER-2 expression between groups, there was no MMP-2 expression centrally or stromal expression of MMP-2. In men with androgen blockade, HER-2 expression was significantly higher; there was a trend for increasing HER-2 expression up to 5 years; central MMP-2 expression significantly increased after 3 years, while stromal MMP-2 significantly increased after 6 years. MMP-2 expression both in micrometastasis and stroma was significantly associated with HER-2 expression. Expression of MMP-2 at the border of the micrometastasis was not associated with HER-2 expression and occurred in the absence of androgen blockade. Conclusions. Androgen blockade decreases serum PSA by eliminating HER-2 negative prostate cancer cells. However

  15. Direct inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate: A possible role for the fibronectin type II repeats.

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    Jha, Shalinee; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Limaye, Anil M

    2016-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9, also called gelatinases, constitute a distinct subgroup within the MMP family of extracellular matrix remodeling proteases. Gelatinases are implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and are attractive therapeutic targets. Several synthetic small molecule inhibitors of MMPs developed till date have failed in clinical trials. This has prompted explorations into the gamut of dietary compounds and nutraceuticals for specific inhibitors of MMPs with desirable properties. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, is popular as a potential chemotherapeutic agent with demonstrable anti-metastatic and MMP inhibitory activities. Here, we have addressed the mechanism of EGCG-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 using in silico molecular docking approach. We show for the first time that EGCG targets the fibronectin type II repeat regions 1 and 3 of MMP-2, binds amino acids that constitute the exosite of this enzyme and hinders proper positioning of the substrate. This study offers a novel insight into the inhibition of MMP-2 by EGCG and presents a starting point for development of novel therapeutic molecules that can specifically target the gelatinases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The need of MMP-2 on the sperm surface for Xenopus fertilization: its role in a fast electrical block to polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhiro; Shiga, Keiko; Shiroshita, Ayumi; Yoshikawa, Tomoyasu; Sakiie, Maho; Ueno, Tomoyo; Ueno, Shuichi; Ijiri, Takashi W; Sato, Ken-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Monospermic fertilization in the frog, Xenopus laevis, is ensured by a fast-rising, positive fertilization potential to prevent polyspermy on the fertilized egg, followed by a slow block with the formation of a fertilization envelope over the egg surface. In this paper, we found that not only the enzymatic activity of sperm matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was necessary for a sperm to bind and/or pass through the extracellular coat of vitelline envelope, but also the hemopexin (HPX) domain of MMP-2 on the sperm surface was involved in binding and membrane fusion between the sperm and eggs. A peptide with a partial amino acid sequence of the HPX domain caused egg activation accompanied by an increase in [Ca(2+)]i in a voltage-dependent manner, similar to that in fertilization. The membrane microdomain (MD) of unfertilized eggs bound the HPX peptide, and this was inhibited by ganglioside GM1 distributed in the MD. The treatment of sperm with GM1 or anti-MMP-2 HPX antibody allows the sperm to fertilize an egg clamped at 0 mV, which untreated sperm cannot achieve. We propose a model accounting for the mechanism of voltage-dependent fertilization based on an interaction between the positively charged HPX domain in the sperm membrane and negatively-charged GM1 in the egg plasma membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a Triple-Helical Peptide with Quenched Fluorophores for Optical Imaging of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Proteolytic Activity

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    Xuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2 and 9, the gelatinases, have consistently been associated with tumor progression. The development of gelatinase-specific probes will be critical for identifying in vivo gelatinoic activity to understand the molecular role of the gelatinases in tumor development. Recently, a self-assembling homotrimeric triple-helical peptide (THP, incorporating a sequence from type V collagen, with high substrate specificity to the gelatinases has been developed. To determine whether this THP would be suitable for imaging protease activity, 5-carboxyfluorescein (5FAM was conjugated, resulting in 5FAM3-THP and 5FAM6-THP, which were quenched up to 50%. 5FAM6-THP hydrolysis by MMP-2 and MMP-9 displayed kcat/KM values of 1.5 × 104 and 5.4 × 103 M−1 s−1, respectively. Additionally 5FAM6-THP visualized gelatinase activity in gelatinase positive HT-1080 cells, but not in gelatinase negative MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the fluorescence in the HT-1080 cells was greatly attenuated by the addition of a MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitor, SB-3CT, indicating that the observed fluorescence release was mediated by gelatinase proteolysis and not non-specific proteolysis of the THPs. These results demonstrate that THPs fully substituted with fluorophores maintain their substrate specificity to the gelatinases in human cancer cells and may be useful in in vivo molecular imaging of gelatinase activity.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a double-edged sword in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongdong; Li, Mengling; Tian, Wenke; Wang, Shuaiwei; Cui, Longzhen; Li, Hui; Wang, Huijuan; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2017-07-11

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in cancer biological processes. However, there are several controversies concerning the role of H2S in cancer development and progression. In this study, we found that the growth and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were enhanced by 10-100 μM NaHS and dose-dependently inhibited by 600-1000 μM NaHS. The apoptotic levels were reduced by 25-100 μM NaHS but increased by 400-1000 μM NaHS in HCC cells. After treatment with 25-50 μM NaHS, the protein levels of p-EGFR, p-ERK, MMP-2, and p-AKT were increased, whereas the levels of PTEN and the ratio of BAX/BCL-2 were down-regulated. Administration of 800-1000 μM NaHS showed opposite effects on these protein levels in HCC cells. However, H2S showed no effects on the growth, migration, apoptosis, and the protein levels of the EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways in L02 cells. Furthermore, 25-100 μM NaHS promoted HCC tumor growth and blood vessel formation, while 800-1000 μM NaHS inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth with no obvious systemic toxicity. These results indicate that H2S acts as a double-edged sword in HCC cells through EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways. Novel H2S donors could be designed and applied for further antitumor research.

  19. Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats via inhibiting MMP2/9, TIMP1/2 and the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways.

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    Li, Xue-Mei; Peng, Jing-Hua; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Tian, Hua-Jie; Duan, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Lin; Ma, Xin; Feng, Qin; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chinese medicine CGA formula consists of polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS), gypenosides and amygdalin, which is derived from Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) capsule for treating liver fibrosis. In this study we attempted to confirm the therapeutic effects of CGA formula in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and to identify the mechanisms of anti-fibrotic actions. Rats were injected with DMN (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 3 consecutive days per week over a 4-week period. The rats then were orally administered with CGA formula (CS-PS 60 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), gypenosides 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) and amygdalin 80 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) daily in the next 2 weeks. CS-PS, gypenosides or amygdalin alone were administered as individual component controls, whereas colchicine and FZHY were used as positive controls. Serum biomarkers were measured. Hepatic injury, collagen deposition and stellate cell activation were examined. The MMP activities, expression of TIMP protein and proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways in liver tissues were assayed. In DMN-treated rats, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and total bilirubin and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, increased serum albumin level, and attenuated liver fibrosis as shown by histological examination. Furthermore, these effects were comparable to those caused by administration of FZHY, and superior to those caused by administration of colchicine or the individual components of CGA formula. Moreover, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased the protein levels of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR-I), p-TβR-I, p-TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, TIMP1 and TIMP2, as well as MMP2 and MMP9 activities in liver tissues of DMN-treated rats. Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and this effect was likely associated with the down-regulation of MMP2/9 activities, TIMP1/2 protein expression and the TGF-β1/Smad

  20. Association of HOXA10, ZFPM2, and MMP2 genes with scrotal hernias evaluated via biological candidate gene analyses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Vukasinovic, Natascha; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Clutter, Archie C; Rothschild, Max F

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the associations between 14 biological candidate genes and scrotal hernias in pigs. 1,534 Pietrain-based pigs, including 692 individuals from 298 pig families and 842 male pigs without family information. Pigs were classified as affected or unaffected for scrotal hernias. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes were analyzed via PCR assays and genotyped. Statistical analyses were performed on the family-trio and the case-control data. 2 genes involved in collagen metabolism (homeobox A10 [HOXA10] and matrix metalloproteinases 2 [MMP2]) and 1 gene encoding zinc finger protein multitype 2 (ZFPM2, important in the development of diaphragmatic hernia) were significantly associated with hernias. Pigs with these genotypes had high odds of developing scrotal hernias in the case and control groups (2 ZFPM2 variants: odds ratio, 4.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.78 to 6.64] and 4.45[95%confidenceinterval,2.88to6.88]). Anothergene, collagentypeII A 1(COL2A1),was potentially involved in hernia development. HOXA10, ZFPM2, MMP2, and COL2A1 could have important roles in pig hernia development and potentially be useful for marker-assisted selection in the pig industry. Pigs are used for the study of many human diseases because of their physiologic similarities. Genes associated with scrotal hernias in this study may be directly used in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect in humans.

  1. GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCE IN AQUEOUS HUMOR MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES MMP-2 AND TISSUE INHIBITOR OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES IN PATIENTS WITH PSEUDOEXFOLIATION SYNDROME/GLAUCOMA

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    Gordana Zlatanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX Sy is a common age–related disorder of the extracellular matrix that is frequently associated with severe secondary chronic open-angle glaucoma and cataract. Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX gl is one of the most common causes of optic disc damage, low visual accuracy, damage of visual field and blidness. Deposits of white material on the anterior lens surface are the most consistent and important diagnostic feature of PEX syndrome/glaucoma. It is thought that PEX represents aberrant extracellular matrix synthesis. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the gender-related difference in the level of matrix metalloproetinases MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproetinases (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, TIMP-4 in aqueous humor in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome/glaucoma.Aqueous humor was aspirated during surgery from 15 patients with PEX syndrome without glaucoma, 42 patients with PEX glaucoma, 36 patients with POAG and 14 age-matched control patients with cataract during cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. Data about medical history, medications, and demographic information were obtained from case notes. In all patients we determined Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP by (measurement by Goldman aplanation tonometry, PEX appereance (determined with slet lamp examination. Fluorokine MultiAnalite Profiling kits (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN and Luminex technology (Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX were used to simultaneously measure MMP-2, and TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 in aqueous humor samples.Patients with PEX glaucoma are older and of male sex compared to the patients with POAG. Male patients with PEX glaucoma and POAG were significantly older than female patients. Patients with PEX Sy have bilateral ocular changes more often compared to other groups. There were no significant gender differences in aqueous humour MMP-2, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, TIMP-4 levels among examined groups. In the group with PEX syndrome a

  2. [Influence of puerarin on proliferative activity of human fetal scleral fibroblasts and expression of collagen type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in power frequency electromagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Q; Yang, L

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the influence of puerarin on the proliferative activity of human fetal scleral fibroblasts (HFSFs) and the expression of collagen type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in HFSFs in the power frequency electromagnetic field. HFSFs were cultured and divided into four radiation groups (0.2 mT, 50 Hz) and control group. Puerarin at concentrations of 0.0, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 μmol/L was added to the four radiation groups, respectively. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetry was used to measure the influence on the proliferative activity of HFSFs, Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to measure the protein and mRNA expression of collagen type I and MMP-2 induced by puerarin in the power frequency electromagnetic field. The radiation groups and control group showed significant increases in the proliferative activity of HFSFs over the culture time (F= 959.472 and 279.468, both Ptype I and significantly higher protein expression of MMP-2 (t=7.917 and 7.831, both Ptype I and significant reductions in the protein expression of MMP-2 (all Ptype I and MMP-2 (t=17.293 and 16.378, both Ptype I and significant reductions in the mRNA expression of MMP-2 (Ptype I, downregulate the expression of MMP-2, and thus exert its protective effect.

  3. Expression of RECK and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ameloblastoma

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    Xie Hong-Liang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ameloblastoma is a frequent odontogenic benign tumor characterized by local invasiveness, high risk of recurrence and occasional metastasis and malignant transformation. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 promotes tumor invasion and progression by destroying the extracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane. For this proteolytic activity, the endogenous inhibitor is reversion-inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between RECK and MMP-2 expression and the clinical manifestation of ameloblastoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were employed to detect the protein and mRNA expression of RECK and MMP-2 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma. Results RECK protein expression was significantly reduced in KCOT (87.5%, ameloblastoma (56.5% and ameloblastic carcinoma (0% (P Conclusion Low or no RECK expression and increased MMP-2 expression may be associated with negative clinical findings in ameloblastoma. RECK may participate in the invasion, recurrence and malignant transformation of ameloblastoma by regulating MMP-2 at the post-transcriptional level.

  4. Evaluation of sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula assa-foetida on VEGF, MMP9, MMP2 and study of biding modes using computational methods

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    Kh. Almasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula assafoetida of Apiaceae family bears sesquiterpene coumarins from phenolic class. Studies have shown that phenolic compounds at physiological concentration can inhibit two groups of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases. So, the ability of compounds of this plant to inhibit the enzymes mentioned above seems to be useful. Methods: Acetone extract of plant was prepared and sesquiterpene coumarins were purified using column chromatography and HPLC preparative analyses and their structures were elucidated. After culturing the cell to proper confluence, the cells were isolated and the supernatant was removed. The pure substances were applied on cell lines U87MG and WEHI. In the computational part, the structure has been docked in the active site of metalloproteinase, and significant interactions were determined. Subsequently, ligand-protein complexes were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation in water and thermodynamic properties were calculated. Results: In the phytochemistry field galbanic acid, mogoltadone, kellerin, polyanthin and polyanthinin were extracted from F. assafoetida. Biological investigation demonstrated significant changes in the amount and activity of matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Ligand binding to the active site of the protein was studied in computational causing conformational changes in the active site of the protein. Conclusion: Investigation revealed that the coumrins have inhibitory effects on the content and activity of MMP 2.9 and showed anti-angiogenetic effect. So, they can be potentially effective in the treatment of cancer. Interactive and competitive binding between MMP-9 and galbanic acid were studied with FT-IR, UV-Vis and fluorescence methods and MMP-9 structure was changed in these interactions.

  5. Role of serum VEGFA, TIMP2, MMP2 and MMP9 in monitoring response to adjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients with primary cervical cancer--results of a companion protocol of the randomized NOGGO-AGO phase III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicu, Elena Ioana; Gasimli, Khayal; Richter, Rolf; Nassir, Mani; Kümmel, Sherko; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Yalcinkaya, Isil; Chekerov, Radoslav; Ignat, Iulia; Ionescu, Andra; Mentze, Monika; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pop, Carmen; Lichtenegger, Werner; Sehouli, Jalid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the type of variations in expression profiles of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) before and after radiochemotherapy in patients with locally advanced FIGO stage Ib-IIb cervical cancer. We analyzed the role of these biomarkers in monitoring response to treatment. Serum from 72 patients with cervical cancer treated within a phase III trial with either simultaneous radiochemotherapy (S-RC) with cisplatin, or systemic paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by percutaneous radiation (PC-R) was analyzed by ELISA. Sera were obtained during surgery and after the end of adjuvant treatment. The median age at time of diagnosis was 46 years (range=30-71 years). The most common histological types were squamous cell (73.6%) and adenocarcinoma (25%). Thirty-five (48.6%) patients underwent surgery followed by S-RC and 37 (51.4%) patients were treated with surgery followed by PC-R. Five patients developed recurrence within six months after radiochemotherapy. VEGFA levels were significantly higher before and after adjuvant treatment in patients who developed early recurrence (p=0.001). An increase of more than 500 pg/ml VEGFA and a decrease of more than 9% of the pre-therapeutic value of TIMP2 were significantly associated with a higher risk of early recurrence (RR=8.5, 95% CI=1.8-39.8 and RR=11.0, 95% CI=2.5-48.2, respectively). TIMP2 expression and risk score for early relapse (which is calculated using values of VEGFA and TIMP2) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (p=0.043, HR=0.96, 95% CI=0.93-0.99 and p=0.002, HR=1.09, 95% CI=1.03-1.15, respectively). Our results indicate a predictive value of VEGFA and TIMP2 in monitoring cervical cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy.

  6. Efeito do treinamento resistido na avaliação da composição corporal e na atividade da MMP-2 nos músculos bíceps e gastrocnêmio de ratos obesos

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Vinicius Campos Souza

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo, foi investigar a influência do treinamento resistido na composição corporal e a atividade metaloproteinases de matrix 2 (MMP-2) nos músculos bíceps e gastrocnêmio em ratos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica. Foram avaliados 32 ratos machos Wistar divididos em quarto grupos experimentais (n=8/cada) de acordo com o tipo de dieta e o treinamento: Controle (C; dieta padrão), Controle Obeso [C-Ob; dieta: hiperlipídica (30% de gordura)], Exercício Resistido (EX; diet...

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase activation mediates CCL3-induced cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in human chondrosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, is a cytokine involved in inflammation and activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. CCL3 has been detected in infiltrating cells and tumor cells. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor that causes distant metastasis. However, the effect of CCL3 on human chondrosarcoma metastasis is still unknown. Here, we found that CCL3 increased cellular migration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in human chondrosarcoma cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the MMP-2 inhibitor or transfection with MMP-2 specific siRNA abolished CCL3-induced cell migration. CCL3 has been reported to exert its effects through activation of its specific receptor, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). The CCR5 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or siRNA also attenuated CCL3-upregulated cell motility and MMP-2 expression. CCL3-induced expression of MMP-2 and migration were also inhibited by specific inhibitors, and inactive mutants of AMPK, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 or p38-MAPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) cascades. On the other hand, CCL3 treatment demonstrably activated AMPK, p38, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the expression levels of CCL3, CCR5, and MMP-2 were correlated in human chondrosarcoma specimens. Taken together, our results indicate that CCL3 enhances the migratory ability of human chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 expression via the CCR5, AMPK, p38, and NF-κB pathways. PMID:24047437

  8. Antimetastatic Therapies of the Polysulfide Diallyl Trisulfide against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC via Suppressing MMP2/9 by Blocking NF-κB and ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathways.

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    Yuping Liu

    Full Text Available Migration and invasion are two crucial steps of tumor metastasis. Blockage of these steps may be an effective strategy to reduce the risk. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS, a natural organosulfuric compound with most sulfur atoms found in garlic, on migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of DATS were further investigated.MDA-MB-231 cells and HS 578t breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. DATS obviously suppressed the migration and invasion of two cell lines and changed the morphological. Moreover, DATS inhibited the mRNA/protein/ enzymes activities of MMP2/9 via attenuating the NF-κB pathway. DATS also inhibited ERK/MAPK rather than p38 and JNK.DATS inhibits MMP2/9 activity and the metastasis of TNBC cells, and emerges as a potential anti-cancer agent. The inhibitory effects are associated with down-regulation of the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways.

  9. Antimetastatic Therapies of the Polysulfide Diallyl Trisulfide against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) via Suppressing MMP2/9 by Blocking NF-κB and ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Yingyu; Wei, Zhonghong; Tao, Li; Zhu, Zhijie; Sheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Siliang; Ruan, Junshan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Cao, Yuzhu; Shan, Yunlong; Sun, Lihua; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Migration and invasion are two crucial steps of tumor metastasis. Blockage of these steps may be an effective strategy to reduce the risk. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a natural organosulfuric compound with most sulfur atoms found in garlic, on migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of DATS were further investigated. MDA-MB-231 cells and HS 578t breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. DATS obviously suppressed the migration and invasion of two cell lines and changed the morphological. Moreover, DATS inhibited the mRNA/protein/ enzymes activities of MMP2/9 via attenuating the NF-κB pathway. DATS also inhibited ERK/MAPK rather than p38 and JNK. DATS inhibits MMP2/9 activity and the metastasis of TNBC cells, and emerges as a potential anti-cancer agent. The inhibitory effects are associated with down-regulation of the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways.

  10. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

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    Anna Janowska-Wieczorek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  11. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide suppresses the migration and invasion of human extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells by down-regulating MMP2 through inhibition of FAK/SRC/PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Weiping; Ao, Lin; Wang, Zhi; Hao, Xianglin; Zhang, Huidong

    2017-07-01

    Moderate invasion of trophoblasts into the endometrium is crucial for successful pregnancy. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is a carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene which causes various diseases. We investigated the effects of BPDE on migration and invasion of trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Migration and invasion of cells exposed to 0.25-1.0μM BPDE for 24h were significantly inhibited. Moreover, tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) was also significantly reduced after incubation with HTR-8/SVneo cells treated with 0.5-1.0μM BPDE. The protein and mRNA levels of FAK, SRC, PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) significantly decreased with increasing BPDE concentration. The presence of SC79, activator of AKT, partially attenuates the inhibition effect of BPDE on migration and invasion, confirming the involvement of AKT pathway. Thus, BPDE suppresses migration and invasion of human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells by inhibiting the expression of FAK, SRC and PI3K, consequently down-regulating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study reveals the mechanism of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-inhibited migration and invasion of trophoblast, and enhanced our experimental understanding of the adverse effects of PAHs on embryo implantation in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of matrix metrallproteinase-2 in human tears fluid after LASIK

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    Ai-Wei Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To monitor long-term changes of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2in human tears fluid after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK. METHODS: Thirty-two myopia cases(64 eyesunderwent uneventful LASIK were enrolled in the study. Tear fluid were collected and MMP-2 expression was analyzed by Western-bolt assay preoperatively and postoperatively on 15d, at 1, 3mo, and 1a. RESULTS: LASIK increased the concentration of MMP-2 in human tear fluid. At 15d postoperatively, the magnitude of MMP-2 was 1.4 times that of preoperative, thereafter subsided, but didn't return to preoperative level by 3mo(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: MMP-2 is significantly expressed in human tear fluid after LASIK, then subsided with time, but didn't return to preoperative level by 3mo and almost recovered up to 1a, indicating wound healing of LASIK would continue up at least 3mo after surgery and almost recovered 1a postoperatively.

  13. Preexisting High Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in Tunica Media of Saphenous Vein Conduits Is Associated with Unfavorable Long-Term Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Bartlomiej Perek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Migration of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs to the tunica media in the saphenous vein (SV transplants is facilitated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. The aim of this study was to identify any associations between expression of MMP-2 or endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 in the SV segments and late failure of the SV grafts. Methods. Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 63.1 ± 8.9 years who underwent primary isolated venous CABG were examined. Patients were retrospectively split into two subgroups, with the SV graft disease (SVGD (+; or without it (SVGD (−; . In the SV segments, immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the MMP-2, TIMP-2, and -3 was performed. Results. In the SVGD (+ patients, tissue expression of MMP-2 was stronger, whereas that of both TIMPs was weaker than in the SVGD (− patients. In majority of the SV segments obtained from the SVGD (− individuals, a balance in MMP and TIMP expressions was found, whereas an upregulation of MMP-2 expression was usually noted in the SVGD (+ subjects. Conclusion. The strong expression of MMP-2 accompanied by reduced immunostaining of both TIMPs is associated with the development of the SV graft disease and unfavorable CABG outcomes.

  14. Inhibition of leukemic U937 cell growth by induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and suppression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities by cytotoxin protein NN-32 purified from Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanaya; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Biswas, Archita; Gupta, Shubho Das; Gomes, Antony; Gomes, Aparna

    2013-04-01

    A cytotoxin NN-32 (6.7 kDa) from Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom inhibited human leukemic U937 cell growth as observed by Trypan blue dye exclusion method and cytotoxicity was confirmed by MTT assay. NN-32 induced apoptosis of U937 cell and cell cycle arrest of sub-G1 phase were revealed by FACS analysis. Increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, increased caspase 3 and 9 activities, cleaved PARP, decreased VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were observed after NN-32 treatment of U937 cell. Antileukemic activity of NN-32 on U937 cell may be due to activation of apoptosis, arresting cell cycle and antiangiogenesis activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ischemic postconditioning decreases matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression during ischemia-reperfusion of myocardium in a rabbit model: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Zhi; Kong, Jing-Bo; Li, Feng-Zhi; Ma, Long-Le; Liu, Shu-Qin; Wang, Le-Xin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ischemic postconditioning on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 during ischemia-reperfusion of myocardium in a rabbit model. Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into sham, ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic postconditioning groups. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion was created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Myocardial infarction sizes were determined by dual staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and trypan blue. Plasma levels of MMP-2 were measured using ELISA. Myocardial MMP-2 messenger RNA was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mean (± SD) infarct size in the ischemic postconditioning group was significantly smaller compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group (37.1±3.8% versus 57.5±1.9%; P=0.02). The incidence of ventricular tachycardia in the ischemic postconditioning group was also lower than in the ischemia-reperfusion group (8.5% versus 75%; P=0.003). MMP-2 messenger RNA expression in the ischemic postconditioning group was significantly lower compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group (0.4944±0.0476 versus 0.6989±0.0694; P=0.02). Ischemic postconditioning reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, possibly by inhibiting the expression of MMP-2.

  16. Physical training improves visceral adipose tissue health by remodelling extracellular matrix in rats with estrogen absence: a gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda O; Gomes-Gatto, Camila do Valle; Oishi, Jorge C; Lino, Anderson Diogo de S; Stotzer, Uliana S; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda C; Gatti da Silva, Guilherme H; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S

    2017-08-01

    Adipose tissue development is associated with modifications involving extracellular matrix remodelling, and metalloproteinases play a significant role in this process. Reduced circulating sexual hormones cause impacts on the size, morphology and functions of the adipose tissue, increasing susceptibility to diseases. This study investigated whether exercise training may be an alternative strategy to combat the effects promoted by estrogen decay through modulation in gene expression patterns in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats. Nulliparous rats (n = 40) were randomly distributed into four groups (n = 10/group): sham sedentary (Sh-S), sham resistance training (Sh-Rt), ovariectomized sedentary (Ovx-S) and ovariectomized resistance training (Ovx-Rt). The Sh-S animals did not have any type of training. The body mass and food intake, ECM gene expression, gelatinase MMP-2 activity and adipocyte area were measured. A lack of estrogen promoted an increase in body mass, food intake and the visceral, parametrial and subcutaneous adipocyte areas. The ovariectomy upregulated the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TGF-β, CTGF, VEGF-A and MMP-2 activity. On the other hand, resistance training decreased the body mass, food intake and the adipocyte area of the three fat depots analysed; upregulated TIMP-1, VEGF-A and MMP-2 gene expression; downregulated MMP-9, TGF-β and CTGF gene expression; and decreased the MMP-2 activity. We speculate that resistance training on a vertical ladder could play an important role in maintaining and remodelling ECM by modulation in the ECM gene expression and MMP-2 activity, avoiding its destabilization which is impaired by the lack of estrogen. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  17. Expression of tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in renal cell carcinoma

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    Qiao Zhen-kui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in tumor invasion and metastasis and are inhibited by naturally occurring tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs. {AU Query: Please verify that corrections made to previous sentence did not alter intended meaning}. In this study, we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, membrane-type 1 (MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in renal tissue samples of renal cell cancer and examined the correlation between their expression and clinicopathological parameters. Methods Renal tissue samples from 76 patients with renal cell carcinoma were available for this study. To determine the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was carried out on tumor and normal tissues. Results Mean MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the renal cell carcinomas was significantly higher than in the normal renal tissue (P Conclusions Mean MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the renal cell carcinomas was significantly higher than in the normal renal tissue.

  18. Effect of Serum and Oxygen Concentration on Gene Expression and Secretion of Paracrine Factors by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Patrick Page

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC secrete paracrine factors that may exert a protective effect on the heart after coronary artery occlusion. This study was done to determine the effect of hypoxia and serum levels on the mRNA expression and secretion of paracrine factors. Mouse bone marrow MSC were cultured with 5% or 20% serum and in either normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions. Expression of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 was determined by RT-qPCR. Secretion into the culture media was determined by ELISA. Hypoxia caused a reduction in gene expression for MCP-1 and an increase for VEGF (5% serum, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MMP-2. Serum reduction lowered gene expression for VEGF (normoxia, MCP-1 (hypoxia, MIP-1α (hypoxia, MIP-1β (hypoxia, and MMP-2 (hypoxia and increased gene expression for MMP-2 (normoxia. The level of secretion of these factors into the media generally paralleled gene expression with some exceptions. These data demonstrate that serum and oxygen levels have a significant effect on the gene expression and secretion of paracrine factors by MSC which will affect how MSC interact in vivo during myocardial ischemia.

  19. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly...

  20. Effect of doxycycline on transforming growth factor-beta-1-induced matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression, migration, and collagen contraction in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Min; Park, Joo-Hoo; Kang, Byungjin; Lee, Seoung-Ae; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that doxycycline has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of doxycycline on the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 expression, migration, and collagen contraction, and to determine its molecular mechanism on nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDF). NPDFs were isolated from the nasal polyps of six patients. Doxycycline was used to pretreat TGF-beta-1-induced NPDFs and ex vivo organ cultures of nasal polyps. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Smad2/3 is one of the major transcription factors of TGF-beta signaling. The expression levels of MMP2 and Smad2/3 were measured by using Western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence staining. The enzymic activity of MMP2 was analyzed by using gelatin zymography. Fibroblast migration was evaluated by using transwell migration assays. Contractile activity was measured by a collagen gel contraction assay. The expression level of MMP2 in nasal polyp tissues increased in comparison with inferior turbinate tissues. TGF-beta-1-induced NPDFs were not affected by doxycycline (0-40 μg/mL). The expression levels of MMP2 and activation of Smad2/3 in TGF-beta-1-induced NPDFs and in organ cultures of nasal polyps were significantly downregulated with doxycycline pretreatment. Doxycycline also reduced TGF-beta-1-induced fibroblast migration and collagen contraction in NPDFs. Doxycycline inhibited TGF-beta-1-induced MMP2 expression, migration, and collagen contraction via the Smad2/3 signal pathways in NPDFs.

  1. Thrombospondin-2 promotes prostate cancer bone metastasis by the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 through down-regulating miR-376c expression

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    Po-Chun Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2 is a secreted matricellular glycoprotein that is found to mediate cell-to-extracellular matrix attachment and participates in many physiological and pathological processes. The expression profile of TSP-2 on tumors is controversial, and it up-regulates in some cancers, whereas it down-regulates in others, suggesting that the functional role of TSP-2 on tumors is still uncertain. Methods The expression of TSP-2 on prostate cancer progression was determined in the tissue array by the immunohistochemistry. The molecular mechanism of TSP-2 on prostate cancer (PCa metastasis was investigated through pharmaceutical inhibitors, siRNAs, and miRNAs analyses. The role of TSP-2 on PCa metastasis in vivo was verified through xenograft in vivo imaging system. Results Based on the gene expression omnibus database and immunohistochemistry, we found that TSP-2 increased with the progression of PCa, especially in metastatic PCa and is correlated with the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression. Additionally, through binding to CD36 and integrin ανβ3, TSP-2 increased cell migration and MMP-2 expression. With inhibition of p38, ERK, and JNK, the TSP-2-induced cell migration and MMP-2 expression were abolished, indicating that the TSP-2’s effect on PCa is MAPK dependent. Moreover, the microRNA-376c (miR-376c was significantly decreased by the TSP-2 treatment. Furthermore, the TSP-2-induced MMP-2 expression and the subsequent cell motility were suppressed upon miR-376c mimic stimulation. On the other hand, the animal studies revealed that the bone metastasis was abolished when TSP-2 was stably knocked down in PCa cells. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that TSP-2 enhances the migration of PCa cells by increasing MMP-2 expression through down-regulation of miR-376c expression. Therefore, TSP-2 may represent a promising new target for treating PCa.

  2. Data of the natural and pharmaceutical angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor isoleucine-tryptophan as a potent blocker of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in rat aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Kopaliani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present data are related to the research article entitled “Whey peptide isoleucine–tryptophan inhibits expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in rat aorta” [1]. Here we present data on removal of endothelium from aorta, endothelium dependent aortic relaxation and inhibition of expression of pro-MMP2 by di-peptide isoleucine–tryptophan (IW. Experiments were performed in rat aortic endothelial cells (EC and smooth muscle cells (SMC in vitro, along with isolated rat aorta ex vivo. The cells and isolated aorta were stimulated with angiotensin II (ANGII or angiotensin I (ANGI. ACE activity was inhibited by treatment with either IW or captopril (CA. Losartan was used as a blocker of angiotensin type-1 receptor. IW inhibited MMP2 protein expression induced with ANGI in a dose-dependent manner. IW was effective both in ECs and SMCs, as well as in isolated aorta. Similarly, captopril (CA inhibited ANGI-induced MMP2 protein expression in both in vitro and ex vivo. Neither IW nor CA inhibited ANGII-induced MMP2 protein expression in contrast to losartan. The data also displays that removal of endothelium in isolated rat aorta abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced with acetylcholine. However, SMC-dependent relaxation induced with sodium nitroprusside remained intact. Finally, the data provides histological evidence of selective removal of endothelial cells from aorta.

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen, and Tissue Polypeptide-Specific Antigen Expression in Egyptian Patients with Cervical Carcinoma: Relationship with Prognosis

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    Maha Imam Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a family of proteolytic enzymes produced by both stromal and tumor cells, appear to have a key role in the events leading to local invasion and metastasis by malignant neoplasms. In the present study, we evaluated the role of MMP-2, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA, and tissue polypeptide – specific antigen (TPS in cervical neoplasia. Using Western blotting and enzyme immunoassay (EIA, we analyzed 50 patients with cervical carcinoma (CC and 25 normal controls for expression of MMP-2 in tissue cell lysates. We also quantified SCCA and TPS with microparticle immunoassay and EIA, respectively. The results were correlated with human papilloma virus (HPV infection, clinicopathological findings, and disease outcome. The cutoff point for each marker was estimated from receiver operating characteristic curves. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for each marker. MMP-2, SCCA, and TPS protein expression were significantly higher in patients with CC than in normal controls. While TPS was the best marker for discriminating between patients and controls, MMP-2 was associated with an advanced tumor stage (OR, 13.9 [95% CI, 1.4-133.9] and poor histological grade (OR, 10.2 [95% CI, 1.7-60.5]. Moreover, independent of the effect of an advanced CC stage and grade, the patients' age, and the presence of HPV infection, MMP-2 was considered a strong predictor for CC recurrence (OR, 8.1 [95% CI, 1.3- 49.1]. Tissue markers may be used to select high-risk patients for early detection of and adjuvant therapy for recurrence. Our MMP-2 findings are particularly relevant to the development of protease inhibitors as a new cancer therapy approach.

  4. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, and IGF-1R. However, the mechanism through which TBA mediates changes in protein degradation is different and appears to involve only the EGFR and erbB2. Furthermore, it appears the protein kinase B pathway is involved in TBA's effects on fused BSC cultures.

  5. Combined effects of interleukin-1β and cyclic stretching on metalloproteinase expression in corneal fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pengfei; Li, Xiaona; Chen, Weiyi; Liu, Chengxing; Rong, Shuo; Wang, Xiaojun; Du, Genlai

    2016-06-10

    Corneal tensile strain increases if the cornea becomes thin or if intraocular pressure increases. However, the effects of mechanical stress on extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the corneal repair process and the corneal anomalies are unknown. In this study, the combined effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in corneal fibroblasts under cyclic stretching were investigated in vitro. Cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts were subjected to 5, 10 or 15 % cyclic equibiaxial stretching at 0.1 Hz for 36 h in the presence of IL-1β. Conditioned medium was harvested for the analysis of MMP2 and MMP9 protein production using the gelatin zymography and western blot techniques. Cyclic equibiaxial stretching changed the cell morphology by increasing the contractility of F-actin fibres. IL-1β alone induced the expression of MMP9 and increased the production of MMP2, and 5 % stretching alone decreased the production of MMP2, which indicates that a low stretching magnitude can reduce ECM degradation. In the presence of IL-1β, 5 and 10 % stretching increased the production of MMP2, whereas 15 % stretching increased the production of MMP9. These results indicate that MMP expression is enhanced by cyclic mechanical stimulation in the presence of IL-1β, which is expected to contribute to corneal ECM degradation, leading to the development of post-refractive surgery keratectasia.

  6. [The role of disequilibrium of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and their tissue inhibitors in pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Zhu, Guang-fa; Liu, Shuang; Foda, Hussein D

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1/2) in pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by hyperoxia. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hyperoxia for 24 hours group, hyperoxia for 48 hours group, and hyperoxia for 72 hours group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in hyperoxia groups were exposed to >98% oxygen in sealed cages, and the normal control group were placed outside of the cage to breathe room air. At the end of the exposure time the animals were euthanized, the right lung was removed and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was used to lavage the lung through the endotracheal catheter. The wet/dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content and the volume of pleural fluid were measured, the severity of lung injury was assessed; the expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 mRNA in lung tissue at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were assessed by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 protein in lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hyperoxia caused ALI as evidenced by the increase in lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF protein content and the volume of pleural fluid as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). RT-PCR study showed increased expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissues (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ELISA assay also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2/9 and an increase in TIMP-1 amount in BALF compared with their normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The ratios of both MMP-2 mRNA/TIMP-2 mRNA and MMP-2 protein/TIMP-2 protein were all increased in hyperoxia groups as compared with their normal control group (all P<0.01). Hyperoxia causes ALI in mice, and disturbance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 balance plays an important role in the development of hyperoxia-induced ALI in mice.

  7. The Effect of Platelet-rich Plasma on Wounds of OLETF Rats Using Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Young

    2012-01-01

    Background Complicated diabetic patients show impaired, delayed wound healing caused by multiple factors. A study on wound healing showed that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was effective in normal tissue regeneration. Nonetheless, there is no evidence that when plateletrich plasma is applied to diabetic wounds, it normalizes the diabetic wound healing process. In this study, we have analyzed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 expression to investigate the effect of PRP on diabetic wounds. Methods Twenty-four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were provided by the Tokushima Research Institute. At 50 weeks, wounds were arranged in two sites on the lateral paraspinal areas. Each wound was treated with PRP gel and physiologic saline gauze. To determine the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, which was chosen as a marker of wound healing, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed and local distribution and expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 was also observed throughout the immunohistochemical staining. Results RT-PCR and the immunohistochemical study showed that the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA expression in PRP applied tissues were higher than MMP-2, MMP-9 mRNA expression in saline-applied tissues. MMP-9 mRNA expression in wounds of diabetic rats decreased after healing began to occur. But no statistical differences were detected on the basis of body weight or fasting blood glucose levels. Conclusions This study could indicate the extracellular matrix-regulating effect observed with PRP. Our results of the acceleration of wound healing events by PRP under hyperglycemic conditions might be a useful clue for future clinical treatment for diabetic wounds. PMID:22783508

  8. Solamargine inhibits migration and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Iman Karimi; Marashi, Seyed Hassan; Kalalinia, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Solamargine is a steroidal alkaloid glycoside isolated from Solanum nigrum. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solamargine on tumor migration and invasion in aggressive human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The MTT assay was used to assess the effects of solamargine on the viability of HepG2 cells. Migration and invasion ability of HepG2 cells under solamargine treatment were examined by a wound healing migration assay and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. Western blotting assays were used to detect the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were analyzed by gelatin zymography assay. Solamargine reduced HepG2 cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. At 7.5μM solamargine decreased cell viability by less than 20% in HepG2 cells. A wound healing migration assay and Boyden chamber invasion assay showed that solamargine significantly inhibited in vitro migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. At the highest dose, solamargine decreased cell migration and invasion by more than 70% and 72% in HepG2 cells, respectively. Western blotting and gelatin zymography results showed that solamargine reduced expression and function of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins. In conclusion, the results showed that solamargine significantly inhibits migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of profibrotic genes in a murine remnant kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binxia; Vohra, Pawan K; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Misra, Khamal D; Misra, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is increased expression of several profibrotic genes, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-1 (ADAMTS-1), and fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) in a murine remnant kidney model. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was created in 10 C57BL/6 male mice (20-25 g) by performing a right nephrectomy and ligation of the upper pole of the left kidney (remnant kidney). Animals were sacrificed 42 days and 56 days later. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, ADAMTS-1, and FSP-1 was performed in the remnant kidney. Histologic evaluation of the remnant kidney was performed using Ki-67, α-smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA), hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson' trichrome staining. Kidney function was assessed using serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The mean serum BUN and creatinine levels at day 42 and day 56 were significantly higher than baseline (P Masson' trichrome, increased Ki-67, and increased α-SMA staining in the remnant kidney compared with the normal kidney. In the remnant kidney, there was increased fibrosis with increased α-SMA and Ki-67 staining and significantly increased expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, ADAMTS-1, and FSP-1. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased NDRG1 expression attenuate trophoblast invasion through ERK/MMP-9 pathway in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yufen; Wei, Jufeng; Dai, Xueli; Ye, Yuanhua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene1(NDRG1)in the placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia (PE) and its underlying mechanism on the pathophysiology of PE. The expressions of NDRG-1 in placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset PE and late-onset PE were detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot assays and fluorescence quantitative PCR. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and ERK1/2 protein were detected by western blot analysis and cell invasion assay was performed using transwell chambers in NDRG1 silenced JEG-3 cells. Compared with the normal term pregnancies, the expression of both NDRG1 mRNA and protein were significantly high in placentas from PE, and the expression of NDRG1 in early-onset PE was higher than that in late-onset PE. In NDRG1-silenced JEG-3 cells, MMP-2, MMP-9 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 protein increased obviously and the number of cells that penetrated the membrane increased. Upregulation of NDRG1 is associated with impaired trophoblast invasion in PE by inhibition ERK/MMP-2 and MMP-9 Pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of (68)Ga-labeled peptide tracer for detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiugel, Max; Kytö, Ville; Saanijoki, Tiina; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Metsälä, Olli; Ståhle, Mia; Tuomela, Johanna; Li, Xiang-Guo; Saukko, Pekka; Knuuti, Juhani; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti

    2016-12-02

    Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling after an ischemic myocardial injury. We evaluated (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 for the detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. Rats were injected with 43 ± 7.7 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 at 7 days (n = 7) or 4 weeks (n = 8) after permanent coronary ligation or sham operation (n = 5 at both time points) followed by positron emission tomography (PET). The left ventricle was cut in frozen sections for autoradiography and immunohistochemistry 30 minutes after tracer injection. Immunohistochemical staining showed MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressing cells, CD31-positive endothelial cells, and CD68-positive macrophages in the infarcted myocardium. Autoradiography showed increased tracer uptake in the infarcted area both at 7 days and 4 weeks after MI (MI-to-remote area ratio 2.5 ± 0.46 and 3.1 ± 1.0, respectively). Tracer uptake in damaged tissue correlated with the amount of CD68-positive macrophages at 7 days after MI, and CD31-positive endothelial cells at 7 days and 4 weeks after MI. The tracer was rapidly metabolized, radioactivity in the blood exceeded that of the myocardium, and tracer accumulation in the heart was not detectable by in vivo PET. (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 accumulates in the damaged rat myocardium after an ischemic injury, but tracer instability and slow clearance in vivo make it unsuitable for further evaluation.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness and outcomes in patients with bladder cancer: a correlation with smoking intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Kanda, Shigeru; Mitsunari, Kensuke; Asai, Akihiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is upregulated in malignancies and, in turn, regulates other cancer-related factors. Although HO-1 expression has been associated with cigarette smoking under various pathologic conditions, little is known about their association in patients with bladder cancer. HO-1 expression was assessed in 215 formalin-fixed bladder cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Microvessel density, lymph vessel density (LVD), proliferation index (PI), and expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -C, and -D, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were investigated by similar methods. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the pathologic role and predictive value of HO-1 expression. Our results demonstrated that HO-1 expression was positively associated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, and grade. HO-1 expression was also positively correlated with PI, LVD, and expression levels of VEGF-D, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 (P smoking intensity. Positive HO-1 expression was a significant predictor of subsequent metastasis (P = 0.008) and poor cause-specific survival (P smoking intensity. Smoking upregulated HO-1 expression, and HO-1 was associated with malignant behavior of bladder cancer. Cancer cell proliferation, lymphangiogenesis, and expression levels of VEGF-D, COX-2, and MMP-2 played important roles in these HO-1-related effects. The clinical correlations of HO-1 were regulated by a complex mechanism that depended on smoking intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression

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    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  14. Expression of metalloproteinases 1, 2, 7, 9, and 12 in human cytotrophoblastic cells from normal and preeclamptic placentas.

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    Cohen, Marie; Ribaux, Pascale; Epiney, Manuella; Irion, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a specific pregnancy disorder which could be due, at least in part, to impaired invasion of trophoblastic cells. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the predominant proteases involved in trophoblastic invasion, we investigated and compared expression of MMP-1, 2, 7, 9 and 12 of cytotrophoblastic cells (CTB) purified from preeclamptic (PE) placentas to control CTB. In order to evaluate invasive properties of cells, purified CTB were seeded on collagen-coated insert following boyden chamber principle and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression was evaluated by qPCR. Our results showed that PE CTB are less invasive than control CTB in vitro. In parallel, expression of MMPs, except for MMP-2, tends to be decreased in PE CTB compared to control CTB. At the exception of MMP-2, this study confirms the importance of MMPs in development of PE.

  15. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs.

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    Li, Jun-rong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Yan-li; Wei, Quan-wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs. Adult cyclic female guinea pigs were injected daily for 28 days with medium doses of testosterone propionate (TP; 1 mg/100g), high doses of TP (2 mg/100g), or saline (control). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. Histologic sections of ovaries were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the ovary were characterized by immunohistochemistry. After 28 days of TP injection, serum testosterone concentrations were increased dose-dependently. An appropriate dosage of TP could induce permanent anovulation in guinea pigs, making them a potential model for human polycystic ovary syndrome. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are jointly involved in the growth and atresia of ovarian follicles in cyclic guinea pigs. Increased numbers of atretic antral follicles in the ovary might be associated with the observed high expression of MMP-2 in androgenized cyclic guinea pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expressão imuno-histoquímica das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 não está associada à progressão do carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 immunohistochemistry expression is not associated to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression

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    Izabella Paz Danezi Felin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma de células escamosas do esôfago está entre os tipos mais agressivos de câncer e de pior prognóstico. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs, especialmente as MMP-2 e MMP-9, vêm sendo utilizadas para avaliação prognóstica do câncer, associadas a invasão, tamanho e crescimento tumoral. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo visa investigar as expressões imuno-histoquímicas de MMP-2 e MMP-9, avaliando se existe correlação entre sua expressão e o estadiamento tumoral, invasão vascular, invasão local (pT e diferenciação tumoral no carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo utilizando 31 blocos de parafina contendo tumores de carcinoma escamoso esofágico, obtidas por esofagectomias realizadas entre 1998 e 2003, no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM. Os cortes histológicos foram submetidos à reação imuno-histoquímica, com sistema de amplificação por polímero não-biotinilado Novolink para detecção de MMP-2 e MMP-9. RESULTADOS: A avaliação da MMP-2 apresentou positividade fraca em apenas cinco casos, não demonstrando correlação com as variáveis estudadas. Também não foram observadas associações significativas entre as variáveis do estudo e o grau de expressão imuno-histoquímica da MMP-9. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão imuno-histoquímica das MMP-2 e MMP-9 não parece ser influenciada pelos parâmetros investigados. Nesse sentido, estudos adicionais são necessários para melhor compreensão de sua associação aos fatores prognósticos do carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago.INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive malignant neoplasia with poor prognosis. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, mainly 2 and 9, has been used for the prognostic evaluation of cancer in association with tumor invasion, size and tumoral growth analysis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate

  17. Study on matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 2 gene expression and NO in dairy cows with ovarian cysts.

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    Mutlag, Ali M; Wang, Xuezhi; Yang, Zhiqiang; Meng, Jiaren; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Qin, Zhe; Wang, Guibo; Li, Jianxi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how changes in total nitric oxide (NO) and ovarian matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 correlated with luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) in infertile dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Holstein cows (n=21 infertile cows and 19 fertile) were studied during their estrous phase to minimize hormone fluctuations. Blood LH, E2 and NO were measured. Expression of the MMP-1 and MMP-2 genes in the ovaries was measured by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. LH, E2 and NO were less in infertile cows with ovarian cysts than in fertile cows (Pcows with ovarian cysts than in fertile cows (Povarian tissues, including granulosa and theca cells of preovulatory follicles, epithelial follicular cells of small follicles, stromal cells and endothelial cells of blood vessels. The results showed that a decrease in MMP-1 and MMP-2 gene expression is accompanied with a decrease in NO concentrations in infertile cows affected with ovarian cysts. The expression of these marker genes might be risk factors of infertility in cows and might correlate with the hormonal profile. The present study suggests that the abnormal expression of the MMP-1/2 gene might be an important marker of ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of neutrophil depletion on gelatinase expression, edema formation and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemic stroke

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    Machado Livia S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity is increased after focal ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain, the relative contribution of neutrophils to the MMP activity and to the development of hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. Results Anti-PMN treatment caused successful depletion of neutrophils in treated animals. There was no difference in either infarct volume or hemorrhage between control and PMN depleted animals. While there were significant increases in gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity and edema formation associated with ischemia, neutrophil depletion failed to cause any change. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that, in the absence of circulating neutrophils, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity are still up-regulated following focal cerebral ischemia. Additionally, neutrophil depletion had no influence on indicators of ischemic brain damage including edema, hemorrhage, and infarct size. These findings indicate that, at least acutely, neutrophils are not a significant contributor of gelatinase activity associated with acute neurovascular damage after stroke.

  19. Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer

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    Sol de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC, degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs: changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT values, as very high (CT≤25, high (CT=26–30, moderate (CT=31–35, low (CT=36–39, or not detected (CT=40. Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC.

  20. Relationship between metalloproteinase 2 and 9 concentrations and soluble CD154 expression in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Javad Sanchooli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play a critical role in the blood–brain barrier permeability and in invasion of the leukocytes into the central nervous system during multiple sclerosis (MS. In this respect, in the present study, we have evaluated the possible role of MMP-9 and MMP-2 on the expression of soluble CD154 (sCD154 and membrane-bound isoform of the CD154 in Iranian MS patients. The expressions of the aforementioned protein-related genes were analyzed at the levels of messenger RNA and proteins by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting. The results showed a high expression of CD154 isoforms, MMP-9 and MMP-2, in MS patients in contrast to controls (p 3-fold in patients with a higher MMPs/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1 ratio. Furthermore, secondary-progressive MS patients with exacerbate period showed higher positive correlation between increasing sCD154 concentration and overexpression of MMP-2 (p < 0.001. Our data demonstrate that following the exacerbation period, sCD154 concentration is increased in patients, which is mutually related to the MMPs/TIMP-1 ratio. This relationship may represent a new link between sCD154 concentration and the MMPs/TIMP-1 ratio with prognostic implications.

  1. Antiproliferative factor decreases Akt phosphorylation and alters gene expression via CKAP4 in T24 bladder carcinoma cells.

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    Shahjee, Hanief M; Koch, Kristopher R; Guo, Li; Zhang, Chen-Ou; Keay, Susan K

    2010-12-10

    Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor. Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a potent glycopeptide inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation that was discovered in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a disorder with bladder epithelial thinning and ulceration. APF mediates its antiproliferative activity in primary normal bladder epithelial cells via cytoskeletal associated protein 4 (CKAP4). Because synthetic asialo-APF (as-APF) has also been shown to inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations in vitro, and because the peptide segment of APF is 100% homologous to part of frizzled 8, we determined whether CKAP4 mediates as-APF inhibition of proliferation and/or downstream Wnt/frizzled signaling events in T24 cells. T24 cells were transfected with double-stranded siRNAs against CKAP4 and treated with synthetic as-APF or inactive control peptide; cells that did not undergo electroporation and cells transfected with non-target (scrambled) double-stranded siRNA served as negative controls. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Expression of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), β-catenin, p53, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) mRNA was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Akt, GSK-3β, MMP2, β-catenin, and p53 protein expression, plus Akt, GSK-3β, and β-catenin phosphorylation, were determined by Western blot. T24 cell proliferation, MMP2 expression, Akt ser473 and thr308 phosphorylation, GSK3β tyr216 phosphorylation, and β-catenin ser45/thr41 phosphorylation were all decreased by APF, whereas p53 expression, and β-catenin ser33,37/thr41 phosphorylation, were increased by APF treatment in non-electroporated and non-target siRNA-transfected cells. Neither mRNA nor total protein expression of Akt, GSK3β, or β-catenin changed in response to APF in these

  2. Gene expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases in human atherosclerotic plaques and evaluation of radiolabeled inhibitors as imaging agents for plaque vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Adrienne; Krämer, Stefanie D; Meletta, Romana; Beck, Katharina; Selivanova, Svetlana V; Rancic, Zoran; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Vos, Bernhard; Meding, Jörg; Stellfeld, Timo; Heinrich, Tobias K; Bauser, Marcus; Hütter, Joachim; Dinkelborg, Ludger M; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary cause for myocardial infarction and stroke. During plaque progression macrophages and mast cells secrete matrix-degrading proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We studied levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in relation to the characteristics of carotid plaques. We evaluated in vitro two radiolabeled probes targeting active MMPs towards non-invasive imaging of rupture-prone plaques. Human carotid plaques obtained from endarterectomy were classified into stable and vulnerable by visual and histological analysis. MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-14, TIMP-3, and CD68 levels were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize MMP-2 and MMP-9 with respect to CD68-expressing macrophages. Western blotting was applied to detect their active forms. A fluorine-18-labeled MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor and a tritiated selective MMP-9 inhibitor were evaluated by in vitro autoradiography as potential lead structures for non-invasive imaging. Gene expression levels of all MMPs and CD68 were elevated in plaques. MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were significantly higher in vulnerable than stable plaques. TIMP-3 expression was highest in stable and low in vulnerable plaques. Immunohistochemistry revealed intensive staining of MMP-9 in vulnerable plaques. Western blotting confirmed presence of the active form in plaque lysates. In vitro autoradiography showed binding of both inhibitors to stable and vulnerable plaques. MMPs differed in their expression patterns among plaque phenotypes, providing possible imaging targets. The two tested MMP-2/MMP-9 and MMP-9 inhibitors may be useful to detect atherosclerotic plaques, but not the vulnerable lesions selectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases in the mouse retina: a comparative study of expression patterns and MMP antibodies.

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    De Groef, Lies; Andries, Lien; Lemmens, Kim; Van Hove, Inge; Moons, Lieve

    2015-12-29

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of Zn(2+)-dependent endoproteases, have been shown to act as fine regulators of both health and disease. Limited research revealed that they are essential to maintaining ocular physiology and inordinate MMP activities have been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders of the retina, including age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathies (GONs). Nevertheless, a clear definition of their pathology-exacerbating and/or -resolving actions is lacking, especially in the context of GONs, as most studies thus far merely focused on expression profiling in human patients. Therefore, in an initial step towards an improved understanding of MMP functions in the retina, we studied the spatial expression pattern of MMP-2, -3, -9 and MT1-MMP in the healthy mouse retina. The spatial expression pattern of MMP-2, -3, -9 and MT1-MMP was studied in the healthy mouse retina via immunohistochemical stainings, and immunoreactivity profiles were compared to existing literature. Moreover, we considered sensitivity and specificity issues with commercially available MMP antibodies via Western blot. Basal expression of MMP-2,-3, -9 and MT1-MMP was found in the retina of healthy, adult mice. MMP-2 expression was seen in Müller glia, predominantly in their end feet, which is in line with available literature. MMP-3 expression was described for the first time in the retina, and was observed in vesicle-like structures along the radial fibers of Müller glia. MMP-9 expression, about which still discords exists, was seen in microglia and in a sparse subset of (apoptosing) RGCs. MT1-MMP localization was for the first time studied in adult mice and was found in RGC axons and Müller glia, mimicking the MT1-MMP expression pattern seen in rabbits and neonatal mice. Moreover, one antibody was selected for each MMP, based on its staining pattern in Western blot. The present MMP immunoreactivity

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in an experimental model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Lara, María de la Luz; Sánchez-Aguilar, María; Soria, Elizabeth; Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Cervantes-Pérez, Luz Graciela; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca; Ramírez-Ortega, Margarita Del Carmen; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; Oidor-Chan, Víctor Hugo; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) has been associated with an inflammatory response and a rise in TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) promote a decreased expression of inflammatory molecules. We aimed to study whether PPAR stimulation by clofibrate decreases inflammation and reduces infarct size in rats with MI. Male Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: control, MI + vehicle, and MI + clofibrate (100 mg/kg). Treatment was administered for 3 consecutive days, previous to 2 h of MI. MI induced an increase in protein expression, mRNA content, and enzymatic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Additionally, MI incited an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and IL-6. MI also elevated the nuclear content of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and decreased IκB, both in myocyte nuclei and cytosol. Clofibrate treatment prevented MI-induced changes in iNOS, MMP-2 and MMP-9, ICAM-1, IL-6, NF-κB, and IκB. Infarct size was smaller in clofibrate-treated rats compared to MI-vehicle animals. In silico analysis exhibited 3 motifs shared by genes from renin-angiotensin system, PPARα, iNOS, MMP-2 and MMP-9, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, suggesting a cross regulation. In conclusion, PPARα-stimulation prevents overexpression of pro-inflammatory molecules and preserves viability in an experimental model of acute MI.

  5. Effects of Hormones on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors in Bovine Spermatozoa

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    Sang-Hwan Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteases and protease inhibitors play key roles in most physiological processes, including cell migration, cell signaling, and cell surface and tissue remodeling. Among these, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs pathway is one of the most efficient biosynthetic pathways for controlling the activation of enzymes responsible for protein degradation. This also indicates the association of MMPs with the maturation of spermatozoa. In an attempt to investigate the effect of MMP activation and inhibitors in cultures with various hormones during sperm capacitation, we examined and monitored the localization and expression of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, as well as their expression profiles. Matured spermatozoa were collected from cultures with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and Lutalyse at 1 h, 6 h, 18 h, and 24 h. ELISA detected the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in all culture media, regardless of medium type (FSH-supplemented fertilization Brackett-Oliphant medium (FFBO, LH-supplemented FBO (LFBO, or Lutalyse-supplemented FBO (LuFBO. TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 expression patterns decreased in LFBO and LuFBO. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in FBO and FFBO progressively increased from 1 h to 24 h but was not detected in LFBO and LuFBO. The localization and expression of TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 in sperm heads was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. However, MMPs were not detected in the sperm heads. MMP and TIMP expression patterns differed according to the effect of various hormones. These findings suggest that MMPs have a role in sperm viability during capacitation. In conjunction with hormones, MMPs play a role in maintaining capacitation and fertilization by controlling extracellular matrix inhibitors of sperm.

  6. In phyllodes tumors of the breast expression of SPARC (osteonectin/BM40) mRNA by in situ hybridization correlates with protein expression by immunohistochemistry and is associated with tumor progression.

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    Kim, Nah Ihm; Kim, Ga-Eon; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The present work was undertaken to detect expression of SPARC mRNA in phyllodes tumors (PTs) and its association with SPARC protein expression. This study also evaluated expression of SPARC mRNA and its correlation between grade and clinical behavior of PTs. In addition, we assessed in PTs the association of expression of SPARC with that of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and of MMP-9. SPARC mRNA expression was determined by RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH) in 50 benign, 22 borderline, and 10 malignant PTs using a tissue microarray. Furthermore, we applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to examine expression of SPARC, MMP-2, and MMP-9. SPARC mRNA appeared to be concentrated mainly in the stromal compartment of PTs. IHC staining patterns of SPARC protein showed concordance with SPARC mRNA ISH results. Stromal SPARC expression increased continuously as PTs progress from benign through borderline to malignant PTs, both at mRNA (using ISH) (P = 0.044) and protein level (using IHC) (P = 0.000). The recurrence percentage was higher in the stromal SPARC mRNA or protein-positive group than in the SPARC-negative group but this difference was not statistically significant. Stromal SPARC mRNA and protein expression was associated with PT grade and correlated with MMP-2 expression. These results indicate that SPARC-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix, and its possible association with MMPs, might contribute to progression of PTs.

  7. Expressão imuno-histoquímica das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 não está associada à progressão do carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Paz Danezi Felin; Ivana Grivicich; Carlos Roberto Felin; Carlos Alexandre Fedrigo; Adriana Brondani da Rocha

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O carcinoma de células escamosas do esôfago está entre os tipos mais agressivos de câncer e de pior prognóstico. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs), especialmente as MMP-2 e MMP-9, vêm sendo utilizadas para avaliação prognóstica do câncer, associadas a invasão, tamanho e crescimento tumoral. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo visa investigar as expressões imuno-histoquímicas de MMP-2 e MMP-9, avaliando se existe correlação entre sua expressão e o estadiamento tumoral, invasão vascular...

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors and primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, Hope M; Casimir, Monee D; Clark, Dakota B; Sohn, Phillip; MacDougall, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) are locally invasive, rapidly proliferating cystic lesions of the jaw. The bone-invasive nature of these tumors has been previously associated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade the extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression and activity of MMPs in primary KCOT cells and tumor tissue. Four independently established KCOT primary cell populations were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotics. Primary cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and for secretion of active MMPs. Primary tumor sections were analyzed by IHC. Of the 18 human MMPs examined, 9 were consistently expressed in primary KCOT cells. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were highly expressed in all KCOT populations, while MMP-1, 3, 11, 12, 16, 17, and 19 were moderately expressed. MMP-3, 11, 12, 16, 17 and 19 were shown to be expressed in KCOTs for the first time. No significant differences in MMPS profiles were found between syndromic (KCOT-3) and non-syndromic cell populations (KCOT-1/2/4). Protein expression of MMP-1, 11, 12, 14 and 16 was confirmed in each KCOT cell populations by IHC. KCOT-3 cells secreted active MMP-2 as determined by a gel zymography assay. Expression of MMP-1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 14, and 16 was confirmed in matching primary KCOT tumor sections representing syndromic and non-syndromic KCOTs. KCOT primary cell populations and tumors express a wide range of MMPs, which likely play a role in the bone-invasive nature of these tumors.

  9. TLR3 expression correlates with apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma and predicts prognosis.

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    Yuan, Ming-Ming; Xu, Yu-Yin; Chen, Li; Li, Xing-Yu; Qin, Jing; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-09

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a key role in innate immunity. In the present study, we analyzed tissues of patients with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to determine the significance of the relationship between TLR3 expression and cell proliferation, apoptosis, hepatitis B virus infections, angiogenesis and prognosis. We collected paraffin-embedded tissues from 85 patients with HCC who had complete histories and were followed for >5 years. The expression and intracellular localization of TLR3 and downstream proteins (TRIF, NF-κB, and IRF3) were detected using immunohistochemistry. Further, we determined the expression of proteins that mediate cell proliferation (Ki67, cyclin D1), apoptosis (survivin, bcl-2, caspases 3, 8, and 9), and angiogenesis (CD34, MMP-2) as well as the HBV proteins HBsAg and HBcAg. Apoptosis in HCC tissues was detected using TUNEL. We conducted dual-labeling immunohistochemical analyses of TLR3 expression and TUNEL activity. TLR3 expression was significantly lower in HCC tissues compared with adjacent tissues. TRIF, NF-κB, and IRF3 correlated positively with TLR3 expression. Survivin and Bcl-2 expression correlated negatively with TLR3. The frequencies of caspases 3, 8, and 9 expression correlated positively with TLR3 signaling proteins. Cytoplasmic TLR3 and serum levels of HBsAg correlated positively. The apoptotic index determined using the TUNEL method and correlated positively with TLR3 expression. TLR3 expression in the cytoplasm correlated positively with TUNEL-positive cells and HBsAg. Ki67 and cyclin D1 correlated negatively with TLR3 expression. MMP-2 expression, microvessel density (CD34(+)) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) correlated negatively with TLR3 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis shows that TLR3 expression correlated with longer survival. The expression of TLR3 in HCC tissues may exert a synergistic effect on apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells, MMP-2 expression, generation of EPCs

  10. Expression of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases messenger RNA in ovarian carcinoma cells in serous effusions.

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    Davidson, B; Goldberg, I; Berner, A; Nesland, J M; Givant-Horwitz, V; Bryne, M; Risberg, B; Kristensen, G B; Tropé, C G; Kopolovic, J; Reich, R

    2001-04-01

    We studied the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, membrane-type (MT)1-MMP, MT2-MMP, and MT3-MMP in 43 malignant pleural and peritoneal effusions using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular localization of MT1-MMP in 66 effusion specimens and 85 corresponding primary and metastatic tumors using messenger RNA (mRNA) in situ hybridization (ISH). In 43 effusions, MMP-2 mRNA was detected in 37, MT1-MMP in 25, and MT2-MMP in 32. Expression of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP was found in 21 specimens; in 16 MT-MMP-positive specimens, mRNA for only 1 of 2 enzymes was expressed. MT3-MMP mRNA was not detected. High levels of MMP-2 mRNA were detected more often in effusions with high MT1-MMP and/or MT2-MMP mRNA expression. Using ISH, MT1-MMP mRNA was localized to cancer cells in 27 of 58 malignant effusions; focal signals were detected in mesothelial cells in 7 of 42. MT1-MMP was localized to tumor cells in 32 of 85 primary and metastatic solid lesions, and stromal cells expressed MT1-MMP in 3. Tumor cell MT1-MMP expression in effusion specimens did not differ from primary or metastatic lesions. MT-MMP expression in tumor cells in effusions showed no association with effusion site or tumor type using ISH and RT-PCR.

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression Profiles of Cell Adhesion Molecules, Matrix Metalloproteinases and their Tissue Inhibitors in Central and Peripheral Neoplastic Foci of Feline Mammary Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisamai, S; Rungsipipat, A; Kunnasut, N; Suriyaphol, G

    Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is a common cancer with high metastatic potential and high mortality rate. Loss of cell-cell interactions and degradation of the extracellular matrix by proteinases enhances tumour invasion and metastasis. Peripheral neoplastic foci (PNF) are defined as the presence of discrete tumour cell clusters, splitting off from central neoplastic foci (CNF) and lodging around these CNF. PNF therefore locate at the tumour-host interface at the site of invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically the expression of cell adhesion molecules (e-cadherin [CDH-1], syndecan 1 [SDC-1] and nectin-2), matrix metalloproteinases (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1 and TIMP-2) together with the cellular proliferation marker, Ki67, in CNF and PNF of FMCs of different clinical stages and histological grades. Compared with control sections from areas of mammary gland hyperplasia, lower expression of MMP-7 and TIMP-2 was observed in all stages. Increased expression of TIMP-1 was observed in PNF in early-stage disease with no metastasis, while marked expression of CDH-1 and Ki67 occurred in late-stage FMC. In addition, the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in PNF of tumours with high histological grade (grade III) was higher than in low-grade tumours. The observed divergent protein expression in PNF could potentially form the basis of acting as novel markers in FMC. Potential markers may include the expression of TIMP-1 in PNF in early stage lesions, the expression of CDH-1 and Ki67 in late stages and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in high-grade tumours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher EZH2 expression is associated with extramedullary infiltration in acute myeloid leukemia.

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    Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Lingxiu; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Fang; Jiang, Ling; Yu, Guopan; Wang, Zhixiang; Yin, Changxin; Jiang, Xuejie; Zhong, Qingxiu; Zhou, Hongsheng; Ding, Bingjie; Wang, Chunli; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) promotes the metastatic ability of solid tumors, but the role of EZH2 in extramedullary infiltration (EMI) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, we investigated the possible association between EZH2 and EMI. We found that the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of EZH2 in AML patients were both significantly higher than in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. Furthermore, a positive correlation between EZH2 mRNA expression and percentage of peripheral blood blasts wa s found in AML patients (r = 0.404, p = 0.009). The migratory capacities of Kasumi-1 and HL-60, which both show a high level of EZH2 expression, were markedly higher than those of U937 and KG-1α. In contrast, silencing of EZH2 resulted in reduction in proliferation and migration ability and an increase in apoptosis. The latter observation was accompanied by reduced expression of associated proteins p-ERK, p-cmyc, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and an increase in epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). These data suggest that higher expression of EZH2 may be associated with extramedullary infiltration in acute myeloid leukemia and affect pathogenesis via activation of the p-ERK/p-cmyc/MMP-2 and E-cadherin signaling pathways.

  13. Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Its Association with Migration of Cultured Trabecular Meshwork Cells.

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    Kim, Jae Woo

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the migration of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and its association with expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Primary human TM cells treated with 1 or 10 µM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and examined for changes in adherence. TM cells were seeded onto transwell culture inserts, and changes in their migratory activity were quantified. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the relative changes in mRNA expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Treatment with SNAP did not significantly suppress TM cell adhesion or migration (p > 0.05). Treatment of TM cells with 10 µM SNAP decreased expression of MMP-2 and increased expression of membrane type MMP-1 and TIMP-2. Treatment with interleukin-1α triggered MMP-3 expression but did not exert significant effects on MMP-3 activation in response to SNAP. These data suggest that NO revealed no significant effect on the migration of TM cells because NO decreased MMP-2 and increased TIMP-2 expression. Although expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs change in response to NO donors, NO may modulate trabecular outflow by changing the cellular production of extracellular matrix without having a significant effect on the migration of TM cells.

  14. An inhibitory effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist to gene expression in monocrotalineinduced pulmonary hypertensive rats model

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    Jung Hyun kwon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?#6185;s thought to contribute to pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to investigate the effect of infliximab (TNF-?#6177;ntagonist treatment on pathologic findings and gene expression in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model. Methods: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: control (C, single subcutaneous injection of normal saline (0.1 mL/kg; monocrotaline (M, single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg; and monocrotaline + infliximab (M+I, single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline plus single subcutaneous injection of infliximab (5 mg/kg. The rats were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7, 14, or 28 days. We examined changes in pathology and gene expression levels of TNF-?#6188;endothelin-1 (ET-1 , endothelin receptor A (ERA , endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS , matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP . Results: The increase in medial wall thickness of the pulmonary arteriole in the M+I group was significantly lower than that in the M group on day 7 after infliximab treatment (P&lt;0.05. The number of intraacinar muscular arteries in the M+I group was lower than that in the M group on days 14 and 28 (P &lt; 0.05. Expression levels of TNF-?#6944;ET-1, ERA, and MMP2 were significantly lower in the M+I group than in the M group on day 5, whereas eNOS and TIMP expressions were late in the M group (day 28. Conclusion: Infliximab administration induced early changes in pathological findings and expression levels of TNF-?#6944;and MMP2 in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model.

  15. Doxycycline down-regulates matrix metalloproteinase expression and inhibits NF-κB signaling in LPS-induced PC3 cells.

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    Ogut, Deniz; Reel, Buket; Gonen Korkmaz, Ceren; Arun, Mehmet Zuhuri; Cilaker Micili, Serap; Ergur, Bekir Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMPs) play important role in inflammation, malignant cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by mediating extracellular matrix degradation. Doxycycline, a synthetic tetracycline, behaves as a MMP inhibitor at a subantimicrobial dose and inhibits tumor cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. The aberrant activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) causes activation of MMPs and thereby proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of doxycycline on the expression of MMPs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PC3 human prostate cancer cells and the possible role of NF-κB signaling. PC3 cells were incubated with LPS (0.5 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of doxycycline (5 μg/mL). The effects of LPS and doxycycline on the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, NF-κB/p65, IκB-α, p-IκB-α, IKK-β were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in PC3 cells. Furthermore, relative proteinase activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography. LPS increased expression and activity of MMP-9 and expression of MMP-8, MMP-10, NF-κB /p65, p-IκB-α, IKK-β and doxycycline down-regulated its effects with the exception of MMP-10 expression. The expression of MMP-2 and IκB-α was affected by neither LPS nor doxycycline. Our findings indicate that doxycycline inhibits the expression of various MMPs and NF-κB signaling may play a role in the regulation of MMPs expression in LPS-induced PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

  16. The influence of oral copper-methionine on matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression and activation in right-sided heart failure induced by cold temperature: A broiler chicken perspective.

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    Bagheri Varzaneh, Mina; Rahmani, Hamidreza; Jahanian, Rahman; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Perreau, Corinne; Perrot, Gwenn; Brézillon, Stéphane; Maquart, François-Xavier

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the expression, activation and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the heart of broiler chickens reared in cold conditions and fed with copper-methionine supplement at different levels. The chickens (n=480) were randomly allotted to six treatments and four replicates. Treatments included two rearing temperatures (i.e. normal and cold temperatures) each combined with three levels of supplemental copper-methionine (i.e. 0, 100 and 200mg/kg). On d 38 and 45 of age, four broilers from each treatment were sacrificed and their hearts were stored at -80°C. Right-sided heart failure, as evident from abdominal and pericardial fluid accumulation, was observed in broilers under cold stress and not receiving supplemental copper. This clinical observation was confirmed at molecular level through increased MMP-2 expression, activation and activity in this group. Birds reared under normal temperature, however, were not involved in right-sided heart failure nor benefitted from copper-methionine supplementation. In contrast, gelatin zymography and real-time PCR demonstrated that dietary supplementation with copper-methionine decreased pro-MMP-2 and MMP-2 in the heart of chickens reared in cold conditions. However, gelatin reverse zymography did not show any difference between treatments in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2. Level of supplementation showed similar effects on parameters determined. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with copper-methionine reduced right-sided heart failure at clinical and molecular levels in cold-stressed chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-20 and Potential Interaction with Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in Human Major Salivary Glands.

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    Koli, Komal; Saxena, Geetu; Ogbureke, Kalu U E

    2015-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) expression is widely regarded as tooth-specific, with expression limited to dental hard tissues. Necessary for sound enamel formation, MMP-20 and MMP-2 proteolytically process dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) into dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, and dentin glycoprotein during tooth formation. In the mid-2000s, three members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) were reported to bind specifically with high affinity (nM) to, and activate, three MMPs in vitro: bone sialoprotein with MMP-2; osteopontin with MMP-3; and dentin matrix protein1 with MMP-9. The SIBLING-MMP interaction was confirmed in biological systems such as the ducts of salivary glands, where all five members of the SIBLINGs are expressed. Recently, we documented MMP-20 expression and interaction with DSPP (another member of the SIBLING family) in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Here we report the expression of MMP-20, and confirm its co-expression and potential interaction with DSPP in human major salivary gland tissues and cell line using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot, quantitative RT-PCR, and proximity ligation assay. This report reinforces our earlier suggestion that the SIBLING-MMP complexes may be involved in the turnover of extracellular proteins damaged by oxidation byproducts in metabolically active duct epithelial systems. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. RUNX3 expression is lost in glioma and its restoration causes drastic suppression of tumor invasion and migration.

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    Mei, Peng-Jin; Bai, Jin; Liu, Hui; Li, Chen; Wu, Yong-Ping; Yu, Zheng-Quan; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the expression of RUNX3 is related to the development of glioma, and the role of RUNX3 in glioma cells growth, invasion and migration. We analyzed the protein expression of RUNX3 by immunohistochemistry in 188 glioma tissues, 8 normal brain tissues and 8 tumor adjacent normal brain tissues using tissue microarray technique. We studied whether RUNX3 restoration can suppress glioma cells growth, invasion and migration by performing MTT cell proliferation assay, matrigel cell invasion assay, wound-healing assay and migration assay. We also detected MMP-2 protein expression and enzyme activity by western blot analysis and gelatin zymography. We found that RUNX3 expression was decreased in benign tumor and malignant tumor compared with tumor adjacent normal brain tissue (P migration abilities. This reduced cell invasion and migration abilities were due to MMP-2 protein expression and enzyme activity suppression after RUNX3 restoration. Our data indicated that RUNX3 expression is significantly decreased in human glioma, and targeting of the RUNX3 pathway may constitute a potential treatment modality for glioma.

  19. Enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activation by Hexachlorobenzene in human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Florencia; Bastón, Juan Ignacio; Vaccarezza, Agustina; Singla, José Javier; Pontillo, Carolina; Miret, Noelia; Farina, Mariana; Meresman, Gabriela; Randi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide that induces toxic reproductive effects in laboratory animals. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. Experimental studies indicate that exposure to organochlorines can interfere with both hormonal regulation and immune function to promote endometriosis. Altered expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with endometriosis, suggests that MMPs may play a critical role. In the endometriotic lesions, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), binds to its EP4 receptor (EP4), and via c-Src kinase induces MMPs activation, promoting endometriosis. We examined the HCB action on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and expression, COX-2 levels, PGE2 signaling, and the AhR involvement in HCB-induced effects. We have used different in vitro models: (1) human endometrial stromal cell line T-HESC, (2) primary cultures of Human Uterine Fibroblast (HUF), and (3) primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells from eutopic endometrium of control (CESC) and subjects with endometriosis (EESC). Our results show that HCB enhances MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in T-HESC, HUF and ESC cells. The MMP-9 levels were elevated in all models, while the MMP-2 expression only increased in ESC cells. HCB enhanced COX-2 and EP4 expression, PGE2 secretion and the c-Src kinase activation in T-HESC. Besides, we observed that AhR is implicated in these HCB-induced effects. In conclusion, our results show that HCB exposure could contribute to endometriosis development, affecting inflammation and invasion parameters of human endometrial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Clinicopathologic Features in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Amir Hossein Jafarian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the most important and common types of head and neck malignancy, with an estimated rate of 4% among all human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association between expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.   Materials and Methods: One hundred existing samples of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens of OSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 antibodies. Samples were divided into four groups: negative, 50%. Patient records were assessed for demographic characteristics such as age and gender, smoking and family history of OSCC as well as tumor features including location, differentiation, stage and lymph node involvement.   Results: In this study, 58 patients (58% were male and 42 (42% female. The mean age of patients was 60.38±14.07 years. The average number of lymph nodes involved was 8.9±3.8. Tumoral grade, tumoral stage, lymphatic metastasis and history of smoking were significantly related to MMP2 and MMP9 expression.   Conclusion:  Our study demonstrated that MMP2 and MMP9 expression are important in the development of OSCC.

  1. Ras activation mediates WISP-1-induced increases in cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase expression in human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Lin; Tsai, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Zhen-Wei; Wu, Chi-Ming; Li, Te-Mao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-12-01

    WISP-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of matrix cellular proteins. Osteosarcoma is a type of highly malignant tumor with a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis. However, the effect of WISP-1 on migration activity in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. In this study, we first found that the expression of WISP-1 in osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than that in normal bone and corrected with tumor stage. Exogenous treatment of osteosarcoma cells with WISP-1 promoted cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, the Ras and Raf-1 inhibitor or siRNA abolished WISP-1-induced cell migration and MMP expression. On the other hand, activation of the Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-κB signaling pathway after WISP-1 treatment was demonstrated, and WISP-1-induced expression of MMPs and migration activity were inhibited by the specific inhibitor, and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB cascades. Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of osteosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through the integrin receptor, Ras, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, and NF-κB signal transduction pathway. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metalloproteinase expression is altered in cardiac and skeletal muscle in cancer cachexia.

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    Devine, Raymond D; Bicer, Sabahattin; Reiser, Peter J; Velten, Markus; Wold, Loren E

    2015-08-15

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction is a recognized effect of cancer-induced cachexia, with alterations in heart function leading to heart failure and negatively impacting patient morbidity. Cachexia is a complex and multifaceted disease state with several potential contributors to cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes capable of degrading components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Changes to the ECM cause disruption both in the connections between cells at the basement membrane and in cell-to-cell interactions. In the present study, we used a murine model of C26 adenocarcinoma-induced cancer cachexia to determine changes in MMP gene and protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle. We analyzed MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-14 as they have been shown to contribute to both cardiac and skeletal muscle ECM changes and, thereby, to pathology in models of heart failure and muscular dystrophy. In our model, cardiac and skeletal muscles showed a significant increase in RNA and protein levels of several MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Cardiac muscle showed significant protein increases in MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-14, whereas skeletal muscles showed increases in MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-14. Furthermore, collagen deposition was increased after C26 adenocarcinoma-induced cancer cachexia as indicated by an increased left ventricular picrosirius red-positive-stained area. Increases in serum hydroxyproline suggest increased collagen turnover, implicating skeletal muscle remodeling. Our findings demonstrate that cancer cachexia-associated matrix remodeling results in cardiac fibrosis and possible skeletal muscle remodeling. With these findings, MMPs represent a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer-induced cachexia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Relationship between metalloprotease expression in tumour and stromal cells and aggressive behaviour in prostate carcinoma: Simultaneous high-throughput study of multiple metalloproteases and their inhibitors using tissue array analysis of radical prostatectomy samples.

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    Fernandez-Gomez, Jesus; Escaf, Safwan; Gonzalez, Luis-Ovidio; Suarez, Aurelio; Gonzalez-Reyes, Salome; González, Jose; Miranda, Oscar; Vizoso, Francisco

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to detect a potential association between clinicopathological factors of prostate cancer aggressiveness and the expression of matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors in tumour and stromal cells. A tissue array technique and immunochemistry with specific antibodies against matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs)-1, 2 and 3 were used to analyse the surgical specimens of 133 patients treated by radical prostatectomy. For each antibody preparation, the cellular location of immunoreactivity was determined. The expression of MMP-2 was negatively associated with high tumour grade. With regard to stromal fibroblasts, TIMP-3 expression was positively associated with histological grade. MMP-7 expression was negatively associated with pretreatment serum levels of PSA, whereas MMP-13 was positively associated with higher levels of the antigen. TIMP-2 expression by mononuclear inflammatory cells correlated significantly and negatively with tumour grade. The expression of TIMP-3 by fibroblasts was associated with a higher Gleason score. An increased expression of MMP-13 by fibroblasts was associated with a greater preoperative level of PSA. In contrast, MMP-2 expression by tumour as well as TIMP-2 expression by peritumoral inflammatory cells was associated with less aggressive prostate carcinoma characteristics.

  4. Downregulation of CD147 expression by RNA interference inhibits HT29 cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Xu, Yeqiong; Gao, Tianyi; Song, Guoqi; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Wang, Shukui

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of CD147 silencing on HT29 cell proliferation and invasion. We constructed a novel short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector pYr-mir30-shRNA. The plasmid was transferred to HT29 cells. The expression of CD147, MCT1 (lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 1) and MCT4 (lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 4) were monitored by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. The MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activities were determined by gelatin zymography assay, while the intracellular lactate concentration was determined by the lactic acid assay kit. WST-8 assay was used to determine the HT29 cell proliferation and the chemosensitivity. Invasion assay was used to determine the invasion of HT29 cells. In addition, we established a colorectal cancer model, and detected CD147 expression in vivo. The results showed that the expression of CD147 and MCT1 was significantly reduced at both mRNA and protein levels, and also the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was reduced. The proliferation and invasion were decreased, but chemosensitivity to cisplatin was increased. In vivo, the CD147 expression was also significantly decreased, and reduced the tumor growth after CD147 gene silencing. The results demonstrated that silencing of CD147 expression inhibited the proliferation and invasion, suggesting CD147 silencing might be an adjuvant gene therapy strategy to chemotherapy.

  5. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

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    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of acupuncture at GV20 and ST36 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, aquaporin 4, and aquaporin 9 in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Hong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is characterized by high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2, aquaporin (AQP 4, and AQP9 are linked to permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI. BBB disruption, tissue inflammation, and MMP/AQP upregulation jointly provoke brain edema/swelling after CIRI, while acupuncture and electroacupuncture can alleviate CIRI symptoms. This study evaluated the hypothesis that acupuncture and electroacupuncture can similarly exert neuroprotective actions in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by modulating MMP2/AQP4/APQ9 expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. METHODS: Eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group S, MCAO model group M, acupuncture group A, electroacupuncture group EA, and edaravone group ED. The MCAO model was established by placement of a suture to block the middle carotid artery, and reperfusion was triggered by suture removal in all groups except group S. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture were administered at acupoints GV20 (governing vessel-20 and ST36 (stomach-36. Rats in groups A, EA, and ED received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or edaravone, respectively, immediately after MCAO. Neurological function (assessed using the Modified Neurological Severity Score, infarct volume, MMP2/AQP4/AQP9 mRNA and protein expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration were all evaluated at 24 h post-reperfusion. RESULTS: Acupuncture and electroacupuncture significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological function. Furthermore, target mRNA and protein levels and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly reduced in groups A, EA, and ED vs. group M. However, MMP2/AQP levels and inflammatory cell infiltration were generally higher in groups A and EA than in group ED except MMP2 mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture and electroacupuncture at GV20 and ST36

  7. Modulatory activities of Zingiber offiinale Roscoe methanol extract on the expression and activity of MMPs and TIMPs on dengue virus infected cells

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    Binita Koirala Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ZOM rhizome on the activity and expression profile of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 at the mRNA level in dengue virus infected Vero cells. Methods: Total phenolic content and [6]-gingerol content in ZOM were determined by utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and high performance liquid chromatography. IC50 value of ZOM for Vero cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Vero cells were infected with dengue virus to induce MMPs production. Modulatory effect of ZOM on the activity and expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were demonstrated by using gelatin zymography and real time RT-PCR respectively. Results: Amount of total phenolics in ZOM in terms of mg gallic acid equivalents/g was (252.89 ± 0.56 and it possessed (137.32 ± 2.47 mg [6]-gingerol content per gram of extract. The IC 50 value of ZOM was 221.5 µg/mL for Vero cells. The activities of MMP-2 and to a lesser extent MMP-9 were significantly enhanced in the conditioned media collected from the dengue virus infected Vero cells compared to conditioned media from non-infected cells and their activities were significantly inhibited by ZOM in dose-dependent manner. ZOM significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated the mRNA expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in dengue virus infected Vero cells in concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that ZOM may be effective in the control of dengue-virus-induced permeability through the reduction of activities and expression of proteases which degrade the adhesion molecules between cells. This may provide the basis for developing new and effective methods in controlling severe dengue complications.

  8. Gene expression profiling of fixed tissues identified hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 as biomarkers of lymph node metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Xiang, Zuo-Lin; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Fan, Jia; Tang, Zhao-You; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Gao, Dong-Mei

    2011-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most often develops in patients infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Differential gene expression profiling is useful for investigating genes associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM). We screened genes to identify potential biomarkers for LNM in HCC. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed specimens of paired intratumoral and peritumoral tissues of patients with lymph node-positive (n = 36) or negative (n = 36) HCC. A cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay was done with an array of 502 known cancer-related genes to identify differentially expressed genes in 20 pairs of patients with or without LNM. Candidate biomarkers were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays in an independent cohort of 309 HCC patients who had undergone hepatectomy. Of the 309 patients, 235 (76.1%) patients were infected with hepatitis B. Compared with lymph node-negative patients, lymph node-positive patients had 17 overexpressed genes and 19 underexpressed genes in intratumoral tissues, and 25 overexpressed genes and 22 underexpressed genes in peritumoral tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 were selected for analysis in the cohort of 309 HCC patients. We found that intratumoral protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, and MMP-2 were independent risk factors for developing LNM. We identified 83 cancer genes that were differentially expressed in lymph node-positive and lymph node-negative HCC. Our findings show that the combination of intratumoral HIF-1α, VEGF, and MMP-2 may be useful as a molecular prediction model for LNM. ©2011 AACR.

  9. Expression of matrix-metalloproteases in the fluid of chronic diabetic foot wounds treated with a protease absorbent dressing.

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    Motzkau, M; Tautenhahn, J; Lehnert, H; Lobmann, R

    2011-05-01

    It is well known, that wound healing in diabetes is impaired. Persistently high levels of matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs) contribute to wound persistence. The topical use of protease-inhibitors might beneficially affect wound healing. 19 patients with chronic diabetic foot lesions (Wagner/Armstrong 2A) were studied. 6 patients received "good standard wound care", 13 patients were treated with a protease-inhibitor-modulating-matrix (ORC/collagen matrix) that was changed daily. At day 1 and 5 biopsies were taken from the wounds; wound fluids were collected daily. Biopsies were analysed using quantitative real-time-PCR and all samples were analysed using ELISA and zymography for MMPs, TIMPs, IL 1-β and TNFα levels. No differences in mRNA-expression of MMPs, TNFα and for MMP levels in wound tissue were detected between both groups or between the 2 sampling time points. MMP-2 active was significantly reduced in wound fluids of ORC/collagen treated lesions (p=0.043) after 5 days. MMP-2 pro was also reduced by about 25% when compared to increasing levels in the control group (+27%). We observed a significant reduction of the wound area in the ORC/collagen group (p=0.003). Local treatment with a protease-inhibitor has a beneficial effect on wound healing. In contrast to unchanged mRNA-levels and protein levels of MMPs there was a clear reduction of MMP-2-levels in wound fluids. Our data support the potential role of ORC/collagen as a wound dressing. Modulation of MMPs appears to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic diabetic wounds. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  11. miRNA and target gene expression in menstrual endometria and early pregnancy decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Gao, Shujun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liyan; Chen, Xiujuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The role of miRNAs in modulating gene expression in decidualization remains to be determined. We performed a comparative study to identify miRNAs and their potential mRNA targets with different expression levels between endometrium and decidua. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of the miR-146b-5p, miR-181b-5p, miR-424, miR-532, miR-199a-3p, miR-423, miR-22-3p, let-7i-5p, and miR-1 and the predicted target genes IGF2R, LEPR, SGK1, MMP2, MMP10, LIF, IL6, and STAT3 in menstrual endometria and early pregnancy decidua. miR-146b-5p, miR-181b-5p, miR-424, miR-532, and miR-199a-3p were significantly downregulated in early pregnancy decidua, while miR-423, miR-22-3p, let-7i-5p, and miR-1 were significantly upregulated. In addition, the decidua had significantly lower levels of expression of LIF, IL6, MMP2, MMP10, and IGF2R and higher levels of expression of SGK1, LEPR, PROK1, and STAT3 than the menstrual endometria group. Our results provide new insights into the expression of miRNAs that regulate genes involved in decidualization and the maintenance of early pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.

  13. Pinus densiflora extract protects human skin fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs and increasing type I procollagen expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet (UV light can cause skin photoaging, which is associated with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and downregulation of collagen synthesis. It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9, decrease the elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of Pinus densiflora extract (PDE on photoaging and investigated its mechanism of action in human skin fibroblast (Hs68 cells after UVB exposure using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity assays. PDE exhibited an antioxidant activity and inhibited elastase activities in vitro. We also found that PDE inhibited UVB-induced cytotoxicity, MMP-1 production and expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 mRNA in Hs68 cells. In addition, PDE decreased UVB-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-2 mRNA expression. Moreover, PDE prevented the decrease of type I procollagen mediated by exposure to UVB irradiation, an effect that is linked to the upregulation and downregulation of Smad3 and Smad7, respectively. Another effect of UV irradiation is to stimulate activator protein 1 (AP-1 activity via overexpression of c-Jun/c-Fos, which, in turn, upregulates MMP-1, -3, and -9. In this study, we found that PDE suppressed UV-induced c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PDE regulates UVB-induced expression of MMPs and type I procollagen synthesis by inhibiting AP-1 activity and restoring impaired Smad signaling, suggesting that PDE may be useful as an effective anti-photoaging agent.

  14. Oridonin effectively reverses the drug resistance of cisplatin involving induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of MMP expression in human acute myeloid leukemia cells

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    Yuan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is the first generation platinum-based chemotherapy agent. However, the extensive application of cisplatin inevitably causes drug resistance, which is a major obstacle to cancer chemotherapy. Oridonin is a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens with potent anticancer activity. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of oridonin to reverse the cisplatin-resistance in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. The effect of oridonin on human AML cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell migration and invasion assays in cisplatin-resistant human AML cells. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. The inhibitive effect of oridonin in vivo was determined using xenografted nude mice. In addition, the expressions of MMP2 and MMP9 were detected by Western blot. There was a synergistic antitumor effect between cisplatin and oridonin on cisplatin-resistant human AML cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the combination of cisplatin and oridonin synergistically induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the combination treatment not only inhibited AML cell migration and invasion, but more significantly, decreased the expressions of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins. Our results suggest that the synergistic effect between both agents is likely to be driven by the inhibition of MMP expression and the resulting increased apoptosis.

  15. Reduced Scleral TIMP-2 Expression Is Associated With Myopia Development: TIMP-2 Supplementation Stabilizes Scleral Biomarkers of Myopia and Limits Myopia Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Hua; Kenning, Megan S; Jobling, Andrew I; McBrien, Neville A; Gentle, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the endogenous regulation pattern of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in the tree shrew sclera during myopia development and investigate the capacity of exogenous TIMP-2 to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in vitro and both scleral collagen degradation and myopia development in vivo. TIMP-2 expression in the sclera during myopia development was assessed using polymerase chain reaction. In vitro TIMP-2 inhibition of MMP-2 was investigated using a gelatinase activity plate assay and zymography. Tree shrews were injected with a collagen precursor before undergoing monocular form deprivation and concurrent daily subconjunctival injections of either TIMP-2 or vehicle to the form-deprived eye. In vivo ocular biometry changes were monitored, and scleral tissue was collected after 12 days and assayed for collagen degradation. The development of myopia was associated with a mean reduction in TIMP-2 mRNA expression after 5 days of form deprivation (P myopia development (P Myopia development in mammals is associated with reduced expression of TIMP-2, which contributes to increased degradative activity in the sclera. It follows that replenishment of this TIMP-2 significantly reduced the rate of both scleral collagen degradation and myopia development.

  16. Over-Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-D Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasion in Endometrial Cancer

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    Yuan Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001, and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003, deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001 and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006. In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we

  17. Expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz e de seus inibidores teciduais em carcinomas basocelulares Expression of matrix metalloproteinasis and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell carcinoma

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    Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Aproximadamente 80% das neoplasias malignas de pele não-melanomas são carcinomas basocelulares (CBC. Apesar das raras metástases, esses tumores são localmente agressivos. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs, especialmente as MMP-2 e 9, são importantes no processo de invasão. Em contrapartida, os inibidores teciduais das MMPs (TIMPs têm como principal função a inibição dessas enzimas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação de variáveis clinicopatológicas de pacientes portadores de CBC com a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 e TIMP-2. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 31 casos de CBC, sendo então obtidos, retrospectivamente, os dados referentes a idade, sexo e tamanho da lesão. Cortes histológicos das lesões foram submetidos a reação imuno-histoquímica pela técnica estreptavidina-biotina-peroxidase para detecção dos antígenos de interesse. Índices de imunomarcação foram construídos e comparados com os dados previamente obtidos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação significativa entre idade e tamanho da lesão (R = 0,532; p = 0,008. Não foram observadas correlações significativas entre as outras variáveis e a expressão imuno-histoquímica dos antígenos de interesse. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão das metaloproteinases e de seus inibidores teciduais não parece ser influenciada pelos parâmetros investigados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para melhor compreensão de sua associação com o comportamento biológico do CBC.INTRODUCTION: Approximately 80% of non-melanoma skin neoplasias are basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Although metastasis is rare, BBC carcinomas are locally aggressive tumors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role on the invasion process. On the other hand, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs have the main function of inhibiting these enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological variables of BCC patients with the

  18. Folic Acid Modulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression, Alleviates Neuropathic Pain, and Improves Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranpuri, Gurwattan S.; Meethal, Sivan Vadakkadath; Sampene, Emmanuel; Chopra, Abhishek; Buttar, Seah; Nacht, Carrie; Moreno, Neydis; Patel, Kush; Liu, Lisa; Singh, Anupama; Singh, Chandra K.; Hariharan, Nithya; Iskandar, Bermans; Resnick, Daniel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The molecular underpinnings of spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with neuropathic pain (NP) are unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP2 play a critical role in inducing NP following SCI. Promoter methylation of MMPs is known to suppress their transcription and reduce NP. In this context, it has been shown in rodents that folic acid (FA), an FDA approved dietary supplement and key methyl donor in the central nervous system (CNS), increases axonal regeneration and repair of injured CNS in part via methylation. Purpose Based on above observations, in this study, we test whether FA could decrease MMP2 expression and thereby decrease SCI-induced NP. Methods Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250–270 g received contusion spinal cord injuries (cSCIs) with a custom spinal cord impactor device that drops a 10 g weight from a height of 12.5 mm. The injured rats received either i.p. injections of FA (80 µg/kg) or water (control) 3 days prior and 17 days post-cSCI (mid phase) or for 3 days pre-cSCI and 14 days post-cSCI ending on the 42nd day of cSCI (late phase). The functional neurological deficits due to cSCI were then assessed by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores either on post-impaction days 0 through 18 post-cSCI (mid phase) or on days 0, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 (late phase). Baseline measurements were taken the day before starting treatments. Thermal hyperalgesia (TH) testing for pain was performed on 4 days pre-cSCI (baseline data) and on days 18, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-cSCI. Following TH testing, animals were euthanized and spinal cords harvested for MMP-2 expression analysis. Result The FA-treated groups showed higher BBB scores during mid phase (day 18) and in late phase (day 42) of injury compared to controls, suggesting enhanced functional recovery. There is a transient decline in TH in animals from the FA-treated group compared to controls when tested on days 18, 21, 28, and 35

  19. Adjunct effect of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to an association of non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment in modulation of gene expression: a human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Patrícia F; Garlet, Gustavo P; Silva, João S; Fernandes, Patrícia G; Milanezi, Cristiane; Novaes, Arthur B; Palioto, Daniela B; Grisi, Marcio F M; Taba, Mário; Souza, Sérgio L S

    2013-09-05

    This study has evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used in conjunction with non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment (PT) in modulating gene expression during periodontal wound healing. Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, presenting bilaterally lower molars with class III furcation lesions and scheduled for extraction, were selected. In initial therapy, scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed in the Control Group (CG), while SRP+aPDT were performed in the Test Group (TG). 45days later, flap surgery plus SRP, and flap surgery plus SRP+aPDT were performed in the CG and TG, respectively. At 21days post-surgery, the newly formed granulation tissue was collected, and Real-time PCR evaluated the expression of the genes: tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to mRNA levels for MMP-2 (TG=3.26±0.89; CG=4.23±0.97; p=0.01), TIMP-2/MMP-2 ratio (TG=0.91±0.34; CG=0.73±0.32; p=0.04), OPG (TG=0.84±0.45; CG=0.30±0.26; p=0.001), and OPG/RANKL ratio (TG=0.60±0.86; CG=0.23±0.16; p=0.04), favoring the TG. The present data suggest that the aPDT associated to nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy may modulate the extracellular matrix and bone remodeling by up regulating the TIMP- 2/MMP-2 and OPG/RANKL mRNA ratio, but the clinical relevance needs to be evaluated in further studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Largazole, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin, E-mail: Salah.Ahmed@utoledo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Riegsecker, Sharayah; Beamer, Maria; Rahman, Ayesha; Bellini, Joseph V. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Bhansali, Pravin; Tillekeratne, L.M. Viranga [Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1–5 μM) had no adverse effect on the viability of RA synovial fibroblasts. Among the different class I HDACs screened, LAR (0.5–5 μM) inhibited the constitutive expression of HDAC1 (0–30%). Surprisingly, LAR increased class II HDAC [HDAC6] by ∼ 220% with a concomitant decrease in HDAC5 [30–58%] expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. SAHA (5 μM), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, also induced HDAC6 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. Pretreatment of RA synovial fibroblasts with LAR further enhanced TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. However, LAR inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts by 35% when compared to the TNF-α-treated group. Further, the addition of HDAC6 specific inhibitor Tubastatin A with LAR suppressed TNF-α + LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and completely blocked MMP-2 activity, suggesting a role of HDAC6 in LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LAR also enhanced TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-AKT expression, but inhibited the expression of phospho-JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in RA synovial fibroblasts. These results suggest that LAR activates p38 and Akt pathways and influences class II HDACs, in particular HDAC6, to enhance some of the detrimental effects of TNF-α in RA synovial fibroblasts. Understanding the exact role of different HDAC isoenzymes in RA pathogenesis is extremely important in order to develop highly effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RA. - Highlights: • Largazole enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. • Largazole upregulates class II HDAC (HDAC6) in RA synovial fibroblasts. • Largazole also induces the expression of phospho-p38

  1. Extracellular protease mRNAs are predominantly expressed in the stromal areas of microdissected mouse breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Pennington, Caroline J; Almholt, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    cells. We have now used laser capture microdissection and real-time PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of components of matrix-degrading proteolytic systems in cancer and stromal areas of mouse mammary tumors genetically induced by the polyoma virus middle T (PyMT) antigen. We examined the mRNA levels......Solid tumors synthesize a number of extracellular matrix-degrading proteases that are important for tumor progression. Based on qualitative in situ hybridization studies in human cancer tissue, a range of components involved in proteolysis appear to be expressed by stromal cells rather than cancer......RNAs for MMP-2, -3 and -13 in the PyMT tumors. Statistical analyses indicated that the quantitative expression patterns observed in cancer and stromal cells isolated from individual tumors from different PyMT mice are quite reproducible. The methodology described in this study provides excellent tools to study...

  2. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and lysyl oxidase in myocardial samples from dogs with end-stage systemic and cardiac diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfara, Sonja; Hetzel, Udo; Tew, Simon R; Cripps, Peter; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Clegg, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    To compare the degree of mRNA expression for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), and lysyl oxidase in myocardial samples from dogs with cardiac and systemic diseases and from healthy control dogs. Myocardial samples from the atria, ventricles, and septum of 8 control dogs, 6 dogs with systemic diseases, 4 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and 5 dogs with other cardiac diseases. Degrees of mRNA expression for MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -13; TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4; and lysyl oxidase were measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay. Histologic examination of the hearts was performed to identify pathological changes. In myocardial samples from control dogs, only TIMP-3 and TIMP-4 mRNA expression was detected, with a significantly higher degree in male versus female dogs. In dogs with systemic and cardiac diseases, all investigated markers were expressed, with a significantly higher degree of mRNA expression than in control dogs. Furthermore, the degree of expression for MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was significantly higher in dogs with DCM than in dogs with systemic diseases and cardiac diseases other than DCM. Expression was generally greater in atrial than in ventricular tissue for MMP-2, MMP-13, and lysyl oxidase in samples from dogs with atrial fibrillation. Degrees of myocardial MMP, TIMP, and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression were higher in dogs with cardiac and systemic diseases than in healthy dogs, suggesting that expression of these markers is a nonspecific consequence of end-stage diseases. Selective differences in the expression of some markers may reflect specific pathogenic mechanisms and may play a role in disease progression, morbidity and mortality rates, and treatment response.

  3. Purification and characterization of bioactive his6-tagged recombinant human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) protein expressed at high yields in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lena Vinther; Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Andersen, Elisabeth Veyhe

    2014-01-01

    as -independent, and probably related to TIMP-1 levels of protein expression, post-translational modifications, and cellular localization. TIMP-1 is an N-glycosylated protein that folds into two functional domains, a C- and an N-terminal domain, with six disulfide bonds. Furthermore, TIMP-1 is processed in the N...... was bioactive as shown by its proper inhibitory effect on MMP-2 activity, and its stimulatory effect on cell growth when added to the growth medium of four different breast cancer cell lines. This study provides an easy set-up for large scale production and purification of bioactive, tagged recombinant human...

  4. Involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the expression of extracellular matrix genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Emanuel Ramos de Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous senile degenerative diseases including retinal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a link between proteasome regulation and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE-mediated expression of extracellular matrix genes. For this purpose, human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 were treated with different concentrations of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, interferon-γ (IFNγ and the irreversible proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin. First, cytotoxicity and proliferation assays were carried out. The expression of proteasome-related genes and proteins was assessed and proteasome activity was determined. Then, expression of fibrosis-associated factors fibronectin (FN, fibronectin EDA domain (FN EDA, metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor-γ (PPARγ was assessed. The proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin strongly arrested cell cycle progression and down-regulated TGFβ gene expression, which in turn was shown to induce expression of pro-fibrogenic genes in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, epoxomicin induced a directional shift in the balance between MMP-2 and TIMP-1 and was associated with down-regulation of transcription of extracellular matrix genes FN and FN-EDA and up-regulation of the anti-fibrogenic factor PPARγ. In addition, both CTGF and TGFβ were shown to affect expression of proteasome-associated mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggest a link between proteasome activity and pro-fibrogenic mechanisms in the RPE, which could imply a role for proteasome-modulating agents in the treatment of retinal disorders characterized by RPE-mediated fibrogenic responses.

  5. Silencing CAPN2 Expression Inhibited Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells Proliferation and Invasion via AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway

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    Pu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA expression of CAPN2 was upregulated in CRPC cells (DU145 and PC3 than that in non-CRPC cells. Silencing CAPN2 expression could inhibit DU145 and PC3 cells proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Knockdown of CPAN2 level suppressed the migration and invasion capacity of CRPC cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation, as well as repressing the phosphorylation protein expression of AKT and mTOR. In addition, we found that the expression of CAPN2 was elevated in Pca tissues than that in normal control tissues. Therefore, we showed the important roles of CAPN2 in the development and progression in CRPC cells, suggesting a new therapeutic intervention for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

  6. Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptors Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells: Sweet Molecules Act as Biased Agonists

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    Itaru Kojima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs. Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca2+ and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP. Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin, distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.

  7. Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptors Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells: Sweet Molecules Act as Biased Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Medina, Anya; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs). Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP). Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin), distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.

  8. Knockdown of LI-cadherin alters expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiongfang; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Huangyan; Dong, Weiguo; Gao, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Liver-intestine cadherin (LI-cadherin), a novel member of the cadherin family, has been associated with the ability of a tumor to acquire an aggressive phenotype in several types of cancer. However, the exact function of LI-cadherin in the process of tumor invasion and metastasis remains predominantly unknown. To explore the effect of LI-cadherin on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and galectin-3 in LoVo human colorectal cancer cells, a RNA interference technique was applied to suppress the expression of LI‑cadherin. Subsequently, the mRNA levels and activities of MMP-2 and -9 were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and gelatin zymography, respectively. Additionally, the protein expression level of galectin-3 was determined by western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-silencing of LI-cadherin significantly increased the mRNA levels and activities of MMP‑2 and ‑9, and significantly reduced the protein levels of galectin‑3 in LoVo cells compared with control shRNA (P<0.05). These data indicate that knockdown of LI‑cadherin facilitates the invasion of cancer cells by degrading extracellular matrix components via activation of MMP‑2 and ‑9, and increases cancer cell adhesion and migration via altered expression of galectin‑3. This suggests that LI‑cadherin serves an important role in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and may be used as a potential therapeutic target.

  9. MMP9 expression in oesophageal adenocarcinoma is upregulated with visceral obesity and is associated with poor tumour differentiation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allott, Emma H

    2011-11-28

    Overweight and obesity is linked to increased incidence and mortality of many cancer types. Of all cancers, oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) displays one of the strongest epidemiological links with obesity, accounting for up to 40% of cases, but molecular pathways driving this association remain largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms underpinning the association of obesity and cancer, and to determine if visceral obesity is associated with aggressive tumour biology in OAC. Following co-culture with visceral adipose tissue explants, expression of genes involved in tumour cell invasion and metastasis (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9) were upregulated between 10-fold (MMP2) and 5000-fold (MMP9), and expression of tumour suppressor p53 was downregulated 2-fold in OAC cell lines. Western blotting confirmed these results at the protein level, while zymographic analysis detected increased activity of MMPs in OAC cell lines following co-culture with adipose tissue explants. When OAC cell lines were cultured with adipose tissue conditioned media (ACM) from visceral adipose tissue, increased proliferative, migratory and invasive capacity of tumour cells was observed. In OAC patient tumour biopsies, elevated gene expression of MMP9 was associated with visceral obesity, measured by visceral fat area, while increased gene expression of MMP9 and decreased gene expression of tumour suppressor p53 was associated with poor tumour differentiation. These novel data highlight an important role for visceral obesity in upregulation of pro-tumour pathways contributing to aggressive tumour biology, and may ultimately lead to development of stratified treatment for viscerally obese OAC patients. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Exosomes expressing carbonic anhydrase 9 promote angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Kengo; Kawakami, Kyojiro; Fujita, Yasunori; Sugaya, Maki; Kameyama, Koji; Mizutani, Kosuke; Deguchi, Takashi; Ito, Masafumi

    2017-10-21

    Exosomes or microvesicles that are secreted from cells are considered to play important roles in tumor microenvironment. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), which is induced by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) in response to hypoxia, is overexpressed in many types of cancer including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We examined the expression level of CA9 in several RCC cell lines and found that the basal level of CA9 was much higher in OSRC-2 cells than in Caki-1, KMRC-1 and 786-O cells. Consistent with the intracellular expression levels, CA9 was abundantly detected in exosomes isolated by ultracentrifugation from OSRC-2 cells. Density gradient centrifugation of OSRC-2 and 786-O exosomes confirmed the co-presence of CA9 with exosomal markers. Upon hypoxia and treatment with CoCl2, a hypoxia mimic agent, the CA9 level in exosomes was increased for all cell lines. In order to examine the effects of CA9 exosomes on angiogenesis, we generated stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing CA9. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated the uptake of CA9 exosomes by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In vitro angiogenesis assays using HUVEC revealed that CA9 exosomes promoted migration and tube formation. Lastly, MMP2 expression was increased by treatment with CA9 exosomes in HUVEC. Taken together, our results suggest the possibility that CA9 exosomes released from hypoxic RCC may enhance angiogenesis in microenvironment, thereby contributing to cancer progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening Thai plants for DNA protection, anti-collagenase and suppression of MMP-3 expression properties

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    Kittisak Buddhachat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the suppression effect of six Thai plants on matrix-degrading enzymes such as collagenase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Methods: Six Thai plant extracts, Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri, Vernonia cinerea, Pluchea indica, Rhinocanthus nasutus (R. nasutus, Zingiber cassumunar (Z. cassumunar and Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis were tested for total phenolic content, antioxidant, DNA protection, anti-collagenase properties and inhibitory effects on IL-1β-acitvated MMP-3 expression. Additionally, the ethanolic extracts of P. niruri and Z. cassumunar were assessed for MMP-2 and -9 production using gelatin zymography. Results: An evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content revealed that the ethanolic extract of P. niruri had the highest activity (72.17 and 93.05 mg gallic/g extract, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of P. niruri, Vernonia cinerea, R. nasutus and C. quadrangularis performed a strong activity of DNA protection against hydroxyl radicals. The extracts of C. quadrangularis, R. nasutus and P. niruri (IC50 = 0.3, 0.82 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively possessed good activity for the inhibition of bacterial collagenase activity. Using the promoter activity assay, the ethanolic extract of P. niruri and Z. cassumunar (IC50 = 26.94 and 27.82 µg/mL, respectively decreased IL-1β-stimulated MMP-3 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells (SW1353 cells. Besides, both the ethanolic extracts of P. niruri and Z. cassumunar could alleviate the production of MMP-2 and -9 in IL-1β-activated SW1353. Conclusions: Taken together, the ethanolic extract of P. niruri had several beneficial effects.

  12. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-03-22

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC.

  13. Cell-type specific segregation of transcriptional expression of glial genes in the rat peripheral neurotumor RT4 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, N; Imada, S; Sueoka, N

    1993-12-15

    Four types of cells, RT4-AC (stem cell type), RT4-B and RT4-E (neuronal cell types), and RT4-D (glial cell type) were previously isolated from an ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induced rat peripheral neurotumor RT4. In a phenomenon termed cell-type conversion, RT4-AC spontaneously and permanently gives rise to the three other cell types in culture. In the RT4 system the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 beta protein genes segregates in a cell-type specific manner. To further characterize the RT4 family, the expression of four myelin-forming glial genes--P0 glycoprotein, suppressed cAMP inducible POU (SCIP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), and myelin basic protein (MBP)--has been studied in the RT4 cell lines. In addition to these genes, the expression of the low-affinity nerve growth factor (LNGF) receptor (expressed in immature Schwann cells) has been examined. We have found the following results. 1) The stem cell type RT4-AC and the glial cell type RT4-D express mRNA transcripts of P0, SCIP, and CNP (the larger form, 2.8 kb), and the amount of mRNA of these genes was increased by forskolin. 2) RT4-AC and RT4-D also express a low level of MBP mRNA upon forskolin treatment. 3) The neuronal cell types RT4-B and RT4-E do not express any of these myelin-forming glial genes with or without forskolin treatment. 4) The LNGF receptor mRNA is expressed in RT4-AC and RT4-D and at a lower level in RT4-B; its expression is stimulated by forskolin.

  14. The effect of inositol hexaphosphate on the expression of selected metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in IL-1β-stimulated colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Małgorzata; Wawszczyk, Joanna; Jurzak, Magdalena; Hollek, Andrzej; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have repeatedly been shown to play a very active role in extracellular matrix degradation associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are well-known for their ability to inhibit MMP activity thereby inhibiting malignant progression. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 phytic acid) has been recognized to have both preventive and therapeutic effects against various cancers including that of colon. In in vitro studies, IP6 has been demonstrated to inhibit cancer cell adhesion and migration. In the present study, the effect of IP6 on the expression of MMP and TIMP genes was evaluated in unstimulated and IL-1β-stimulated colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Real-time QRT-PCR was used to validate the transcription level of selected MMP and TIMP genes in Caco-2 cells after treatment with 1 ng/ml of IL-1β, 2.5 mM of IP6, and both for 6, 12, and 24 h. Stimulation of cells with IL-1β only resulted in an overexpression of MMP and their TIMP mRNAs. A significant decrease in MMP-13, MMP-3, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 basal expression was achieved by IP6. IP6 was also an efficient downregulator of MMP-1, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 genes transcription stimulated by IL-1β in 6 h lasting culture. After 12 h, IL-1β-induced MMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly reduced by IP6. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β upregulates MMP and TIMP mRNAs expression in colon cancer epithelial cells Caco-2. IP6 (2.5 mM) influences constitutive expression of both MMP and TIMP genes and downregulates IL-1β stimulated transcription of some of these genes. IP6 exerts its anti-metastatic activity through modulation of MMP and TIMP genes expression to prevent cancer cell migration and invasion.

  15. Tumor Grade versus Expression of Invasion-Related Molecules in Astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virga, József; Bognár, László; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Zahuczky, Gábor; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Tóth, Judit; Hutóczki, Gábor; Reményi-Puskár, Judit; Steiner, László; Klekner, Almos

    2018-01-01

    Peritumoral infiltration is characteristic of astrocytomas even in low-grade tumors. Tumor cells migrate to neighbouring tissue and cause recurrence. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a role in tumor invasion; expression levels of its components' have been linked to tumor invasion. This study determines the mRNA and protein expression of 20 invasion-related ECM components by examining non-tumor brain; grade I-II-III astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. Expression levels were measured by QRT-PCR and mass-spectroscopy. The connection between the expression pattern and tumor grade is statistically analyzed. During the analysis of data, key molecules (brevican, cadherin-12, fibronectin and integrin-β1) correlating the most with tumor grade were selected. While the mRNA level of brevican, ErbB2, fibronectin, integrin-β1 and versican discriminates low-grade from high-grade gliomas, of proteins RHAMM, integrin-α1 and MMP2 seems important. The expression pattern was found to be distinctive for tumor grade, as statistical classifiers are capable of identifying an unknown sample's grade using them. Furthermore, normal brain and glioma expression patterns, along with low-grade astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples, differ the most. Determining the invasion-related molecules' expression profile provides extra information regarding the tumor's clinical behavior. Additionally, identifying molecules playing a key role in glioma invasion could uncover potential therapeutic targets in the future.

  16. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases increases in X-irradiated rat ileum despite the disappearance of CD8a T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strup-Perrot, Carine; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine; Vandamme, Marie; Linard, Christine; Mathé, Denis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate their expression and activity in the rat ileum after exposure to ionizing radiation along with that of the cellular effectors and molecular mediators involved in the regulation of MMPs. METHODS: Rats were exposed to a single 10-Gy dose of X-rays delivered to the abdomen. A combination of methods, such as zymography, immunohistochemistry and real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, were used to localize and quantify MMPs and the molecules involved in MMP activating and inhibitory pathways (plasmin/plasminogen, TIMPs), CD8+, as well as inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α) and fibrogenic mediators (transforming growth factor-β1-3) within ileal tissue at 1, 3, and 7 d after irradiation. RESULTS: A marked increase in MMP-2 and -14 mRNA and protein levels associated with an increased activity of MMP-2 was observed in irradiated ileal tissue. MMP-2 and -14 expression was mainly observed in inflammatory, epithelial, and mesenchymal cells, whereas a slight increase in MMP-3 expression was detected in the few infiltrating macrophages at d 1 after irradiation. Conversely, MMP-1, -7, and -9 mRNA levels were not found to be affected by abdominal irradiation. Irradiation was found to induce disappearance of CD8+ cells. Furthermore, we have observed that TNF-α and IL-1β protein levels increased 6 h after irradiation, whereas those of IL-8 only increased after 3 d and was concomitant with neutrophil infiltration. In addition, the expressions of molecules involved in MMP activating and inhibitory pathways (urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator; TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1) were found to be increased after abdominal irradiation. CONCLUSION: This study showed that abdominal irradiation induces an acute remodeling of the ileum associated with an increased expression of MMPs and TIMPs that do not involve CD8+ T cells but involve mesenchymal and

  17. Lycopene Inhibits Metastasis of Human Liver Adenocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 Cells by Downregulation of NADPH Oxidase 4 Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhou, Bo-Yi; Song, Tuzz-Ying; Lee, Inn; Hu, Miao-Lin; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2017-08-16

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), with the sole function to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be a molecular target for disrupting cancer metastasis. Several studies have indicated that lycopene exhibited anti-metastatic actions in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of NOX4 in the anti-metastatic action of lycopene remains unknown. Herein, we first confirmed the anti-metastatic effect of lycopene (0.1-5 μM) on human liver adenocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. We showed that lycopene significantly inhibited NOX4 protein expression, with the strongest inhibition of 64.3 ± 10.2% (P lycopene. Lycopene also significantly inhibited NOX4 mRNA expression, NOX activity, and intracellular ROS levels in SK-Hep-1 cells. We then determined the effects of lycopene on transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced metastasis. We found that TGF-β (5 ng/mL) significantly increased migration, invasion, and adhesion activity, the intracellular ROS level, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 activities, the level of NOX4 protein expression, and NOX activity. All these TGF-β-induced effects were antagonized by the incubation of SK-Hep-1 cells with lycopene (2.5 μM). Using transient transfection of siRNA against NOX4, we found that the downregulation of NOX4 could mimic lycopene by inhibiting cell migration and the activities of MMP-9 and MMP-2 during the incubation with or without TGF-β on SK-Hep-1 cells. The results demonstrate that the downregulation of NOX4 plays a crucial role in the anti-metastatic action of lycopene in SK-Hep-1 cells.

  18. Metformin reduces hepatic expression of SIRT3, the mitochondrial deacetylase controlling energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Buler

    Full Text Available Metformin inhibits ATP production in mitochondria and this may be involved in the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the drug. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 is a mitochondrial protein deacetylase that regulates the function of the electron transport chain and maintains basal ATP yield. We hypothesized that metformin treatment could diminish mitochondrial ATP production through downregulation of SIRT3 expression. Glucagon and cAMP induced SIRT3 mRNA in mouse primary hepatocytes. Metformin prevented SIRT3 induction by glucagon. Moreover, metformin downregulated constitutive expression of SIRT3 in primary hepatocytes and in the liver in vivo. Estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRα mediates regulation of Sirt3 gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. ERRα mRNA expression was regulated in a similar manner as SIRT3 mRNA by glucagon, cAMP and metformin. However, a higher metformin concentration was required for downregulation of ERRα than SIRT3. ERRα siRNA attenuated PGC-1α mediated induction of SIRT3, but did not affect constitutive expression. Overexpression of the constitutively active form of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK induced SIRT3 mRNA, indicating that the SIRT3 downregulation by metformin is not mediated by AMPK. Metformin reduced the hepatocyte ATP level. This effect was partially counteracted by SIRT3 overexpression. Furthermore, metformin decreased mitochondrial SIRT3 protein levels and this was associated with enhanced acetylation of several mitochondrial proteins. However, metformin increased mitochondrial mass in hepatocytes. Altogether, our results indicate that metformin attenuates mitochondrial expression of SIRT3 and suggest that this mechanism is involved in regulation of energy metabolism by metformin in the liver and may contribute to the therapeutic action of metformin.

  19. IL-17A promotes the migration and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells by coordinately activating MMPs expression via the p38/NF-κB signal pathway.

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    Minjuan Feng

    Full Text Available IL-17A plays an important role in many inflammatory diseases and cancers. We aimed to examine the effect of IL-17A on the invasion of cervical cancer cells and study its related mechanisms.Wound healing and matrigel transwell assays were used to examine the effect of IL-17A on cervical cancer cell migration and invasion by a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. The levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs were investigated using western blotting. The activity of p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway was detected too.Here, we showed that IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Further molecular analysis showed that IL-17A could up-regulate the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and down-regulate the expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Furthermore, IL-17A also activates p38 signal pathway and increased p50 and p65 nuclear expression. In addition, treatment of cervical cancer cells with the pharmacological p38/NF-κB signal pathway inhibitors, SB203580 and PDTC, potently restored the roles of invasion and upregulation of MMPs induced by IL-17A.IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cell via up-regulating MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and down-regulating TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression via p38/NF-κB signal pathway. IL-17A may be a potential target to improve the prognosis for patients with cervical cancer.

  20. Platelet-Rich Plasma Attenuates 30-kDa Fibronectin Fragment-Induced Chemokine and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression by Meniscocytes and Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Lee, Chian-Her; Peng, Yi-Jen; Salter, Donald M; Lee, Herng-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Proteolytic fragments of fibronectin have catabolic effects on cartilage and menisci. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used to treat a range of joint conditions, but it is unknown whether PRP influences fibronectin fragment (FN-f) procatabolic activity. The procatabolic activity of FN-f on meniscocytes and articular chondrocytes is attenuated by cotreatment with PRP. Controlled laboratory study. Human meniscocytes were treated with FN-f (30 kDa) with or without PRP coincubation, and gene expression was analyzed by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Validation of altered expression of known and novel chemokine and protease genes was undertaken by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in articular chondrocytes and meniscocytes. Chemokine release was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intracellular pathway signaling was evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Microarray analysis and RT-PCR showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 (CXCL8), CCL5, CCL20, and CXCL10 chemokines in meniscocytes after treatment with FN-f. Upregulation of these genes was significantly attenuated by PRP. Similar results were seen with articular chondrocytes, although no changes in MMP2 or MMP9 levels were identified. PRP-induced suppression of gene expression was associated with activation of Akt and p44/p42. PRP treatment attenuates the 30-kDa FN-f-induced expression of a range of proinflammatory chemokines and MMPs, including IL-8, IL-6, CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10, MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13, by both meniscocytes and articular chondrocytes. These observations provide support for the use and further trials of PRP in management of cartilage and meniscal injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. HIF1 Contributes to Hypoxia-Induced Pancreatic Cancer Cells Invasion via Promoting QSOX1 Expression

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    Chen-Ye Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1, which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to form disulfide bonds in proteins, is found to be over-expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and patients. QSOX1 promotes invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by activating MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, its regulatory mechanism remains largely undefined. Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blot were employed to detect the expression of QSOX1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines under hypoxic condition. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays were used to assess the regulation of QSOX1 by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was applied to knock down endogenous expression of QSOX1. Matrigel-coated invasion chamber essays were conducted to detect the invasion capacity of QSOX1-depleted cells. Results: Both hypoxia and hypoxia mimicking reagent up-regulated the expression of QSOX1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HIF-1α eliminated hypoxia induced QSOX1 expression. HIF-1α was found directly bound to two hypoxia-response elements (HRE of QSOX1 gene, both of which were required for HIF-1 induced QSOX1 expression. Moreover, QSOX1 silencing blocked hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer cells invasion. Conclusion: QSOX1 is a direct target of HIF-1 and may contribute to hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer cells invasion.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of WNT5A and MMPs in odontogenic epithelial tumors and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Antunes, Daniella Moraes; Saturno, Juvani Lago; Massuda, Fabiola; Paiva, Katiúcia Batista da Silva; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was compare the expression of WNT5A and MMP2, 7 and 20, in frequent benign odontogenic tumors and odontogenic cysts, since these lesions have a different biological behavior. Eighty-one paraffin-embedded specimens of odontogenic tumors, including ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, and thirty-two odontogenic cysts were used for immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of WNT5A in odontogenic tumors and inflammatory cyst was higher than in developmental odontogenic cyst. There was no statistical difference (ptumors. The expression of MMP7 was lower in RC with a statistical difference when compared with all tumors and cysts. Statistical differences also occurred when comparing glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) to keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KOT) and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT). MMP20 expression was higher in ameloblastoma when compared to adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), DC and GOC. The expression of MMP20 was lower in CCOT when compared to all tumors and cysts. The expression of WNT5A in a group of odontogenic lesions suggests the participation of a non-canonical WNT signaling pathway in the progression and maintenance of these lesions. These molecules are possibly involved in the biological differences between odontogenic tumors and cysts. Considering previous studies, WNT5A may help promote the calcification seen in AOT, CCOT and CEOT by activating MMP7. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-dependent matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases expression change in fusarium solani keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Gao, Xin-Rui; Cui, Hong-Ping; Lang, Li-Li; Xie, Xiu-Wen; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression during the progress of fusarium solani (F.solani) keratitis in a rat model. A rat model of F.solani keratitis was produced using corneal scarification and a hand-made contact lens. MMPs and TIMPs expressiond were explored in this rat model of F.solani keratitis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DIF. GM6001 (400 µmol/mL) was used to treat infected corneas. The keratitis duration, amount and area of corneal neovascularization (CNV) were evaluated. MMP-3 expression was 66.3 times higher in infected corneas compared to normal corneas. MMP-8, -9, and -13 expressions were significantly upregulated in the mid-period of the infection, with infected-to-normal ratios of 4.03, 39.86, and 5.94, respectively. MMP-2 and -7 expressions increased in the late period, with the infected-to-normal ratios of 5.94 and 16.22, respectively. TIMP-1 expression was upregulated in the early period, and it was 43.17 times higher in infected compared to normal corneas, but TIMP-2, -3, and -4 expressions were mildly downregulated or unchanged. The results of DIF were consistent with the result of real-time PCR. GM6001, a MMPs inhibitor, decreased the duration of F.solani infection and the amount and area of CNV. MMPs and TIMPs contributed into the progress of F.solani keratitis.

  4. Cytokines secreted by glial cells infected with HTLV-I modulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their natural inhibitor (TIMPs): possible involvement in neurodegenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudon, P; Buart, S; Bernard, A; Belin, M F

    1997-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) known to be fundamental to normal physiological processes, also contribute to several pathologies associated with uncontrolled tissue degradation. Recent observation of MMPs and TIMPs in the central nervous system suggest they could play a role in the neurodegenerative process following viral infection. We have investigated the expression of these molecules in human and rat glial cells infected with retrovirus HTLV-I, the causative agent of HTLV-I associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We report that cytokines secreted by infected glial cells are responsible for the increased expression of MMP-3, MMP-9 and TIMP-3, while MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 remained stable. The role of dysregulated MMPs/TIMPs in the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM may be related to various functions of these proteases, namely degradation of the blood-brain barrier, myelin constituent cleavage and conversion of inactive TNF-precursor to active form.

  5. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased expression levels of cell cycle regulators and matrix metalloproteinases in melanoma from RET-transgenic mice by single irradiation of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Machiko; Omata, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Chihiro; Yajima, Ichiro; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kato, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Since effective therapies for melanoma with BRAF(V600E) mutation are being developed, interest has been shown in the development of therapies for melanoma without BRAF(V600E) mutation. Recently, interest has also been shown in medical application of non-nequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas (NEAPPs). We previously suggested that repeated NEAPP irradiation to spontaneously developed benign melanocytic tumors in RFP-RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice) not only suppresses tumor growth but also prevents malignant transformation. In this study, we first confirmed that transcript expression levels of tumor growth regulators (CyclinD1, D2, E1, E2, G2 and PCNA but not CyclinG1) and tumor invasion regulators [Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9 and -14 and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM)] in melanomas were significantly higher than those in benign melanocytic tumors in RET-mice. We then showed that transcript expression levels of CyclinE1, G1 and G2 and MMP-2 and -9 in melanomas from RET-mice were significantly decreased by single NEAPP irradiation, whereas transcript expression levels of CyclinD1, D2, E2, PCNA, MCAM and MMP-14 were comparable in untreated and NEAPP-treated melanomas. Since no Braf(V600E) mutation melanomas have been found in RET-mice, our results suggest that single NEAPP irradiation is a potential therapeutic tool for melanoma without BRAF(V600E) mutation through modulation of the expression levels of tumor growth and invasion regulators.

  7. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  8. Hemodynamic regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9: roles in angiogenesis and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Von Offenberg Sweeney, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the flow of blood are crucial in maintaining homeostasis within the blood vessel wall. These forces, namely cyclic strain and shear stress are intricately involved in vascular remodeling, a process which underlies the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Since degradation of the extracellular matrix scaffold enables reshaping of tissue, the role matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has become the object of intense recen...

  9. Structure and function of MMP-2 and its inhibitor TIMP-2

    OpenAIRE

    Tuuttila, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Animal cells secrete various enzymes capable of degrading the extracellular matrix. One of the most studied groups of these are the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This group of zinc containing endopeptidases consists at present of 26 members and this number is still increasing. MMPs have partially overlapping specificity for various extracellular matrix substrates. Lately this specificity has extended to proteins outside the matrix surrounding cells and organs. MMPs a...

  10. Active MMP-2 Activity Discriminates Colonic Mucosa, Adenomas with and without High Grade Dysplasia and Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Mary Jo; Cai, Jinguo; Shuja, Sania; McAneny, David; Willett, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Pathologic assessment of colorectal adenomas, a complex task with significant inter-observer variability, typically defines the scheduling of surveillance colonoscopies following removal of adenomas. We have characterized the activity levels of pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as potential markers of pathologic progression during colorectal tumorigenesis. Endogenous fully activated matrix metalloproteinase-2, in particular, has been studied less frequently in adenomas due to difficulties in detection. For this report, tissues (n=119) from 51 individuals were extracted and assayed on gelatin zymograms with digital standardization to nanogram quantities of purified active controls. Resulting data were assessed by graphical and multinomial logit regression analyses to test whether matrix metalloproteinase-2 or matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities could discriminate among four different types of colorectal tissue (normal mucosa, adenomas with or without high grade dysplasia and invasive carcinomas). Active matrix metalloproteinase-2 successfully discriminated among these tissue categories. Median activity for active matrix metalloproteinase-2 increased in a stepwise fashion with pathologic progression from normal mucosa to adenoma without high grade dysplasia to adenoma with high grade dysplasia to cancer. Although pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 and pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities could discriminate to some extent among tissue categories, those effects did not contribute additional information. Active matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity correlated significantly with histopathologic assessment of colorectal tissues. The ability of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 to distinguish adenomas with high grade dysplasia from adenomas without high grade dysplasia may be particularly useful in predicting future colorectal cancer risk for an individual, thus optimizing scheduling of surveillance colonoscopies. PMID:21237495

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the value of this novel marker in disease activity.

  12. Liposomal Tumor Targeting in Drug Delivery Utilizing MMP-2- and MMP-9-Binding Ligands

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    Oula Penate Medina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers an alternative to conventional treatment options by enabling different drug delivery and controlled-release delivery strategies. Liposomes being especially biodegradable and in most cases essentially nontoxic offer a versatile platform for several different delivery approaches that can potentially enhance the delivery and targeting of therapies to tumors. Liposomes penetrate tumors spontaneously as a result of fenestrated blood vessels within tumors, leading to known enhanced permeability and subsequent drug retention effects. In addition, liposomes can be used to carry radioactive moieties, such as radiotracers, which can be bound at multiple locations within liposomes, making them attractive carriers for molecular imaging applications. Phage display is a technique that can deliver various high-affinity and selectivity peptides to different targets. In this study, gelatinase-binding peptides, found by phage display, were attached to liposomes by covalent peptide-PEG-PE anchor creating a targeted drug delivery vehicle. Gelatinases as extracellular targets for tumor targeting offer a viable alternative for tumor targeting. Our findings show that targeted drug delivery is more efficient than non-targeted drug delivery.

  13. Expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz e PCNA em úlceras de córnea profundas, induzidas em coelhos, tratadas com plasma rico em plaquetas

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    C.S. Perches

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do plasma rico (PRP e pobre (PPP em plaquetas na proliferação celular e expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs, durante a reparação de úlceras corneais profundas. Foram utilizadas 45 coelhas, distribuídas em 3 grupos (G experimentais (n=15, designados como grupos PRP (GR, PPP (GP e Controle (GC, de acordo com o tratamento. Todos os animais foram submetidos à indução cirúrgica unilateral de úlcera corneal. No GR e GP, o sangue autólogo foi centrifugado, utilizando-se protocolo padronizado, e foram confeccionados os colírios de PRP e PPP, e instilados cinco vezes ao dia. No GC, foi utilizado colírio lubrificante. Cada grupo foi subdividido (n=5, segundo o momento final de avaliação, sendo 4 (M4, 7 (M7 e 30 dias (M30. As córneas dos animais foram processadas para avaliação morfológica e imuno-histoquímica para PCNA, MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, MT1-MMP e TIMP1. No M4, os níveis de MMP2 foram maiores no GP e GR, sendo que, no M7, esse comportamento foi observado apenas no GP. No M30, no GR, verificou-se maior número de células epiteliais e marcação para MMP1 que o GP. No GR, a proliferação celular foi maior no M4 que nos demais momentos, e a marcação para MMP2 foi maior no M4 que no M30. O PRP estimula a proliferação celular na fase inicial (M4 do tratamento quando comparado aos demais momentos, diferentemente dos demais tratamentos. O uso de colírios de plasma rico e pobre em plaquetas influencia a expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz envolvidas no processo de reparação corneal.

  14. Fluid shear stress regulates the invasive potential of glioma cells via modulation of migratory activity and matrix metalloproteinase expression.

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    Henry Qazi

    Full Text Available Glioma cells are exposed to elevated interstitial fluid flow during the onset of angiogenesis, at the tumor periphery while invading normal parenchyma, within white matter tracts, and during vascular normalization therapy. Glioma cell lines that have been exposed to fluid flow forces in vivo have much lower invasive potentials than in vitro cell motility assays without flow would indicate.A 3D Modified Boyden chamber (Darcy flow through collagen/cell suspension model was designed to mimic the fluid dynamic microenvironment to study the effects of fluid shear stress on the migratory activity of glioma cells. Novel methods for gel compaction and isolation of chemotactic migration from flow stimulation were utilized for three glioma cell lines: U87, CNS-1, and U251. All physiologic levels of fluid shear stress suppressed the migratory activity of U87 and CNS-1 cell lines. U251 motility remained unaltered within the 3D interstitial flow model. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP inhibition experiments and assays demonstrated that the glioma cells depended on MMP activity to invade, and suppression in motility correlated with downregulation of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels. This was confirmed by RT-PCR and with the aid of MMP-1 and MMP-2 shRNA constructs.Fluid shear stress in the tumor microenvironment may explain reduced glioma invasion through modulation of cell motility and MMP levels. The flow-induced migration trends were consistent with reported invasive potentials of implanted gliomas. The models developed for this study imply that flow-modulated motility involves mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress affecting MMP activation and expression. These models should be useful for the continued study of interstitial flow effects on processes that affect tumor progression.

  15. Germacrane sesquiterpenes isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. inhibit UVB-induced upregulation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 expression in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hae; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Jung, Ye-Jin; Shrestha, Sabina; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-10-01

    Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.: furanodiene (1), germacrone (2), furanodienone (3), and 13-hydroxygermacrone (4). Importantly, this was the first time compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 2 and 4 inhibited UVB-induced upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this upregulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 1-10 μM for each compound.

  16. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-Xin; Song, Hai-Yan; Dong, Yin-Ying; Hu, Chao; Zheng, Qiong-Dan; Xue, Tong-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Jie; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Liu, Yin-Kun; Cui, Jie-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding matrix has been well documented as an early event of metastasis occurrence. However, the dynamic expression patterns of proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are largely unknown. Using a three-dimensional HCC invasion culture model established previously, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of identified proteins during early invasion of HCC. Highly metastatic MHCC97H cells and a liver tissue fragment were long-term co-cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor to simulate different pathological states of HCC invasion. The established spherical co-cultures were collected on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 for dynamic expression pattern analysis. Significantly different proteins among spheroids at different time points were screened and identified using quantitative proteomics of iTRAQ labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins were further categorized by K-means clustering. The expression modes of several differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blot and qRT-PCR. Time course analysis of invasion/metastasis gene expressions (MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, CD44, SPP1, CXCR4, CXCL12, and CDH1) showed remarkable, dynamic alterations during the invasion process of HCC. A total of 1,028 proteins were identified in spherical co-cultures collected at different time points by quantitative proteomics. Among these proteins, 529 common differential proteins related to HCC invasion were clustered into 25 types of expression patterns. Some proteins displayed significant dynamic alterations during the early invasion process of HCC, such as upregulation at the early invasion stage and downregulation at the late invasion stage (e.g., MAPRE1, PHB2, cathepsin D, etc.) or continuous upregulation during the entire invasion process (e.g., vitronectin, Met, clusterin, ICAM1, GSN, etc.). Dynamic expression patterns of candidate proteins during the early invasion

  17. Combination Efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and Curcuma wenyujin at Different Stages of Tumor Progression in an Imageable Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer Expressing Red Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Tang, Decai; Dai, Jianguo; Liu, Min; Wu, Mianhua; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Guo, Xiuxia

    2015-06-01

    The present study determined the efficacy of extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW), a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture, at different tumor stages of an orthotopic nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer expressing red fluorescent protein. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with cisplatinum (CDDP), AM, CW, or a combination of AM and CW in each of three tumor stages, using the same regimen. Group 1 received saline as negative control. Group 2 received CDDP i.p. as positive control with a dose of 2 mg/kg, every three days. Group 3 received AM daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 9120 mg/kg. Group 4 received CW daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 4560 mg/kg. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received combinations of AM and CW daily via oral gavage at low (AM, 2280 mg/kg; CW, 1140 mg/kg), medium (AM, 4560 mg/kg; CW 2280 mg/kg), and high (AM, 9120 mg/kg; CW, 4560 mg/kg) doses. The expression of angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), and by polymerase chain reaction for MMP-2, FGF-2 and Bcl-2. CDDP, AM, and its combination with CW-induced significant growth inhibition of Stage I tumors. Strong efficacy of the combination of AM and CW at high dose was observed. Monotherapy with CDDP, AM, CW, and the combination treatments did not significantly inhibit Stage II and III tumors. The expression of MMP-2, VEGF, FGF-2, and Cox-2 was significantly reduced in Stage I tumors treated with AM, CW, and their combination, suggesting a possible role of these angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the observed efficacy of the agents tested. This study is the first report on the efficacy of anticancer agents at different stages of ovarian cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. As the tumor progressed, it became treatment

  18. Effects of Nebivolol on Endothelial Gene Expression during Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisse Garbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium plays a key role in the development of atherogenesis and its inflammatory and proliferative status influences the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two beta blockers such as nebivolol and atenolol on gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs following an oxidant stimulus. HUVECs were incubated with nebivolol or atenolol (10 micromol/L for 24 hours and oxidative stress was induced by the addition of oxidized (ox-LDL. Ox-LDL upregulated adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, ICAM-2, ICAM-3, E-selectin, and P-selectin; proteins linked to inflammation (IL-6 and TNFalpha, thrombotic state (tissue factor, PAI-1 and uPA, hypertension such as endothelin-1 (ET-1, and vascular remodeling such as metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and protease inhibitor (TIMP-1. The exposure of HUVECs to nebivolol, but not to atenolol, reduced these genes upregulated by oxidative stress both in terms of protein and RNA expression. The known antioxidant properties of the third generation beta blocker nebivolol seem to account to the observed differences seen when compared to atenolol and support the specific potential protective role of this beta blocker on the expression of a number of genes involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.

  19. Assessment of Control Tissue for Gene and Protein Expression Studies: A Comparison of Three Alternative Lung Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Passmore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an appropriate control group in human research is essential in investigating the level of a pathological disorder. This study aimed to compare three alternative sources of control lung tissue and to determine their suitability for gene and protein expression studies. Gene and protein expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and gelatinase families and their receptors were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The gene expression levels of VEGFA, placental growth factor (PGF, and their receptors, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1, and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and the inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer resections. The gene expression level of MMP-9 was significantly lower in the corresponding samples. Altered protein expression was also detected, depending on the area assessed. The results of this study show that none of the three control groups studied are completely suitable for gene and protein studies associated with the VEGF and gelatinase families, highlighting the need for researchers to be selective in which controls they opt for.

  20. Ghrelin Attenuates Liver Fibrosis through Regulation of TGF-β1 Expression and Autophagy

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    Yuqing Mao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived growth hormone secretagogue that promotes various physiological effects, including energy metabolism and amelioration of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of ghrelin against liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (2.0 mL/kg of 10% CCl4 v/v solution in peanut oil two times per week for eight weeks. Ghrelin (10 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected two times per week for eight weeks. A second murine liver fibrosis model was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL and concurrent ghrelin administration for four weeks. Hematoxylin eosin (H&E, and Masson’s trichrome were used to detect pathological changes to liver tissue. Western blotting was used to detect protein levels of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3, I-collage, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs 1, phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to detect mRNA levels of TGF-β1, I-collage, α-SMA, MMP2, TIMP1 and LC3, while levels of TGF-β1, p-Smad3, I-collage, α-SMA, and LC3 were detected immunohistochemically. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly decreased by ghrelin treatment. Ghrelin administration also significantly reduced the extent of pathological changes in both murine liver fibrosis models. Expression levels of I-collage and α-SMA in both models were clearly reduced by ghrelin administration. Furthermore, ghrelin treatment decreased protein expression of TGF-β1 and p-Smad3. The protein levels of NF-κB and LC3 were increased in the CCl4- and BDL-treatment groups but were significantly reduced following ghrelin treatment. In addition, ghrelin inhibited extracellular matrix formation by decreasing NF-κB expression

  1. Autocrine HBEGF expression promotes breast cancer intravasation, metastasis and macrophage-independent invasion in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. N.; Sharma, V. P.; Beaty, B. T.; Roh-Johnson, M.; Peterson, E. A.; Van Rooijen, N.; Kenny, P. A.; Wiley, H. S.; Condeelis, J. S.; Segall, J. E.

    2014-10-13

    Increased expression of HBEGF in estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors is correlated with enhanced metastasis to distant organ sites and more rapid disease recurrence upon removal of the primary tumor. Our previous work has demonstrated a paracrine loop between breast cancer cells and macrophages in which the tumor cells are capable of stimulating macrophages through the secretion of colony-stimulating factor-1 while the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), in turn, aid in tumor cell invasion by secreting epidermal growth factor. To determine how the autocrine expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands by carcinoma cells would affect this paracrine loop mechanism, and in particular whether tumor cell invasion depends on spatial ligand gradients generated by TAMs, we generated cell lines with increased HBEGF expression. We found that autocrine HBEGF expression enhanced in vivo intravasation and metastasis and resulted in a novel phenomenon in which macrophages were no longer required for in vivo invasion of breast cancer cells. In vitro studies revealed that expression of HBEGF enhanced invadopodium formation, thus providing a mechanism for cell autonomous invasion. The increased invadopodium formation was directly dependent on EGFR signaling, as demonstrated by a rapid decrease in invadopodia upon inhibition of autocrine HBEGF/EGFR signaling as well as inhibition of signaling downstream of EGFR activation. HBEGF expression also resulted in enhanced invadopodium function via upregulation of matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 expression levels. We conclude that high levels of HBEGF expression can short-circuit the tumor cell/macrophage paracrine invasion loop, resulting in enhanced tumor invasion that is independent of macrophage signaling.

  2. CtBP2 downregulation during neural crest specification induces expression of Mitf and REST, resulting in melanocyte differentiation and sympathoadrenal lineage suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongzi; Fekete, Donna M; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2011-03-01

    Trunk neural crest (NC) cells differentiate to neurons, melanocytes, and glia. In NC cultures, cyclic AMP (cAMP) induces melanocyte differentiation while suppressing the neuronal sympathoadrenal lineage, depending on the signal intensity. Melanocyte differentiation requires activation of CREB and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), but the role of PKA is not understood. We have demonstrated, in NC cultures, cAMP-induced transcription of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene (Mitf) and the RE-1 silencing transcription factor gene (REST), both Wnt-regulated genes. In NC cultures and zebrafish, knockdown of the corepressor of Wnt-mediated transcription C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) but not CtBP1 derepressed Mitf and REST expression and enhanced melanocyte differentiation. cAMP in NC and B16 melanoma cells decreased CtBP2 protein levels, while inhibition of PKA or proteasome rescued CtBP2 degradation. Interestingly, knockdown of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), a CtBP stability modulator, increased CtBP2 levels, suppressed expression of Mitf, REST, and melanocyte differentiation, and increased neuronal gene expression and sympathoadrenal lineage differentiation. We conclude that cAMP/PKA via HIPK2 promotes CtBP2 degradation, leading to Mitf and REST expression. Mitf induces melanocyte specification, and REST suppresses neuron-specific gene expression and the sympathoadrenal lineage. Our studies identify a novel role for REST in NC cell differentiation and suggest cross talk between cAMP and Wnt signaling in NC lineage specification.

  3. CtBP2 Downregulation during Neural Crest Specification Induces Expression of Mitf and REST, Resulting in Melanocyte Differentiation and Sympathoadrenal Lineage Suppression ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongzi; Fekete, Donna M.; Andrisani, Ourania M.

    2011-01-01

    Trunk neural crest (NC) cells differentiate to neurons, melanocytes, and glia. In NC cultures, cyclic AMP (cAMP) induces melanocyte differentiation while suppressing the neuronal sympathoadrenal lineage, depending on the signal intensity. Melanocyte differentiation requires activation of CREB and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), but the role of PKA is not understood. We have demonstrated, in NC cultures, cAMP-induced transcription of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene (Mitf) and the RE-1 silencing transcription factor gene (REST), both Wnt-regulated genes. In NC cultures and zebrafish, knockdown of the corepressor of Wnt-mediated transcription C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) but not CtBP1 derepressed Mitf and REST expression and enhanced melanocyte differentiation. cAMP in NC and B16 melanoma cells decreased CtBP2 protein levels, while inhibition of PKA or proteasome rescued CtBP2 degradation. Interestingly, knockdown of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), a CtBP stability modulator, increased CtBP2 levels, suppressed expression of Mitf, REST, and melanocyte differentiation, and increased neuronal gene expression and sympathoadrenal lineage differentiation. We conclude that cAMP/PKA via HIPK2 promotes CtBP2 degradation, leading to Mitf and REST expression. Mitf induces melanocyte specification, and REST suppresses neuron-specific gene expression and the sympathoadrenal lineage. Our studies identify a novel role for REST in NC cell differentiation and suggest cross talk between cAMP and Wnt signaling in NC lineage specification. PMID:21199918

  4. Differential expression of Snail1 transcription factor and Snail1-related genes in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes

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    Miroslawa Püsküllüoglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS represents the most common sarcoma of soft tissue among children. Two main RMSsubtypes are alveolar (ARMS and embryonal (ERMS. The major goal of this study was to find differentially expressedgenes between RMS subtypes that could explain higher metastatic potential in ARMS and would be useful for the differentialdiagnosis. Using RQ-PCR analysis we compared expression of Snail1 and Snail-related genes among 7 ARMS and 8ERMS patients' samples obtained from the primary tumors and among 2 alveolar and 2 embryonal cell lines. Our resultsshow that Snail1 is highly expressed both in ARMS patients' samples and the alveolar cell lines. We also found that theexpression of E-Cadherin was downregulated and the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 was upregulated in ARMS. We assume that, as in many tumors, also in RMS Snail1 acts as a regulator for pathwaysknown for their role in cells' metastasis and that Snail1 activity results in increased MMPs and decreased E-Cadherin expression.Our findings may explain higher ARMS aggressiveness. Moreover, we suggest that further studies should be performedto verify if Snail1 can be considered as a potential target for ARMS therapy.

  5. The effect of biological sealants and adhesive treatments on matrix metalloproteinase expression during renal injury healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloris-Carsí, José Miguel; Barrios, Carlos; Prieto-Moure, Beatriz; Lloris-Cejalvo, José Miguel; Cejalvo-Lapeña, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Renal injuries are relatively common in cases of abdominal trauma. Adhesives and sealants can be used to repair and preserve damaged organs. Using a rat model, this study explores the activity of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) during the healing of renal injuries treated by two biological adhesives (TachoSil and GelitaSpon) and a new synthetic elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex). Renal traumatic injuries were experimentally induced in 90 male Wistar rats by a Stiefel Biopsy Punch in the anterior aspect of the left kidney. Animals were divided into five groups: 1, sham non-injured (n = 3); 2, non-treated standard punch injury (n = 6); 3, punch injury treated with TachoSil (n = 27); 4, punch injury treated with GelitaSpon (n = 27); and, 5, punch injury treated with Adhflex (n = 27). Wound healing was evaluated 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by determining the expression of MMPs, and the histopathological evolution of lesions. Histologically, the wound size at 6 days post-injury was larger in Adhflex-treated samples than in the other treatments, but the scarring tissue was similar at 18 days post-injury. Only the MMPs subtypes 1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 were sufficiently expressed to be quantifiable. Both time since injury and treatment type had a significant influence on MMPs expression. Two days after injury, the expression of MMP8 and MMP9 was predominant. MMP2 expression was greater 6 days after injury. The Adhflex-treated group had a significantly higher MMPs expression than the other treatment groups at all healing stages. All three sealant treatments induced almost similar expression of MMPs than untreated animals indicating a physiological healing process. Given that all renal trauma injuries must be considered emergencies, both biological and synthetic adhesives, such as Adhflex, should be considered as a treatment options.

  6. Influence of cartilage interstitial fluid on gene expression in cruciate ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecka-Iwan, Anna; Moskalewski, Stanisław; Kosowska, Anna; Hyc, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Loading of articular cartilage during motion squeezes the fluid from the cartilage, termed cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF), which was found to influence gene expression in synovial membrane cells. After crucial ligaments damage, these cells are exposed to synovial fluid containing factors released from articular cartilage; the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of CIF and factors present in CIF (CIF-like cocktails) on crucial ligament fibroblasts. CIF was squeezed from articular-epiphyseal cartilage complexes of newborn rats. Fibroblasts were obtained from crucial ligaments of adult rat knee joints. Cells were cultured in control medium, CIF and CIF-like cocktails, and the expression of selected genes was evaluated using quantitative PCR. CIF stimulated the expression of HAS1, HAS2, aggrecan, lubricin, MMP3, TIMP3 and TGFβ1. Expression of collagen type I, versican, MMP2, TIMP2, TNF and IL1β was inhibited. The CIF-like cocktail stimulated HAS1, HAS2, collagen type I, versican, aggrecan, lubricin, TIMP1, TGFβ1, IL1β, IL6 and inhibited of MMP3 and TNF expression. Both agents exerted similar effects on the expression of HAS2, aggrecan, lubricin, TGFβ1 and TNF. CIF contains inhibitory and stimulatory factors affecting gene expression in crucial ligament fibroblasts and some of them were not included in the CIF-like cocktail. Due to the powerful influence of CIF on crucial ligament fibroblasts and the synovial membrane, further studies on its composition are needed. An improved CIF like-cocktail could be applied in the treatment of various joint or tendon ailments.

  7. Bioelectrical signals improve cardiac function and modify gene expression of extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfelda, Karin; Kapeller, Barbara; Holly, Alexander; Podesser, Bruno K; Losert, Udo; Brandes, Kersten; Goettel, Peter; Mueller, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Beyond the influence of stimulating devices on cardiac excitation, their use in treating patients with heart failure has positive effects on the myocardium at the molecular level. Electrical signals can induce a wide spectrum of effects in living tissue. Therefore, we sought to determine whether applying electrical microcurrent directly to failing hearts leads to functional improvement. Sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with heart failure underwent application of a patch electrode to the left ventricular epicardium and placement of a subcutaneous counter electrode. The electrode delivered a 0.35 μA microcurrent to nine of the SHRs for 45 ± 3 days; the other seven SHRs were used as controls. At baseline and before the SHRs were humanely put to death, we measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the thickness of the LV posterior wall during systole and diastole (LVPWs/d). We used quantitative PCR to determine extracellular matrix parameters [collagen I-III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), TIMP4, connexins (Cxs) 40/43/45, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-6]. Among SHRs undergoing microcurrent application, LVEF normalized (mean decrease, 22.8%; P = 0.009), and LVPWs decreased (mean, 35.3%; P = 0.001). Compared with the control group, the SHRs receiving microcurrent exhibited a mean decrease in the gene expression of collagen I (10.6%, P = 0.003), TIMP3 (18.5%, P = 0.005), Cx43 (14.3%, P = 0.003), Cx45 (12.7%, P = 0.020), TGF-β (13.0%, P = 0.005), and IL-6 (53.7%, P = 0.000). Microcurrent application induced no changes in the expression of collagen III, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP4, or Cx40. Applying microcurrent to the LV epicardium of SHRs leads to statistically significant functional improvement and alterations in the levels of inflammatory and extracellular matrix components. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John

  8. Matriz Metaloproteinase 2: um importante marcador genético para colesteatomas Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: an important genetic marker for cholesteatomas

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    Douglas Salmazo Rocha Morales

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para determinar a presença de MMP2 em colesteatomas humanos e observar se colesteatomas que complicam (invasivos apresentam uma maior expressão imunohistoquímica de Matriz Metaloproteinase 2 (MMP2. Colesteatomas produzem enzimas que causam erosão óssea, como a MMP2. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Analisamos a expressão imunohistoquímica de MMP2 em colesteatomas invasivos, comparando-os aos latentes. Um estudo de corte transversal com dezenove lâminas e blocos parafinados de colesteatoma, derivados de mastoidectomias, foram desparafinados e submetidos à técnica imunohistoquímica com anticorpos anti-MMP2. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram expressos em 0 (tênue, + (leve, ++ (moderado e +++ (intenso, de acordo com a intensidade da expressão de MMP2. As expressões 0 e + foram denominadas Fraca e as expressões ++ e +++, Forte. Dos 8 colesteatomas invasivos, 7 apresentaram Forte expressão de MMP2 (87,5%. Com relação aos colesteatomas latentes (11, apenas 3 apresentaram Forte expressão de MMP2 (27,3%, com um teste exato de Fisher significante (p= 0,015. CONCLUSÃO: Colesteatomas expressam MMP2 e colesteatomas invasivos expressam MMP2 com maior intensidade, em relação aos latentes.AIM: This study is to determine the MMP2’s presence in cholesteatomas and whether complicating cholesteatomas show a higher immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2. Cholesteatoma produces enzymesthat cause bone erosion like Matrixmetalloproteinase 2 (MMP2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of MMP2 in invasive (causing complications compared to latent cholesteatomas (not causing complications. A crosssectional study with nineteen slides and paraffin blocks of cholesteatomas derived from mastoidectomies were located and processed, including 8 invasive and 11 latent cholesteatomas. Immunohistochemical thecnique was empregated to MMP2. RESULTS: The results are expressed as 0, + (to low, ++ and +++(high

  9. Diet-induced obesity regulates adipose-resident stromal cell quantity and extracellular matrix gene expression

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    Yair Pincu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue expansion during periods of excess nutrient intake requires significant turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM to allow for maximal lipid filling. Recent data suggest that stromal cells may be a primary contributor to ECM modifications in visceral adipose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capacity for high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity to alter adipose-derived stromal cell (ADSC relative quantity and ECM gene expression, and determine the extent to which exercise training can mitigate such changes. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on control or HFD for 8 weeks prior to and following initiation of a 16 week treadmill exercise program. ADSCs (Sca-1+CD45− were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and mRNA was evaluated using high throughput qPCR. Stromal cells were also obtained from skeletal muscle (MDSC. HFD decreased the quantity of ADSCs and markedly altered gene expression related to ECM remodeling (Col1α1, MMP2, MMP9, Timp1. Exercise did not reverse these changes. MDSCs were minimally altered by HFD or exercise. Overall, the data from this study suggest that ADSCs decrease in quantity and contribute to adipose ECM remodeling in response to obesity, and exercise training does not significantly impact these outcomes.

  10. Diet-induced obesity regulates adipose-resident stromal cell quantity and extracellular matrix gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincu, Yair; Huntsman, Heather D; Zou, Kai; De Lisio, Michael; Mahmassani, Ziad S; Munroe, Michael R; Garg, Koyal; Jensen, Tor; Boppart, Marni D

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue expansion during periods of excess nutrient intake requires significant turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to allow for maximal lipid filling. Recent data suggest that stromal cells may be a primary contributor to ECM modifications in visceral adipose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capacity for high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity to alter adipose-derived stromal cell (ADSC) relative quantity and ECM gene expression, and determine the extent to which exercise training can mitigate such changes. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on control or HFD for 8weeks prior to and following initiation of a 16week treadmill exercise program. ADSCs (Sca-1(+)CD45(-)) were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and mRNA was evaluated using high throughput qPCR. Stromal cells were also obtained from skeletal muscle (MDSC). HFD decreased the quantity of ADSCs and markedly altered gene expression related to ECM remodeling (Col1α1, MMP2, MMP9, Timp1). Exercise did not reverse these changes. MDSCs were minimally altered by HFD or exercise. Overall, the data from this study suggest that ADSCs decrease in quantity and contribute to adipose ECM remodeling in response to obesity, and exercise training does not significantly impact these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene Expression Patterns Underlying the Reinstatement of Plasticity in the Adult Visual System

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    Ettore Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is highly sensitive to experience during early postnatal life, but this phase of heightened plasticity decreases with age. Recent studies have demonstrated that developmental-like plasticity can be reactivated in the visual cortex of adult animals through environmental or pharmacological manipulations. These findings provide a unique opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of adult plasticity. Here we used the monocular deprivation paradigm to investigate large-scale gene expression patterns underlying the reinstatement of plasticity produced by fluoxetine in the adult rat visual cortex. We found changes, confirmed with RT-PCRs, in gene expression in different biological themes, such as chromatin structure remodelling, transcription factors, molecules involved in synaptic plasticity, extracellular matrix, and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our findings reveal a key role for several molecules such as the metalloproteases Mmp2 and Mmp9 or the glycoprotein Reelin and open up new insights into the mechanisms underlying the reopening of the critical periods in the adult brain.

  12. beta-catenin siRNA regulation of apoptosis- and angiogenesis-related gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells: potential uses for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hong; Sun, Xun; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Lv, Zhi-Wu; Du, Ya-Ju; Zhu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Kong, De-Xia; Jin, Shi-Zhu

    2010-10-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development remains to be defined although a number of gene pathways have been shown to play an active role, such as Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. In this study, beta-catenin small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed, synthesized, and transfected into HCC HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and western blot assays were performed to detect expression of altered genes and proteins, and the MTT assay was used to detect cell viability. Our data showed that beta-catenin mRNA and protein expression levels were effectively knocked down by beta-catenin siRNA and subsequently, tumor cell proliferation was significantly suppressed. Flow cytometry assay showed that tumor cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycles. Molecularly, expression of Smad3, p-caspase-3, and Grp78 protein were upregulated after 72 h of beta-catenin siRNA transfection, whereas expression of TERT, caspase-3, XIAP, MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF-A, VEGF-c, and bFGF protein were reduced. However, there was no change between the expression of STAT3 and the HSP27 protein following transfection. The results from the current study demonstrated the importance of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in regulation of gene expression in HCC. Further studies are required to investigate the role of this pathway in HCC development and targeting of this pathway to control HCC.

  13. Inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis and matrix-metalloproteinase expression in confrontation cultures of embryoid bodies and tumor spheroids by plant ingredients used in traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Maria; Budde, Paula; De Mareés, Markus; Grünheck, Frank; Tsang, Suk Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sauer, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Tumor-induced angiogenesis is a prerequisite for excessive tumor growth. Blood vessels invade the tumor tissue after degradation of the extracellular matrix scaffold by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Inhibition of MMPs has been therefore suggested to be a useful tool to abolish neoangiogenesis of solid tumors. In the present study, antioxidative plant ingredients used in traditional Chinese medicine were investigated for their capacity to down-regulate MMP expression and to inhibit angiogenesis in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies and tumor-induced angiogenesis in confrontation cultures consisting of embryoid bodies and multicellular DU-145 prostate tumor spheroids. Embryoid bodies transiently expressed MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 during the time of differentiation of capillary-like structures. In confrontation cultures, MMP expression was increased compared with control tumor spheroids and embryoid bodies cultivated separately. The increased expression of MMPs in confrontation cultures was a result of elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon confrontation culture and was totally abolished in the presence of the free radical scavenger vitamin E. Incubation of embryoid bodies with baicalein, epicatechin, berberine, and acteoside, which are herbal ingredients used in traditional Chinese medicine, significantly inhibited angiogenesis in embryoid bodies and decreased intracellular ROS levels. Tumor-induced angiogenesis in confrontation cultures was totally abolished in the presence of the free radical scavenger vitamin E. Because herbal ingredients down-regulated MMP expression, we conclude that ROS generated during confrontation culture induce the expression of MMPs that are necessary for endothelial cell invasion into the tumor tissue.

  14. Suppression of local invasion of ameloblastoma by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vitro

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    Wang Jianguang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ameloblastomas are odontogenic neoplasms characterized by local invasiveness. This study was conducted to address the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in the invasiveness of ameloblastomas. Methods Plasmids containing either MMP-2 siRNA or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2 cDNA were created and subsequently transfected into primary ameloblastoma cells. Zymography, RT-PCR, and Western blots were used to assess MMP-2 activity and expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2, as well as protein levels. Results Primary cultures of ameloblastoma cells expressed cytokeratin (CK 14 and 16, and MMP-2, but only weakly expressed CK18 and vimentin. MMP-2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly inhibited by RNA interference (P in vitro invasiveness of ameloblastoma. Conclusion These results indicate that inhibition of MMP-2 activity suppresses the local invasiveness of ameloblastoma cells. This mechanism may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ameloblastomas pursuant to additional research.

  15. Rat hepatic stellate cells alter the gene expression profile and promote the growth, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Ming; Zhou, Le-Yuan; Liu, Bin-Bin; Jia, Qin-An; Dong, Yin-Ying; Xia, Yun-Hong; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their paracrine secretions, on hepatocellular cancer cell growth and gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Differentially expressed genes in McA-RH7777 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells following non-contact co-culture with activated stellate cells, were identified by a cDNA microarray. The effect of the co-injection of HCC cells and activated HSCs on tumor size in rats was also investigated. Non-contact co-culture altered the expression of 573 HCC genes by >2-fold of the control levels. Among the six selected genes, ELISA revealed increased protein levels of hepatic growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9). Incubation of HCC cells with medium conditioned by activated HSCs significantly increased the proliferation rate (Pexpression profile of HCC cells and affected their growth, migration and invasiveness. The results from the present study indicate that the interaction between the activated HSCs and HCC has an important role in the development of HCC.

  16. Full-Length L1CAM and Not Its Δ2Δ27 Splice Variant Promotes Metastasis through Induction of Gelatinase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerg, Michael; Schäfer, Michael K.; Pfeifer, Marco; Hazin, John; Schelter, Florian; Weidle, Ulrich H.; Ramser, Juliane; Volkmann, Juliane; Meindl, Alfons; Schmitt, Manfred; Schrötzlmair, Florian; Altevogt, Peter; Krüger, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Tumour-specific splicing is known to contribute to cancer progression. In the case of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), which is expressed in many human tumours and often linked to bad prognosis, alternative splicing results in a full-length form (FL-L1CAM) and a splice variant lacking exons 2 and 27 (SV-L1CAM). It has not been elucidated so far whether SV-L1CAM, classically considered as tumour-associated, or whether FL-L1CAM is the metastasis-promoting isoform. Here, we show that both variants were expressed in human ovarian carcinoma and that exposure of tumour cells to pro-metastatic factors led to an exclusive increase of FL-L1CAM expression. Selective overexpression of one isoform in different tumour cells revealed that only FL-L1CAM promoted experimental lung and/or liver metastasis in mice. In addition, metastasis formation upon up-regulation of FL-L1CAM correlated with increased invasive potential and elevated Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression and activity in vitro as well as enhanced gelatinolytic activity in vivo. In conclusion, we identified FL-L1CAM as the metastasis-promoting isoform, thereby exemplifying that high expression of a so-called tumour-associated variant, here SV-L1CAM, is not per se equivalent to a decisive role of this isoform in tumour progression. PMID:21541352

  17. Full-length L1CAM and not its Δ2Δ27 splice variant promotes metastasis through induction of gelatinase expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hauser

    Full Text Available Tumour-specific splicing is known to contribute to cancer progression. In the case of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM, which is expressed in many human tumours and often linked to bad prognosis, alternative splicing results in a full-length form (FL-L1CAM and a splice variant lacking exons 2 and 27 (SV-L1CAM. It has not been elucidated so far whether SV-L1CAM, classically considered as tumour-associated, or whether FL-L1CAM is the metastasis-promoting isoform. Here, we show that both variants were expressed in human ovarian carcinoma and that exposure of tumour cells to pro-metastatic factors led to an exclusive increase of FL-L1CAM expression. Selective overexpression of one isoform in different tumour cells revealed that only FL-L1CAM promoted experimental lung and/or liver metastasis in mice. In addition, metastasis formation upon up-regulation of FL-L1CAM correlated with increased invasive potential and elevated Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 expression and activity in vitro as well as enhanced gelatinolytic activity in vivo. In conclusion, we identified FL-L1CAM as the metastasis-promoting isoform, thereby exemplifying that high expression of a so-called tumour-associated variant, here SV-L1CAM, is not per se equivalent to a decisive role of this isoform in tumour progression.

  18. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B) in benign, premalignant and malignant laryngeal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschos, D; Damala, C; Stefanou, D; Tsanou, E; Assimakopoulos, D; Vougiouklakis, T; Charalabopoulos, K; Agnantis, N J

    2006-06-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic zinc-containing enzymes, which are responsible for the breakdown of the extracellular matrix components in pathological and physiological conditions. They are involved in basement membrane disruption, stroma and blood vessel penetration, metastasis and more recently there is evidence that they participate in tumor growth and angiogenic events. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP 2 and 9) belong to the gelatinases, a subgroup of MMPs, and have the capacity to degrade the triple helix type IV collagen of basal lamina of the basement membrane. With the present study, we tried to demonstrate the expression of MMP-9 immunohistochemically, comparatively in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the larynx. We studied 154 laryngeal lesions including 55 squamous cell carcinomas, 8 in situ carcinomas, 54 cases of dysplasia (of low and intermediate grade), 13 papillomas and 24 cases of keratosis. Overexpression of MMP 9 was observed in 74.4% and 50% in invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinomas respectively. In dysplastic cases, in papillomas and in keratoses the percentage of overexpression was 62.9%, 61.53% and 54.16% respectively and the expression of MMP-9 was significantly higher in invasive squamous cell carcinomas compared to dysplasias (p=0.000004). Also significantly higher was the expression of MMP-9 in dysplastic cases compared to papillomas (p=0.023). The MMP-9 expression was related neither to survival nor to the other available clinicopathological parameters (tumor size, grade, clinical stage, lymph node status and patient age). In conclusion, our study indicates that the expression of MMP-9 is up-regulated in a stepwise fashion, with two main steps, the first one, when a dysplastic lesion evolves and the next one, when the dysplasia progresses to invasive carcinoma.

  19. PAR-1 and PAR-2 Expression Is Enhanced in Inflamed Odontoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M M P; Moura, G E; Machado, M F M; Viana, G M; de Souza Costa, C A; Tjäderhane, L; Nader, H B; Tersariol, I L S; Nascimento, F D

    2017-12-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors, which are activated by proteolytical cleavage of the amino-terminus and act as sensors for extracellular proteases. We hypothesized that PAR-1 and PAR-2 can be modulated by inflammatory stimulus in human dental pulp cells. PAR-1 and PAR-2 gene expression in human pulp tissue and MDPC-23 cells were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Monoclonal PAR-1 and PAR-2 antibodies were used to investigate the cellular expression of these receptors using Western blot, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy in MDPC-23 cells. Immunofluorescence assays of human intact and carious teeth were performed to assess the presence of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in the dentin-pulp complex. The results show for the first time that human odontoblasts and MDPC-23 cells constitutively express PAR-1 and PAR-2. PAR-2 activation increased significantly the messenger RNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-14 in MDPC-23 cells ( P < 0.05), while the expression of these enzymes decreased significantly in the PAR-1 agonist group ( P < 0.05). The high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of MMP-13 activity cleaving PAR-1 at specific, noncanonical site TLDPRS42↓F43LL in human dental pulp tissues. Also, we detected a presence of a trypsin-like activity cleaving PAR-2 at canonical site SKGR20↓S21LIGRL in pulp tissues. Confocal microscopy analysis of human dentin-pulp complex showed intense positive staining of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in the odontoblast processes in dentinal tubules of carious teeth compared to intact ones. The present results support the hypothesis of activation of the upregulated PAR-1 and PAR-2 by endogenous proteases abundant during the inflammatory response in dentin-pulp complex.

  20. A study on the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symptoms include bloody diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss [5]. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, but a genetic risk is presumed ... retrieval using a pressure chamber. Slides were incubated with the primary antibodies for MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9,. TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, diluted 1:70, and.

  1. HOXC6 promotes gastric cancer cell invasion by upregulating the expression of MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Hai-Ping; Shi, Yi; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Wen-Jian; Wang, Ping; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the homoebox C6 (HOXC6) gene is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues and is associated with the depth of tumor invasion, and is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients expressing HOXC6. The present study investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of HOXC6 on the proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain (PCR) reaction was used to investigate the expression levels of HOXC6 in different gastric cancer cell lines and the effect of different levels of expression on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells was determined by cell growth curve and plate colony formation. The effect of HOXC6 on the anchorage‑independent proliferation of gastric cancer cells was determined by soft agar colony formation assay while the Transwell invasion assay was used to investigate the effect of different levels of HOXC6 expression on the invasive and metastatic abilities of gastric cancer cells. Semi‑quantitative PCR was used to detect the effect of different levels of HOXC6 expression on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 in gastric cancer cells. Immunoblotting was used to assess MMP9 signaling in the gastric cancer cells. The HOXC6 gene is highly expressed in the majority of the gastric cancer cell lines. Overexpression of HOXC6 promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and colony formation ability while HOXC6 downregulation inhibited cell proliferation and clone forming ability. HOXC6 overexpression also enhanced the soft agar colony formation ability of gastric cancer cells while HOXC6 downregulation decreased the colony formation ability. Upregulated HOXC6 increased the migration and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells while interfering with HOXC6 expression inhibited the migration and invasion of the gastric cancer cells. The expression of MMP9 was enhanced with an upregulation of HOXC6 expression

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of a topical preparation containing nicotinamide, retinol, and 7-dehydrocholesterol in patients with acne: a gene expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandrini G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzo Emanuele1, Marco Bertona1, Karmela Altabas2, Velimir Altabas2, Giuseppe Alessandrini31Department of Health Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Clinical Hospital "Sestre Milosrdnice", Zagreb, Croatia; 3Dermatology Clinics, Ugento, ItalyPurpose: Acne vulgaris is a skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles, involving hyperkeratinization and perifollicular inflammation. Aberrant extracellular matrix remodeling due to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs has been associated with the presence of acne conditions. Given the complex pathophysiology of acne, novel topical therapies should include combination products that target multiple pathogenetic mechanisms. In this pilot study we investigated the changes in gene expression of extracellular MMPs, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, and proinflammatory molecules after 45 days of topical application of a combination product containing nicotinamide, retinol, and 7-dehydrocholesterol in 16 patients with inflammatory acne on their back.Materials and methods: Skin biopsies were obtained before and after treatment for gene expression studies.Results: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant downregulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor. In contrast, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-ß1 were significantly upregulated. The gene expression findings correlated well with the clinical treatment response.Conclusions: The combination of nicotinamide, retinol, and 7-dehydrocholesterol appears to be effective for acne treatment from both clinical and molecular standpoints.Keywords: acne, gene expression, topical treatment, matrix metalloproteinases, inflammation

  3. Changes in global gene expression associated with 3D structure of tumors: an ex vivo matrix-free mesothelioma spheroid model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungnam Kim

    Full Text Available Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to anti-tumor agents. Molecules involved in multicellular tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study ex vivo. Here, we generated a matrix-free tumor spheroid model using the NCI-H226 mesothelioma cell line and compared the gene expression profiles of spheroids and monolayers using microarray analysis. Microarray analysis revealed that 142 probe sets were differentially expressed between tumor spheroids and monolayers. Gene ontology analysis revealed that upregulated genes were primarily related to immune response, wound response, lymphocyte stimulation and response to cytokine stimulation, whereas downregulated genes were primarily associated with apoptosis. Among the 142 genes, 27 are located in the membrane and related to biologic processes of cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling, cellular growth and proliferation and morphology. Western blot analysis validated elevation of MMP2, BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B, RANTES/CCL5 and TNFAIP6/TSG-6 protein expression in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Thus, we have reported the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles using an ex vivo matrix-free spheroid model to identify genes specific to the three-dimensional biological structure of tumors. The method described here can be used for gene expression profiling of tumors other than mesothelioma.

  4. Changes in global gene expression associated with 3D structure of tumors: an ex vivo matrix-free mesothelioma spheroid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungnam; Phung, Yen; Ho, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to anti-tumor agents. Molecules involved in multicellular tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study ex vivo. Here, we generated a matrix-free tumor spheroid model using the NCI-H226 mesothelioma cell line and compared the gene expression profiles of spheroids and monolayers using microarray analysis. Microarray analysis revealed that 142 probe sets were differentially expressed between tumor spheroids and monolayers. Gene ontology analysis revealed that upregulated genes were primarily related to immune response, wound response, lymphocyte stimulation and response to cytokine stimulation, whereas downregulated genes were primarily associated with apoptosis. Among the 142 genes, 27 are located in the membrane and related to biologic processes of cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling, cellular growth and proliferation and morphology. Western blot analysis validated elevation of MMP2, BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B, RANTES/CCL5 and TNFAIP6/TSG-6 protein expression in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Thus, we have reported the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles using an ex vivo matrix-free spheroid model to identify genes specific to the three-dimensional biological structure of tumors. The method described here can be used for gene expression profiling of tumors other than mesothelioma.

  5. [Effects of MT1-MMP on the in vitro invasiveness of breast cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-yu; Zeng, Mu-sheng; Lin, Peng; Song, Li-bing; Zhang, Xing; He, Jie-hua; Yang, Ming-ting; Rong, Tie-hua

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the effect of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MTI-MMP) on the invasive potential of breast cancer cell and analyze its mechanisms. After treatment of breast cancer MDA-MB-453 cell line with concanavalin A ( ConA, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h, MT1-MMP protein was detected in cancer cells by Western analysis and immunocytochemistry. MDA-MB-453 cells were cultured with exogenous latent proMMP-2 and MMP-2 activity was analyzed by gelatin zymography. The invasive potential of the tumor cells was measured with a membrane invasion culture system. Cancer cells of the cell line were divided into four groups: the control group treated by neither reagent, group ConA was only treated by ConA, group MMP-2 was treated only by MMP-2, and group ConA + MMP-2 was treated by both ConA and MMP-2. RESULTS The expression of MTI-MMP protein could be detected in groups ConA and ConA + MMP-2, but nothing was detected in control and group MMP-2. There was only 72 000 precursor form of MMP-2 in group MMP-2 and there were both 72 000 precursor form and 64 000 active enzyme form of MMP-2 in group ConA + MMP-2, but there was no forms of MMP-2 in the other two groups detected by gelatin zymography. The largest amount of cells penetrated through Matrigel was observed in group ConA + MMP-2 than in the other three groups. MTI-MMP can remarkably promote the invasive potential of breast cancer cells mainly through its ability of activating latent proMMP-2 to degrade

  6. Investigation of the effects of estrogen on skeletal gene expression during zebrafish larval head development

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    Ehsan Pashay Ahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of craniofacial skeletal structures requires well-orchestrated tissue interactions controlled by distinct molecular signals. Disruptions in normal function of these molecular signals have been associated with a wide range of craniofacial malformations. A pathway mediated by estrogens is one of those molecular signals that plays role in formation of bone and cartilage including craniofacial skeletogenesis. Studies in zebrafish have shown that while higher concentrations of 17-β estradiol (E2 cause severe craniofacial defects, treatment with lower concentrations result in subtle changes in head morphology characterized with shorter snouts and flatter faces. The molecular basis for these morphological changes, particularly the subtle skeletal effects mediated by lower E2 concentrations, remains unexplored. In the present study we address these effects at a molecular level by quantitative expression analysis of sets of candidate genes in developing heads of zebrafish larvae treated with two different E2 concentrations. To this end, we first validated three suitable reference genes, ppia2, rpl8 and tbp, to permit sensitive quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Next, we profiled the expression of 28 skeletogenesis-associated genes that potentially respond to estrogen signals and play role in craniofacial development. We found E2 mediated differential expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling, mmp2/9/13, sparc and timp2a, as well as components of skeletogenic pathways, bmp2a, erf, ptch1/2, rankl, rarab and sfrp1a. Furthermore, we identified a co-expressed network of genes, including cpn1, dnajc3, esr1, lman1, rrbp1a, ssr1 and tram1 with a stronger inductive response to a lower dose of E2 during larval head development.

  7. Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and interleukin-6 expression in cocultures of corneal fibroblasts and neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Chikama, Tai-ichiro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2012-03-16

    The cornea is the most sensitive tissue in the human body, with the dense nerve endings of the cornea being derived from the first division of the ophthalmic nerve. The existence of such organized nerve fibers reflects the role of neural regulation in corneal homeostasis, with the proper distribution and function of these nerve fibers thus being required for maintenance of a healthy cornea. We recently established an in vitro model, based on the coculture of human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts on opposite sides of a collagen vitrigel membrane. We have now examined the role of neural cells in corneal homeostasis with the use of a similar coculture system. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed that the presence of neural cells (differentiated PC12 cells) increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human corneal fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in corneal fibroblasts was not affected by PC12 cells. Furthermore, a multiplex assay showed that, among various cytokines assayed, only the release of interleukin-6 in cocultures of the two cell types was markedly greater than that in cultures of corneal fibroblasts alone. These results thus suggest that factors released from neural cells may play an important role in regulation of the function of corneal fibroblasts and thereby contribute to the maintenance of corneal structure and function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High AHR expression in breast tumors correlates with expression of genes from several signaling pathways namely inflammation and endogenous tryptophan metabolism.

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    Sophie Vacher

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and animal experimental data provide substantial support for the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of AhR have been clearly demonstrated in rodent models of breast carcinogenesis and in several established human breast cancer cell lines following exposure to AhR ligands or AhR overexpression. However, relatively little is known about the role of AhR in human breast cancers. AhR has always been considered to be a regulator of toxic and carcinogenic responses to environmental contaminants such as TCDD (dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. The aim of this study was to identify the type of breast tumors (ERα-positive or ERα-negative that express AHR and how AhR affects human tumorigenesis. The levels of AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT and AHR repressor (AHRR mRNA expression were analyzed in a cohort of 439 breast tumors, demonstrating a weak association between high AHR expression and age greater than fifty years and ERα-negative status, and HR-/ERBB2 breast cancer subtypes. AHRR mRNA expression was associated with metastasis-free survival, while AHR mRNA expression was not. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of AhR protein in both tumor cells (nucleus and/or cytoplasm and the tumor microenvironment (including endothelial cells and lymphocytes. High AHR expression was correlated with high expression of several genes involved in signaling pathways related to inflammation (IL1B, IL6, TNF, IL8 and CXCR4, metabolism (IDO1 and TDO2 from the kynurenine pathway, invasion (MMP1, MMP2 and PLAU, and IGF signaling (IGF2R, IGF1R and TGFB1. Two well-known ligands for AHR (TCDD and BaP induced mRNA expression of IL1B and IL6 in an ERα-negative breast tumor cell line. The breast cancer ER status likely influences AhR activity involved in these signaling pathways. The mechanisms involved in AhR activation and target gene expression in breast cancers are also discussed.

  9. Alterations in gene expression of proprotein convertases in human lung cancer have a limited number of scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidyuk, Ilya V; Shubin, Andrey V; Gasanov, Eugene V; Kurinov, Alexander M; Demkin, Vladimir V; Vinogradova, Tatyana V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Sass, Alexander V; Zborovskaya, Irina B; Kostrov, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    Proprotein convertases (PCs) is a protein family which includes nine highly specific subtilisin-like serine endopeptidases in mammals. The system of PCs is involved in carcinogenesis and levels of PC mRNAs alter in cancer, which suggests expression status of PCs as a possible marker for cancer typing and prognosis. The goal of this work was to assess the information value of expression profiling of PC genes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for the first time to analyze mRNA levels of all PC genes as well as matrix metalloproteinase genes MMP2 and MMP14, which are substrates of PCs, in 30 matched pairs of samples of human lung cancer tumor and adjacent tissues without pathology. Significant changes in the expression of PCs have been revealed in tumor tissues: increased FURIN mRNA level (p<0.00005) and decreased mRNA levels of PCSK2 (p<0.007), PCSK5 (p<0.0002), PCSK7 (p<0.002), PCSK9 (p<0.00008), and MBTPS1 (p<0.00004) as well as a tendency to increase in the level of PCSK1 mRNA. Four distinct groups of samples have been identified by cluster analysis of the expression patterns of PC genes in tumor vs. normal tissue. Three of these groups covering 80% of samples feature a strong elevation in the expression of a single gene in cancer: FURIN, PCSK1, or PCSK6. Thus, the changes in the expression of PC genes have a limited number of scenarios, which may reflect different pathways of tumor development and cryptic features of tumors. This finding allows to consider the mRNAs of PC genes as potentially important tumor markers.

  10. α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Lin, Pin-Tsen; Liao, Ruei-Fang; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2014-08-11

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  11. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hung Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn., was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN, but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K, Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21 and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  12. Gene expression patterns in bone after 4 days of hind-limb unloading in two inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nan; Garman, Russell A; Squire, Maria E; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rubin, Clinton T; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Judex, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    An improved understanding of the interdependence of transcriptional and genomic control of bone loss is critical for the design of effective and safe countermeasures for osteoporosis in space and on Earth. In an effort to test whether molecular pathways modulating the loss of functional weight bearing are dependent on genetic makeup, we quantified the differential expression of genes critical to the early stages of bone remodeling in two different strains of mice. Adult (4-mo-old) female BALB/cByJ (BALB) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice, strains with different sensitivities to unloading, were subjected to hind-limb unloading (HLU) or normal cage activities. RNA was extracted from the tibia following 4 d of HLU and expression levels were determined. In the BALB mice, HLU significantly altered transcriptional levels of osterix (-36%), alkaline phosphatase (-36%), osteonectin (-44%), collagen type 1 (-55%), MMP2 (-36%), osteocalcin (-68%), and osteopontin (+28%). This expression pattern was highly correlated (R2 = 0.75) with altered expression levels in the C3H mice, but the magnitude of altered mRNA levels was less than half of those in the BALB mice. These strain-specific changes in gene expression were consistent with the differential changes in bone formation, as determined in a second group of BALB and C3H mice. These data indicate that genetics may influence the absolute changes in gene expression of genes during spaceflight, but that the molecular pathways targeted by countermeasures of bone loss may not need to be specific to an individual's genetic makeup.

  13. Alterations in gene expression of proprotein convertases in human lung cancer have a limited number of scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V Demidyuk

    Full Text Available Proprotein convertases (PCs is a protein family which includes nine highly specific subtilisin-like serine endopeptidases in mammals. The system of PCs is involved in carcinogenesis and levels of PC mRNAs alter in cancer, which suggests expression status of PCs as a possible marker for cancer typing and prognosis. The goal of this work was to assess the information value of expression profiling of PC genes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for the first time to analyze mRNA levels of all PC genes as well as matrix metalloproteinase genes MMP2 and MMP14, which are substrates of PCs, in 30 matched pairs of samples of human lung cancer tumor and adjacent tissues without pathology. Significant changes in the expression of PCs have been revealed in tumor tissues: increased FURIN mRNA level (p<0.00005 and decreased mRNA levels of PCSK2 (p<0.007, PCSK5 (p<0.0002, PCSK7 (p<0.002, PCSK9 (p<0.00008, and MBTPS1 (p<0.00004 as well as a tendency to increase in the level of PCSK1 mRNA. Four distinct groups of samples have been identified by cluster analysis of the expression patterns of PC genes in tumor vs. normal tissue. Three of these groups covering 80% of samples feature a strong elevation in the expression of a single gene in cancer: FURIN, PCSK1, or PCSK6. Thus, the changes in the expression of PC genes have a limited number of scenarios, which may reflect different pathways of tumor development and cryptic features of tumors. This finding allows to consider the mRNAs of PC genes as potentially important tumor markers.

  14. Expression of S6K1 in human visceral adipose tissue is upregulated in obesity and related to insulin resistance and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Andrada, Patricia; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Martí, Pablo; Silva, Camilo; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2015-04-01

    The ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a component of the insulin signalling pathway that has been proposed as a key molecular factor in insulin resistance development under conditions of nutrient overload. The aim was to evaluate the involvement of S6K1 in obesity as well as to explore their association with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation. Samples obtained from 40 subjects were used. Gene expression levels of RPS6KB1 and key inflammatory markers were analysed in VAT. The effect of insulin on transcript levels of RPS6KB1 in human differentiated adipocytes was also explored. RPS6KB1 mRNA levels in VAT were increased (P obese patients. Insulin treatment significantly enhanced (P insulin resistance was observed. Moreover, RPS6KB1 gene expression levels were positively correlated with VAT gene expression levels of the inflammatory markers CCL2, CD68, MMP2, MMP9, VEGFA and CHI3L1 as well as with mRNA levels of MTOR and MAPK8, representative players involved in signalling pathways related to S6K1. The increased levels of S6K1 in obesity and its positive association with insulin resistance and inflammation suggest a role for this protein in the changes that take place in VAT in obesity establishing a link between inflammation and a higher risk for the development of metabolic diseases.

  15. HuR-targeted nanotherapy in combination with AMD3100 suppresses CXCR4 expression, cell growth, migration and invasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, R; Panneerselvam, J; Chen, A; Zhao, Y D; Munshi, A; Ramesh, R

    2015-12-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor has an important role in cancer cell metastasis. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, has limited efficacy in controlling metastasis. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, regulates CXCR4 in cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether targeting HuR using a siRNA-based nanoparticle plus AMD3100 would suppress CXCR4 and inhibit lung cancer metastasis. We treated human H1299 lung cancer cells with HuR-specific siRNA contained in a folate-targeted lipid nanoparticle (HuR-FNP) plus AMD3100, and compared this with AMD3100 alone, HuR-FNP alone and no treatment. HuR-FNP plus AMD3100 treatment produced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest and reduced cell viability above and beyond the effects of AMD3100 alone. HuR and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression levels were markedly reduced in all treatment groups. Phosphorylated (p) AKT(S473) protein was also reduced. P27 protein expression increased with HuR-FNP and combination treatment. Promoter-based reporter studies showed that the combination inhibited CXCR4 promoter activity more than did either treatment alone. Cell migration and invasion was significantly reduced with all treatments; the combination provided the most inhibition. Reduced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 expression was associated with reduced invasion in all treatment groups. Thus, we found that combined HuR and CXCR4 targeting effectively controlled lung cancer metastasis.

  16. Up-Regulated Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Endothelial Cells Mediates Platelet Microvesicle-Induced Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Feng, Shi-Bin; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Bei, Jun-Jie; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Xu, Xian-Jie; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Hu, Hou-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Platelet microvesicles (PMVs) contribute to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying these contributions have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PMVs regulate the angiogenic properties of endothelial cells (ECs) via mechanisms extending beyond the transport of angiogenic regulators from platelets. In vitro Matrigel tube formation assay and in vivo Matrigel plug assay were used to evaluate the pro-angiogenic activity of PMVs. The effects of PMVs on the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were detected by transwell assay and wound-healing assay. Real-time PCR and western blot were conducted to examine mRNA and protein expression of pro-angiogenic factors in HUVECs. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was assayed by gelatin zymography. Moreover, the effects of specific MMP inhibitors were tested. PMVs promoted HUVEC capillary-like network formation in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PMVs dose-dependently facilitated HUVEC migration. Levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity were up-regulated in HUVECs stimulated with PMVs. Inhibition of MMPs decreased their pro-angiogenic and pro-migratory effects on HUVECs. Moreover, we confirmed the pro-angiogenic activity of PMVs in vivo in mice with subcutaneous implantation of Matrigel, and demonstrated that blockade of MMPs attenuated PMV-induced angiogenesis. The findings of our study indicate that PMVs promote angiogenesis by up-regulating MMP expression in ECs via mechanism extending beyond the direct delivery of angiogenic factors. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fibrosis-Related Gene Expression in Single Ventricle Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Stephanie J; Siomos, Austine K; Garcia, Anastacia M; Nguyen, Hieu; SooHoo, Megan; Galambos, Csaba; Nunley, Karin; Stauffer, Brian L; Sucharov, Carmen C; Miyamoto, Shelley D

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate fibrosis and fibrosis-related gene expression in the myocardium of pediatric subjects with single ventricle with right ventricular failure. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on explanted right ventricular myocardium of pediatric subjects with single ventricle disease and controls with nonfailing heart disease. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: single ventricle failing (right ventricular failure before or after stage I palliation), single ventricle nonfailing (infants listed for primary transplantation with normal right ventricular function), and stage III (Fontan or right ventricular failure after stage III). To evaluate subjects of similar age and right ventricular volume loading, single ventricle disease with failure was compared with single ventricle without failure and stage III was compared with nonfailing right ventricular disease. Histologic fibrosis was assessed in all hearts. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to identify differences in gene expression. Collagen (Col1α, Col3) expression is decreased in single ventricle congenital heart disease with failure compared with nonfailing single ventricle congenital heart disease (P = .019 and P = .035, respectively), and is equivalent in stage III compared with nonfailing right ventricular heart disease. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4) are downregulated in stage III compared with nonfailing right ventricular heart disease (P = .0047, P = .013 and P = .013, respectively). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) are similar between nonfailing single ventricular heart disease and failing single ventricular heart disease, and between stage III heart disease and nonfailing right ventricular heart disease. There is no difference in the prevalence of right ventricular fibrosis by histology in subjects with single ventricular failure heart disease with right ventricular failure (18%) compared with those with normal right

  18. Presence of intestinal Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP DNA is not associated with altered MMP expression in ulcerative colitis

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    Halwe Jörg M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is suspected to be a causative agent in human Crohn's disease (CD. Recent evidence suggests that pathogenic mycobacteria and MAP can induce the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP, which are the main proteases in the pathogenesis of mucosal ulcerations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Within this study we assessed the prevalence of intestinal MAP specific DNA in patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (UC, and healthy controls. We further analysed regulation patterns of MMPs in mucosal tissues of UC patients with and without intestinal MAP DNA detection. Methods Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 63 Norwegian and German IBD patients and 21 healthy controls. RNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to study MMP gene expression in both pathological and healthy mucosal specimens. The presence of MAP DNA in colonic mucosa was examined using MAP specific PCR. Results MAP DNA was detected in 20% of UC patients and 33% of healthy controls but only in 7% of patients with CD. UC patients treated with corticosteroids exhibited a significantly increased frequency of intestinal MAP DNA compared to those not receiving corticosteroids. Expression of MMP-1, -2, -7, -9, -13, -19, -28 and TNF-α did not differ between UC patients with presence of intestinal MAP DNA compared to those without. MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased in UC patients receiving corticosteroids. Conclusions The presence of intestinal MAP specific DNA is not associated with altered MMP expression in UC in vivo. Corticosteroids are associated with increased detection of intestinal MAP DNA and decreased expression of certain MMPs. Frequent detection of MAP DNA in healthy controls might be attributable to the wide environmental distribution of MAP and its presence in the food-chain.

  19. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (Poxidase activity, p47phox membrane translocation and the expression of Nox2 and Nox4. Moreover, the treatment of endothelial cells with serum obtained 4 h after acute intake of extra virgin olive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Rong-Xin Chen

    Full Text Available Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding matrix has been well documented as an early event of metastasis occurrence. However, the dynamic expression patterns of proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are largely unknown. Using a three-dimensional HCC invasion culture model established previously, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of identified proteins during early invasion of HCC.Highly metastatic MHCC97H cells and a liver tissue fragment were long-term co-cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV bioreactor to simulate different pathological states of HCC invasion. The established spherical co-cultures were collected on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 for dynamic expression pattern analysis. Significantly different proteins among spheroids at different time points were screened and identified using quantitative proteomics of iTRAQ labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins were further categorized by K-means clustering. The expression modes of several differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blot and qRT-PCR.Time course analysis of invasion/metastasis gene expressions (MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, CD44, SPP1, CXCR4, CXCL12, and CDH1 showed remarkable, dynamic alterations during the invasion process of HCC. A total of 1,028 proteins were identified in spherical co-cultures collected at different time points by quantitative proteomics. Among these proteins, 529 common differential proteins related to HCC invasion were clustered into 25 types of expression patterns. Some proteins displayed significant dynamic alterations during the early invasion process of HCC, such as upregulation at the early invasion stage and downregulation at the late invasion stage (e.g., MAPRE1, PHB2, cathepsin D, etc. or continuous upregulation during the entire invasion process (e.g., vitronectin, Met, clusterin, ICAM1, GSN, etc..Dynamic expression patterns of candidate proteins during the

  1. The possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in cancer, e.g. acute leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, G.; Vellenga, E.; Fraaije, M.W.; Kamps, W.A.; Bont, E.S.J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    In the past decades, a lot of effort has been put in identifying the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cancer. The main role of MMPs in angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis is degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and release and/or activation of growth factors through their

  2. Anti-MMP-2 Activity and Skin-Penetrating Capability of the Chemical Constituents from Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hsu, Chieh-Chih; Hsiao, George; Fang, Jia-You; Liu, Wei-Min; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2016-05-01

    Based on the significant inhibitory activity toward matrix metalloproteinase-2 and collagenase noticed in preliminary studies, crude extracts of Rhodiola rosea were partitioned and chromatographed sequentially to afford three new compounds, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-4-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (E)-creoside I (2), and (R,Z)-2-methylhept-2-ene-1,6-diol (3), along with twenty-four known compounds (4-27). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data analyses. All isolated compounds were subjected to bioactivity assays. In these, 1 specifically inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity with an IC50 value of 16.3 ± 1.6 µM, while its analogue 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranonoside (17) inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-2 with an IC50 value of 23.0 ± 4.8 µM. In the collagenase activity assay, the inhibitory effects of 1 and 17 at concentrations of both 20 and 40 µM were more potent than those of the positive control, 1,10-phenanthroline. In order to realize whether 17 could penetrate from the epidermal layer into the basal and dermal layers of the human skin to inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and collagenase or not, a transdermal penetration test in nude and white mice skins was performed. Penetration percentages of 17 quantified by LC-MS were 27.8 % and 74.8 % in 24 hours, respectively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Gelatinase A (MMP-2) and cysteine proteinases are essential for the degradation of collagen in soft connective tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, L. B.; Jansen, I. D.; Docherty, A. J.; Reynolds, J. J.; Beertsen, W.; Everts, V.

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of soft connective tissue collagen is considered to depend on the activity of various proteolytic enzymes, particularly those belonging to the group of matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine proteinases. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of these enzymes to this

  4. Differential actions of the endocytic collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180 and the collagenase MMP-2 in bone homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H; Jürgensen, Henrik J; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2013-01-01

    A well-coordinated remodeling of uncalcified collagen matrices is a pre-requisite for bone development and homeostasis. Collagen turnover proceeds through different pathways, either involving extracellular reactions exclusively, or being dependent on endocytic processes. Extracellular collagen...

  5. A Novel Poly-Naphthol Compound ST104P Suppresses Angiogenesis by Attenuating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the process of neovascularization, plays an important role in physiological and pathological conditions. ST104P is a soluble polysulfated-cyclo-tetrachromotropylene compound with anti-viral and anti-thrombotic activities. However, the functions of ST104P in angiogenesis have never been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of ST104P in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Application of ST104P potently suppressed the microvessels sprouting in aortic rings ex vivo. Furthermore, ST104P treatment significantly disrupted the vessels’ development in transgenic zebrafish in vivo. Above all, repeated administration of ST104P resulted in delayed tumor growth and prolonged the life span of mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma. Mechanistic studies revealed that ST104P potently inhibited the migration, tube formation and wound closure of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs. Moreover, ST104P treatment inhibited the secretion and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that ST104P is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and may hold potential for treatment of diseases due to excessive angiogenesis including cancer.

  6. XTEN as Biological Alternative to PEGylation Allows Complete Expression of a Protease-Activatable Killin-Based Cytostatic.

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    Akvile Haeckel

    Full Text Available Increased effectiveness and reduced side effects are general goals in drug research, especially important in cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to design a long-circulating, activatable cytostatic drug that is completely producible in E. coli. Crucial for this goal was the novel unstructured polypeptide XTEN, which acts like polyethylene glycol (PEG but has many important advantages. Most importantly, it can be produced in E. coli, is less immunogenic, and is biodegradable. We tested constructs containing a fragment of Killin as cytostatic/cytotoxic element, a cell-penetrating peptide, an MMP-2 cleavage site for specific activation, and XTEN for long blood circulation and deactivation of Killin. One of three sequence variants was efficiently expressed in E. coli. As typical for XTEN, it allowed efficient purification of the E. coli lysate by a heat step (10 min 75°C and subsequent anion exchange chromatography using XTEN as purification tag. After 24 h XTEN-Killin reduced the number of viable cells of HT-1080 tumor cell line to 3.8 ±2.0% (p<0.001 compared to untreated controls. In contrast, liver derived non-tumor cells (BRL3A did not show significant changes in viability. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of completely producing a complex protease-activatable, potentially long-circulating cytostatic/cytotoxic prodrug in E. coli-a concept that could lead to efficient production of highly multifunctional drugs in the future.

  7. XTEN as Biological Alternative to PEGylation Allows Complete Expression of a Protease-Activatable Killin-Based Cytostatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Appler, Franziska; Ariza de Schellenberger, Angela; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-01-01

    Increased effectiveness and reduced side effects are general goals in drug research, especially important in cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to design a long-circulating, activatable cytostatic drug that is completely producible in E. coli. Crucial for this goal was the novel unstructured polypeptide XTEN, which acts like polyethylene glycol (PEG) but has many important advantages. Most importantly, it can be produced in E. coli, is less immunogenic, and is biodegradable. We tested constructs containing a fragment of Killin as cytostatic/cytotoxic element, a cell-penetrating peptide, an MMP-2 cleavage site for specific activation, and XTEN for long blood circulation and deactivation of Killin. One of three sequence variants was efficiently expressed in E. coli. As typical for XTEN, it allowed efficient purification of the E. coli lysate by a heat step (10 min 75°C) and subsequent anion exchange chromatography using XTEN as purification tag. After 24 h XTEN-Killin reduced the number of viable cells of HT-1080 tumor cell line to 3.8 ±2.0% (p<0.001) compared to untreated controls. In contrast, liver derived non-tumor cells (BRL3A) did not show significant changes in viability. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of completely producing a complex protease-activatable, potentially long-circulating cytostatic/cytotoxic prodrug in E. coli-a concept that could lead to efficient production of highly multifunctional drugs in the future.

  8. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Naegleria fowleri and their role in invasion of the central nervous system.

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    Lam, Charlton; Jamerson, Melissa; Cabral, Guy; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2017-10-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). PAM occurs when amoebae attach to the nasal epithelium and invade the CNS, a process that involves binding to, and degradation of, extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This degradation is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that have been described in other pathogenic protozoa, and that have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability. These enzymes also are upregulated in tumorigenic cells and have been implicated in metastasis of certain tumours. In the present study, in vitro experiments linked MMPs functionally to the degradation of the ECM. Gelatin zymography demonstrated enzyme activity in N. fowleri whole cell lysates, conditioned media and media collected from invasion assays. Western immunoblotting indicated the presence of the metalloproteinases MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-9 (gelatinase B) and MMP-14 [membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)]. Highly virulent mouse-passaged amoebae expressed higher levels of MMPs than weakly virulent axenically grown amoebae. The functional relevance of MMPs in media was indicated through the use of the MMP inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline. The collective in vitro results suggest that MMPs play a critical role in vivo in invasion of the CNS and that these enzymes may be amenable targets for limiting PAM.

  9. Protective Effect of Astaxanthin on Liver Fibrosis through Modulation of TGF-β1 Expression and Autophagy

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    Miao Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a common pathway leading to cirrhosis and a worldwide clinical issue. Astaxanthin is a red carotenoid pigment with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin on liver fibrosis and its potential protective mechanisms. Liver fibrosis was induced in a mouse model using CCL4 (intraperitoneal injection, three times a week for 8 weeks, and astaxanthin was administered everyday at three doses (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. Pathological results indicated that astaxanthin significantly improved the pathological lesions of liver fibrosis. The levels of alanine aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase and hydroxyproline were also significantly decreased by astaxanthin. The same results were confirmed in bile duct liagtion, (BDL model. In addition, astaxanthin inhibited hepatic stellate cells (HSCs activation and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM by decreasing the expression of NF-κB and TGF-β1 and maintaining the balance between MMP2 and TIMP1. In addition, astaxanthin reduced energy production in HSCs by downregulating the level of autophagy. These results were simultaneously confirmed in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our study showed that 80 mg/kg astaxanthin had a significant protective effect on liver fibrosis by suppressing multiple profibrogenic factors.

  10. Regulation of cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 3-Like 1 (Creb3l1 Expression by Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1

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    Michael P. Greenwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP (cAMP inducible transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1 is strongly activated in the hypothalamus in response to hyperosmotic cues such as dehydration (DH. We have recently shown that Creb3l1 expression is upregulated by cAMP pathways in vitro, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Here we show that increasing Creb3l1 transcription by raising cAMP levels in mouse pituitary AtT20 cells automatically initiates cleavage of Creb3l1, leading to a greater abundance of the transcriptionally active N-terminal portion. Inhibiting protein synthesis indicated that de novo protein synthesis of an intermediary transcription factor was required for Creb3l1 induction. Strategic mining of our microarray data from dehydrated rodent hypothalamus revealed four candidates, reduced to two by analysis of acute hyperosmotic-induced transcriptional activation profiles in the hypothalamus, and one, orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a1, by direct shRNA mediated silencing in AtT20 cells. We show that activation of Creb3l1 transcription by Nr4a1 involves interaction with a single NBRE site in the promoter region. The ability to activate Creb3l1 transcription by this pathway in vitro is dictated by the level of methylation of a CpG island within the proximal promoter/5′UTR of this gene. We thus identify a novel cAMP-Nr4a1-Creb3l1 transcriptional pathway in AtT20 cells and also, our evidence would suggest, in the hypothalamus.

  11. CCN5/WISP-2 expression in breast adenocarcinoma is associated with less frequent progression of the disease and suppresses the invasive phenotypes of tumor cells.

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    Banerjee, Snigdha; Dhar, Gopal; Haque, Inamul; Kambhampati, Suman; Mehta, Smita; Sengupta, Krishanu; Tawfik, Ossama; Phillips, Teresa A; Banerjee, Sushanta K

    2008-09-15

    Although previous in vitro studies predicted that CCN5/WISP-2 may act as an anti-invasive gene in breast cancer, the distribution pattern of CCN5 in breast cancer samples is conflicting. Thus, we systematically investigated the CCN5 expression profile in noninvasive and invasive breast tumor samples and its functional relevance in breast cancer progression. The studies showed that CCN5 expression is biphasic, such that in normal samples CCN5 expression is undetectable, whereas its expression is markedly increased in noninvasive breast lesions, including atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Further, CCN5 mRNA and protein levels are significantly reduced as the cancer progresses from a noninvasive to invasive type. Additionally, we showed that CCN5 mRNA and protein level was almost undetectable in poorly differentiated cancers compared with the moderately or well-differentiated samples and its expression inversely correlated with lymph node positivity. The result was further supported by evaluating the RNA expression profile in microdissected sections using real-time PCR analysis. Therefore, our data suggest a protective function of CCN5 in noninvasive breast tumor cells. This hypothesis was further supported by our in vitro studies illuminating that CCN5 is a negative regulator of migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, and these events could be regulated by CCN5 through the modulation of the expression of genes essential for an invasive front. These include Snail-E-cadherin signaling and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2. Collectively, these studies suggest that the protective effect of CCN5 in breast cancer progression may have important therapeutic implications.

  12. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhances maspin expression and inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of the bladder cancer T24 cell line.

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    Zhang, Huihui; Qi, Fan; Cao, Youhan; Zu, Xiongbing; Chen, Minfeng; Li, Zhuo; Qi, Lin

    2013-05-01

    Downregulation of maspin expression has been linked to bladder cancer development, and that DNA methylation may be important for regulating maspin gene activation in bladder cancer cells. Thus, we attempted to explore the effects of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), on the maspin expression and the biological behaviors in bladder cancer T24 cells. The methylation status of maspin in T24 cells was investigated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After treated with different concentrations of 5-Aza-CdR (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 μM), the maspin gene mRNA expression and protein expression were examined by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Cell proliferations were evaluated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry was used to identify the apoptosis rates. Migration and invasive ability were determined by the transwell assay. Using the western blotting analysis, the changes of Cyclin D1, VEGF-C, VEGFR-3, MMP-2, MMP-9, caspase-3 p17, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression were measured. Promoter DNA methylation of maspin was observed in T24 cells. The expression levels of maspin mRNA and protein in T24 cells were increased in a dose manner after treatment with increasing 5-Aza-CdR (pcells were significantly inhibited with increasing 5-Aza-CdR, whereas the apoptosis was greatly increased (pT24 cells, and its expression can be reactivated by treatment with 5-Aza-CdR. 5-Aza-CdR could result in obvious inhibitions of the proliferation, migration, and invasion of T24 cells, which may serve as a potential strategy for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  13. Expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 is reduced in ischemic but not neuropathic ulcers from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Menghini, R; Uccioli, L; Vainieri, E; Pecchioli, C; Casagrande, V; Stoehr, R; Cardellini, M; Porzio, O; Rizza, S; Federici, M

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration remains one of the most common and most serious consequences of diabetes. Persistently high levels of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) contribute to wound chronicity. Our aim was to assess the concentrations of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in neuropathic and ischemic diabetic foot ulcers by analyzing biopsy samples. In this study, biopsies were taken from 35 diabetic foot ulcers of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and distinguished in neuropathic (n = 14) or ischemic (n = 21). Zymography assay was utilized for the analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. TACE activity was evaluated by a specific fluorimetric assay. mRNA levels of MMPs as well as TIMPs were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The activity of MMP9 and A Disintegrin and A MetalloProtease Domain 17/TNF-Alpha Converting Enzyme (ADAM17/TACE) was significantly increased in ischemic compared to neuropathic biopsies. No differences were detected between both groups for the mRNA levels of MMPs as well as of ADAMs. However, TIMP3 mRNA expression was decreased in ischemic samples. The combination of increased activity of MMP9 and ADAM17/TACE with decreased concentrations of TIMP-3 mRNA expression in ischemic diabetic foot ulcers compared to neuropathic samples suggests that the increased proteolytic environment may represent a causative factor in the ulcer progression. New treatment strategies for healing diabetic foot ulcers could be directed toward increasing levels of TIMP3.

  14. Evolution of gene expression changes in newborn rats after mechanical ventilation with reversible intubation.

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    Trummer-Menzi, Eliane; Gremlich, Sandrine; Schittny, Johannes Constantin; Dénervaud, Valérie; Stampanoni, Marco; Post, Martin; Gerber, Stefan; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is life-saving but potentially harmful for lungs of premature infants. So far, animal models dealt with the acute impact of MV on immature lungs, but less with its delayed effects. We used a newborn rodent model including non-surgical and therefore reversible intubation with moderate ventilation and hypothesized that there might be distinct gene expression patterns after a ventilation-free recovery period compared to acute effects directly after MV. Newborn rat pups were subjected to 8 hr of MV with 60% oxygen (O(2)), 24 hr after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), intended to create a low inflammatory background as often recognized in preterm infants. Animals were separated in controls (CTRL), LPS injection (LPS), or full intervention with LPS and MV with 60% O(2) (LPS + MV + O(2)). Lungs were recovered either directly following (T:0 hr) or 48 hr after MV (T:48 hr). Histologically, signs of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) were observed in LPS + MV + O(2) lungs at T:0 hr, while changes appeared similar to those known from patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) with fewer albeit larger gas exchange units, at T:48 hr. At T:0 hr, LPS + MV + O(2) increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory MIP-2. In parallel anti-inflammatory IL-1Ra gene expression was increased in LPS and LPS + MV + O(2) groups. At T:48 hr, pro- and anti-inflammatory genes had returned to their basal expression. MMP-2 gene expression was decreased in LPS and LPS + MV + O(2) groups at T:0 hr, but no longer at T:48 hr. MMP-9 gene expression levels were unchanged directly after MV. However, at T:48 hr, gene and protein expression increased in LPS + MV + O(2) group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of delayed outcome measurements after a ventilation-free period in newborn rats and may help to further understand the time-course of molecular changes following MV. The differences obtained from the two time points could be interpreted as an

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 Are Differentially Expressed in Patients with Indeterminate and Cardiac Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease

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    Fares, Rafaelle Christine Gomes; Gomes, Juliana de Assis Silva; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Waghabi, Mariana Caldas; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Medeiros, Nayara Ingrid; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Chambela, Mayara da Costa; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Damásio, Marcos Paulo; Valente, Vanessa Azevedo; Ferreira, Karine Silvestre; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Rocha, Manoel Otávio da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Dilated chronic cardiomyopathy (DCC) from Chagas disease is associated with myocardial remodeling and interstitial fibrosis, resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. In this study, we characterized for the first time the serum matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 levels, as well as their main cell sources in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients presenting with the indeterminate (IND) or cardiac (CARD) clinical form of Chagas disease. Our results showed that serum levels of MMP-9 are associated with the severity of Chagas disease. The analysis of MMP production by T lymphocytes showed that CD8+ T cells are the main mononuclear leukocyte source of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 molecules. Using a new 3-dimensional model of fibrosis, we observed that sera from patients with Chagas disease induced an increase in the extracellular matrix components in cardiac spheroids. Furthermore, MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed different correlations with matrix proteins and inflammatory cytokines in patients with Chagas disease. Our results suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 show distinct activities in Chagas disease pathogenesis. While MMP-9 seems to be involved in the inflammation and cardiac remodeling of Chagas disease, MMP-2 does not correlate with inflammatory molecules. PMID:23856618

  16. An intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 isoform induces tubular regulated necrosis: implications for acute kidney injury.

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    Ceron, Carla S; Baligand, Celine; Joshi, Sunil; Wanga, Shaynah; Cowley, Patrick M; Walker, Joy P; Song, Sang Heon; Mahimkar, Rajeev; Baker, Anthony J; Raffai, Robert L; Wang, Zhen J; Lovett, David H

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) causes severe morbidity, mortality, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mortality is particularly marked in the elderly and with preexisting CKD. Oxidative stress is a common theme in models of AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. We recently characterized an intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) induced by oxidative stress-mediated activation of an alternate promoter in the first intron of the MMP-2 gene. This generates an NH2-terminal truncated MMP-2 (NTT-MMP-2) isoform that is intracellular and associated with mitochondria. The NTT-MMP-2 isoform is expressed in kidneys of 14-mo-old mice and in a mouse model of coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure with CKD. We recently determined that NTT-MMP-2 is induced in human renal transplants with delayed graft function and correlated with tubular cell necrosis. To determine mechanism(s) of action, we generated proximal tubule cell-specific NTT-MMP-2 transgenic mice. Although morphologically normal at the light microscopic level at 4 mo, ultrastructural studies revealed foci of tubular epithelial cell necrosis, the mitochondrial permeability transition, and mitophagy. To determine whether NTT-MMP-2 expression enhances sensitivity to I-R injury, we performed unilateral I-R to induce mild tubular injury in wild-type mice. In contrast, expression of the NTT-MMP-2 isoform resulted in a dramatic increase in tubular cell necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. NTT-MMP-2 mice had enhanced expression of innate immunity genes and release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules. We conclude that NTT-MMP-2 "primes" the kidney to enhanced susceptibility to I-R injury via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. NTT-MMP-2 may be a novel AKI treatment target.

  17. Expression of mesenchymal stem cells-related genes and plasticity of aspirated follicular cells obtained from infertile women.

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    Dzafic, Edo; Stimpfel, Martin; Novakovic, Srdjan; Cerkovnik, Petra; Virant-Klun, Irma

    2014-01-01

    After removal of oocytes for in vitro fertilization, follicular aspirates which are rich in somatic follicular cells are discarded in daily medical practice. However, there is some evidence that less differentiated cells with stem cell characteristics are present among aspirated follicular cells (AFCs). The aim of this study was to culture AFCs in vitro and to analyze their gene expression profile. Using the RT2 Profiler PCR array, we investigated the expression profile of 84 genes related to stemness, mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs), and cell differentiation in AFCs enriched by hypoosmotic protocol from follicular aspirates of infertile women involved in assisted reproduction programme in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and fibroblasts. Altogether the expression of 57 genes was detected in AFCs: 16 genes (OCT4, CD49f, CD106, CD146, CD45, CD54, IL10, IL1B, TNF, VEGF, VWF, HDAC1, MITF, RUNX2, PPARG, and PCAF) were upregulated and 20 genes (FGF2, CASP3, CD105, CD13, CD340, CD73, CD90, KDR, PDGFRB, BDNF, COL1A1, IL6, MMP2, NES, NUDT6, BMP6, SMURF2, BMP4, GDF5, and JAG1) were downregulated in AFCs when compared with BM-MSCs. The genes which were upregulated in AFCs were mostly related to MSCs and connected with ovarian function, and differed from those in fibroblasts. The cultured AFCs with predominating granulosa cells were successfully in vitro differentiated into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, and pancreatic-like cells. The upregulation of some MSC-specific genes and in vitro differentiation into other types of cells indicated a subpopulation of AFCs with specific stemness, which was not similar to those of BM-MSCs or fibroblasts.

  18. Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Related Genes and Plasticity of Aspirated Follicular Cells Obtained from Infertile Women

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    Edo Dzafic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After removal of oocytes for in vitro fertilization, follicular aspirates which are rich in somatic follicular cells are discarded in daily medical practice. However, there is some evidence that less differentiated cells with stem cell characteristics are present among aspirated follicular cells (AFCs. The aim of this study was to culture AFCs in vitro and to analyze their gene expression profile. Using the RT2 Profiler PCR array, we investigated the expression profile of 84 genes related to stemness, mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs, and cell differentiation in AFCs enriched by hypoosmotic protocol from follicular aspirates of infertile women involved in assisted reproduction programme in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and fibroblasts. Altogether the expression of 57 genes was detected in AFCs: 16 genes (OCT4, CD49f, CD106, CD146, CD45, CD54, IL10, IL1B, TNF, VEGF, VWF, HDAC1, MITF, RUNX2, PPARG, and PCAF were upregulated and 20 genes (FGF2, CASP3, CD105, CD13, CD340, CD73, CD90, KDR, PDGFRB, BDNF, COL1A1, IL6, MMP2, NES, NUDT6, BMP6, SMURF2, BMP4, GDF5, and JAG1 were downregulated in AFCs when compared with BM-MSCs. The genes which were upregulated in AFCs were mostly related to MSCs and connected with ovarian function, and differed from those in fibroblasts. The cultured AFCs with predominating granulosa cells were successfully in vitro differentiated into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, and pancreatic-like cells. The upregulation of some MSC-specific genes and in vitro differentiation into other types of cells indicated a subpopulation of AFCs with specific stemness, which was not similar to those of BM-MSCs or fibroblasts.

  19. Changes of Pulmonary Pathology and Gene Expressions After Simvastatin Treatment in the Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Kwan Chang; Cho, Min-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Simvastatin's properties are suggestive of a potential pathophysiologic role in pulmonary hypertension. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes of pulmonary pathology and gene expressions, including endothelin (ET)-1, endothelin receptor A (ERA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) and caspase 3, and to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on monocrotaline (M)-induced pulmonary hypertension. Materials and Methods Six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated, as follows: control group, subcutaneous (sc) injection of saline; M group, sc injection of M (60 mg/kg); and simvastatin group, sc injection of M (60 mg/kg) plus 10 mg/kg/day simvastatin orally. Results On day 28, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) significantly decreased in the simvastatin group compared to the M group. Similarly, right ventricular pressure significantly decreased in the simvastatin group on day 28. From day 7, the ratio of medial thickening of the pulmonary artery was significantly increased in the M group, but there was no significant change in the simvastatin group. The number of muscular pulmonary arterioles was significantly reduced in the simvastatin group. On day 5, gene expressions of ET-1, ERA, NOS2, NOS3, MMP and TIMP significantly decreased in the simvastatin group. Conclusion Administration of simvastatin exerted weak inhibitory effects on RVH and on the number of muscular pulmonary arterioles, during the development of M-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Simvastatin decreased gene expressions on day 5. PMID:22022327

  20. The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells.

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    Zhenya Gao

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cultured acute retinal pigment epithelial 19 (ARPE-19 cells.The effects of ATRA (concentrations from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l on the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs in ARPE-19 cells were examined at the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The effects of treating ARPE-19 cells with ATRA concentrations ranging from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l for 24 h and 48 h or with 10-6mol/l ATRA at different times ranging from 6h to 72h were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The contribution of RARβ-induced activation of ARPE-19 cells was confirmed using LE135, an antagonist of RARβ.RARβ mRNA levels significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells treated with ATRA for 24h and 48h. These increases in RARβ mRNA levels were dose dependent (at concentrations of 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l with a maximum effect observed at 10-6 mol/l. There were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of RARα and RARγ. Western blot assay revealed that RARβ protein levels were increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells treated with 10-6 mol/l ATRA from 12 h to 72 h, with a marked increase observed at 24 h and 48 h. The upregulation of RARβ and the ATRA-induced secretion in ARPE-19 cells could be inhibited by the RARβ antagonist LE135.ATRA induced upregulation of RARβ in ARPE-19 cells and stimulated these cells to secrete BMP-2 and MMP-2.

  1. Ulex europaeus I lectin induces activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, D E; Yoshiji, H; Kim, J C; Thorgeirsson, U P

    1995-11-02

    In this report, we show that the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I), which binds to alpha-linked fucose residues on the surface of endothelial cells, mediates activation of the 72-kDa matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). A dose-dependent increase in the active 62-kDa form of MMP-2 was observed in conditioned medium from monkey aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) following incubation with concentrations of UEA I ranging from 2 to 100 micrograms/ml. The increase in the 62-kDa MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity was not reflected by a rise in MMP-2 gene expression. The UEA I-mediated activation of MMP-2 was blocked by L-fucose, which competes with UEA I for binding to alpha-fucose. These findings may suggest that a similar in vivo mechanism exists, whereby adhesive interactions between tumor cell lectins and endothelial cells can mediate MMP-2 activation.

  2. Significant elevation of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 level and its ratio to matrix metalloproteinase-2 in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hui; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Tee, Yi-Torng; Lin, Long-Yau; Yang, Shun-Fa; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2009-11-01

    To detect the expression of plasma matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and MMP-9:MMP-2 ratio in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). A consecutive study with approximate 1:2 case-to-control ratio. University hospital. Forty-seven patients with PID and 80 healthy women. Collected blood specimens of patients with PID before and after treatment. ELISA and gelatin zymography were used to measure the expression of plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9. The level of plasma MMP-9 or MMP-9:MMP-2 ratio was elevated in patients with PID compared with healthy controls and decreased significantly after treatment. The activity of MMP-9, but not MMP-2, tended to be higher in 47 patients with PID before the treatment compared with that after the treatment. Pretreatment plasma MMP-9 or MMP-9:MMP-2 ratio was significantly correlated with white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts. As prediction markers for PID, the sensitivities of MMP-9 and MMP-9:MMP-2 ratio were 76.6% and 76.6%, whereas the negative predictive values were 82.5% and 83.3%. Level of plasma MMP-9 and MMP-9:MMP-2 ratio may act as prediction markers for PID. In patients with PID, 80% have a plasma MMP-9 level higher than 115 ng/mL or a MMP-9:MMP-2 ratio higher than 2.15.

  3. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  4. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  5. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  6. Down-regulation of collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase expression in myofibroblasts from Dupuytren nodule using adenovirus-mediated relaxin gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young-Mi; Choi, Yun-Rak; Yun, Chae-Ok; Park, Jin-Oh; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hak-Sun; Park, Moon-Soo; Lee, Byung-Ho; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Moon, Seong-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a fibroproliferative connective tissue disorder characterized by contracture of the palmer fascia of the hand. Relaxin (RLN) is a multifunctional factor which contributes to the remodeling of the pelvic ligament by inhibiting fibrosis and inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the RLN gene on the inhibition of fibrosis in myofibroblastic cells. Myofibroblast cells with adenovirus LacZ (Ad-LacZ) as a marker gene or adenovirus relaxin (Ad-RLN) as therapeutic gene showed transgene expressions in beta-galactosidase assay and Western blot analysis. Myofibroblastic cells with Ad-RLN demonstrated a 22% and 48% reduction in collagen I and III mRNA expressions respectively, a 50% decrease in MMP-1, 70% decrease in MMP-2, 80% decrease in MMP-9, and a 15% reduction in MMP-13 protein expression compared with cultures with viral control and saline control. In addition, myofibroblastic cells with Ad-RLN showed a 40% decrease in TIMP 1 and a 15% increase in TIMP 3 protein expression at 48 h compared to cultures with viral control and saline control. Also, myofibroblastic cell with Ad-RLN demonstrated a 74% inhibition of fibronectin and a 52% decrease in total collagen synthesis at 48 h compared with cultures with viral control and saline control. In conclusion, the RLN gene render antifibrogenic effect on myofibroblastic cells from Dupuytren's nodule via direct inhibition of collagen synthesis not through collagenolytic pathway such as MMP-1, -13, TIMP 1, and 3. Therefore relaxin can be an alternative therapeutic strategy in initial stage of Dupuytren's disease by its antifibrogenic effect. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of human and mouse CatSper3 and CatSper4 genes: Characterisation of a common interaction domain and evidence for expression in testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lindsey

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CatSper1 and CatSper2 are two recently identified channel-like proteins, which show sperm specific expression patterns. Through targeted mutagenesis in the mouse, CatSper1 has been shown to be required for fertility, sperm motility and for cAMP induced Ca2+ current in sperm. Both channels resemble a single pore forming repeat from a four repeat voltage dependent Ca2+ /Na+ channel. However, neither CatSper1 or CatSper2 have been shown to function as cation channels when transfected into cells, singly or in conjunction. As the pore forming units of voltage gated cation channels form a tetramer it has been suggested that the known CatSper proteins require additional subunits and/or interaction partners to function. Results Using in silico gene identification and prediction techniques, we have identified two further members of the CatSper family, CatSper3 and Catsper4. Each carries a single channel-forming domain with the predicted pore-loop containing the consensus sequence T×D×W. Each of the new CatSper genes has evidence for expression in the testis. Furthermore we identified coiled-coil protein-protein interaction domains in the C-terminal tails of each of the CatSper channels, implying that CatSper channels 1,2,3 and 4 may interact directly or indirectly to form a functional tetramer. Conclusions The topological and sequence relationship of CatSper1 and CatSper2 to the four repeat Ca2+ /Na+ channels suggested other members of this family may exist. We have identified a further two novel CatSper genes, conserved in both the human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, all four of the CatSper proteins are predicted to contain a common coiled-coil protein-protein interaction domain in their C-terminal tail. Coupled with expression data this leads to the hypothesis that the CatSper proteins form a functional hetero-tetrameric channel in sperm.

  8. Anti-apoptotic activity of human matrix Metalloproteinase-2 attenuates diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihama, Kota; Yasuma, Taro; Yano, Yutaka; D' Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Toda, Masaaki; Hinneh, Josephine A; Tonto, Prince Baffour; Takeshita, Atsuro; Totoki, Toshiaki; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Iwasa, Motoh; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Morser, John; Cann, Isaac; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2018-01-20

    Chronic progression of diabetes is associated with decreased pancreatic islet mass due to apoptosis of β-cells. Patients with diabetes have increased circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2); however, the physiological significance has remained elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that MMP2 inhibits cell apoptosis, including islet β-cells. Samples from diabetic patients and newly developed transgenic mice overexpressing human MMP2 (hMMP2) were harnessed, and diabetes was induced with streptozotocin. Circulating hMMP2 was significantly increased in diabetic patients compared to controls and significantly correlated with the serum C-peptide levels. The diabetic hMMP2 transgenic mice showed significant improvements in glycemia, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion compared to diabetic wild type mice. Importantly, the increased hMMP2 levels in mice correlated with significant reduction in islet β-cell apoptosis compared to wild-type counterparts, and an inhibitor of hMMP2 reversed this mitigating activity against diabetes. The increased activation of Akt and BAD induced by hMMP2 in β-cells compared to controls, links this signaling pathway to the anti-apoptotic activity of hMMP2, a property that was reversible by both an hMMP2 inhibitor and antibody against integrin-β3. Overall, this study demonstrates that increased expression of hMMP2 may attenuate the severity of diabetes by protecting islet β-cells from apoptosis through an integrin-mediated activation of the Akt/BAD pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Video-rate bioluminescence imaging of matrix metalloproteinase-2 secreted from a migrating cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 plays an important role in cancer progression and metastasis. MMP-2 is secreted as a pro-enzyme, which is activated by the membrane-bound proteins, and the polarized distribution of secretory and the membrane-associated MMP-2 has been investigated. However, the real-time visualizations of both MMP-2 secretion from the front edge of a migration cell and its distribution on the cell surface have not been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging was applied to visualize exocytosis of MMP-2 from a living cell using Gaussia luciferase (GLase as a reporter. The luminescence signals of GLase were detected by a high speed electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera (EM-CCD camera with a time resolution within 500 ms per image. The fusion protein of MMP-2 to GLase was expressed in a HeLa cell and exocytosis of MMP-2 was detected in a few seconds along the leading edge of a migrating HeLa cell. The membrane-associated MMP-2 was observed at the specific sites on the bottom side of the cells, suggesting that the sites of MMP-2 secretion are different from that of MMP-2 binding. CONCLUSIONS: We were the first to successfully demonstrate secretory dynamics of MMP-2 and the specific sites for polarized distribution of MMP-2 on the cell surface. The video-rate bioluminescence imaging using GLase is a useful method to investigate distribution and dynamics of secreted proteins on the whole surface of polarized cells in real time.

  10. Expression of matrix metalloprotease-2, -7 and -9 on human colon, liver and bile duct cell lines by enteric and gastric Helicobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Naoko; Geironson, Linda; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Ljungh, Sa

    2005-05-01

    Gastric and enteric Helicobacter species have been associated with malignant and inflammatory diseases of the stomach, liver, gall bladder and intestine. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in degradation of extracellular matrix, which allows bacteria to come in contact with and interact with the cells. Enhanced level of MMPs facilitates metastasis and cell invasion of tumor cells by removal of physical barriers, as well as modulation of biologic activities of the proteins residing in the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gastric and enteric Helicobacter on induction of MMPs in hepatocytes and epithelial cells of gall bladder and colon. Human hepatocytes HepG2, gall bladder epithelial cells TFK-1, and colon epithelial cells HT29 were infected with strains of H. pylori cagA+, cagE+, H. pylori cagA-, cagE-, H. pullorum, H. cholecystus, H. bilis and H. hepaticus. Protein levels of MMPs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to study mRNA levels. Increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was observed on HepG2, TFK-1 and HT29 infected with H. pylori cagA+, cagE+ and H. cholecystus strains. H. pylori cagA+, cagE+, H. cholecystus, H. pullorum, H. bilis and H. hepaticus strains increased expression of MMP-7 on HT29, compared to uninfected control cells. The effect of MMP upregulation on HepG2, TFK-1 and HT29 was bacterial dose dependent. H. pylori cagA-, cagE- strain did not increase expression of MMPs. Inducible MMPs on colon and bile duct epithelial cells as well as hepatocytes may play an important role in facilitating invasion and progression of cancer by Helicobacter species colonizing the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal tract.

  11. On the origin of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzyszcz, Aneta; Wozniak, Mieczyslaw

    2012-01-01

    To date, several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified in human platelets. In most research studies, the platelets are obtained using the isolation method from plasma by centrifugation and washing. The metalloproteinase content in the platelets can be affected by the isolation technique and the leukocyte contamination. In this work, we studied the influence of the isolation method on the detection of platelet MMPs and explore the expression of these enzymes in megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells. We investigated the expression of mRNAs encoding for MMP-2 and -9 in platelets and MEG-01 cells. Using gelatin zymography and western blotting, we examined the expression and release of MMP-2 and 9 by platelets and MEG-01 cells and checked whether the amount of the released MMPs depends on the volume of tested platelet and leukocyte contamination. To investigate the MMP-2 expression profile, we used zymography and flow cytometry. Platelets, in contrast to the MEG-01 cells, neither contain mRNA for MMP-2 nor -9. The platelets contain pro-MMP-2 and release it during the activation. The population of uncontaminated (leukocytesplatelets contained no MMP-9 or the active form of MMP-2. We have observed that the activity of MMP-2 in platelet lysate is proportional to their mean volume and that the MMP-2 activity may not be detected if very small platelets are examined. We conclude that the detection of gelatinases in platelets depends on platelet isolation techniques and the degree of leukocyte contamination.

  12. Emodin inhibits proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digestive Medicine, Ruian People's Hospital, Ruian, Zhejiang, PR China, 325200. *For correspondence: Email: ... Purpose: To determine the anticancer effects of emodin in human esophageal carcinoma cell line. ECA109. Methods: Cell viability was .... enzymes, mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9 [16]. Expressions of MMP-2 and ...

  13. Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide inhibit migration and invasion in human colon cancer colo 205 cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -7, and -9 expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Yang, Jai-Sing; Ma, Chia-Yu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsia, Te-Chun; Ho, Heng-Chien; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-09-01

    Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) are major organosulfur compounds exiting in garlic (Allium sativum). These compounds are reported to exhibit various pharmacological properties such as antibacteria, antiangiogenesis, anticancer, and anticoagulation, and they also induce cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Although these compounds show wide spectrum of biological activities, there are no reports to show that DAS, DADS, and DATS affected migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells, and their exact molecular mechanisms are not well investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether DAS, DADS, and DATS affected the invasion and migration abilities of colo 205 human colon cancer cells. The results indicate that DAS, DADS, and DATS at 10 and 25 μM inhibited the migration and invasion of colo 205 cells in the order of DATS < DADS < DAS. DATS is the highest for inhibition of migration and invasion of colo 205 cells. DAS, DADS, and DATS induce downregulation expression of PI3K, Ras, MEKK3, MKK7, ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 and then lead to the inhibition of MMP-2, -7, and -9. DAS, DADS, and DATS inhibited NF-κB and COX-2 for leading to the inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that application of DAS, DADS, and DATS might serve as potential antimetastatic drugs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. Stimulation of nuclear receptor REV-ERBs regulates tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules in C6 astroglial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Norimitsu, E-mail: mnori@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Tomori, Mizuki; Zhang, Fang Fang; Saeki, Munenori; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-08

    Under physiological conditions, astrocytes maintain homeostasis in the CNS. Following inflammation and injury to the CNS, however, activated astrocytes produce neurotoxic molecules such as cytokines and chemokines, amplifying the initial molecular-cellular events evoked by inflammation and injury. Nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ (REV-ERBs) are crucial in the regulation of inflammation- and metabolism-related gene transcription. The current study sought to elucidate a role of REV-ERBs in rat C6 astroglial cells on the expression of inflammatory molecules following stimulation with the neuroinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Stimulation of C6 cells with TNF (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the mRNA expression of CCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9, but not fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and MMP-2. Treatment with either REV-ERB agonists GSK4112 or SR9009 significantly blocked TNF-induced upregulation of CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA, but not IL-6 mRNA and iNOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment with RGFP966, a selective histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibitor, potently reversed the inhibitory effects of GSK4112 on TNF-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA, but not CCL2 mRNA. Expression of Rev-erbs mRNA in C6 astroglial cells, primary cultured rat cortical and spinal astrocytes was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, the findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect, downregulating of MMP-9 and CCL2 transcription, of astroglial REV-ERBs activation through HDAC3-dependent and HDAC3-independent mechanisms. - Highlights: • Rev-erbα mRNA and Rev-erbβ mRNA are expressed in C6 astroglial cells. • TNF increases the expression of CCL2, IL-6, MMP-9 and iNOS mRNA. • REV-ERB activation inhibits CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA expression. • HDAC3 activity is involved in the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB on MMP-9 induction.

  15. Time profiles of the expression of metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, cytokines and collagens in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini with special reference to peribiliary fibrosis and liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakobwong, Suksanti; Pinlaor, Somchai; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2009-06-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in southeastern Asia, and causes cholangiocarcinoma and liver fibrosis. We investigated the time profile of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in relation to peribiliary fibrosis in O. viverrini-infected hamsters. Hepatic mRNA expression of MMPs, TIMPs, cytokines and collagens I and III was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were also used to examine MMPs-2 and -9 expression. After infection, an increase of peribiliary fibrosis was time-dependent. Opisthorhis viverrini-induced gene expression in hamster liver, with increased mRNA expression levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and collagens I and III, was observed at 21 days p.i. Expression of MMPs-2, -13 and -14 and TIMPs-1 and -3 genes, was significantly higher at 1 month, and maximal levels of most MMPs (MMPs-2, -9, -13 and -14) were observed at 2 months p.i. The cytoplasmic levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were similar to mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells at the invasive front of the fibrous area. In contrast, the highest levels of mRNA expression of TIMPs-2 and -3, and TGF-beta were observed 10 months p.i. Concentration of TIMP-2 protein in the plasma correlated with its transcriptional level (r=0.320, P=0.040). Peribiliary fibrosis correlated positively with liver hydroxyproline content (r=0.846, P<0.001), plasma hydroxyproline concentration (r=0.770, P<0.001), plasma TIMP-2 level (r=0.335, P=0.046), and mRNA expression levels of MMP-7 (r=0.511, P=0.006), TIMP-1 (r=0.320, P=0.040), TIMP-2 (r=0.428, P=0.026), and TIMP-3 (r=0.553, P=0.003). This study suggests that expression of MMPs is associated with an inflammatory reaction in the early phase and TIMPs expression at the late phase may contribute to both fibrosis and liver injury. MMPs and TIMPs may serve as diagnostic

  16. Expression of the Carboxy-Terminal Portion of MUC16/CA125 Induces Transformation and Tumor Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapi D Rao

    Full Text Available The CA125 antigen is found in the serum of many patients with serous ovarian cancer and has been widely used as a disease marker. CA125 has been shown to be an independent factor for clinical outcome in this disease. In The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer project, MUC16 expression levels are frequently increased, and the highest levels of MUC16 expression are linked to a significantly worse survival. To examine the biologic effect of the proximal portion of MUC16/CA125, NIH/3T3 (3T3 fibroblast cell lines were stably transfected with the carboxy elements of MUC16. As few as 114 amino acids from the carboxy-terminal portion of MUC16 were sufficient to increase soft agar growth, promote matrigel invasion, and increase the rate of tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Transformation with carboxy elements of MUC16 was associated with activation of the AKT and ERK pathways. MUC16 transformation was associated with up-regulation of a number of metastases and invasion gene transcripts, including IL-1β, MMP2, and MMP9. All observed oncogenic changes were exclusively dependent on the extracellular "ectodomain" of MUC16. The biologic impact of MUC16 was also explored through the creation of a transgenic mouse model expressing 354 amino acids of the carboxy-terminal portion of MUC16 (MUC16c354. Under a CMV, early enhancer plus chicken β actin promoter (CAG MUC16c354 was well expressed in many organs, including the brain, colon, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, and spleen. MUC16c354 transgenic animals appear to be viable, fertile, and have a normal lifespan. However, when crossed with p53-deficient mice, the MUC16c354:p53+/- progeny displayed a higher frequency of spontaneous tumor development compared to p53+/- mice alone. We conclude that the carboxy-terminal portion of the MUC16/CA125 protein is oncogenic in NIH/3T3 cells, increases invasive tumor properties, activates the AKT and ERK pathways, and contributes to the biologic properties of ovarian

  17. Role of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in the expressions of matrix metallopro- teinases in keratocytes in vitro

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    Jing Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To elucidate the relation between tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2(TFPI-2expression and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPsin keratocytes. METHODS: Primary culture and subculture of rabbit keratocytes were established in vitro. Plasmid vector pBos-Cite-neo/TFPI-2 was transfected into keratocytes with Lipofectamine 2000. After being selected by G418, three groups of cells including TFPI-2 gene transfected cells K-TFPI-2, empty vector transfected cells K-V and non-transfected cells K-P were screened for TFPI-2 mRNA and protein by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. The activity of MMPs in the three groups of cells was detected by substrate zymography and compared by ANOVA. RESULTS: Expression of mRNA and protein of TFPI-2 was more in the cells of K-TFPI-2 than in the other cells of K-P and K-V with a significant difference(mRNA:0.79±0.02 vs 0.51±0.03 and 0.48±0.02, P=0.000 and P=0.000; Protein:24.5±0.8 vs 15.5±0.5 and 14.9±0.9,P=0.000 and P=0.000. Compared with the two groups of K-P and K-V, the cells of K-TFPI-2 had a significant decreased activity of MMP1(12.3±0.7 vs 16.7±1.2 and 15.9±0.7, P=0.001 and P=0.003and MMP2(15.4±1.3 vs 18.2±1.1 and 17.8±1.1, P=0.027 and P=0.046. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the expression of TFPI-2 may strongly inhibit the activity of MMPs in keratocytes in vitro, which provides an experimental basis for curing CNV with gene therapy.

  18. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  19. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Tao, Luan [Havertown, PA; Zhang, Yuying [New Hope, PA; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; McCutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  20. Extrachromosomal inducible expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled

  1. Ang II enhances noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings thus contributing to the up-regulation of metalloprotease-2 in aortic dissection patients' aorta wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECT: To test the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II could enhance noradrenaline (NA release from sympathetic nerve endings of the aorta thus contributing to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 during the formation of aortic dissection (AD. METHODS: Ang II, NA, MMP-2, MMP-9 of the aorta sample obtained during operation from aortic dissection patients were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and ELISA and compared with controls. Isotope labelling method was used to test the impact of exogenous Ang II and noradrenaline on the NA release and MMP-2, MMP-9 expression on Sprague Dawley (SD rat aorta rings in vitro. Two kidneys, one clip, models were replicated for further check of that impact in SD rats in vivo. RESULTS: The concentration of Ang II, MMP-2, 9 was increased and NA concentration was decreased in aorta samples from AD patients. Exogenous Ang II enhanced while exogenous NA restrained NA release from aortic sympathetic endings. The Ang II stimulated NA release and the following MMP-2 up-regulation could be weakened by Losartan and chemical sympathectomy. Beta blocker did not influence NA release but down-regulated MMP-2. Long term in vivo experiments confirmed that Ang II could enhance NA release and up-regulate MMP-2. CONCLUSIONS: AD is initiated by MMP-2 overexpression as a result of increased NA release from sympathetic nervous endings in response to Ang II. This indicates an interaction of RAS and SAS during the formation of AD.

  2. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by PARP inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Holt, Andrew; Kandasamy, Arulmozhi D. [Departments of Pharmacology and Pediatrics, Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Pacher, Pal [National Institutes of Health, NIAAA, Laboratory of Physiologic Studies, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schulz, Richard, E-mail: richard.schulz@ualberta.ca [Departments of Pharmacology and Pediatrics, Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada)

    2009-10-02

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a ubiquitously expressed zinc-dependent endopeptidase, and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme regulating DNA repair, are activated by nitroxidative stress associated with various pathologies. As MMP-2 plays a detrimental role in heart injuries resulting from enhanced nitroxidative stress, where PARP and MMP inhibitors are beneficial, we hypothesized that PARP inhibitors may affect MMP-2 activity. Using substrate degradation assays to determine MMP-2 activity we found that four PARP inhibitors (3-AB, PJ-34, 5-AIQ, and EB-47) inhibited 64 kDa MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC{sub 50} values of PJ-34 and 5-AIQ were in the high micromolar range and comparable to those of known MMP-2 inhibitors doxycycline, minocycline or o-phenanthroline, whereas those for 3-AB and EB-47 were in the millimolar range. Co-incubation of PARP inhibitors with doxycycline showed an additive inhibition of MMP-2 that was significant for 3-AB alone. These data demonstrate that the protective effects of some PARP inhibitors may include inhibition of MMP-2 activity.

  3. Protein expression-yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expressiveness in musical emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate how emotion category, characterized by distinct musical structures (happiness, sadness, threat) and expressiveness (mechanical, expressive) may influence overt and covert behavioral judgments and physiological responses in musically trained and untrained listeners. Mechanical and expressive versions of happy, sad and scary excerpts were presented while physiological measures were recorded. Participants rated the intensity of the emotion they felt. In addition, they monitored excerpts for the presence of brief breaths. Results showed that the emotion categories were rated higher in the expressive than in the mechanical versions and that this effect was larger in musicians. Moreover, expressive excerpts were found to increase skin conductance level more than the mechanical ones, independently of their arousal value, and to slow down response times in the breath detection task relative to the mechanical versions, suggesting enhanced capture of attention by expressiveness. Altogether, the results support the key role of the performer's expression in the listener's emotional response to music.

  5. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    thoroughly validated antibodies and oligos, we give a detailed brain anatomical characterization of transgenic mice over expressing Neuroglobin. Moreover, using permanent middle artery occlusion the effect of elevated levels of Neuroglobin on ischemic damage was studied. Lastly, the impact of mouse strain...... genetic background on ischemic damage was investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A four to five fold increase in Neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression was seen in the brain of transgenic mice. A β-actin promoter was used to drive Neuroglobin over expression, but immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...... showed over expression to be confined to primarily the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and only in neurons. The level and expression pattern of endogenous Neuroglobin was unaffected by insertion of the over expressing Ngb transgene. Neuroglobin over expression resulted in a significant reduction...

  6. Activation of PPARβ/δ protects cardiac myocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by suppressing generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and expression of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlaka, Eleftheria; Görbe, Anikó; Gáspár, Renáta; Pálóczi, János; Ferdinandy, Péter; Lazou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure still remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A major contributing factor is reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) overproduction which is associated with cardiac remodeling partly through cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and have been implicated in cardioprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. In this study we sought to investigate the potential beneficial effects evoked by activation of PPARβ/δ under the setting of oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in adult rat cardiac myocytes. The selective PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis and increased cell viability. In addition, generation of RONS was attenuated in cardiac myocytes in the presence of PPARβ/δ agonist. These effects were abolished in the presence of the PPARβ/δ antagonist indicating that the effect was through PPARβ/δ receptor activation. Treatment with PPARβ/δ agonist was also associated with attenuation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and concomitant downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax. In addition, activation of PPARβ/δ inhibited the oxidative-stress-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA upregulation. It is concluded that PPARβ/δ activation exerts a cytoprotective effect in adult rat cardiac myocytes subjected to oxidative stress via inhibition of oxidative stress, MMP expression, and apoptosis. Our data suggest that the novel connection between PPAR signaling and MMP down-regulation in cardiac myocytes might represent a new target for the management of oxidative stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  8. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    * for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry...... to be undecidable. We discuss application of regular expressions as types to bit coding of strings and hint at other applications to the wide-spread use of regular expressions for substring matching, where classical automata-theoretic techniques are a priori inapplicable. Neither regular expressions as types nor...

  9. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  10. Zn(II-Chlorido complexes of phytohormone kinetin and its derivatives modulate expression of inflammatory mediators in THP-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hošek

    Full Text Available Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine belongs to a group of plant growth hormones involved in cell division, differentiation and other physiological processes. One of the possible ways to obtain biologically active compounds is to complex biologically relevant natural compounds to suitable metal atoms. In this work, two structural groups of Zn(II complexes [Zn(L(n2Cl2]·Solv (1-5 and [Zn(HL(nCl3] · xL(n (6-7; n=1-5, Solv=CH3OH for 1 and 2H2O for 2; x =1 for 6 and 2 for 7; involving a phytohormone kinetin and its derivatives (L(n were evaluated for their ability to modulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophage-like THP-1 cell model. The penetration of the complexes to cells was also detected. The mechanism of interactions of the zinc(II complexes with a fluorescent sensor N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (TSQ and sulfur-containing biomolecules (l-cysteine and reduced glutathione was studied by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry and flow-injection analysis with fluorescence detection. The present study showed that the tested complexes exhibited a low cytotoxic effect on the THP-1 cell line (IC50>40 µM, apart from complex 4, with an IC50=10.9 ± 1.1 µM. Regarding the inflammation-related processes, the Zn(II complexes significantly decreased IL-1β production by a factor of 1.47-2.22 compared with the control (DMSO, but did not affect TNF-α and MMP-2 secretions. However, application of the Zn(II complexes noticeably changed the pro-MMP-2/MMP-2 ratio towards a higher amount of maturated MMP-2, when they induced a 4-times higher production of maturated MMP-2 in comparison with the vehicle-treated cells under LPS stimulation. These results indicated that the complexes are able to modulate an inflammatory response by influencing secretion and activity of several inflammation-related cytokines and enzymes.

  11. Low doses of cholera toxin and its mediator cAMP induce CTLA-2 secretion by dendritic cells to enhance regulatory T cell conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Silva-Vilches

    Full Text Available Immature or semi-mature dendritic cells (DCs represent tolerogenic maturation stages that can convert naive T cells into Foxp3+ induced regulatory T cells (iTreg. Here we found that murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs treated with cholera toxin (CT matured by up-regulating MHC-II and costimulatory molecules using either high or low doses of CT (CThi, CTlo or with cAMP, a known mediator CT signals. However, all three conditions also induced mRNA of both isoforms of the tolerogenic molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 2 (CTLA-2α and CTLA-2β. Only DCs matured under CThi conditions secreted IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 leading to the instruction of Th17 cell polarization. In contrast, CTlo- or cAMP-DCs resembled semi-mature DCs and enhanced TGF-β-dependent Foxp3+ iTreg conversion. iTreg conversion could be reduced using siRNA blocking of CTLA-2 and reversely, addition of recombinant CTLA-2α increased iTreg conversion in vitro. Injection of CTlo- or cAMP-DCs exerted MOG peptide-specific protective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE by inducing Foxp3+ Tregs and reducing Th17 responses. Together, we identified CTLA-2 production by DCs as a novel tolerogenic mediator of TGF-β-mediated iTreg induction in vitro and in vivo. The CT-induced and cAMP-mediated up-regulation of CTLA-2 also may point to a novel immune evasion mechanism of Vibrio cholerae.

  12. Immunohistochemical Correlation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase-2 in Tobacco Associated Epithelial Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipshikha Bajracharya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in different histological grades of tobacco associated epithelial dysplasia and correlate the association between these proteases. Potentially malignant oral disorders (PMODs progressing to oral cancer are related to the severity of epithelial dysplasia. Methods. A retrospective immunohistochemical study was carried out on 30 clinically and histologically proven cases of leukoplakia with dysplasia and 10 cases of normal buccal mucosa using anti-MMP-2 and anti-TIMP-2 monoclonal antibodies. Results. Mann Whitney U test, for comparing the expression of both MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in normal mucosa with dysplasia, was highly significant (P<0.001. Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the median score of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in different grades of dysplasia showed statistical significance (P<0.001, and a Spearman’s correlation between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 through different grades of dysplasia and cells observed showed positive correlation. Conclusion. Concomitant increase in the expression of both MMP-2 and TIMP-2 suggested that the activation of MMP-2 is dependent on TIMP-2 acting as a cofactor. Changes in TIMP-2 levels are considered important because they directly affect the level of MMP-2 activity.

  13. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  14. Pleiotrophin expression during odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Heidi; Ames, Jennifer E; Tamkenath, Amena; Mamaeva, Olga; Stidham, Katherine; Wilson, Mary E; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Deuel, Thomas F; Macdougall, Mary

    2012-05-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated growth factor and chemokine expressed in mesodermal and ectodermal cells. It plays an important role in osteoblast recruitment and differentiation. There is limited information currently available about PTN expression during odontoblast differentiation and tooth formation, and thus the authors aimed to establish the spatiotemporal expression pattern of PTN during mouse odontogenesis. Immortalized mouse dental pulp (MD10-D3, MD10-A11) and odontoblast-like (M06-G3) and ameloblast-like (EOE-3M) cell lines were grown and samples prepared for immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and conventional and quantitative PCR analysis. Effects of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 treatment on PTN expression in odontoblast-like M06-G3 cells were tested by quantitative PCR. Finally, immunohistochemistry of sectioned mice mandibles and maxillaries at developmental stages E16, E18, P1, P6, P10, and P28 was performed. The experiments showed that PTN, at both the mRNA and protein level, was expressed in all tested epithelial and mesenchymal dental cell lines and that the level of PTN mRNA was influenced differentially by the bone morphogenetic proteins. The authors observed initial expression of PTN in the inner enamel epithelium with prolonged expression in the ameloblasts and odontoblasts throughout their stages of maturation and strong expression in the terminally differentiated and enamel matrix-secreting ameloblasts and odontoblasts of the adult mouse incisors and molars.

  15. Facial expression and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2001-08-01

    This study examined facial expression in the presentation of sarcasm. 60 responses (sarcastic responses = 30, nonsarcastic responses = 30) from 40 different speakers were coded by two trained coders. Expressions in three facial areas--eyebrow, eyes, and mouth--were evaluated. Only movement in the mouth area significantly differentiated ratings of sarcasm from nonsarcasm.

  16. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shang-Jyh [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Su, Jen-Liang [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Kuan [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Bien, Mauo-Ying [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shun-Fa [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Ming-Hsien, E-mail: mhchien1976@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ► Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ► Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-κB binding activity. ► Osthole

  17. Expressive Faces Confuse Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Annabelle S; Benton, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    We used highly variable, so-called 'ambient' images to test whether expressions affect the identity recognition of real-world facial images. Using movie segments of two actors unknown to our participants, we created image pairs - each image within a pair being captured from the same film segment. This ensured that, within pairs, variables such as lighting were constant whilst expressiveness differed. We created two packs of cards, one containing neutral face images, the other, their expressive counterparts. Participants sorted the card packs into piles, one for each perceived identity. As with previous studies, the perceived number of identities was higher than the veridical number of two. Interestingly, when looking within piles, we found a strong difference between the expressive and neutral sorting tasks. With expressive faces, identity piles were significantly more likely to contain cards of both identities. This finding demonstrates that, over and above other image variables, expressiveness variability can cause identity confusion; evidently, expression is not disregarded or factored out when we classify facial identity in real-world images. Our results provide clear support for a face processing architecture in which both invariant and changeable facial information may be drawn upon to drive our decisions of identity.

  18. [Prokaryotic expression systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porowińska, Dorota; Wujak, Magdalena; Roszek, Katarzyna; Komoszyński, Michał

    2013-03-01

    For overproduction of recombinant proteins both eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems are used. Choosing the right system depends, among other things, on the growth rate and culture of host cells, level of the target gene expression and posttranslational processing of the synthesized protein. Regardless of the type of expression system, its basic elements are the vector and the expression host. The most widely used system for protein overproduction, both on a laboratory and industrial scale, is the prokaryotic system. This system is based primarily on the bacteria E. coli, although increasingly often Bacillus species are used. The prokaryotic system allows one to obtain large quantities of recombinant proteins in a short time. A simple and inexpensive bacterial cell culture and well-known mechanisms of transcription and translation facilitate the use of these microorganisms. The simplicity of genetic modifications and the availability of many bacterial mutants are additional advantages of the prokaryotic system. In this article we characterize the structural elements of prokaryotic expression vectors. Also strategies for preparation of the target protein gene that increase productivity, facilitate detection and purification of recombinant protein and provide its activity are discussed. Bacterial strains often used as host cells in expression systems as well as the potential location of heterologous proteins are characterized. Knowledge of the basic elements of the prokaryotic expression system allows for production of biologically active proteins in a short time and in satisfactory quantities. 

  19. Expert Oracle application express

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express brings you groundbreaking insights into developing with Oracle's enterprise-level, rapid-development tool from some of the best practitioners in the field today. Oracle Application Express (APEX) is an entirely web-based development framework that is built into every edition of Oracle Database. The framework rests upon Oracle's powerful PL/SQL language, enabling power users and developers to rapidly develop applications that easily scale to hundreds, even thousands of concurrent users. The 13 authors of Expert Oracle Application Express build their careers aro

  20. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants....

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by downregulating NADPH oxidase 4 in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, T; Ham, S A; Hwang, J S; Lee, W J; Paek, K S; Oh, J W; Kim, J H; Do, J T; Han, C W; Kim, J H; Seo, H G

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS)-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). In human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand of PPARδ, inhibited Pg-LPS-induced activation of MMP-2 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4). These effects were significantly smaller in the presence of small interfering RNA targeting PPARδ or the specific PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660, indicating that PPARδ is involved in these events. In addition, modulation of Nox4 expression by small interfering RNA influenced the effect of PPARδ on MMP-2 activity, suggesting a mechanism in which Nox4-derived ROS modulates MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase, mediated PPARδ-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 activity in HGFs treated with Pg-LPS. Concomitantly, PPARδ-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 activity was associated with the restoration of types I and III collagen to levels approaching those in HGFs not treated with Pg-LPS. These results indicate that PPARδ-mediated downregulation of Nox4 modulates cellular redox status, which in turn plays a critical role in extracellular matrix homeostasis through ROS-dependent regulation of MMP-2 activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Express.js blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Augarten, Ben; Lin, Eric; Shaikh, Aidha; Soriani, Fabiano Pereira; Tisserand, Geoffrey; Zhang, Chiqing; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    This book is for beginners to Node.js and also for those who are technically advanced. By the end of this book, every competent developer will have achieved expertise in building web applications with Express.js.

  3. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 Are Differentially Expressed in Patients with Indeterminate and Cardiac Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Rafaelle Christine Gomes; Gomes, Juliana de Assis Silva; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Waghabi, Mariana Caldas; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Medeiros, Nayara Ingrid; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; SANGENIS,Luiz Henrique Conde; Chambela, Mayara da Costa; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Damásio, Marcos Paulo; Valente, Vanessa Azevedo; Ferreira, Karine Silvestre; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Dilated chronic cardiomyopathy (DCC) from Chagas disease is associated with myocardial remodeling and interstitial fibrosis, resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. In this study, we characterized for the first time the serum matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 levels, as well as their main cell sources in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients presenting with the indeterminate (IND) or cardiac (CARD) clinical form of Chagas disease. Our results showed that serum l...

  5. [Effect of Acupotomy Lysis at Cervical Acupoints on Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 1 and Changes of Pulpiform Nucleus Ultrastructure in Rats with Degenerated Cervical Intervertebral Discs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jin; Zhu, Zhong-shu; Sun, Qin-ran; Liu, Yu-ning; Liu, Fang-ming; Guo, Yan-ping; Liu, Wei-ju; Wu, Bing-yun; Du, Juan; Gong, Hui; Sun, Xu-guo; Yin, Cong; Zhang, Dao-ping; Wu, Wen-qing

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of acupotomy lysis at acupoints around the neck on expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) genes and ultrastructure of pulpiform nucleus in cervical intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) rats, so as to explore its mechanism underlying easing IVDD. SD rats were randomly allocated to control (n = 15), model (n = 14), Jiaji (EX-B 2, n = 13), cervico-acupoint (n = 14) and medication groups (n = 14). The cervical IVDD model was established by using static-dynamic imbalance method. For rats of the Jiaji (EX-B 2) and cervico-acupoint groups, EX-B 2-points of the cervical 2-7 segments, and peri-cervical acupoints: bilateral "Naokong" (GB 19) , "Naohu" (GV 17), "Dazhui" (GV 14), bilateral "Quyuan" (SI 13) and bilateral "Tianzong" (SI 11) were separately punctured with a needle-knife, once every 5 days for 3 times, and for rats of the medication group, Brufen Capsules (15 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and Jingfukang Granule (0.5 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) were given by intragastric administration, once daily for 10 days. The expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 genes in the pulpiform nucleus of cervical intervertebral discs were detected by RT-PCR and changes of the ultrastructure of the pulpiform nucleus observed under transmission electron microscope. Compared to the control group, the expression levels of MMP-1 mRNA and MMP-3 mRNA of the cervical intervertebral disc tissues were significantly up-regulated in the model group (P 0.05). No significant differences were found between the Jiaji (EX-B 2) and cervico-acupoint groups in down-regulating MMP-1 mRNA and MMP-3 mRNA expression and up-regulating TIMP-1 mRNA expression (P > 0.05). Results of electron microscope examinations showed that the ultrastructural injury changes of cells of the pulpiform nucleus were relatively milder in the Jiaji (EX-B 2) and cervico-acupoint groups, followed by the medication group in comparison with those

  6. Estudo da regulação do promotor da metaloprotease-2 por metilação do DNA e sua correlação com dados imunohistoquímicos e clínico-patológicos em pacientes com câncer de mama de Curitiba-PR

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Camila Tainah da

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A proteína MMP-2 é membro da família das metaloproteases de matriz, que atuam na clivagem proteolítica de diversos constituintes da matriz extracelular. Por clivar o principal constituinte das membranas basais, o colágeno tipo IV, a MMP-2 possui importante papel nos processos de invasão e metástases tumorais. Um estudo desenvolvido com a linhagem tumoral de mama MCF7 mostrou que o gene MMP2 apresenta hipermetilação da ilha de CpG na região promotora sugerindo que a expressão dessa enz...

  7. Suppressive effects of a proton beam on tumor growth and lung metastasis through the inhibition of metastatic gene expression in 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yun-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Shik; Chun, So-Young; Jang, Tae Jung; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    A proton beam is a next generation tool to treat intractable cancer. Although the therapeutic effects of a proton beam are well known, the effect on tumor metastasis is not fully described. Here, we investigated the effects of a proton beam on metastasis in highly invasive 4T1 murine breast cancer cells and their orthotopic breast cancer model. Cells were irradiated with 2, 4, 8 or 16 Gy proton beam, and changes in cell proliferation, survival, and migration were observed by MTT, colony forming and wound healing assays. 4T1 breast cancer cell-implanted BALB/c mice were established and the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups when tumor size reached 200 mm3. Breast tumors were selectively irradiated with 10, 20 or 30 Gy proton beam. Breast tumor sizes were measured twice a week, and breast tumor and lung tissues were pathologically observed. Metastasis-regulating gene expression was assessed with quantitative RT-PCR. A proton beam dose-dependently decreased cell proliferation, survival and migration in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Also, growth of breast tumors in the 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model was significantly suppressed by proton beam irradiation without significant change of body weight. Furthermore, fewer tumor nodules metastasized from breast tumor into lung in mice irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam, but not with 10 and 20 Gy, than in control. We observed correspondingly lower expression levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are important factors in cancer metastasis, in breast tumor irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam. Proton beam irradiation did not affect expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2. Taken together, the data suggest that, although proton beam therapy is an effective tool for breast cancer treatment, a suitable dose is necessary to prevent metastasis-linked relapse and poor prognosis.

  8. Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Carol Simpson

    1994-01-01

    Recent attempts to curtail artistic expression in colleges and universities, particularly in relation to federal funding, are examined and it is concluded that artistic expression merits protections of academic freedom similar to those accorded to intellectual expression. (Author/MSE)

  9. Cues and expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of European languages have undergone a change from object-verb to verb-object order. We focus on the change in English and Icelandic, showing that while the structural change was the same, it took place at different times and different ways in the two languages, triggered by different E-language changes. As seen from the English viewpoint, low-level facts of inflection morphology may express the relevant cue for parameters, and so the loss of inflection may lead to a grammar change. This analysis does not carry over to Icelandic, as the loss of OV there took place despite rich case morphology. We aim to show how this can be explained within a cue-style approach, arguing for a universal set of cues. However, the relevant cue may be expressed differently among languages: While it may have been expressed through morphology in English, it as expressed through information structure in Icelandic. In both cases, external effects led to fewer expressions of the relevant (universal cue and a grammar change took place.

  10. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and growth factors in diabetic foot wounds treated with a protease absorbent dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmann, Ralf; Zemlin, Carola; Motzkau, Markus; Reschke, Kirsten; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Wound healing in diabetes is impaired, and nonhealing ulceration represent clinically relevant complications. Persistently high levels of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) contribute to wound chronicity. Thus, the topical use of protease inhibitors might influence wound healing and promote transition from a chronic to an acute wound. In this study, 33 patients with chronic diabetic foot lesions (stage 2a of the University of Texas Wound Classification system) were included. Fifteen patients received redundant "good standard wound care." In addition, 18 patients were treated with a protease inhibitory modulating matrix (the OCR/collagen Promogran matrix, Ethicon) with dressings changed on a daily basis. Prior to treatment and at 4 and 8 days after treatment, two 3-mm punch biopsies were taken from the center of the wounds and analyzed using ELISA techniques for MMPs, tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels. In addition, mRNA levels of MMPs as well as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan, Applied Biosystems, Weiterstadt, Germany). No differences were detected between both groups and at the three time points for the mRNA levels of MMPs as well as of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. In addition, MMP levels in wound tissue (analyzed by ELISA) were also not significantly different between both groups. However, IL-1beta was increased on day 8 in the treatment group (P=.01) only. Interestingly, we found a significant reduction of the MMP-9/TIMP-2 ratio in the group being treated with the ORC/collagen. These wounds exhibited a more rapid healing rate when treated with the ORC/collagen matrix. The local treatment with a protease inhibitor has a beneficial effect on wound healing. In contrast to the data on wound fluid, our study demonstrated for the first time the unaltered mRNA levels of MMPs during treatment with a protease inhibitory modulating matrix. At the cellular level, MMPs were

  11. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...

  12. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate...

  13. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  14. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves matrix metalloproteinase-2 modulation by homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingjiao; Lin, Jinghan; Ju, Ting; Chu, Lei; Zhang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Arterial calcification is common in vascular diseases and involves conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to an osteoblast phenotype. Clinical studies suggest that the development of atherosclerosis can be promoted by homocysteine (HCY), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we determined whether increases in HCY levels lead to an increase in VSMC calcification and differentiation, and examined the role of an extracellular matrix remodeler, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Rat VSMCs were exposed to calcification medium in the absence or presence of HCY (10, 100 or 200 μmol/L) or an MMP-2 inhibitor (10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L). MTT assays were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the MMP-2 inhibitor in calcification medium containing 200 μmol/L HCY. Calcification was assessed by measurements of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as von Kossa staining. Expression of osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and osteopontin, and MMP-2 was determined by immunoblotting. Calcification medium induced osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. HCY promoted calcification, increased osteocalcin and BMP-2 expression, and decreased expression of osteopontin. MMP-2 expression was increased by HCY in a dose-dependent manner in VSMCs exposed to both control and calcification medium. The MMP-2 inhibitor decreased the calcium content and ALP activity, and attenuated the osteoblastic phenotype of VSMCs. Vascular calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs were positively regulated by HCY through increased/restored MMP-2 expression, increased expression of calcification proteins, and decreased anti-calcification protein levels. In summary, MMP-2 inhibition may be a protective strategy against VSMC calcification.

  15. [Role of acute alcohol poisoning and craniocerebral trauma in the mechanism of death caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-kun; Shi, Meng; Ou, Gui-sheng; Zhao, Hu

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relation between the expression of tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 in the human brain tissue and the ethanol concentration under the acute alcohol poison, and to analyze the role of alcohol and trauma in the mechanism of death of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fifteen real cases were collected in this study. The brain tissues were researched by histological examination and the concentration of ethanol in heart blood were detected. The tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 in brainstem, brain and cerebellum were observed respectively by immunohistochemistry. In alcohol poisoning groups with or without trauma, the acute alcohol toxicity resulted in the swelling of brain tissues. The tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 of brainstem, brain and cerebellum showed high expression in alcohol victims, and the tPA in cerebellum showed no difference. The expression of the MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 showed good relation with the ethanol concentration in blood (P 0.6). The expressions of tPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and AEG-1 are significant higher in alcohol victims, and expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and AEG-1 have positive correlation with the alcohol concentration. The alcohol has acute toxicity to brain cells.

  16. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  17. Freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljana HOXHAJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper "Freedom of expression" I’ ve tried to explain the close relationship between freedom right and other constitutional freedoms, which have a direct impact on values consolidation in a democratic society and giving possibilities for the public to be active in the decision making process. The researches are based in three directions: the doctrine of international low, in Albanian literature; in native and foreign legislation and also in jurisprudence of Albanians courts and the European Court of Human Rights. The theme dedicates a wide space freedom of expression in the context of public debate, thereby guaranteeing the public's right to know. Many cases of interference in freedom of expression, has been given special importance in legal terms. This intervention must have a legitimate purpose to protect more than one of the public interests. All of this work focuses on sharing the idea that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

  18. Experience and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Jay Michael; Weisman, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Two artist-educators analyzed their creative process informed by John Dewey's concepts regarding the act of expression. The essay interweaves a description of their performance piece with a discussion of conceptual processes, including intermediality and collaboration as crucial in art making, learning, and pedagogical efficacy. Both the creation…

  19. Encouraging Self-Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of encouraging self-expression among students. He contends that allowing students to share their personal interests can be of benefit to all. The students' true personalities come out and they become more comfortable with one another as the year goes on.

  20. Virtual Self-Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the art of three-dimensional modelling. Three-dimensional modelling is gaining acceptance as a new medium for self-expression. Students must first master the software programs, learn the tools and functions, the menu choices and settings, and use them to create realistic objects. (Contains 4 online resources.)

  1. Encircling Creative Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susannah

    2007-01-01

    Artworks that are circular in nature are often referred to as mandalas. "Mandala" means center, circle, or circumference. Mandalas are created in many cultures for a variety of reasons, most of which are related to self-expression, ritual, and religion. In this article, the author describes how her students created mandalas. She also provides…

  2. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  3. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  4. Facial expressions recognition with an emotion expressive robotic head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroftei, I.; Adascalitei, F.; Lefeber, D.; Vanderborght, B.; Doroftei, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the preliminary steps in facial expressions recognition with a new version of an expressive social robotic head. So, in a first phase, our main goal was to reach a minimum level of emotional expressiveness in order to obtain nonverbal communication between the robot and human by building six basic facial expressions. To evaluate the facial expressions, the robot was used in some preliminary user studies, among children and adults.

  5. Assessing Pain by Facial Expression: Facial Expression as Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth M Prkachin

    2009-01-01

    The experience of pain is often represented by changes in facial expression. Evidence of pain that is available from facial expression has been the subject of considerable scientific investigation. The present paper reviews the history of pain assessment via facial expression in the context of a model of pain expression as a nexus connecting internal experience with social influence. Evidence about the structure of facial expressions of pain across the lifespan is reviewed. Applications of fa...

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  7. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas as a novel candidate for preventive therapy of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Yasuhiro; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Takeda, Kozue; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Hori, Masaru; Kato, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    Due to the increased ultraviolet radiation, the incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide more than that of any other cancer. In this study, the effects of irradiation of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NEAPPs) on benign melanocytic tumors from our original hairless model mice (HL-RET-mice), in which benign melanocytic tumors and melanomas spontaneously develop in the skin stepwise, were examined. Expression levels of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA in melanomas were higher than those in benign melanocytic tumors in the mice. Repeated irradiation of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NEAPPs) for the benign tumors decreased the expression levels of MCAM and MMP-2 mRNA in the tumors from the mice. Previous studies showed that MCAM sites are upstream of MMP-2, that MCAM regulates transcription of MMP-2 in melanoma cells and that MMP-2 is associated with the conversion of a benign tumor to a malignant tumor. Therefore, our results suggest that the NEAPP irradiation-mediated decrease in the expression level of MMP-2 in benign melanocytic tumors is associated with decreased expression levels of MCAM. Moreover, NEAPP irradiation might be a potential candidate for therapy to prevent melanoma development through suppression of malignant conversion in benign melanocytic tumors.

  8. Kuiper Express: a sciencecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, David H.; Alkalai, Leon; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Crisp, Michael P.; Brown, Robert H.; Davidson, J. M.; Huxtable, Douglas D.; Penzo, P. A.; Petrick, Stanley W.; Soderblom, Laurance A.; Stewart, A.; Vane, Gregg; Yelle, Roger V.

    1996-10-01

    The Kuiper Express is a mission to achieve the first reconnaissance of one of the primitive objects that reside in the Kuiper Belt. The objects in the Kuiper Belt are the remnants of the planetesimal swarm that formed the four giant planets of the outer Solar System. These objects, because they are far from the Sun, have not been processed by solar heating and are essentially in their primordial state. This makes them unique objects and their study will provide information on the composition of the solar nebula that cannot be extracted from a study of other objects in the Solar System. The Kuiper Express is a sciencecraft mission. A sciencecraft is an integrated unit that combines into a single system the essential elements (but no more) necessary to achieve the science objectives of the mission, including science instruments, electronics, telecommunications, power, and propulsion. The design of a sciencecraft begins with the definition of mission science objectives and cost constraint. An observational sequence and sensor subsystem are then designed. This sensor subsystem in turn becomes the design driver for the sciencecraft architecture and hardware subsystems needed to deliver the sensor to its target and return the science data to the earth. Throughout the design process, shared functionality, shared redundancy, and reduced cost are strongly emphasized. The Kuiper Express will be launched using a Delta vehicle and will use solar electric propulsion to add velocity and shape its trajectory in the inner Solar System, executing two earth gravity-assist flybys. It will also execute flybys of main belt asteroids, Mars, Uranus, and Neptune/Triton en route to its target in the Kuiper belt, where it will arrive about ten years after launch. It will use no nuclear power. The surface constituents and morphology of the objects visited will be measured and their atmospheres will be characterized. The cost of the detailed design, fabrication, and launch of the Kuiper

  9. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  10. Pterostilbene Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 through Modulation of MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsing-Chun; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2015-10-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation are main roles in atherosclerosis. Pterostilbene (trans-3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is known to have various pharmacologic effects such as anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-atheroscleroic property of pterostilbene in the rat smooth muscle cell (SMC) A7r9 cell lines and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, pterostilbene treatment significantly inhibited migration/invasion capacities of in A7r9 cell. Pterostilbene was also found to significantly decreased MMP-2 activity and expression by gelatin zymography and western blot assay in SMC. In the MAPK signaling pathway, western blot assay also indicated that pterostilbene up-regulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2. Moreover, inhibition of Erk1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the pterostilbene-decreased expression of MMP-2 and migration/invasion capacities. These findings suggest that pterostilbene inhibited SMC migration and that MMP-2 activation could be mediated via Erk1/2 phosphorylation. It is further possible that pterostilbene could play a novel role in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Pterostilbene is a plant polyphenol compound that is principally found in blueberries. In this study, we found that pterostilbene could inhibit SMCs migration via down-regulation of MMP-2. Particularly, expression of MMP-2 was found to be strongly associated with the phosphorylation of Erk1/2. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One is a generalized version of the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. This ability is demonstrated by verifying that two different circuit implementations of a 16-bit multiplier implement the same...... Boolean function. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved efficiently, while using standard BDD techniques this problem is infeasible. Generally, BEDs are useful in applications, for example tautology checking, where the end-result as a reduced ordered BDD is small. Moreover, using operators...... for substitution and existential quantification they allow for the verification of large hierarchical circuits....

  12. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    properties of BDDs. Two algorithms are described for transforming a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One closely mimics the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. The efficacy of the BED representation is demonstrated by verifying...... that the redundant and non-redundant versions of the ISCAS 85 benchmark circuits are identical. In particular, it is verified that the two 16-bit multiplication circuits (c6288 and c6288nr) implement the same Boolean functions. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved in less than a second, while using...

  13. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat promotes neural progenitor cell differentiation into neurons by gelatinase-independent TIMP-2-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Maddalena; Biagioni, Stefano; Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Pafumi, Irene; Caramanica, Pasquale; Medda, Virginia; Tonti, Gaetana; Minghetti, Luisa; Mannello, Ferdinando; Cacci, Emanuele

    2013-02-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), produced in the brain by cells of non-neural and neural origin, including neural progenitors (NPs), are emerging as regulators of nervous system development and adult brain functions. In the present study, we explored whether MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, abundantly produced in the brain, modulate NP developmental properties. We found that treatment of NPs, isolated from the murine fetal cerebral cortex or adult subventricular zone, with the clinically tested broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor Marimastat profoundly affected the NP differentiation fate. Marimastat treatment allowed for an enrichment of our cultures in neuronal cells, inducing NPs to generate higher percentage of neurons and a lower percentage of astrocytes, possibly affecting NP commitment. Consistently with its proneurogenic effect, Marimastat early downregulated the expression of Notch target genes, such as Hes1 and Hes5. MMP-2 and MMP-9 profiling on proliferating and differentiating NPs revealed that MMP-9 was not expressed under these conditions, whereas MMP-2 increased in the medium as pro-MMP-2 (72 kDa) during differentiation; its active form (62 kDa) was not detectable by gel zymography. MMP-2 silencing or administration of recombinant active MMP-2 demonstrated that MMP-2 does not affect NP neuronal differentiation, nor it is involved in the Marimastat proneurogenic effect. We also found that TIMP-2 is expressed in NPs and increases during late differentiation, mainly as a consequence of astrocyte generation. Endogenous TIMP-2 did not modulate NP neurogenic potential; however, the proneurogenic action of Marimastat was mediated by TIMP-2, as demonstrated by silencing experiments. In conclusion, our data exclude a major involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the regulation of basal NP differentiation, but highlight the ability of TIMP-2 to act as key effector of the proneurogenic response to an inducing stimulus such as Marimastat.

  14. Uridine 5'-triphosphate promotes in vitro Schwannoma cell migration through matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloa Lamarca

    Full Text Available In response to peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells adopt a migratory phenotype and modify the extracellular matrix to make it permissive for cell migration and axonal re-growth. Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP and other nucleotides are released during nerve injury and activate purinergic receptors expressed on the Schwann cell surface, but little is known about the involvement of purine signalling in wound healing. We studied the effect of UTP on Schwannoma cell migration and wound closure and the intracellular signaling pathways involved. We found that UTP treatment induced Schwannoma cell migration through activation of P2Y2 receptors and through the increase of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 activation and expression. Knockdown P2Y2 receptor or MMP-2 expression greatly reduced wound closure and MMP-2 activation induced by UTP. MMP-2 activation evoked by injury or UTP was also mediated by phosphorylation of all 3 major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs: JNK, ERK1/2, and p38. Inhibition of these MAPK pathways decreased both MMP-2 activation and cell migration. Interestingly, MAPK phosphorylation evoked by UTP exhibited a biphasic pattern, with an early transient phosphorylation 5 min after treatment, and a late and sustained phosphorylation that appeared at 6 h and lasted up to 24 h. Inhibition of MMP-2 activity selectively blocked the late, but not the transient, phase of MAPK activation. These results suggest that MMP-2 activation and late MAPK phosphorylation are part of a positive feedback mechanism to maintain the migratory phenotype for wound healing. In conclusion, our findings show that treatment with UTP stimulates in vitro Schwannoma cell migration and wound repair through a MMP-2-dependent mechanism via P2Y2 receptors and MAPK pathway activation.

  15. Expression-Invariant Age Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.; Lou, Z.; Alvarez, J.; Gevers, T.; Valstar, M.; French, A.; Pridmore, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate and exploit the influence of facial expressions on automatic age estimation. Different from existing approaches, our method jointly learns the age and expression by introducing a new graphical model with a latent layer between the age/expression labels and the features.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is elevated in midtrimester amniotic fluid prior to the development of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Spiegel Etty

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and their inhibitors (TIMP in second trimester amniotic fluid of women with hypertensive disorders compared to normotensive women. Study Design Amniotic fluid was obtained from 133 women undergoing genetic second trimester amniocentesis. Zymography was performed for MMP characterization and an MMP-2 ELISA kit was used to determine MMP-2 levels. TIMP-2 expression was evaluated using western blot. Results Mean amniotic fluid MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in women who developed a hypertensive disorder compared to normotensive women (P Conclusion Higher amniotic fluid MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels are found in women who eventually develop preeclampsia.

  17. The expressions of emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnivetz, Berta

    and of expressions of emotions and movement notation that provided the sources for a careful research plan for the empirical process of this study. On this basis I chose to record onto video the four previously choreographed movements that I considered to correspond each of the following emotions: joy, fear, sadness......, anger. The selection of these four emotions demanded previously to clear up the problems the above named survey ensued. When researchers want to describe a certain movement in the field of psychology and non-verbal communication, it may result in disagreements and misunderstandings which sometimes lead...... to methodological errors. I carried a judgement study and a component study to validate the empirical data: the recorded emotions. For the judgement study I asked 71 voluntary observers from four different countries to watch the video and made an identification of what emotion it was being displayed...

  18. Natural Art, False Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Nossa García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the documentary My Kid Could Paint That, directed by Bar-Lev, which deals with Marla Olmstead, the child prodigy of painting, several interviews with persons in the art world are conducted, among them an artist who uses a magnifying glass and the thinnest brushes to do his work. This man, although happy for the success of the child’s abstract paintings, saw in the whole spectacle a mockery of art, and stood firmly by her work. The girl’s father, also an artist, was accused of plagiarism. Cameras entered the child’s studio in order to prove that Marla was the real artist. Why should such relevance be given to authorship? What is the cause of the dispute between the expressive and the rational?

  19. Expressing emotions in blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Carmina Rodriguez-Hidalgo; Tan, Ed S.; Verlegh, Peeter

    2017-01-01

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been si