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Sample records for cameroon

  1. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    A biogeochemical model of water, salt and nutrients budgets for two estuarine systems within Cameroon's coastal zone (Latitudes 2°— 1 3°N, Longitudes ... along ecological food webs and the earth's along an approximate 25,000 km along ...... Cameroon. Cameroon Wildlife and. Conservation Society Consultancy Report.

  2. African Journals Online: Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). ... It is intended to provide locally and internationally relevant updates to the clinical practice of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Pediatrics while touching on the broader public health ...

  3. Country report Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagne, E.

    2007-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the history of activities in biogas projects in Cameroon. The first projects started in the year 1978. The latest projects are concerned to an anaerobic sanitation system Cameroon (ASSC) biogas plant at different places in Cameroon. Problems arise from a weak cooperation between project beneficiary and project officers as well as from irregular supply of building materials. Direct consequences of such project will be the creation of job opportunities, improvement of health, education and training of youths from nursery to high schools, also contractors and local artisans for the use of anaerobic systems to the detriment of septic tanks.

  4. Country watch: Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanya, A; Delude, B R

    1996-01-01

    Education for Life and Love, a program initiated by Cameroon's Catholic Health Service, seeks to reach young people with educational messages that encourage responsible sexual behavior. Nearly 280,000 students attend Cameroon's 1200 Catholic primary and secondary schools. Sex education is introduced in the third year of primary school (ages 9-10 years) and continues through secondary school; out-of-school Catholic youth are reached through church workshops and youth groups. The sex education curriculum includes communication skills and the promotion of respect between males and females, as well as factual information on adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Outreach to parents seeks to alleviate their concerns that sex education promotes early sexual activity. Cameroon Catholic youth face ongoing tensions between the media's romanticization of premarital sex and the Church's efforts to encourage self-control and responsible choices.

  5. IDRC in Cameroon

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has been supporting research in Cameroon since 1976. The Centre's funding has enabled researchers, for example, to provide concrete infor- mation that eased women's access to health services, enhance the use of computers and the Internet in schools, and help the country's teachers' colleges integrate ...

  6. CAMEROON FIGHTING BOKO HARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж КЖ Кума

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to retrace Boko Haram atrocities in Cameroon as well as the history of international cooperation against the Islamist sect since the declaration of the war against it in 2014. The principal internal counter-terrorist efforts are shown, including establishement of “Operational Com-mand” missions, partial reorganization of the territorial map of the army’s command, the expansion of defense policy at the subregional level and the gradual redefinition of military, the allocation of re-sources and tools adapted to these new missions. Cameroon engages in a process of multilateralization of the challenges of counter-terrorism coopera-tion, which gives a new dimension to the action of the defense and security forces as well as the multi-lateralization of the stakes of cooperation. The role of major powers and the countries of the subregion as well as the African Union and the United Nations is revealed. Cameroon is a traditional beneficiary of French military assistance. Counter-terrorist assistance also came from Russia, US, UK and Germany. The role of the Multinational Joint Task Force of Commission of the Lake Chad Basin (LCBC is shown. The author also shows that the war against Boko Haram seems to produce exceptional results that force both admiration and criticism of the Cameroonian people and the international community. The case of criticism by the NGO Amnesty International is analysed in details.

  7. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  8. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  9. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions to Authors The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology (Cameroon J. Exp. Biol.) welcomes contributions in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food ...

  10. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    This paper examines initiatives formulated by the government of Cameroon to promote sustainable development within its forestry sector, and proffers a series of policy recommendations for advancing sustainable forest management in Cameroon. Since the enactment of Cameroon's comprehensive forestry law (Law N0.

  11. Widowhood in contemporary Anglophone Cameroon literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... Widowhood in contemporary Anglophone. Cameroon Literature. Moving from the premise that widows have been at the margins of literary discourse in Cameroon, this paper examines widow- hood in contemporary Anglophone Cameroon literature using John Nkemngong Nkengasong's The Widow's ...

  12. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  13. Promotion and Development of Tourism in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Frida-Tolonen, Frida

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is at Promoting and developing tourism in Cameroon. This work will give a broad overview of issues in tourism in Africa and Cameroon, suggesting guidelines to assist countries such as Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria, to develop a more coherent structure for tourism. Tourism can only develop sustainably if it is united into the country’s overall economic, social and physical planning policies and enhancing regional promotion and effective...

  14. Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the importance of Cameroon\\'s tertiary institutions\\' cooperation links with other African Universities given the rebirth of Organisation of African Unity as African Union, and the New Partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD). The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been ...

  15. Chieftaincy and privatisation in Anglophone Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Pelgrim, R.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter examines the opposition of Bakweri chiefs in Anglophone Cameroon to the government announcement, on 15 July 1994, of the privatization of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC), one of the oldest and largest agroindustrial parastatals of the country. The chiefs claimed Bakweri

  16. University Strategic Planning in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terfot Augustine Ngwana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the global, regional, and local realities can complement rather than contradict each other in the process of strategic planning for universities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Using the case of the University of Buea in Cameroon, it attempts to use the global trends of polarisation in knowledge production capacity as an input or tool for identifying strategic choice in the process of strategic planning in institutions. The national policy background is used to highlight the context and inherent role of the central government in the process of institutional strategic planning.

  17. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  18. FRIENDSHIP AMONG PASTORAL FULBE IN NORTHWEST CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Pelican, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses perceptions and practices of friendship among the Mbororo (pastoral Fulbe) in northwest Cameroon. The concept of friendship is culturally and socially embedded, and the author highlights the flexible and multilayered character of friendship in Cameroon. While in Europe and the U.S. the voluntary and emotional connotations of friendship are stressed, for the Mbororo, it includes a significant economic component and may overlap with other relationships, such as kinship an...

  19. [The demographic situation in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeck, R A

    1984-01-01

    The population census in 1976 and the Cameroon Fertility Survey (CFS) of 1978 have allowed the population profile of Cameroon to be better known, but data are still scarce on many topics. Several hypotheses were adopted for the elaboration of population estimates for 1983: mortality was assumed constant between 1976-86 despite constant improvements in the health infrastructure, fertility was assumed to be constant despite increases over the previous 2 decades, net migration was assumed to be negligible, and different structures such as education and employment were assumed constant in the absence of data. The population of Cameroon was estimated at about 9,540,000 as of June 1984. 42.8% was under 15 years of age. Children of school age (6-14 years) represented 23.7% of the total population, and 4.9% was over 60 years of age. The masculinity ratio was 99.6. In some rural areas the sex ratio was under 70 between ages 20-30. According to the 1976 census, in 1976 among men and women respectively, 39.5 and 15.9% were single, 55.8% and 66.8% were married, 2.1% and 13.9% were widowed, and 2.6% and 3.4% were divorced. According to CFS data, among men and women in 1978, 36.0% and 13.6% were single, 58.5% and 69.6% were married, 2.2% and 13.5% were widowed, and 3.0% and 3.6% were divorced. CFS data indicated that 63% of women and 46% of men had never attended school. 39.9% of the population was economically active in 1976. Unemployment reached 17.2% in urban areas and 4.3% in rural areas. The birth rate increased from 43/1000 in 1960-65 to 45/1000 in 1976. The mortality rate declined from 23/1000 in 1960-65 to 20/1000 in 1976, and life expectancy at birth increased from 37.5 to 44.6 in the same period (47 years for women and 42.3 for men). The infant mortality rate was 113/1000 in 1978, and the rate of natural increase was estimated at 2.5%.

  20. The Effects of Sustainable Tourism on the Pygmies of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Njenji, Julius

    2014-01-01

    The Cameroon Pygmies like many indigenous groups of the World are facing threats and marginalization or discrimination on the land they first possessed by their neighboring farmer´s group known as, the Bantus and the Cameroon Government policies as a result of tourism development. This study examines The Effects of Sustainable Tourism on the Pygmies of Cameroon as the government pushes its policy to invest more in tourism, hoping to make Cameroon a tourist destination by 2035. The tourism gro...

  1. Anglophone Cameroon literature: A conversation with Bole Butake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... a missing entity. People like Professor Fonlon, Sankie Maimo; the creation of. Cameroon Tribune, and so on. Cameroonians started writing in the newspapers, especially Cameroon Tribune, and Fonlon tried to justify why anglophones were not writing literature. He published an article in Cameroon Tribune ...

  2. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  3. Widowhood in contemporary Anglophone Cameroon literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... hood in contemporary Anglophone Cameroon literature using John Nkemngong Nkengasong's The Widow's Might (2006) and ..... girl, namely, neglecting her studies for a life of promiscuity. ..... Nwajiaku, Ijioma C. “Representation of the Womanist Discourse in the Short Fiction of Akachi Ezeigbo and.

  4. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revue de L'academie des Sciences du Cameroun The Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences is a multi-disciplinary publication devoted to all aspects of fundamental and applied research. It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture.

  5. IRON BIOAVAILABILITY IN CAMEROON WEANING FOODS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to assess the "in vitro" bioavailability of iron in the main Cameroon traditional complementary foods identified during interviews of one month with 91 mothers of weaning babies of up to 30 months, in order to identify and select good food sources of iron to fight against iron deficiency and iron ...

  6. The Bildungsroman in Cameroon Anglophone Literature: John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the bildungsroman genre in postcolonial Cameroon Anglophone fiction through a textual analysis of John Nkemngong Nkengasong's Across the Mongolo and Margaret Afuh's Born before Her Time. It seeks to show that these two writers have borrowed a foreign genre and successfully manipulated ...

  7. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as 'Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... which can be explained by poverty, lack of employment and economic crisis, to name a few (Fleisher 2007). Traditionally, the principal income-generating activities in Cameroon are trade and agriculture. In the migration from Cameroon to. Germany, for example, Cameroonian migrants constitute the.

  8. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Cameroon's bilingual heritage and describes post-colonial attitudes and tendencies towards language and language use in the country's educational system. The intent is to show that Cameroon's bilingual heritage - a colonial legacy - has led to an unnecessary and chaotic national competition among ...

  9. Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... expansionary monetary policy in Cameroon. This work therefore recommends guided expansionary monetary policy as an instrument for growth and development in Cameroon in particular and the CEMAC zone in general. Key words: Dynamic, Money Supply, Interest Rates, Economic growth, Co-integration and Inflation.

  10. Francophone Cameroon literature: A conversation with Ambroise Kom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... You have had an illustrious academic career in Cameroon, France, the United States. You retired from the College of the Holy Cross and came back home. Before we talk about Francophone. Cameroon Literature, can we begin with what you're doing now? To tell you what I am doing today would be a long ...

  11. Customary courts' system in West Cameroon: reforms and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further held that it continued without any interference from the Federal Government in West Cameroon until 1966, when the former favoured reforms that could reduce their authority (Customary Courts). It called for the reduction of their powers and a transfer of the control of these institutions from West Cameroon Ministry of ...

  12. Nexus of conflict reporting: Analysis of Cameroon newspaper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Post Newspaper and Cameroon Tribune from July 2014 to December 2014 were content analyzed to examine the level of prominence, the angle and proximity of the stories covered on the said cross border conflicts. Findings reveal that the coverage of these conflicts by Cameroon Tribune and the Post Newspaper ...

  13. Anglophone Cameroon literature 1959–90: A brief overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines modern Anglophone Cameroon literature from 1959 to 1990. The article argues that like most literature emanating from the continent a proper understanding of Anglophone Cameroon literature must be predicated on an analysis of its specific socio-historical determinants. A careful analysis of the ...

  14. The role of women's secret societies in cameroon's contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are many secret societies, most of which belong to the male folk in the North West Province of Cameroon, little was and/or is known about their activities. However, Takumbeng, a women's secret society from the North West Province of Cameroon came to prominence in the 1990's during the political upheaval ...

  15. Determinants of Inequality in Cameroon: A Regression-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper applies the regression-based inequality decomposition approach to explore determinants of income inequality in Cameroon using the 2007 Cameroon household consumption survey. The contribution of each source to measured income inequality is the sum of its weighted marginal contributions in all possible ...

  16. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  17. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 3, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of burning intensity on soil water storage and transmission characteristics in an Ultisol under cropping in Southern Cameroon · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ... Countrywide distribution of fauna associated with the cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa) in Cameroon · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon. D. K. Njualem, P. Demo, H. A. Mendoza, J. T. Koi, S. F. Nana. Abstract. Field experiments were conducted in Cameroon in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate reactions of different potato genotypes to late blight. There were significant differences among genotypes for ...

  19. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and ...

  20. Poverty and malnutrition in Cameroon | Fambon | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past decades, child malnutrition has persisted at high rates in many developing countries including Cameroon. This research attempts to evaluate the levels and characteristics of the malnutrition affecting children in Cameroon by using the anthropometrics data gathered during the 1998 Demographic Health ...

  1. Analysis of Cameroon's forestry sector: Implication for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cameroon forestry sector has undergone profound institutional and legislative reforms for the past decades. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to examine the activities of Cameroon administration focused on the strategies for sustainable management of the forestry sector. The target population for achieving this ...

  2. Silent circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, E B; Levai, L D; Guzman, H; Amelia, P A; Titanji, V P K; Tesh, R B; Weaver, S C

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the silent circulation and transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in the Fako Division of Cameroon. This survey was conducted based on clinical observations and laboratory diagnosis; field collections of mosquitoes. This study was conducted in the Fako Division of South West Cameroon. One hundred and two sera were obtained from febrile patients (with negative laboratory findings for malaria and typhoid fever) at clinics in the Fako Division, and diurnal anthropophilic mosquitoes (4,764) collected. Virus isolation was attempted from these, and sera were screened for antibodies against 18 African arboviruses by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and complement fixation (CF) tests. No virus was isolated. Fifty three of 79 (67.1%) sera reacted with one or more viral antigens. Twenty nine sera (36.7%) reacted with members of the genus Alphavirus, with Chikungunya (CHIKV) and O'nyong-nyong (ONNV) viruses as the most frequent (34.2%). Forty six sera (58.2%) reacted with members of the genus Flavivirus: 24 (30.4%) were cross-reactive, but 11.4% reacted monotypically with Zika, 5.1% with yellow fever virus (YFV), 5.1% with dengue virus-2 (DENV-2), 2.5% with DENV-1 and 1.3% with Wesselsbron virus, respectively. The plaque reduction neutralisation test used to specify the agent that elicited the response could not resolve 33.3% of the cross reactions between CHIKV and ONNV. Neutralising antibody titres against ONNV and CHIKV were very high indicating probable re-infection. Our results indicate previously undetected circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon, and suggest that they are important, overlooked public health problems.

  3. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  4. African Urban Harvest: Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    . Book cover African Urban Harvest: Agriculture in the Cities of Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda. Editor(s):. Gordon Prain, Nancy Karanja, and Diana Lee-Smith. Publisher(s):. Springer, CIP, IDRC. January 1, 2010. ISBN: 9781441969620.

  5. The role of the Association of Cameroon Accountants as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONECCA); as a regulatory body for the accounting profession in Cameroon. The data collected have been used to carefully assess the effectiveness of the accounting institution, as a regulatory body. The data reveals the extent to which effective ...

  6. Studying the Logone floodplain, Cameroon, as a coupled human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the Logone floodplain, Cameroon, as a coupled human and natural system. M Moritz, S Laborde, SC Phang, M Ahmadou, M Durand, A Fernandez, IM Hamilton, S Kari, B Mark, P Scholte, N Xiao, R Ziebe ...

  7. Evaluating the fate of organic compounds in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    environment, quantify intermedia transfer processes and the major loss mechanisms from the ... Key words: Fate model, fugacity, exposure assessment, chemical fate in Cameroon, persistence. INTRODUCTION. The use of chemicals and chemical derivatives in agriculture, industry and infrastructure development has.

  8. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.......Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  9. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  10. Under five malnutrition crises in the Boko Haram Area of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boko-Haram has increased their attacks along the Cameroon boarder in the Far North region of Cameroon since 2013. The prevalence of malnutrition in the north of Cameroon is high. Regions like the Adamawa, North and Far North regions have a prevalence of malnutrition of 5.2%, 6.7%, 9.0%, respectively; and, ...

  11. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  12. General overview of the disaster management framework in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Henry Ngenyam

    2014-07-01

    Efficient and effective disaster management will prevent many hazardous events from becoming disasters. This paper constitutes the most comprehensive document on the natural disaster management framework of Cameroon. It reviews critically disaster management in Cameroon, examining the various legislative, institutional, and administrative frameworks that help to facilitate the process. Furthermore, it illuminates the vital role that disaster managers at the national, regional, and local level play to ease the process. Using empirical data, the study analyses the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions of disaster managers. Its findings reveal inadequate disaster management policies, poor coordination between disaster management institutions at the national level, the lack of trained disaster managers, a skewed disaster management system, and a top-down hierarchical structure within Cameroon's disaster management framework. By scrutinising the disaster management framework of the country, policy recommendations based on the research findings are made on the institutional and administrative frameworks. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  13. Early childhood feeding practices in northern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einterz, E M; Bates, M E

    1994-01-01

    Following the identification of differences in disease patterns among infants from households of different social groups (Moslem and non-Moslem) in northern Cameroon, 534 mothers and their children 0-23 months old were studied to determine early childhood feeding practices in the 2 groups. Several significant differences were revealed. Compared with non-Moslem infants, Moslems were more likely to be given animal milk instead of breast milk before the age of 3 d. On average, millet pap was introduced to Moslem babies between their 1st and 2nd months and to non-Moslem babies between their 3rd and 4th months. Moslem mothers more commonly prepared pap with oil or cow butter as an ingredient. Moslem mothers also planned to wean their children at an earlier age than non-Moslems and were less likely to report boiling their children's drinking water. Moslem mothers of infants less than 5 months old were likely to believe their breast milk was insufficient. The implications of these findings on the higher incidence of infant diarrhoea, stunting and early childhood death among Moslems are discussed.

  14. Energy, water and climate nexus: A case study of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    -38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. The potential water savings and avoided greenhouse gas missions from the use of agricultural residues for liquid biofuels and bioelectricity relative to crude oil have also been estimated. Modern bioenergy from agricultural residues does not pose concern to food...... potential to offset the reliance on crude oil. This study investigated the biomass resource availability from agricultural residues for liquid biofuel (as transportation fuel) and bioelectricity. Our findings indicate that sustainably extracted agricultural re sidues could yield 1.11 million bone dry tons...... of agricultural residues. The study provides policy recommendations to help encourage modern bioenergy applications from residues in Cameroon....

  15. Family, obligations, and migration: The role of kinship in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Fleischer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of family and kin networks on the individual decision to migrate. The study is based on qualitative ethnographic data which was collected during a field research in Cameroon in spring 2005, showing the considerable impact of the extended family on the migrant's choice to leave Cameroon for Germany. Migrants do not solely move for their own achievements and purposes, but rather as significant members of their entire immediate family. The individual is part of an informal reciprocal system of exchange which is based on trust and has social consequences, and includes duties and responsibilities for both sides.

  16. Access to land in the Anglophone regions of Cameroon: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cameroon is divided into two major clusters of regions- Anglophone and Francophone. This article ... Utilising existing legislations, case laws, and policy since the dawn of the colonial era, the paper sought to examine the application to land, of the laws that have exacerbated the land crises in the country. Secondary data ...

  17. Functioning and disability in recent research from Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among other common themes, knowledge and awareness was the highest reported category (22 studies), closely followed by traditional beliefs (20 studies) and financial barriers (9 studies). Conclusion: There is a small body of primary research from Cameroon on disability. The main themes related to disability are stigma, ...

  18. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... Abstract. Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from. 11/03/2015 to ...

  19. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 5 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Antenatal care attendees as a case study in management of both infections · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PM Ndumbe, G Elonge-Fobia, J Ngu, O Bate, D Mfonfu, 39-48 ...

  20. Cameroon native goat populations' genetic diversity and maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the previous migratory scenarios, the Cameroon native goats may have various maternal origins, Indian, Middle East and south Mediterranean regions. The results are useful for conservation and subsequent investigations may be undertaken to broaden genetic diversity particularly for production purpose.

  1. Page 1 JOURNAL OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypereutrophic shallow reservoir of urban zone of Cameroon (Central Africa) from November. 1996 to December 1997. ...... spas now -96 Dec 96 jan-97 Feb. 97 March 97 Apr 97. May 97. Months species in the Yaounde Municipal Lake is typically eutrophic to hypereutrophic. This confirms the conclusion of Shiel et al.

  2. Geochemistry of the Bayonplutonic Complex – Western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BayonNeoproterozoic plutonic complex located in Western Cameroon intrudes gneisses of Paleo to Neo Proterozoic age. The complex is composed of gabbro, monzogabbro and monzonites frequently crosscut by trachytic and granitic veins. The primary mineral assemblages of the gabbro and monzogabbro is ...

  3. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  4. Bars to Jars: Bamboo Value Chains in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, C.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the

  5. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the

  6. Quality control in foods | Mbofung | Journal of the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: food quality; safety; GMO; control system; nutrition. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences Vol. 6 (1) 2006: pp 53-62. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Genetic diversity of Cameroon native goat populations revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of seventeen caprine microsatellite markers were used on 169 goats to investigate genetic diversity of eight Cameroon native goats and to assess genetic differentiation with the east African small goat. All microsatellites showed a high polymorphic content (PIC) of more than 0.5 in almost all ecotypes.

  8. Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Dentistry Faculte des sciences de la Sante, Université des Montagnes BP 208, Bangangté ... Faculty of dentistry. Universite des Montagnes. B P. 208 bagante- Cameroon. Email:agborasm@yahoo.com increased utilization of motorcycle transportation is ..... Pattern of paediatric maxillofacial fractures in La-.

  9. Cameroon's main marketing board : history and scope of the ONCPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The creation of the ONCPB (Office national de commercialisation des produits de base) in 1976 was a turning point in the history of government regulation of agricultural marketing in Cameroon. It went a long way in unifying and harmonizing the marketing arrangements in francophone and anglophone

  10. Anglophone Cameroon literature 1959–90: A brief overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... is a representation of the conflicts and tensions resulting from changes introduced by colonial rule and a new Christian world view. When Sankie Maimo published I am Vindicated in 1959 in Ikenne, Nigeria, he must not have been aware that he was launching modern Anglophone Cameroon literature.

  11. Parental Literacy and Child Health Production in Cameroon | Baye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the empirical impact of parental education on child health. Using Cameroon household consumption survey data collected by the government statistics office in 2001 and a range of econometric methods, the existence of prominent spillover effects linking parental literacy to better child health ...

  12. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Yaounde, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population growth and rapid urbanization in Cameroon have led to major demographic changes in the urban centres, potentially resulting in serious environmental problems in the most populated cities such as Yaounde. In order to better understand the impacts on the hygiene conditions in certain quarters of this political ...

  13. Analysis of Cameroon newspaper coverage of cross border conflicts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journalism'. It is evident from the data on Table 4 that Cameroon Tribune and The Post Newspapers were incapable of having pictures of actual events from the conflict sites. Based on evidence from international news reports, conflict stories are best accompanied by conflict pictures and not pictures of personalities far from ...

  14. Francophone Cameroon literature: A conversation with Ambroise Kom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... about the evolution of Francophone Cameroon literature with the aim of providing a framework ... training as a postcolonial student concerned with the evolution of African countries,. I kept thinking that my place ..... (organic intellectuals of the system).4 These intellectuals were there to be the mouthpiece of ...

  15. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 3, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of harvesting techniques on cumulative yields of huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) in the humid forest region of Cameroon · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Messia, S Zok, E.E Ehabe, C Poubom. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cjas.v3i1.48360 ...

  16. The Status of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-21

    Dec 21, 2012 ... The Status of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in Cameroon-A mini. Review. 1. Introduction. One of the main applications of ... harmful to human health and the environment. The United States, followed by countries like. Brazil .... and release of GMOs. The EU and Green Peace experts participated in ...

  17. Linguistic inequality in Cameroon: The case of advertising in Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the vast research conducted on linguistic hegemony, linguistic inequality, multilingualism and multiculturalism in Cameroon, very little has been done in advertising as it reflects language representation. Much of the research has focused on the linguistic hegemony and privileging of French and English in ...

  18. Factors associated to bed net use in Cameroon: a retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Insecticide treated net remains a tool of choice for malaria prevention in Cameroon. However, data suggests that its use by the population, especially vulnerable groups remains low. Moreover, there is a paucity of information about factors influencing its use. We sought out to identify factors associated with net ...

  19. Evaluating the incidence of indirect tax reforms in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1983 and 1996, income inequality moved from 0.49 to 0.44 and subsequently to 0.41 in 2001. The indirect tax structure has a role to play in inequality reduction policies. Using the 1983/84, 1996 and the 2001 Cameroon household surveys, this study reveals that the indirect tax reforms of 1994 and 1999 have been ...

  20. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic ash from the 1999 eruption of Mount Cameroon volcano has been characterized for its particle size and shape (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), and mineralogy (by X-ray diffractometry, XRD). Also the total fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ...

  1. Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents in Cameroon: Pattern and cost implication of care. ... Soft tissue injuries were most frequent (91.2%) followed by trauma to the teeth (83.5%), of which 62.3% were tooth loss. Mandibular fracture was commoner than maxillary fracture; (45% versus 25.3%). A total of ...

  2. Juvenile justice in cameroon 50 years after independence ; what ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZERTY

    eighty-seven sections covering every aspect of criminal procedure in Anglophone Cameroon. 4. The Nigerian .... adopted the Common Law rule that the criminal responsibility of a child between 10. 11. Dambazau ..... protection, education and vocational skills, with a view to assisting them to assume socially constructive ...

  3. Anglophone university students and Anglophone nationalist struggles in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Abbink J., van Kessel, W.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of student politics in Africa during economic and political liberalization cannot be underestimated. However, this study of anglophone students in Cameroon cautions against treating students as a homogeneous group. It shows that although anglophone students today feel even more

  4. Youth Subjectivities and Associational Life in Bamenda, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2009-05-13

    May 13, 2009 ... of structural dependency), social adulthood, citizenship and social participa- tion. This study answers the above questions by focusing on the subjectivities and activities of three associations of young men and women in Bamenda,. Cameroon's leading Anglophone city. The associations include the Chosen.

  5. Muslim Rulers, Justice and Politics In Cameroon During French ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muslim Rulers, Justice and Politics In Cameroon During French Colonialism. ... Journal for Islamic Studies ... Laamibee and Sultans certainly continued to perfom some of their former judicial duties, but they became auxiliaries of the State administrative structure and were under the control of the secular political system.

  6. Opposition Politics and Electoral Democracy in Cameroon, 1992-2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to assess the impact of electoral democracy in Cameroon especially in terms of the performance of the Opposition between 1992 and 2007, evaluate the internal shortcomings of opposition parties, and make a projection regarding a vibrant democratic space that will go beyond routine elections to speak to ...

  7. Genetic diversity in cocoa germplasm of southern Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range of polymorphism of about 194 cocoa accessions collected in farms in Southern Cameroon during field surveys and 71 Trinitario and Upper Amazon clones available in genebanks on-station was assessed using 13 SSR markers. The gene diversity, genetic differentiation and genetic similarities were analysed for ...

  8. Human lorries: carriers in the British Southern Cameroon's economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like her predecessor, Germany, one of the first challenges she faced was how to improve and speed up the transportation of private and public goods in a ... This essay aims at understanding the logic of these changes and the implications of these regulations in modern day Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon.

  9. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide

  10. The Numba ductile deformation zone (northwest Cameroon): A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and (ii) a dextral sense of shear motion. Conic section method reveals two dominant ... (CCSZ) and associated syn-kinematic intrusions and (ii) into the tectonic model of Pan-African belt of central Africa in Cameroon. 1. Introduction ... undeformed stage, to the final fold are a matter of significance to kinematic studies of fold-.

  11. The present status and perspectives of Biotechnology in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present status and perspectives of Biotechnology in Cameroon with particular reference to GM and non-GM technologies. ... The present article reviews these achievements, and further describes the applications of biotechnology techniques to health, plant and animal production including the recent introduction of Bt- ...

  12. Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is also a way to help smokers quit. The research team will evaluate the application of regulations forbidding the consumption and sale of tobacco in public spaces in the city, strengthen the capacity of those involved in their application, and promote public support for smoke-free public spaces in Cameroon.

  13. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in mountainous areas, where the topography is very rough. Mount Cameroon, which is the highest summit in central and western Africa, is now known to culminate at 4037.7 ± 0.7 m above sea level. This height is nearly 60 m less than the approximate value of 4095 m published by the National Institute of Cartography.

  14. The socio-cultural implications of climate change in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impact has remained a serious threat to man and more particularly in the water-stressed environment of north Cameroon where in most cases, man struggles for bare survival by eking out a living from a harsh or hostile climatic environment. In this region, the socio-cultural impacts can be devastating as has ...

  15. Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon: Implications of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Chlamydia Trachomatis and Treponema Pallidum. ... Infection with high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) such as HPVs 16 and 18 is the main cause of cervical cancer. ... a description of the source ...

  16. Determining the Optimum Level of Working Capital in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of working capital is very important to the operations of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) Net working capital (i.e. the excess of liquid current assets over current liabilities) is an indispensable component of any business organization's capital structure. For any company to make profit in order to ...

  17. Care for Older Persons in Cameroon: Alternatives for Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its relevance to social development, providing apposite and effective care services to elderly men and women is still a major challenge in contemporary Cameroon. This is largely due to the weak institutional support system and poverty which estranges the elderly and jeopardizes their well-being. Deconstructing the ...

  18. Salt, history and culture in the western grasslands of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the socio-cultural value of salt among the people of the western grasslands of Cameroon from the precolonial era to contemporary times. Salt was andremains an important condiment used in households, marriages, treatment of the sick, initiation and other cultural ceremonies throughout the western ...

  19. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in two areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Shimada, Jun; Koike, Katsuaki; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Richard, Akoachere; Tandia, Beatrice Ketchemen; Nkeng, George Elambo; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2014-06-01

    Water containing high concentrations of nitrate is unfit for human consumption and, if discharging to freshwater or marine habitats, can contribute to algal blooms and eutrophication. The level of nitrate contamination in groundwater of two densely populated, agro-industrial areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area) was evaluated. A total of 100 samples from boreholes, open wells and springs (67 from the Banana Plain; 33 from springs only, in the Mount Cameroon area) were collected in April 2009 and January 2010 and analyzed for chemical constituents, including nitrates. The average groundwater nitrate concentrations for the studied areas are: 17.28 mg/l for the Banana Plain and 2.90 mg/l for the Mount Cameroon area. Overall, groundwaters are relatively free from excessive nitrate contamination, with nitrate concentrations in only 6 % of groundwater resources in the Banana Plain exceeding the maximum admissible concentration for drinking water (50 mg/l). Sources of NO3 - in groundwater of this region may be mainly anthropogenic (N-fertilizers, sewerage, animal waste, organic manure, pit latrines, etc.). Multivariate statistical analyses of the hydrochemical data revealed that three factors were responsible for the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination): (1) a geogenic factor; (2) nitrate contamination factor; (3) ionic enrichment factor. The impact of anthropogenic activities, especially groundwater nitrate contamination, is more accentuated in the Banana Plain than in the Mount Cameroon area. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  20. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2013-04-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo.

  1. Teachers’ approaches to language classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achu Charles Tante

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools. Using a qualitative open-ended question the researcher finds out three main categories of assessment approaches used by teachers. From the categories extrapolations on possible assumptions that guide teachers’ choices of assessment procedures are described and suggested for future study. Keywords Classroom assessment approach, Cameroon, scheme of work, ESL/EFL, Young Learners 

  2. Waste management in Cameroon. A new policy perspective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manga, Veronica Ebot [Department of Geology and Environmental Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon); Forton, Osric Tening [Waste and Energy Research Group (WERG), Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Ramboll Whitbybird, 60 Newman Street, London, W1T 3DA (United Kingdom); Read, Adam D. [Hyder Consulting Ltd., Aston Cross Business Village, 50 Rocky Lane, Aston, Birmingham, B6 5RQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Towns and cities in Cameroon exhibit the burdens of waste management which characterise so many African cities. Several factors including inadequate financial resources, low levels of enforcement of regulations and poor governance often lead to poor solid waste management services. This paper presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management regulations in Cameroon and constraints this places on the delivery of sustainable waste management solutions. A case study of the Limbe Municipal Council is used to highlight some of the waste management related problems in the country. Results indicate that solid waste management services are rudimentary; essentially collect and dump. Current regulations do not adequately address waste handling or disposal. There are inefficiencies in the implementation of waste management policy due to the devolved responsibilities between several governmental agencies and the local councils. The paper discusses some of these constraints and concludes with suggestions for improving the delivery of sustainable waste management solutions. (author)

  3. Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Elaine

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%; human rights considerations (71%; study protocol concerns (46%; general suspicions regarding trial location (37% and inadequate prevention counseling (29%. The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%; participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%; inadequate number of staff (46%; participants being exploited (46% and an unethical study design (38%. Only 3/23 (13% reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8% reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media

  4. Epilepsy and cysticercosis in Northwest Cameroon: a serological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Irene; Jerome, Ambanibe; Angwafor, Samuel A; Smith, Mary Lou; Takougang, Innocent; Noh, John; Tsang, Victor; Wilkins, Patricia; Cockburn, Lynn; Keystone, Jay; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Snead, O Carter

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy in Cameroon is higher than that of the industrialized world and other developing countries. Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium infestation has been reported as a major cause of epilepsy in some parts of Cameroon although there are some conflicting data. The prevalence of epilepsy is especially high in the Momo division of the North-West Province of Cameroon. We hypothesized that individuals with epilepsy in this region have a higher percentage of seropositivity to T. solium than matched controls. We conducted a case-control study in the Momo subdivision of Ngie. Individuals with epilepsy were recruited from the health centers in Ngie. Control subjects were selected from 19 Ngie villages. Potential cases of people with epilepsy (PWE) were identified through a questionnaire applied by trained field workers, using history of epileptic seizures as a key indicator. Blood samples were taken from all consenting individuals by finger prick, stored in StabilZyme Select, and assayed for antibodies to T. solium in an Atlanta based reference laboratory. We accrued 249 patients with epilepsy, of whom 237 met the inclusion criteria, and 245 age-matched controls. There was no significant difference in seropositivity to T. solium between those individuals with epilepsy (5%) and controls (4.9%). Our data do not support the hypothesis that epilepsy is associated with seropositivity to T. solium. It is highly unlikely that cysticercosis plays a causative role in the high prevalence of epilepsy in this region of Cameroon. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ashu, F. (Felix)

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to provide some suggestions for the role of parents in early childhood education in Cameroon. It also tries to create an awareness of the current state of educational structures and institutions that are available for early childhood education and to identify gaps where urgent attention is needed. Data for this study was collected through interview with the use of Skype. A stratified random sampling method was used and the focus groups were parents who live both in cities a...

  6. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwang N Gildas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  7. Association between intimate partner violence and induced abortion in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Nana, Philip N; Clayton, Heather B; Mbah, Alfred K; Marty, Phillip J

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV; physical, sexual, and emotional violence) and induced abortion in Cameroon. We used data from the 2004 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and hierarchic multivariate modeling to compare the rates of induced abortion by IPV type. In 2004, 2570 women were administered the domestic violence module of the DHS. Of those women, 126 (4.9%) reported having had at least 1 induced abortion. Cameroonian women reported high rates of IPV: physical violence (995 [38.7%]); emotional violence (789 [30.7%]); and sexual violence (381 [14.8%]). After adjusting for covariates, physical and sexual IPV increased the risk for induced abortion, whereas the association between emotional violence and induced abortion was not significant in multivariate models. Given the increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality following unsafe induced abortions in Cameroon, the association between induced abortion and IPV is of interest in terms of public health. Programs targeted at preventing IPV might reduce the rate of maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dinosaur trackways from the early Late Cretaceous of western Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Menkem, Elie Fosso; Djomeni, Adrien; Fowe, Paul Gustave; Ntamak-Nida, Marie-Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways have rarely been reported in Cretaceous strata across the African continent. To the exception of ichnological occurrences in Morocco, Tunisia, Niger and Cameroon, our knowledge on the composition of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas mostly relies on skeletal evidence. For the first time, we document several dinosaur trackways from the Cretaceous of the Mamfe Basin in western Cameroon. Small and medium-size tridactyl footprints as well as numerous large circular footprints are present on a single horizon showing mudcracks and ripple marks. The age of the locality is considered Cenomanian-Turonian and if confirmed, this ichnological assemblage could be younger than the dinosaur footprints reported from northern Cameroon, and coeval with or younger than skeletal remains reported from the Saharan region. These trackways were left in an adjacent subsiding basin along the southern shore of the Benue Trough during a time of high-sea stand when the Trans-Saharan Seaway was already disconnecting West Africa from the rest of the continent. We predict that other similar track sites may be occurring along the margin of the Benue Trough and may eventually permit to test hypotheses related to provincialism among African dinosaur faunas.

  9. The Impact Of Dental Auxiliaries In Oral Health Delivery In Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the impact of dental auxiliaries in oral health delivery in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 47 dental auxiliaries recruited from six of 10 provinces in Cameroon was conducted in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire elicited information on demography, training received ...

  10. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country's current policy on. HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological ...

  11. Under Five Malnutrition Crises in the Boko Haram Area of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bUnder Privilege Children and Women Assistance (UPCAWA-SWEDEN), Researcher Cameroon Branch, Bamenda, Cameroon ... prevalence of malnutrition of 5.2%, 6.7%, 9.0%, respectively; and, in addition to that, 1289 children have been admitted for ... of civilians, destruction of property, and even kidnapping in the.

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and…

  13. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon.

  14. A Study of Vowel Nasalization and Vowel Epenthesis Processes in Cameroon Francophone English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Tagne Safotso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike Cameroon English and Received Pronunciation, Cameroon Francophone English has a number of nasal  and epenthetic vowels. Those nasal vowels are generally French ones, as Cameroon Francophone English is heavily influenced by that language. The epenthetic vowels found in Cameroon Francophone English as in many other non-native Englishes are difficult to explain. Part of the data analysed is drawn from past studies (Safotso 2001, 2006, 2012 & 2015; Kouega 2008. This is complemented by the oral reading of some test words by French-speaking Cameroonian undergraduate/postgraduate students and some speech gathered from debates and interventions on various national TV channels and radio stations. Results show that in Cameroon Francophone English, vowel nasalization and vowel epenthesis occur in specific positions. This paper attempts to show how they operate in that variety of English.

  15. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  16. The condition of foreigners in the family law of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lesmont Bahoken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The preamble of the constitution of Cameroon enshrines the principle of assimilation of foreigners into nationals through the Family law. However in concrete terms, this constitutional provision is undermined (limited, hindered by a number of political and sociological constraints. The foreigner faces limitations in enjoying the said rights as well as in creating them. It is therefore necessary to amend the Cameroonian legislation so that it complies fully with the exigencies (requirements, needs of fundamental rights, the construction of the universal human being (man in general, who will be governed by the same rules everywhere.

  17. Cameroon; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    The growth rate of agriculture in Cameroon was estimated at 3.3 percent in 2006, compared with 2.7 percent in 2005. This is owing to increased activity in the food agriculture sector (4.3 percent) and in forestry and logging (4.0 percent). Livestock farming and fisheries, on the one hand, grew by 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. Industrial and commercial agriculture, on the other hand, experienced a slowdown, on the one hand, with a growth rate of –2.3 percent in 2006 compared with 1.7 ...

  18. Paragonimiasis in Cameroon: molecular identification, serodiagnosis and clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Okamoto, Munehiro; Mabou, Alida Kouojip; Edinga, Eulodie; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Blair, David; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Enyong, Peter; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Paragonimiasis is a common parasitic zoonosis in Cameroon and neighbouring countries in Western Africa. Serum, sputum and faecal samples were collected in an endemic area of South West Province, Cameroon, after administration of a questionnaire to identify individuals with appropriate symptoms and histories. Microscopic examination revealed eggs in sputum from 16 people, but none in any faecal sample. These 16 were among the 25 and 26 people, respectively, positive by ELISA and by immunoblot using Paragonimus africanus crude antigens. Copro-DNA detection was attempted using 23 faecal samples (18 from sputum egg-negative and five from sputum egg-positive individuals). Copro-DNA was detected in four of the five sputum egg-positive individuals. These results strongly suggest that: (1) serology is much more sensitive than sputum examination for diagnosis of paragonimiasis; and (2) a copro-DNA test may be more sensitive than a microscopic search for eggs in faeces. Molecular sequence data from ITS2 and cox1 genes confirmed that adult worms experimentally raised in cats were P. africanus and that eggs from sputum or other worm products from human faeces also belonged to this species. Based on these results, 26 of 168 persons (15.5%) were diagnosed as suffering from paragonimiasis.

  19. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folefack, DP.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  20. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh-Wung Gaston

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.

  1. RITUAL USE OF CURRENCY IN LAIMBWE HISTORY, CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kam Kah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The advent of Europeans in Cameroon in the 15th century and the introduction of a western currency as a standard of exchange and a measurement of value to replace other indigenous currencies had an impact on initiation into regulatory and entertainment societies in Cameroonian communities including the Laimbwe of the North West Region. Male and female institutions eventually began using these currencies during initiation rites. These included nwerong, ngiri, ngumba, takembeng, ndofoumgbui, kwifoyn (also kwifo’o, kwifeu, kuiifuai kefa’a, tschong, libah and ikuum in the grasslands and Liengu, male, ahon, muankum, nganya, monekim, ekpe and obasinjom in the forest region of Cameroon. Prior to the introduction of standard money, some local currencies like cowrie shells were used together with the provision of material things like goats, pigs, fowls and bush meat. Money is effectively a measure of value, status and a store of wealth within the Laimbwe traditional milieu. This paper examines how and why the introduction of money in initiation and other ritual activities led to the emergence of new social classes and the re-enforcement of the socio-political order of the Laimbwe people. The study essentially relies on discussions with members of societies, observation and written material.

  2. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  3. MIGRATION AND IDENTITY IN SOUTHWEST REGION OF CAMEROON: THE GRAFFIE FACTOR, C.1930S-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Gam Nkwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dynamics of internal migration taking the case of Bamenda Grassfielders’ migrants in coastal Cameroon and stresses on how such migrations gave rise to the identity puzzle between those who were branded as the graffie and their host. It questions how the politicization of identity can be understood within the historical and political dynamics of Cameroon. The article further maintains that at the onset of the British colonial rule many people from this region migrated to the industrial complex of coastal Cameroon as plantation labour as well as auxiliary labour in other colonial services. After work in these services they retired and became enterprising to the chagrin of their host. They were thus derogatorily branded as graffie. Using the concept of identity in migration the article questions why and how the graffie have coped with their identity in heterogeneous spaces like the South west region of Cameroon.

  4. Savannah Forest Beekeepers in Cameroon: Actions to Reduce Vulnerability. Chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2016-01-01

    The savannah forests in Adamaoua, Cameroon, are home to traditional, forest-based beekeepers, subsistence farmers and pastoralists. This sparsely populated region is economically marginal and little developed, with lower than national average incomes. Forest apiculture is important here: honey,

  5. Bridging the gap: how traditional healers interact with their patients. A comparative study in Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhardt, N.D.; Aboa, S.M.; Manga, E.; Bensing, J.M.; Langewitz, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare traditional healers (TH) and Cameroonian representatives of Western medicine (Western providers (WP)) in terms of patient characteristics and communication patterns during the consultation in rural Cameroon. Methods: A facility-based comparative study was conducted. Seven TH

  6. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 11, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Yields in Meme Division, South West Region of Cameroon · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Martin Keghe Nkobe, Susan Imbolo Mulua, Amougou Joseph Armathée, ...

  7. Occupational exposure to blood, hepatitis B vaccine knowledge and uptake among medical students in Cameroon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Kengne, Karen K; Tchokfe Ndoula, Shalom; Agyingi, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study we describe the knowledge of risk factors for HBV infection, history of accidental exposure to blood, awareness of HBV vaccine and the vaccination status among medical students in Cameroon...

  8. SMEs Financing issue in Cameroon in the context of Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    NGUENA, Christian L.

    2012-01-01

    Still today Cameroon is suffering from a shy landscape of entrepreneurship and a private sector constituted at 90% by SMEs confronted to a lack of funding; The situation tends to increase with the advent of financial crisis. It is in this framework that this study tries to make an identification and evaluation at descriptive and econometric levels of responsibility of actors involved in the financing problem faced by SMEs in Cameroon. Using a multinomial logit model we estimated our variable ...

  9. Chasing a Pair of Chinese Sandals: Markets and Trade Routes in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Racaud, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    What are the connections between a village in Cameroon and the transnational network of Chinese junk? From interviews with vendors of Chinese junk and observations of commercial areas, this paper shows territorial dynamics at two ends of the trade route in Cameroon: Douala and the periodic markets in Mont Bamboutos (West). This paper argues that the structuring of the Chinese junk trade route integrates town and countryside in a complementary space produced by commercial relations, appropriat...

  10. Addressing urban sprawl in Douala, Cameroon: Lessons from Xiamen integrated coastal management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suinyuy Derrick Ngoran

    2015-06-01

    The conclusions of this effort portray that sprawl in Cameroon is caused by inadequate policy implementation, outdated master plan, insufficient information, disparity in resources distribution among the different regions of the State and the gaps expounded by the traditional management. Grounded in the knowledge drawn from Xiamen ICM, the paper recommends the creation of an autonomous coastal interagency in Douala to address the gaps disrupted by sectoral management, and thus, improve coastal management in Cameroon.

  11. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years in Northern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ndze, Valentine Ngum; Akum, Achidi Eric; Kamga, Gonsu Hortense; Enjema, Lyonga Emilia; Esona, Mathew Dioh; Banyai, Krisztian; Therese, Obama Abena Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotavirus still remains the major cause of diarrhea in children below 5 years. No data on rotavirus epidemiology is available in the Northern regions of Cameroon. We aimed to determine the prevalence of group A rotavirus (RVA) in children below 5 years with diarrhea in two regions of Northern Cameroon (North West and Far North Regions) so as to improve our knowledge on the burden of rotavirus disease for imminent introduction of a rotavirus vaccine. Methods Stool samples were colle...

  12. Nutrition Transition and Biocultural Determinants of Obesity among Cameroonian Migrants in Urban Cameroon and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Amougou, Norbert; Ponty, Amandine; Loinger-Beck, Juliette; Nkuintchua, Téodyl; Monteillet, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Holdsworth, Michelle; Pasquet, Patrick

    2017-06-29

    Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews ( n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey ( n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50). The Bamiléké valued overweight and traditional energy-dense diets in rural and urban Cameroon. Physical activity levels were lower, consumption of processed energy-dense food was frequent and obesity levels higher in new migrants living in urban Cameroon and France. Female sex, age, duration of residence in urban areas, lower physical activity and valorisation of overweight were independently associated with obesity status. This work argues in favour of local and global health policies that account for the origin and the migration trajectories to prevent obesity in migrants.

  13. Timing of Premarital Intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the effects of family environment on the risks of premarital intercourse for male and female youth. Previous research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA on the linkages between family structures and sexual debut mainly utilized cross-sectional data. In a sample drawn from Cameroon Family and Health Survey (N = 2,166, descriptive and multivariate results showed that youth who resided in nuclear two-parent families, those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring and higher quality of parent–child relationships during childhood and/or adolescence, had significantly lower rates of premarital intercourse. Polygynous families, parent–child communication, orphanhood, and change in family structure were significantly associated with higher rates of premarital intercourse. Programmatic implications for reproductive health interventions in SSA are discussed.

  14. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services

  15. SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES IN THE CAMEROON BANANA SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsly Awang Ollong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bananas are a major staple as well as an important cash crop in developing countries and the most eaten fruit in Europe and Northern America. For decades, the banana economy has been a key example of trade injustice. The concentration of power in the hands of a few multinational companies has negatively affected the lives of thousands of banana workers and small farmers. While this activity has generated considerable profit for the multinational corporations that operate the plantations, the labourers and the communities in which these plantations are found have suffered injustices in the hands of the companies. It is against this backdrop that this paper sets out to make an appraisal of some sustainability issues that have gone a long way to affect the lives of both the workers and the communities in the Njombe-Penja area which is one the key banana producing area in Cameroon.

  16. Mechanisms for Quality Assurance of Universities in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a perspective look at the evolution of universities in Cameroon and the recent orientation of deregulation as it affects quality assurance in Cameroonian universities. The paper having identified these flaws attempted to elucidate the meaning of mechanism for Quality assurance in the face of deregulation. The regulatory mechanisms identified by this paper include inter- alia, appropriate scrutiny of new programmes, relying on impartial advise of examiners. Using the state law NO.98/004 of 1998 to compliment the efforts of internal school administration and above all opening linkages between universities and relating universities education in the World of science and technology. This paper does not only enhance quality assurance but also builds the idea of economic growth and development.

  17. Alcohol use and extramarital sex among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiysonge Charles

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13

  18. Geochemistry of Selected Kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukalo Nenita N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical characteristics of selected kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria are presented, with an attempt to elucidate on their possible industrial applications by comparing them to world-known kaolin deposits. Major oxides concentrations were subjected to factor analyses in interpreting their relationships. Geochemical indices, including chemical index of alteration (CIA, chemical index of weathering (CIW and the index of compositional variability (ICV were computed and plotted on binary and ternary diagrams to determine the intensity of weathering of the kaolins and discriminate their different source rock types. Kaolinite was the major phase, followed by quartz, illite and goethite as minor phases. Minerals in trace phases included smectite, anatase, muscovite, gibbsite, microcline, palygorskite and calcite. Mean abundances of major oxides in wt% were: SiO2 (56.96>Al2O3 (24.09>Fe2O3 (3.78>TiO2 (1.53> K2O (1.26> MgO (0.27>CaO (0.20>Na2O (0.17>P2O5 (0.05>MnO (0.04. The CIW versus CIA and ICV versus CIA plots showed that most of the kaolins clearly depicted extreme silicate weathering. The current applications of kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria include ceramics and manufacturing of bricks and tiles. Low MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and TiO2 further position the kaolins for pharmaceutics, cosmetics, rubber and plastic applications. Thus, the studied kaolins have the potential to contribute to improved economic development of these countries.

  19. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale.

  20. Crustal radial anisotropy beneath Cameroon from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Li, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    To increase the understanding of crustal deformation and crustal flow patterns due to tectonic processes in Cameroon, we study the lateral variability of the crustal isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy estimated using Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT). Rayleigh and Love wave Noise Correlation Functions (NCFs) were retrieved from the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise data recorded in Cameroon, and phase velocities at periods of 8 to 30 s were measured to perform surface wave tomography. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave data for isotropic velocity models could not fit the observed dispersions simultaneously. We attribute the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy to the presence of radial anisotropy in the crust and estimated its magnitude. Our 3-D radial anisotropic model reveals the spatial variation of strong to weak positive (Vsh > Vsv) and negative (Vsv > Vsh) radial anisotropy in the crust. We observe negative radial anisotropy in the upper crust that is associated mainly with the location of a previously reported mantle plume. The anisotropy could be attributed to the vertical alignment of fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations due to the upwelling of plume material. A strong positive radial anisotropy is centered at the location of an inferred boundary between the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt that might be related to the preferred orientation of crustal anisotropic minerals associated with shearing in this fault zone. The middle crust is characterized by a widespread negative radial anisotropy that is likely caused by the flow-induced alignment of anisotropic minerals that crystallized during magma intrusion. The magnitude of the radial anisotropy varies systematically from predominantly negative in the middle crust to positive in the lower crust. The imaged patterns of the isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy are consistent with previous studies and agree with regional tectonics.

  1. Geochemistry of Selected Kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukalo, Nenita N.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.; Odiyo, John O.; Ogola, Jason S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of selected kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria are presented, with an attempt to elucidate on their possible industrial applications by comparing them to world-known kaolin deposits. Major oxides concentrations were subjected to factor analyses in interpreting their relationships. Geochemical indices, including chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical index of weathering (CIW) and the index of compositional variability (ICV) were computed and plotted on binary and ternary diagrams to determine the intensity of weathering of the kaolins and discriminate their different source rock types. Kaolinite was the major phase, followed by quartz, illite and goethite as minor phases. Minerals in trace phases included smectite, anatase, muscovite, gibbsite, microcline, palygorskite and calcite. Mean abundances of major oxides in wt% were: SiO2 (56.96)>Al2O3 (24.09)>Fe2O3 (3.78)>TiO2 (1.53)> K2O (1.26)> MgO (0.27)>CaO (0.20)>Na2O (0.17)>P2O5 (0.05)>MnO (0.04). The CIW versus CIA and ICV versus CIA plots showed that most of the kaolins clearly depicted extreme silicate weathering. The current applications of kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria include ceramics and manufacturing of bricks and tiles. Low MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and TiO2 further position the kaolins for pharmaceutics, cosmetics, rubber and plastic applications. Thus, the studied kaolins have the potential to contribute to improved economic development of these countries.

  2. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon.

  3. [Household behaviour regarding health and drug consumption in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeyras, Christophe; Ndo, Jean Rolin; Merabet, Omar; Kone, Hamidou; Rakotondrabe, Faraniaina Patricia

    2006-01-01

    To begin a renewal of national health policy in Cameroon, a steering committee from the Cameroon Ministry of Health and its partners sought to analyze health demand through a national population survey and supply capacity through a national survey of retail drug stores. A survey of healthcare consumers was also conducted. The present publication describes the results of the population survey. It measured perceived, rather than objective (diagnosed), morbidity. The morbidity ratio, defined as the proportion of persons who reported having been ill during the reference period, two weeks before the survey, was measured at 23% and varied with demographic, social, and economic characteristics such as age, sex, poverty, the sex and educational level of the head of the household, and place of residence (urban or rural). We asked about six types of response to illness: modern consultation, traditional consultation, modern self-medication, traditional self-medication, expectant management, and prayer. The approaches of individual therapeutic itineraries fluctuated for each subject, depending first on financial capacity, second on geographic accessibility, and third on socio-cultural perception of the illness, which governed in particular choice of a modern or traditional approach. Thus, less than a quarter of all subjects initially chose consultation in a health care centre, which accounted for only 31% of all approaches, and 37% of the effective health responses (excluding treatment abstention). Half, however, chose it as a second step, and 40% as a third. Globally, 56% of those who reported illness did not seek a modern consultation during this illness, and 23% of those who took three separate steps for the same illness never sought a modern consultation. Half of all household health expenditures were for medication, and this proportion was highest in the poorest population. In 2002, the population spent 366 billion CFA Francs on health care: 170 billion for drugs, 75

  4. Development of the Oil Industry in Cameroon and Its Implications for Education and Training. IIEP Research Report No. 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bikas C.; And Others

    A study analyzed how the oil industry in Cameroon developed and influenced the expansion, structure, and content of Cameroon's formal and nonformal education and training system. A survey of 213 employees and 8 enterprises was supplemented by a review of government reports and official published and unpublished documents. The economy of Cameroon…

  5. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  6. Detection of emerging HIV variants in blood donors from urban areas of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Wood, O; Tang, S; Hu, J; Machuca, A; Kerby, S; Awazi, B; Vockley, C; Hewlett, I

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has licensed several assays for use in donor testing and management of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the performance of these assays for detection and quantitation of emerging HIV genetic variants has not been studied extensively. We tested 240 human plasma specimens collected from two urban blood centers in Cameroon where HIV genetic diversity and recombinant HIV strains are highly prevalent, using several FDA licensed assays. The testing record in Cameroon indicated that 149 specimens were HIV antibody positive and 91 specimens were negative using a rapid HIV-1/2 antibody assay in routine use in Cameroon blood centers. Both sets of samples were evaluated in the FDA laboratory using four ELISA tests for HIV-1 group M, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2 antibodies, one IFA for HIV-1 antibody, one Western blot for HIV-1, one HIV-1 p-24 antigen assay, and three nucleic acid tests (NAT). Our results indicate that the assays had high sensitivity for detection of emerging genetic variants, although a small number of samples harboring circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) found in Cameroon were not always consistently detected by a few assays. These findings may be due to the evolving genetic diversity of HIV strains in Cameroon.

  7. The Cameroon Press Photo Archive (CPPA Buea in Crisis 1955-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kekeisen Nsah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its invention photography in all its ramifications has affected and continues to affect the everyday life of people. It has become a powerful means of communication and mode of visual expression that touches human life in many ways. For example, photography is valued as a means of crystallising memories. One archive which illustrates it is the Cameroon Press Photo Archives - Buea (CPPA-B. The CPPA-Buea was established to use photography as a means of immortalising, conserving and granting access to historical events and personalities in British Southern Cameroons. More than fifty-five years later the institution has not only been in crisis but has been basically abandoned by the authorities in charge. Through qualitative analysis, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the CPPA, its challenges, prospects and ongoing reforms between 1955 and 2016. Keywords: Photo Archives, Photography, Cameroon Press

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  9. Oral health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.

  10. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S

    2011-10-01

    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions.

  11. Modeling Fuel Choice among Households in Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugues Nlom

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore economic and socio-demographic factors that influence a household’s probability to switch from firewood to cleaner fuels (kerosene and LPG in northern Cameroon. The paper employs an ordered probit model to construct cooking patterns and fuel choices. Three main cooking sources are considered: firewood, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Utilized data are derived from a national survey conducted in 2004 by the Cameroonian National Institute of Statistics. The study analyzes the data related to the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone, which is one of the most affected by land degradation and decertification. While results indicate that there is a potential for a transition from traditional to cleaner fuels in the studied region, this transition is still in its earlier stage. The research demonstrates that firewood and kerosene prices, age of household heads, educational level of household heads and willingness to have a gas cylinder, as well as type of dwelling have a statistically significant impact on fuel-switching decisions.

  12. Self medication for oral health problems in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Michael A; Azodo, Clement C

    2011-08-01

    To assess the use of self medication in oral health problems in Cameroon. This multi-regional cross-sectional survey was conducted in three towns; Bamenda, Yaounde and Buea over a 10 month period. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, oral problem for self medication, substance used for self medication, source of the substance, duration of self medication, reason for self medication, source of advice of the drugs or those products used, opinion about the substance, effect and duration. The prevalence of self medication for oral health problems was 67.8% which was significantly associated with age, marital status and location. The most frequently self medicated oral health problem was toothache (54.7%). The majority (64.5%) of the respondents used pharmaceutical products while a minority (7.7%) used dangerous substances such as petrol and vinegar for self medication. Sources of substances of self medication included pharmacy (55.6%), road side vendors (26.1%), native healers (7.8%), mobile drug vendors in buses (5.3%), and others (5.3%). The choice of substances used for self medication was mostly guided by the advice from relatives. The majority of the respondents self-medicated for oral health problems. Unmarried, urban residents, aged 21-30 years reported significantly increased self-medication for oral health problems. Evidently dangerous substances were utilised for self-medication in this study, necessitating awareness and other forms of intervention. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Achieving high uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine in Cameroon: lessons learned in overcoming challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Manga, Simon; Nulah, Kathleen; Foglabenchi, Lily H; Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Tih, Pius

    2014-07-31

    Cameroon has the highest age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer (30/100,000 women) in Central Africa. In 2010-2011, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) received donated human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Gardasil, from Merck & Co. Inc. through Axios Healthcare Development to immunize 6400 girls aged 9-13 years. The aim was to inform the Cameroon Ministry of Health (MOH) of the acceptability, feasibility, and optimal delivery strategies for HPV vaccine. Following approval by the MOH, CBCHS nurses educated girls, parents, and communities about HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine through multimedia coverage, brochures, posters, and presentations. Because educators were initially reluctant to allow immunization in schools, due to fear of adverse events, the nurses performed 40.7% of vaccinations in the clinics, 34.5% in community venues, and only 24.7% in schools. When no adverse events were reported, more schools and communities permitted HPV vaccine immunization on their premises. To recover administrative costs, CBCHS charged a fee of US$8 per 3-dose series only to those who were able to pay. Despite the fee, 84.6% of the 6,851 girls who received the first dose received all three doses. With adequate education of all stakeholders, HPV vaccination is acceptable and feasible in Cameroon. Following this demonstration project, in 2014 the Global Access to Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) Alliance awarded the Cameroon MOH HPV vaccine at a price of US$4.50 per dose to immunize sixth grade girls and girls aged 10 years who are not in school in two districts of Cameroon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Ground Deformation Monitoring Approach to Understanding Magma Chamber Systems and Eruptive Cycles of Mount Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.; Clarke, A.

    2005-05-01

    Mount Cameroon is a 13,400ft basanite volcano on the passive margin of West Africa. It has erupted seven times in the past century making it one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Most recently Mount Cameroon erupted in 1999 and 2000 first issuing strombolian explosions from vents near the summit, and later erupting effusively from a fissure running southwest from the summit (Suh et al., 2003). Prior to 2004, the only monitoring equipment on Mount Cameroon was a small seismometer network installed following the 1982 eruption. By 1999 only a single seismometer in the network was functional. Seismic activity did not rise above background levels until the few days immediately preceding the eruption. In an effort to raise awareness of the volcano's condition and provide a more efficient warning of impending eruptions we have begun constructing a ground deformation network on Mount Cameroon. The new network currently consists of two Applied Geomechanics 711-2A(4X) biaxial tiltmeters capable of resolving 0.1 microradians of tilt. One station is located approximately 500 m from the 2000 summit vent, and the other is approximately 1km away from the central fissure approximately 5km southwest of the 2000 summit vent. Three primary processes could precede eruptions at Mt. Cameroon, offering the opportunity for detection and prediction by our network. These processes are magma chamber pressurization, magma ascent via a central conduit, and/or propagation of magma along the central fissure. Magma chamber location, if a significant chamber exists, is poorly constrained, however, previous petrologic studies on Mount Cameroon (Suh et al., 2003; Fitton et al., 1983) suggest Mount Cameroon magmas originate at a depth less than 40km. Published seismic data (Ambeh, 1989) contains evidence of magmatic activity and possible chambers at depths ranging from 10km to 70km. Preliminary calculations using a simple Mogi model suggest deformation caused by pressurization of a large

  15. Interpreting gravity anomalies in south Cameroon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadjou Jean Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The area involved in this study is the northern part of the Congo craton, located in south Cameroon, (2.5°N - 4.5°N, 11°E - 13°E. The study involved analysing gravity data to delineate major structures and faults in south Cameroon. The region’s Bouguer gravity is

  16. The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

  17. Privatisation of agro-industrial parastatals and anglophone opposition in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the regional anglophone opposition in Cameroon which arose after 15 July 1994, when the government was forced by international donors to announce the privatization of 15 public enterprises, notably in the transport and agroindustrial sectors. The most prominent among them was

  18. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  19. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 3, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of capture and trade in African grey parrot populations (Psittacus erithacus) in Lobeke National Park, south east Cameroon, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Ngenyi, Z Nzooh, L Usongo, 11-16 ...

  20. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 8, No 2-3 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano: Characterization and Implications to Health Hazards · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MBS Atanga, AS Van der Meerve, EM Shemamg, CE Suh, W Kruger, MS Njome, NE Asobo, 63- ...

  1. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 7, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geological control and triggering mechanisms of landslides of 20th July of 2003 within the Bamboutos Caldera, Cameroon · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SN Ayonghe, EB Ntasin, 191-204 ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and older adults in Cameroon: Emerging issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perpetua Lum Tanyi

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... larger study which had been conducted concerning the burden of HIV infection and AIDS on the older adults in the Northwest. Region of Cameroon. ... population ageing in Africa, has interlocked to not only create new emerging issues but ...... Economic Development and Cultural Change,. 56(2), 441–475.

  3. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST)  = 0.068, P albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  4. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players

  5. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution of the Giardia sp cysts in the Mfondi water basin (Cameroon): influence of some physico-chemical factors of the medium · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AG Ajeagah, SM Foto, T Njine, T Njine, M Wouafo, RS Moyou, M Nola, A Monkiedje, ...

  6. Wind Power Potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has seen a tremendous growth for electricity generation worldwide and reached 456 GW by the end of June 2016. According to the World Wind Energy Association, global wind power will reach 500 GW by the end of 2016. Africa is a continent that possesses huge under-utilized wind potentials. Some African countries, e.g., Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and South Africa, have already adopted wind as an alternative power generation source in their energy mix. Among these countries, South Africa has invested heavily in wind energy with operational wind farms supplying up to 26,000 GWh annually to the national grid. However, two African countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, have vast potentials, but currently are lagging behind in wind energy development. For Nigeria, there is slow implementation of renewable energy policy, with no visible operational wind farms; while Cameroon does not have any policy plan for wind power. These issues are severely hindering both direct foreign and local investments into the electricity sector. Cameroon and Nigeria have huge wind energy potentials with similar climatic conditions and can benefit greatly from the huge success recorded in South Africa in terms of policy implementation, research, development and technical considerations. Therefore, this paper reviews the wind energy potentials, policies and future renewable energy road-maps in Cameroon and Nigeria and identifies their strength and weakness, as well as providing necessary actions for future improvement that South Africa has already adopted.

  7. Neuropeltis eladii (Convolvulaceae), a new species from the South Province of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims - The paleotropical genus Neuropeltis of the Convolvulaceae was recently treated in a synopsis for the African continent (Breteler 2010), counting nine species. This number is now enlarged by a new, overlooked, species from the South Province of Cameroon. Methods - Normal

  8. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  9. Teachers' Use of Information and Communications Technology in Education: Cameroon Secondary Schools Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shaibou Abdoulai; Moluayonge, Gracemary Eloheneke; Park, Innwoo

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) offers innovative tools for restructuring teaching and learning processes in preparing students for the 21st Century skills. However, there is no sufficient and reliable data concerning how the use of ICT fit in different school cultures in Cameroon, and how teachers with varying pedagogical and…

  10. High fertility and development in Cameroon | Nana-Fabu | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High fertility and development in Cameroon. ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... Many scholars of development, in sub Saharan Africa especially, have come to perceive increases in the African population as a threat to what is an already precarious balance between people and scarce natural resources, as well as ...

  11. Vulnerability, forest-related sectors and climate change adaptation : the case of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonwa, D.J.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Bele, M.Y.; Nkem, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced

  12. Identification of three Me/oidogyne species from Cameroon by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify some Cameroonian Mefoidogyne species by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Meloidogyne isolates from various host crops in fifteen localities of the South West, West, and North West Provinces of Cameroon, were cultured on susceptible tomato in a greenhouse in Munster, Germany.

  13. Floodplain rehabilitation in Far North Cameroon: expected impact on bird life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Kort, de S.; Weerd, van M.

    2000-01-01

    The Logone floodplain in the sahelo-Sudanian zone of Cameroon used to be a highly productive ecosystem. Perennial pastures and fish played a crucial role for fishermen, pastoralists and wildlife. The construction of an upstream dam reduced inundation causing widespread degradation Nonetheless,

  14. Contract farming and capital accumulation in Cameroon : the case of the CDC smallholder schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Geschiere, P.L.; Konings, P.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Contract farming schemes associated with agro-industrial enterprises have been of a more limited scope in Cameroon than in several other Third World countries, and largely unsuccessful. The Cameroonian experience with contract farming therefore poses an interesting challenge to modernization

  15. Stress Management and Teachers' Productivity in Cameroon: Lessons from Momo Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyi Einstein Moses E.

    2016-01-01

    A teacher who is stressed out, stresses out his student who in turn, behave differently (usually worse) and consequently produce more stress for the teacher. This study on Stress management and teachers' productivity was carried out in Momo Division North West Region of Cameroon. The aim was to find out the extent to which the teachers' acceptance…

  16. Risk Factors Associated With Epilepsy In A Rural Area In Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction An epileptic area with very high endemicity has been described in Bilomo, a village near Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. Purpose This study was carried out to determine some of the risk and precipitating factors associated with epilepsy in Bilomo. Patients and Methods This was part of a ...

  17. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  18. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 9, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deformation history of the Yaounde Group in the Awae - Ayos area (Southern- Cameroon): Evidence for Pan-African thrust tectonics · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JB Olinga, D Minyem, JE Mpesse, GE Ekodeck, 33-46 ...

  19. Religious revival in the Roman Catholic Church and the autochthony-allochthony conflict in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    post-print versionThis article explores the reasons for, and the repercussions of, a virulent and protracted crisis in the South West Province of anglophone Cameroon during the 1990s caused by the emergence of a Pentecostalism-inspired revival movement within the Roman Catholic Church. The so-called

  20. Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by

  1. Improving the benefits of wildlife harvesting in Northern Cameroon: a co-management perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayaka, T.; Hendricks, T.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    We examined ways of improving the incentive structure of a safari company, the state, and the local communities within a wildlife co-management framework in Northern Cameroon. To this end, we built an integer linear programming model with state-allocated quotas and a profit maximisation objective

  2. Poverty and health among CDC plantation labourers in Cameroon: Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Maat, Harro; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond

  3. Violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: accounts of violence, harm reduction, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sahnah; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Cange, Charles; Papworth, Erin; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Kamla, Aristide; Billong, Serge; Fokam, Pamella; Njindam, Iliassou; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Baral, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Cameroon, and West Africa generally, suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV. Although violence against FSWs has been documented extensively in other parts of the world, data on violence from West African countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to qualitatively document violence and harm reduction strategies from the perspective of FSWs in Cameroon as well as to understand how experiences of violence may increase FSWs' HIV risk. FSWs from 7 major cities in Cameroon (Douala, Yaounde, Bamenda, Bertoua, Nagoundere, Kribi, and Bafoussam) were purposively recruited. Data from 31 in-depth interviews and 7 focus groups (n = 70; with some overlapping participants from in-depth interviews) conducted with these FSWs in 6 of these 7 cities (excluding Kribi) were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Transcripts revealed 3 primary themes related to violence: (1) sources and types of violence, including sexual, physical, and financial violence perpetrated by clients and police, (2) harm reduction strategies, including screening clients and safe work locations, receipt of payment before sexual act, and formation of an informal security network, and (3) recommendations on structural changes to reduce violence that emphasized sex work decriminalization and increased police accountability. As in other parts of the world, violence against FSWs is pervasive in Cameroon. Interventions targeting violence and HIV must address the forms of violence cited locally by FSWs and can build on FSWs' existing strengths and harm reduction strategies. Structural changes are needed to ensure access to justice for this population.

  4. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria in the North West Region of Cameroon: analysis of limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndofor, Eric; van Gool, Tom; Gillis, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is still rife and perennial in Cameroon despite remarkable progress in controlling the disease. About 95% of the country is malaria endemic. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria may lead to improved patient care and reduced morbidity. This paper analyses limitations in malaria diagnosis

  5. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their

  6. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  7. Knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms by local populations of the rain forest of South Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.F.W.; Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of edible fungi and their utilization by local populations were investigated in southern Cameroon from 1996 to 1999. Some 100 participants from the major ethnic groups, comprising Bantu farmers and Bagyeli (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers, were interviewed. Mushroom usage by 30

  8. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among physicians in Cameroon: a research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feteh, Vitalis Fambombi; Njim, Tsi; Nji, Miriam A M; Ayeah, Chia Mark; Sama, Carlson-Babila; Tianyi, Frank Leonel

    2017-10-25

    Burnout syndrome is a common psychological state, that may affect human healthcare providers due to their prolonged exposure to job stressors. Burnout can hinder optimal healthcare delivery. Hence this study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout syndrome amongst physicians in Cameroon. Specifically: (1) to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome amongst Cameroonian doctors. (2) To identify potential determinants of burnout among Cameroonian doctors. (3) To compare the prevalence and determinants of burnout among specialist physicians and general practitioners in Cameroon. This cross-sectional study will include a minimum of 335 doctors working in five regions of Cameroon. Consenting physicians will be consecutively recruited and data on sociodemographic and work characteristics will be collected via a printed self-administered questionnaire and burnout will be assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data will be analysed using Epi Info version 7 and a p value burnout syndrome. Physicians' mental health is largely neglected in developing countries like Cameroon. Data from this research will help inform practitioners on the magnitude of the problem and favour the development of policies that improve the mental health of care-providers.

  9. Distribution, incidence and abundance of the cassava brown root scale insect, Stictococcus vayssierei, in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchuanyo, M.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale insect, Stictococcus vayssierei, has been found attacking all the underground parts of cassava. From surveys in all the cassava-growing areas of Cameroon, the insect seems to be limited to the southern part of the country, where it is a major pest of cassava. This is the semi-humid zone

  10. Local blacksmiths's activity in the west region of Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the nature of pollutant and exhaustible of fossils energies, developed countries have made use of renewable energy sources to make effective their energy systems. To stow on that vision in Cameroon, the promotion of micro-hydroelectric powers plants (MHPP) is a priority and any contribution to its ease is ...

  11. The amphibians of Mount Oku, Cameroon: an updated species inventory and conservation review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doherty-Bone, T. M.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 643 (2017), s. 109-139 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biodiversity * caecilians * Cameroon Volcanic Line * Central Africa * frogs * Lake Oku * montane forests and grasslands Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016

  12. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest Njih Tabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.

  13. "Ask and you shall be given" : Pentecostalism and the economic crisis in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoko, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cameroon's economic crisis has led to widespread unemployment and poverty since the 1980s. Civil society organizations, including the churches, believe that bad governance is at the heart of the country's economic problems and are calling for the introduction of democratic institutions. However, a

  14. Novel Human Rotavirus Genotype G5P[7] from Child with Diarrhea, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Annelise; Banyai, Krisztian; Page, Nicola; Aminu, Maryam; Armah, George E.; Hull, Jennifer; Steele, Duncan A.; Glass, Roger I.; Gentsch, Jon R.

    2009-01-01

    We report characterization of a genotype G5P[7] human rotavirus (HRV) from a child in Cameroon who had diarrhea. Sequencing of all 11 gene segments showed similarities to >5 genes each from porcine and human rotaviruses. This G5P[7] strain exemplifies the importance of heterologous animal rotaviruses in generating HRV genetic diversity through reassortment. PMID:19116059

  15. ‘The vagina does not talk’: conception concealed or deliberately disclosed in Eastern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of

  16. Diet selection and density estimates of forest buffalo in Campo-Ma'an National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, P.; Jong, de C.B.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2008-01-01

    We studied diet selection and density of forest buffalo in the Campo Ma'an National Park of southern Cameroon. The buffalo's diet in this rainforest comprised 43% grass, including 15%Leptochloa caerulecens. Other species eaten were non-graminoid monocots (21.3%), mainly Commelinaceae (18.2%),

  17. Prevalence and causes of blindness at a tertiary hospital in Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eballé AO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé1,4, Côme Ebana Mvogo1,3, Godefroy Koki2, Nyouma Mounè3, Cyrille Teutu5, Augustin Ellong2,3, Assumpta Lucienne Bella2,41Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3General Hospital of Douala, Ophthalmology Unit, Douala, Cameroon; 4Cameroon National Blindness Control Programme, Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 5Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Mountain University, Banganté, CameroonPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in the town of Douala and its environs based on data from the ophthalmic unit of a tertiary hospital in Douala.Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological survey of consultations at the eye unit of the Douala General Hospital over the last 20 years (from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2009.Results: Out of the 1927 cases of blindness, 1000 were unilateral, corresponding to a hospital prevalence of 1.84% and 927 cases were bilateral, corresponding to a hospital prevalence of 1.71%. No statistically significant difference was noted between the two (P = 0.14. The leading causes of bilateral blindness were cataract (50.1%, glaucoma (19.7%, and diabetic retinopathy (7.8% while the leading causes of unilateral blindness were cataract (40.4%, glaucoma (14.1%, and retinal detachment (9.1%. Cataract (51.2%, cortical blindness (16.3%, and congenital glaucoma (10% were the leading causes of bilateral blindness in children aged less than 10 years.Conclusion: Blindness remains a public health problem in the Douala region with a hospital prevalence which is relatively higher than the national estimate given by the National Blindness Control Program.Keywords: bilateral blindness, unilateral blindness, prevalence, Douala, Cameroon

  18. Functioning and disability in recent research from Cameroon: a narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Minal; Wallace, Lorena; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Cockburn, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    People living with disabilities in Cameroon face many barriers to daily functioning and social participation. However, there is limited research on disabilities and their impact. We sought to examine the research related to disability from Cameroon. We conducted a systematic review, bibliometric analysis, and narrative synthesis of research related to disability, functioning, and social participation from Cameroon published during 2005-2014. The articles were screened in duplicate to identify articles addressing impacts of disability on functioning. Disability was contextualized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Data were analyzed narratively per identified themes using an inductive data-driven approach. A total of 46 studies were included following full-text review of which 36 addressed non-communicable diseases and conditions, 7 addressed infectious diseases and 3 addressed neglected tropical diseases. Among ICF Activity and Participation Restrictions, work and employment was the highest reported category (19 studies), followed by intimate relationships (14 studies), and looking after one's health (8 studies). Among ICF Environmental Factors, societal attitudes were the highest reported category (21 studies), followed by health services, systems and policies (14 studies) and support and relationships (11 studies). Among other common themes, knowledge and awareness was the highest reported category (22 studies), closely followed by traditional beliefs (20 studies) and financial barriers (9 studies). There is a small body of primary research from Cameroon on disability. The main themes related to disability are stigma, limited knowledge and awareness, poor quality of care and hindered employment opportunities. Further efforts are required to investigate the complexities of living with a disability in Cameroon and strategies to enhance adequate participation in activities of daily life.

  19. Lessons for REDD+ from Cameroon's past forestry law reform: a political economy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Patrice Dkamela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+ is gaining traction in Cameroon. However, given the deep-rooted trans-sectoral drivers of forest loss, enforcing REDD+ policies will require major policy change and reform both within and beyond the forestry sector. In this paper, we view the REDD+ policy arena in Cameroon within a political economy framework and conduct policy network analysis to explore the factors that will enable or hinder efforts to implement the broad policy change required to realize REDD+. As the REDD+ context is shaped by the history of Cameroon's forestry sector, we draw lessons for REDD+ from the forestry law reform undertaken in 1994. We focus our analysis on three factors considered necessary for REDD+ success: (i autonomy of the nation state from interests behind deforestation and forest degradation, (ii national ownership over reform processes, and (iii inclusiveness of policy processes. We find that the REDD+ policy process in Cameroon is repeating the weaknesses of the earlier forestry law reform, as seen in the minimal ownership of REDD+ by national actor groups and low inclusiveness among domestic actors at both national and local levels, as well as the absence of a national coalition for REDD+. Furthermore, politics and private agendas are compromising state agencies' autonomy in making decisions about forest resources. Our findings suggest that responses to these weaknesses, as well as to inconsistencies between sectoral policies and to competition over forest resources, will determine whether REDD+ can induce change within and beyond Cameroon's forestry sector.

  20. Current Status of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: How Effective are Control Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Mbanya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three decades after its discovery, HIV infection remains the number one killer disease in Sub-Saharan Africa where up to 67% of the world’s 33 million infected people live. In Cameroon, based on a Demographic Health Survey carried out in 2004, the national HIV prevalence is estimated at 5.5% with women and youths being predominantly infected. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC from the HIV and AIDS pandemic have increased steadily over the years; hospital occupancy is estimated at about 30%, hence stretching the health system; co-infections like HIV/tuberculosis have been reported to reach 40-50% of infected cases and 95% of teachers are said not to be productive on several counts. Thus, the impact is multi-sectorial. Furthermore, the HIV epidemic in Cameroon is peculiar because of the wide HIV-1 genetic diversity of HIV-1 Group M observed with several subtypes reported (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, predominantly subtype A. There are also circulating recombinant forms, mainly CRF02_AG. In addition, HIV-1 Groups O and N have all been noted in Cameroon. These findings have great implications not only for HIV diagnosis, but also for responsiveness to therapy as well as for vaccine development. In 1986, the initial response of the Cameroon government to the increasing trends in the HIV/AIDS infection was to create a National AIDS Control Committee to coordinate a national AIDS programme. By 2000, the first National Strategic Plan was drawn for 2000-2005. The second National Strategic Plan for 2006-2010 is currently being implemented and covers various axes. Some results obtained show that there has been significantly positive outcomes noted in the various arms of intervention by the Cameroon government.

  1. [Contribution of the Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) to population activities in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatchou, R D; Mbida, O

    1984-01-01

    The Institute for Demographic Training and Research (IFORD) has contributed more to demographic knowledge in Cameroon than in other countries because of its location within Cameroon. Training in demography at IFORD had 3 phases: classic training, intended to provide students with a solid background in demography including data collection and interpretation and knowledge of population interactions with social and economic development; initiation of research, in which graduates in demography spend a year working on projects at the Institute; and perfecting of research on particular topics by groups of established professionals in sessions lasting up to 4 weeks. 38 Cameroonian demographers have been trained by IFORD since 1974, 4 have received initial research training, and 2 or 3 have been included in each short course. Each year since 1973, IFORD has organized a census or survey in the medium sized towns of Cameroon to provide data as well as training opportunities for future demographers. Most of the surveys have been analyzed and the results published. The publication section of IFORD, created in January 1979, produces 4 series of publications: a liaison bulletin of African demography, Annals of IFORD, notes and documents, and pedagogic documents. 5 issues of the Annals and 2 of the notes and documents have dealt with Cameroon and others are due to appear shortly. A survey on levels and differentials of infant and child mortality is the most important demographic research undertaken by IFORD in Cameroon to date. Each of the 10,000 newborns included was followed at home in 7 visits between 1978-81. Evaluations of sources of demographic data have also been done. IFORD publications containing research findings for Cameroon on topics including urban growth, rural population and agrarian problems, monographs on national and regional populations, mortality, fertility, the active population and employment status, the school age population, and methodologic studies, are

  2. Analogue modelling of deformation structures at Mt Cameroon analysed with a digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Walter, Thomas R.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Cameroon is a large, 4090 m high, continental volcano. It is characterized by repetitive basaltic lava flow eruptions, the most recent ones occurring in 1999 and 2000. Upper flanks of Mt Cameroon are exceptionally steep (~30°) for a lava-dominated volcano and are constrained by sharp breaks-in-slope. Field work enabled to identified well-defined inward-dipping structures bordering a flat summit plateau and thrust faults associated with topographic terraces around Mt Cameroon's base, suggesting summit subsidence and gravitational spreading of the volcano flanks above its sedimentary base. To better understand the structural configuration and morphology observed, scaled analogue experiments were designed. A volcanic ridge, made out of fine quartz sand, was let spread under gravitational forces above a ductile silicone layer. Experiments were conducted in 2D and 3D configurations. A digital image correlation (DIC) procedure was used to record fault formation and evolution through time. 3D spreading of an elongated edifice favors displacement perpendicular to the long axis, and formation of a summit graben and basal thrusts or folds parallel to this axis. Results of the DIC highlights the strain concentration in the central part of the main graben and along specific strike-slip faults bordering secondary grabens. This deformation is however not associated with slope increase or instabilities. 2D spreading of a volcanic ridge between two glass panes is associated either with two outward-dipping listric normal faults and inward-dipping antithetic faults or with two sets of deep and shallow normal faults, defining a central graben and forming steep mid-slopes with local instabilities, depending on the thickness of the underlying ductile material. Results from the experiments are compared with structural lineaments mapped at Mt Cameroon. It is concluded that the elongated morphology of Mt Cameroon promotes directional spreading perpendicular to its long axis, probably

  3. [Malaria vector control in Cameroon: past, present, future. Reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J

    2001-07-01

    During the fifties, large scale malaria vector control projects based upon house spraying were implemented in Southern and Northern parts of Cameroon in line of malaria eradication concept. In the South, the pilot zone of Yaounde gathered about 150,000 inhabitants, in the forest area. First operations started in 1953 but the programme became actually operational in 1956. It was divided in two parts: the western part was treated with DDT, while the eastern one was treated with dieldrin. At the same time, the whole forested area was also treated with dieldrin until 1960. Yaounde itself was not treated because it was free of anopheles and malaria. House spraying in the pilot area of Yaounde was a complete success and plasmodic index dropped below 1%. The same success was observed in most of the southern treated areas. Unfortunatly dieldrin resistance of An. gambiae hampered this programme which stopped in 1960. The northem pilot project dealt with some 250,000 inhabitants around Maroua, in a savanna area. To avoid dieldrin resistance observed in 1956, DDT was selected and house spraying started in 1959. From a strictly operational point of view, the campaign was considered as a success. But after two years, it was noticed that plasmodic index remained still around the same value of 35% and the programme stopped. It was thus stated that according to available techniques it was not possible to reach the ultimate goal of eradication even when chemoprophylaxis (chloroquin + pyrimethamin) was added. The comparison between south (= success) and north (= failure) was very interesting as it underlined the big differences between epidemiological faces, an unaccepted concept at that time. Now ecological and epidemiological diversity is the well acknowledged. It also underlined the need of diversity of strategies according to the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of its vector Vector control was then stopped for a while. In the eighties, Primary Health Care was

  4. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian E A Eta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  5. Survey of Minerai Status of Cattle in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and liver samples were collected from Zebu Gudali and Zebu Banyo cattle freshly slaughtered in abattoirs at eight different locations in each of the five administrative divisions of the Adamaoua region of Cameroon during the wet season (September to October, 1983 and the dry season (February to March, 1984. Liver samples were analysed for iron, copper and manganese while serum samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium and copper. Most of the animals were adequate in calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Copper was deficient in liver and sera of most of the animals. There is a need to intensif/research on the mineral status of cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. Copper sulphate is recommended in sait licks for cattle in this region.

  6. Cooperia pectinata and C. punctata, parasites of the abomasum of cattle in northern Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, J Y; Jacquiet, P; Cardinale, E; Ndamkou-Ndamkou, C; Diop, C; Thiam, A; Dorchies, P

    2000-02-29

    Cooperia pectinata Ransom, 1907 and C. punctata von Linstow, 1907 are common trichostrongyles of zebu cattle in Africa. Their intestinal localization within the digestive tract is considered by many authors to be exclusive. Nevertheless, some limited surveys in Malagasy, Mauritania, The Gambia and Cameroon reported the presence of both Cooperia species in the abomasum. The present survey was carried out in a slaughterhouse of northern Cameroon on 17 zebu cattle and confirms the infection of the small intestine and the abomasum by the two species within the total number of cattle examined. Abomasal infections especially with Cooperia punctata were heavier than those in the intestine. Due to the movements of herdbreeders in Central Africa, and to the preliminary results obtained in Mauritania, The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Malagasy, abomasal localization of C. pectinata and C. punctata may be encountered in very large areas of Africa, and that cooperiosis may contribute together with Haemonchus species to the digestive disorders involving the abomasum.

  7. Plant biodiversity and vegetation structure in traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon under different management

    OpenAIRE

    Bisseleua, D. Hervé B.; Vidal, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Floristic surveys were performed in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens under different management regimes in the humid forest area of southern Cameroon, to assess the impact of intensification on plant biodiversity. This impact was evaluated by analyzing species richness, vegetation structure, carbon sequestration and above ground biomass. We hypothesize that: (a) plant (tree and herbs) species richness is negatively correlated to management intensity and (b) vegetational density predictably...

  8. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

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    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. CONCLUSION: The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  9. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boynton Petra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of

  10. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of emergency contraception among university students in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kouam Luc; Wiysonge Charles; Fomulu Nelson; Ngassa Pius; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Doh Anderson S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order t...

  11. Wild Food, Prices, Diets and Development: Sustainability and Food Security in Urban Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Q. Sneyd

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditio...

  12. [Fertility and mortality in the urban agglomeration of Banyo (Cameroon): the influence of venereal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault, J

    1983-01-01

    The demographic situation in the city of Banyo, Cameroon, is described for the period 1952-1976 using survey and census data. This city was characterized by a large slave population, particularly in the nineteenth century, and slavery remained common up to the 1960s. The consequences of slavery, including disruption of family life, concubinage, and high rates of venereal disease, are noted. Fertility and mortality differences among the slave and free populations are analyzed by sex. (summary in ENG, SPA)

  13. CNA Small Group Discussion: Aiding Cameroon’s Effort to Counter Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    important to understand that the modern (“colonial”) borders dividing the Lake Chad Basin region mean little to Boko Haram (and indeed to many...neighbors. Chad , for example, has emerged in recent weeks as a key player in the effort to counter Boko Haram . In early February, Chadian troops entered...Cameroon, Chad , and Niger in their fight to defeat Boko Haram . __________  This work was published by the Center for Strategic Studies (CSS) at the CNA

  14. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Konvička, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2010), s. 428-437 ISSN 0141-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Grant - others:Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Republic of Cameroon(CM) 014125; AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410709 Program:IA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : afromontane landscape * conservation * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2010

  15. Fatal monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in a semi-urban setting in Cameroon: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nkoke, Clovis; Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Dikoume, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    Background Ventricular tachycardia is a life threatening cardiac arrhythmia. It needs management with defibrillation, without which, immediate death may occur. Case presentation A 66?year old black African patient with a 2?year history of hypertension was admitted to the emergency department of the Buea Regional hospital, a semi-urban setting in Cameroon, after presenting with syncope while in church. The wife described a similar episode 2?weeks prior without any further evaluation. Upon arri...

  16. The Burden of Leprosy in Cameroon: Fifteen Years into the Post-elimination Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kanyi; Bratschi, Martin W; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Plushke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-10-01

    Cameroon achieved the elimination target of leprosy in 2000, and has maintained this status ever since. However, a number of health districts in the country continue to report significant numbers of leprosy cases. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of leprosy in Cameroon from 2000 to 2014. We obtained and analysed using the new leprosy burden concept of analysis, leprosy surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2014 from the National Leprosy Control Programme. Cameroon achieved leprosy elimination in 2000, registering a prevalence rate of 0.94/10,000 population. The prevalence rate dropped further to reach 0.20/10,000 population (78% reduction) in 2014. Similarly, the new case detection rate dropped from 4.88/100,000 population in 2000 to 1.46/100,000 population (85.3% reduction) in 2014. All 10 regions of the country achieved leprosy elimination between 2000 and 2014; however, 10 health districts were still to do so by 2014. The number of high-leprosy-burden regions decreased from 8 in 2000 to 1 in 2014. Seven and two regions were respectively medium and low-burdened at the end of 2014. At the health districts level, 18 remained at the high-leprosy-burdened level in 2014. The leprosy prevalence and detection rates as well as the overall leprosy burden in Cameroon have dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. However, a good number of health districts remain high-leprosy-burdened. The National Leprosy Control Programme should focus efforts on these health districts in the next coming years in order to further reduce the burden of leprosy in the country.

  17. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos. Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and winter the rates were 164, 2.38, 3.26 and 3.89 UA/ha. In summer, the stocking rate of 4.34 UA/ha enabled best combination between weight gain per animal and per area with daily average gains of 0.560kg/animal and 2.99 kg/ha on cameroon grass and of 0.505 kg/animal and 2.79 kg/ha for braquiarão grass. However, in winter, the stocking rate of 3.26 UA/ha was the one which enabled greatest animal yield with daily average gains of 0.670kg/animal and 2.86 kg/ha on cameroon grass and 0.503 kg/animal and 2.10kg/ha on braquiarão grass. The weight gain per animal and per area is influenced by stocking rate. The cameroon grass provides greater weight than grass braquiarão gains, both animal as per area, in both rainy and dry seasons.

  18. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years in Northern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndze, Valentine Ngum; Akum, Achidi Eric; Kamga, Gonsu Hortense; Enjema, Lyonga Emilia; Esona, Mathew Dioh; Banyai, Krisztian; Therese, Obama Abena Marie

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus still remains the major cause of diarrhea in children below 5 years. No data on rotavirus epidemiology is available in the Northern regions of Cameroon. We aimed to determine the prevalence of group A rotavirus (RVA) in children below 5 years with diarrhea in two regions of Northern Cameroon (North West and Far North Regions) so as to improve our knowledge on the burden of rotavirus disease for imminent introduction of a rotavirus vaccine. Stool samples were collected during 2010 and 2011 from 390 children below 5 years presenting with diarrhea in four hospitals in Northern Cameroon and were screened for rotavirus group A by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This study revealed that 42.8% of the children below 5 years had group A rotavirus infection, 46.5% in the Far North region while the North West had a prevalence of 33.9%. Of the 252 hospitalized and the 138 outpatient children, 124(49.2%) and 43(31.2%) (P=0.00085), respectively, were positive for group A rotavirus. Children below 24 months were most affected (44.7%), while the age group 49-60 months had the lowest prevalence (25%). The RVA prevalence was 44.6% in the urban and 28.9% in the rural settings of our study. It was observed that the proportion of children with diarrhea who had rotavirus accompanied with fever and vomiting in the outpatient group and inpatient group were 13.0% and 28.6% respectively, P=0.03. This study showed high incidence of rotavirus infection especially among hospitalized children in Northern Cameroon, suggesting that rotavirus is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in this area.

  19. Perceptions Regarding HIV/AIDS and Risky Behaviours Among Prison Inmates in Southwest Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkang EE; Pietra V; Adam A; Fusheini A; Kweku M

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners are at exceptional risk of infection with HIV because of the association of injection drug use, tattooing, sex between men and unprotected sexual intercourse with incarceration. This study described the perceptions regarding HIV/ AIDS and risky behaviours among prison inmates in Kumba in the Southwest region of Cameroon.This was a cross sectional study, conducted among 232 male prison inmates in Kumba, in December 2015. Data were collected using a structured pretested questionnaire,...

  20. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonisation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebold, D; Enoh, D O; Kinge, T N; Akam, W; Bumah, M K; Russow, K; Klammt, S; Loebermann, M; Fritzsche, C; Eyong, J E; Eppel, G; Kundt, G; Hemmer, C J; Reisinger, E C

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in Europe and the USA, in Cameroon. Induced sputum samples from 237 patients without pulmonary symptoms (126 HIV-positive and 111 HIV-negative outpatients) treated at a regional hospital in Cameroon were examined for the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii by specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and staining methods. CD4 counts and the history of antiretroviral therapy of the subjects were obtained through the ESOPE database system. Seventy-five of 237 study participants (31.6%) were colonised with Pneumocystis, but none showed active PCP. The Pneumocystis colonisation rate in HIV-positive subjects was more than double that of HIV-negative subjects (42.9% vs. 18.9%, P 500 cells/μl were colonised at a rate of 20.0%, subjects with CD4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/μl of 42.5%, and subjects with CD4 counts <200 cells/μl of 57.1%. Colonisation with Pneumocystis in Cameroon seems to be comparable to rates found in Western Europe. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against Pneumocystis should be taken into account in HIV care in western Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Conservation Concern for the Deteriorating Geographical Range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Littoral to 1,351,275 parrots in the East Regions. The extent of the contemporary range as a percentage of the whole country was 25.4% and as a percentage of the regions with rainforest was 44.5%. The historic range of the bird has been reduced by over 55.5%. Estimated percentage of forest lost per region ranged from 20.4% in the Centre to 57.1% in the East and South Regions. At a global level, Cameroon contributed 9% to the total extent of the range of the Grey Parrot in Africa. The range is increasingly fragmented, contracted, and lost through land-based socioeconomic activities. These degradation pressures on the range called for urgent conservation considerations for long-term survival of the parrot species and its associated biodiversity in Cameroon.

  2. Knowledge and practice of condom use as well as perceived barriers among street adolescents in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nambile Cumber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Street children in Cameroon are adolescents, vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV and/or AIDS. The level of knowledge and practice of condom use among this population is unknown.Objective of the study: To assess the knowledge, practice and barriers to condom use in Cameroon.Materials and methods: The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Questionnaires were administered to street children in a quiet location. Recruitment was made using the snowball technique with the help of peers.Results: More than 90% of participants knew of condoms, but only about 6% reported to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Most of the participants did not know that condoms could prevent HIV; only a few (15.5% knew about this.Conclusion: Street adolescents in Cameroon seem to know about condoms, but have insufficient information on the importance of their regular use. The main barriers for the low practice of condom use reported by this population were the following: condoms hinder sexual pleasure; are costly; and it is embarrassing to buy, use or propose to use a condom.

  3. Pattern and clinical aspects of congenital heart diseases and their management in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantchou Tchoumi, J C; Ambassa, J C; Chelo, D; Djimegne, F Kamdem; Giamberti, A; Cirri, S; Kingue, S; Butera, G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, pattern and clinical aspects of congenital heart diseases and their management in Cameroon. In this multicentred retrospective study from January 2006 till November 2009, out of 51,636 consulting in three referral centres, 505 were recruited. All the patients presented with the following symptoms: cyanosis, clubbing, frequent respiratory tract infections, failure to thrive, growth retardation, precordial murmur and dyspnoea. Patients were sent for the screening of congenital heart disease. After the comprehensive Doppler echocardiography, the recruited patients were diagnosed with congenital (67.2%) and in few, acquired heart disease. Heart murmur, dyspnoea and growth retardation was the triad mostly encountered. The occurrence of congenital heart diseases in Cameroon is 9.87%. In Douala, isolated ventricular septal defect, interatrial septal defect and isolated pulmonary valve stenosis were more diagnosed than in Shisong (P abroad; 9% in the cardiac centre. Our data show that congenital heart diseases are represented in Cameroon as in the literature; isolated ventricular septal defect is the predominant pathology.

  4. The Amphibians of Mount Oku, Cameroon: an updated species inventory and conservation review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Amphibians are a disproportionately threatened group of vertebrates, the status of which in Sub-Saharan Africa is still uncertain, with heterogeneous fauna punctuated by mountains. Mount Oku, Cameroon is one such mountain, which holds many endemic and restricted-range species. The history of amphibian research on Mt Oku, current knowledge on biogeography and conservation biology is reviewed, including recent findings. This updated inventory adds 25 further species, with 50 species of amphibian so far recorded to the Oku Massif (c. 900 to 3,011 m). This includes 5 endemic to Mt Oku, 7 endemic to the Bamenda Highlands, 18 restricted to the highlands of Cameroon and Nigeria, and 20 with broader ranges across Africa. This includes a new mountain locality for the Critically Endangered Leptodactylodon axillaris. Among others, the first record of Phrynobatrachus schioetzi and Ptychadena taenioscelis from Cameroon are presented. The uncertainty of habitat affinities and elevational ranges are discussed. The proportion of threatened species on Mt Oku is 44.2%, but projected to increase to 47.9% due to new species descriptions and recent dramatic declines. The natural habitats of Mt Oku are irreplaceable refuges for its endemic and restricted-range amphibian populations under severe pressure elsewhere in their range. Threats to this important amphibian fauna are increasing, including agricultural encroachment, expanding aquaculture, livestock grazing, pollution, invasive species, forest loss and degradation. Past, present and desired conservation interventions to address these threats are discussed. PMID:28144180

  5. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Handel, Ian G; Rydevik, Gustaf; Hamman, Saidou M; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent N; Morgan, Kenton L; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2017-01-01

    Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017) recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p traded live cattle (p traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households.

  6. The Amphibians of Mount Oku, Cameroon: an updated species inventory and conservation review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Bone, Thomas M; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians are a disproportionately threatened group of vertebrates, the status of which in Sub-Saharan Africa is still uncertain, with heterogeneous fauna punctuated by mountains. Mount Oku, Cameroon is one such mountain, which holds many endemic and restricted-range species. The history of amphibian research on Mt Oku, current knowledge on biogeography and conservation biology is reviewed, including recent findings. This updated inventory adds 25 further species, with 50 species of amphibian so far recorded to the Oku Massif (c. 900 to 3,011 m). This includes 5 endemic to Mt Oku, 7 endemic to the Bamenda Highlands, 18 restricted to the highlands of Cameroon and Nigeria, and 20 with broader ranges across Africa. This includes a new mountain locality for the Critically Endangered Leptodactylodon axillaris . Among others, the first record of Phrynobatrachus schioetzi and Ptychadena taenioscelis from Cameroon are presented. The uncertainty of habitat affinities and elevational ranges are discussed. The proportion of threatened species on Mt Oku is 44.2%, but projected to increase to 47.9% due to new species descriptions and recent dramatic declines. The natural habitats of Mt Oku are irreplaceable refuges for its endemic and restricted-range amphibian populations under severe pressure elsewhere in their range. Threats to this important amphibian fauna are increasing, including agricultural encroachment, expanding aquaculture, livestock grazing, pollution, invasive species, forest loss and degradation. Past, present and desired conservation interventions to address these threats are discussed.

  7. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern.

  8. Rethinking and Reconfiguring English Language Education: Averting Linguistic Genocide in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The over 285 indigenous languages of Cameroon may be crushed by the English language. To ensure a sustainable linguistic ecological balance whose peace is undoubtedly threatened by the global imperialistic terrors of English colonialism, an overhaul of ELT practitioners is needed. The English language is taught and learned in Cameroon against a conflictual linguistic platform of French (the other official language of questionable equal status as English, Pidgin English and over 285 indigenous languages. Of these local languages, just about 40 are currently being used (taught in education at the different levels of education in the country. The aim of this paper was to examine the English language politics, practices and teaching. It thereafter evaluated English language teachers’ perception of the so called English Language Teaching Tenets. It also aimed at assessing the functional load of English and it ascertained the extent to which it was threatening the development of local languages as well as effective access to education in Cameroon.

  9. Increased carotid thickness in subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Napoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed 0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c9%. The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings.

  10. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon.

  11. Neuropsychology in Cameroon: first normative data for cognitive tests among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, N; Njamnshi, A K; Mayer, E; Sztajzel, R; Eta, S C; Doh, R F; Kengne, A-M; Ngamaleu, R N; Chanal, J; Verdon, V; Hauert, C-A

    2010-01-01

    Very few normative data on psychometric tests are available in sub-Saharan African countries, in spite of the obvious needs and potential benefits from psychological and neuropsychological examination in these contexts. The goal of the ongoing overall project is to assess the cognitive functioning of Cameroonian school-aged children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease. For this purpose, normative data on psychometric tests adapted to the Cameroonian cultural context had to first be established. 125 "healthy" school-aged Cameroonian children were recruited from public schools in the city of Yaounde and were given a battery of 14 cognitive tests assessing executive functions and memory. Criteria for tests inclusions were: simplicity of administration, few verbal demand, and broad cross-cultural applicability. Results allow concluding that the battery is appropriate for neuropsychological evaluation in Cameroon, with the exception of the Block Design test (WISC-IV) and a Verbal Phonemic Fluency test. A factor analysis shows a division of the tests in a four-factors model that is very consistent with the expected measures of the tests. Effects of gender, age, and education are also discussed. this study is the first to report normative data on neuropsychological tests among children in Cameroon and constitutes an initial step for the advancement of neuropsychology in this country in particular and in sub-Saharan Africa in general. The battery is currently used in Cameroon with children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease as an aid to detect cerebrovascular complications.

  12. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efombagn, M I B; Sounigo, O; Eskes, A B; Motamayor, J C; Manzanares-Dauleux, M J; Schnell, R; Nyassé, S

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studied is still closely related to the traditional Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46.3% of the farm accessions were found to be direct descendants (20.8% first-generation (F1) hybrids and 25.5% selfed genotypes) from 24 parental clones used in biclonal seed gardens (BSGs) established in the 1970s in southern and western Cameroon. Furthermore, 28.3% of farm accessions appeared to descent from uncontrolled pollination events in cacao farms, which could be related to a common practice of cacao growers to use seeds collected in their own farm for new plantings. All farm accessions descending from BSG could be individually related through parentage analysis to the 24 progenitors of the BSG. Only 25% of progenies distributed from BSG corresponded to F1 hybrids combinations originally planned to be released. Significant biparental inbreeding estimates were observed for all 'traditional' farms and for most 'F1 hybrids' farms due to presence of a high proportion of selfed accessions. Biparental inbreeding occurs when plants receive pollen from genetically related neighbors. High levels of outcrossing observed in 'mixed' farms might be explained by the admixture of traditional varieties and BSG progenies. The implications of our finding for management of seed gardens and for further breeding using farm accessions in Cameroon are discussed.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Cameroon: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigna, Jean Joel; Amougou, Marie A; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Kenne, Angeladine Malaha; Noumegni, Steve Raoul N; Ngo-Malabo, Elodie T; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-06-30

    Better knowledge of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prevalence at the national level can help to implement pertinent strategies to address HBV related burden. The aim was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV infection in Cameroon. Systematic review and meta-analysis. People residing in Cameroon. Electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, African Journals Online (AJOL), ScienceDirect, WHO-Afro Library, WHO-IRIS, African Index Medicus, National Institute of Statistics and National AIDS Control Committee, Cameroon; regardless of language and from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2016. This was completed with a manual search of references of relevant papers. Risk of bias in methodology of studies was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Out of 511 retrieved papers, 44 studies with a total of 105 603 individuals were finally included. The overall pooled seroprevalence was 11.2% (95% CI 9.7% to 12.8%) with high heterogeneity between studies ( I 2 =97.9%). Egger's test showed no publication bias (p=0.167). A sensitivity analysis excluding individuals at high risk of HBV infection and after adjustment using trim and fill method showed a pooled seroprevalence of 10.6% (95% CI 8.6% to 12.6%) among 100 501 individuals (general population, blood donors and pregnant women). Sources of heterogeneity included geographical regions across country and setting (rural 13.3% vs urban 9.0%), and implementation of HBV universal immunisation (born after 9.2% vs born before 0.7%). Sex, site, timing of data collection, HBV screening tools and methodological quality of studies were not sources of heterogeneity. Only a third of the studies had low risk of bias in their methodology. The seroprevalence of HBV infection in Cameroon is high. Effective strategies to interrupt the transmission of HBV are urgently required. Specific attention is needed for rural settings, certain regions and people born before the implementation of the HBV universal immunisation programme in Cameroon

  14. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  15. Serving in Africa: US Peace Corps in Cameroon Dienst in Afrika: Das US Peace Corps in Kamerun

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    Julius A. Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a variety of primary sources including recently declassified documents, interviews in Cameroon, letters, and Peace Corps Volunteers’ personal correspondence, this study examines the service of the US Peace Corps in “Agroforestry” and “Small Enterprise Development” in Cameroon. The study argues that Volunteers were ill trained, ill prepared, and ill equipped for service in Cameroon, and as a result did not achieve Goal 1 of the Peace Corps Act, which calls on the agency to assist developing nations in gaining “trained manpower”. The study has broader implications, as it raises questions about the relevance of Peace Corps-like organizations in Cameroon, and in African nations as a whole. It focuses on Cameroon for a variety of reasons, among which is that Cameroon is one of only three nations in Africa in which Volunteers have served uninterruptedly since 1962.Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Entwicklungshilfepraxis des US Peace Corps in Kamerun in den Bereichen Agroforstwirtschaft und Kleinunternehmen. Er basiert auf Primärquellen, wie erst kürzlich freigegebenen Dokumenten, privaten Korrespondenzen der Entwicklungshelfer („Volunteers“ und Interviews in Kamerun. Der Autor kommt zu dem Schluss, dass die fachliche Qualifikation der Peace-Corps-Entwicklungshelfer nicht angemessen war und dass sie auf ihre Aufgaben in Kamerun schlecht vorbereitet und nur unzureichend ausgerüstet wurden. Aus diesem Grund sei das vorrangige Ziel des Peace Corps – Entwicklungsländer bei der Ausbildung von Arbeitskräften zu unterstützen – gar nicht zu erreichen gewesen. Er stellt darüber hinaus die Frage nach der Relevanz entsprechender Organisationen in Kamerun und in Afrika generell. Der Beitrag konzentriert sich unter anderem deshalb auf Kamerun, weil dies eines der drei Länder Afrikas ist, in denen seit 1962 ununterbrochen Entwicklungshelfer des Peace Corps gearbeitet haben.

  16. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

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    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Momo, Jean Blaise; Besong, Laura; Loul, Sévérin; Njouom, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt) and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa) identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment of the enzootic

  18. Assessing Public Attitudes and Behaviour to Household Waste Management in Cameroon to Drive Strategy Development: A Q Methodological Approach

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    Lawrence O. Mbeng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Household waste is an environmental and public health problem, especially for the large cities in Sub-Saharan African countries. While the improper management of household waste in Cameroon is linked to the systematic failure of policy makers and municipal authorities to identify the most sustainable ways of dealing with it in such a manner that is in line is with their socio-economic aspirations, the impact of public attitudes and behaviour has been neglected. It is in this context that this paper uses Q-methodology, a powerful methodology for identifying the different trends in behaviour in the management of household waste in Douala, Cameroon.

  19. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection......, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy--national or international--on safe clinical waste...

  20. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Breast Cancer among Health Professionals in Douala References Hospitals, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, Charlotte Tchente; N'djeudjui, Calvin; Engbang, Jean Paul Ndamba; Nana, Théophile Njamen; Ekane, Gregory Halle; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie

    2017-01-13

    In Cameroon, patients with breast cancer are more often diagnosed at stage III and IV, hence the need of preventives actions. Knowledge and attitude of medical personnel may influence their practice with regards to screening and early detection of breast cancer. Very few is known about this subject in Cameroon. The objective was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals on breast cancer risk factors, diagnostic methods, and screening. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during a 6-month period, among health professionals of Douala General Hospital and Laquintinie Hospital, Cameroon.Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, questions on breast cancer risk factors, screening, and diagnostic methods. Marks were attributed to each question and calculated for each section. Participants fell in four categories of knowledge, attitude, and practice: very weak, weak, good, and excellent. The software XLStat7.5.2 was used for data analysis. Overall, 445 health professionals were interviewed. The average age was 39 ± 9 years. The level of knowledge, attitude, and practice was accessed respectively as weak (50.1%), very good (64.5%), and poor (36.4%). The personal practice of female workers was poor (43.0%). Compared to participants with very weak to weak knowledge, those with good to excellent knowledge had 1.55-fold odds of excellent attitude p knowledge was the participant qualification (academic degree). These results suggest the need for training of health professionals in Douala references hospitals on breast cancer risks factors, diagnostic, and screening methods.

  2. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon

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    Paolo Motta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017 recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p < 0.01. Also, strong, but complex, relationships were found between cattle prices and both local human and bovine population densities. Finally, the model highlighted a positive association between the number of incoming trading connections of a livestock market and the price of the traded live cattle (p < 0.01. Although our analysis did not account for factors informing on specific phenotypic traits nor breed characteristics of cattle traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households.

  3. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

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    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  4. Impact of Refugees on Local Health Systems: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatah, Lambed; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Hosting refugees may represent a drain on local resources, particularly since external aid is frequently insufficient. Between 2004 and 2011, over 100,000 refugees settled in the eastern border of Cameroon. With little known on how refugee influx affects health services of the hosting community, we investigated the impact of refugees on mother and child health (MCH) services in the host community in Cameroon. We used Cameroon's 2004 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys to evaluate changes in MCH indicators in the refugee hosting community. Our outcome variables were antenatal care (ANC) coverage, caesarean delivery rate, place of delivery and child vaccination coverage; whereas the exposure variable was residence in the refugee hosting community. We used a difference-in-differences analysis to compare indicators of the refugee hosting community to a control group selected through propensity score matching from the rest of the country. A total of 10,656 women were included in our 2004 analysis and 7.6% (n = 826) of them resided in the refugee hosting community. For 2011, 15,426 women were included and 5.8% (n = 902) of them resided in the hosting community. Between 2004 and 2011, both the proportion of women delivering outside health facilities and children not completing DPT3 vaccination in the refugee hosting community decreased by 9.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.9-14.1%) and 9.6% (95% CI: 7.9-11.3%) respectively. However, ANC attendance and caesarean delivery did not show any significant change. Our findings demonstrate that none of the evaluated MCH service indicators deteriorated (in fact, two of them improved: delivery in health facilities and completing DPT3 vaccine) with the presence of refugees. This suggests evidence disproving the common belief that refugees always have a negative impact on their hosting community.

  5. Cure or control: complying with biomedical regime of diabetes in Cameroon

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    Unwin Nigel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to explore the cultural aspect of compliance, its underlying principles and how these cultural aspects can be used to improve patient centred care for diabetes in Cameroon. Methods We used participant observation to collect data from a rural and an urban health district of Cameroon from June 2001 to June 2003. Patients were studied in their natural settings through daily interactions with them. The analysis was inductive and a continuous process from the early stages of fieldwork. Results The ethnography revealed a lack of basic knowledge about diabetes and diabetes risk factors amongst people with diabetes. The issue of compliance was identified as one of the main themes in the process of treating diabetes. Compliance emerged as part of the discourse of healthcare providers in clinics and filtered into the daily discourses of people with diabetes. The clinical encounters offered treatment packages that were socially inappropriate therefore rejected or modified for most of the time by people with diabetes. Compliance to biomedical therapy suffered a setback for four main reasons: dealing with competing regimes of treatment; coming to terms with biomedical treatment of diabetes; the cost of biomedical therapy; and the impact of AIDS on accepting weight loss as a lifestyle measure in prescription packages. People with diabetes had fears about and negative opinions of accepting certain prescriptions that they thought could interfere with their accustomed social image especially that which had to do with bridging their relationship with ancestors and losing weight in the era of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The cultural pressures on patients are responsible for patients' partial acceptance of and adherence to prescriptions. Understanding the self-image of patients and their background cultures are vital ingredients to improve diabetes care in low-income countries of Sub-Sahara Africa like Cameroon.

  6. Geophysical imaging of metacratonizaton in the northern edge of the Congo craton in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussi Ngalamo, Jeannot F.; Bisso, D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Katumwehe, Andrew B.; Ekodeck, G. E.

    2017-05-01

    We used the World Gravity Map (WGM 2012) data to investigate the Archean Congo craton and the Oubanguides orogenic belt in Cameroon. The Oubanguides orogenic belt constitutes, from northwest to southeast, the Neoproterozoic West Cameroon domain, the Paleoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Adamawa-Yade domain, and the dominantly Neoproterozoic Yaoundé domain (the crustal expression of the suture zone between the Congo craton and the orogenic terranes). We analyzed the WGM 2012 data to identify different gravity anomalies. We also applied the two-dimensional (2D) radially-averaged power spectral analysis to the WGM 2012 data to estimate the Moho depth. Additionally, we developed a 2D forward gravity model along a Nsbnd S profile to image the lithospheric structure of the Precambrian entities. We found that: (1) the Congo craton, the Yaoundé domain, the southeastern part of the West Cameroon domain, and the northern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain are characterized by low gravity anomaly. (2) the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain is marked by a pronounced E-W trending high gravity anomaly. (3) the crust is thicker beneath the Congo craton, the Yaoundé domain and the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain. (4) the presence of a denser lower crust material beneath the southern part of the Adamawa-Yade domain. We propose that this denser crustal material is an under-thrusted portion of the Congo craton that has been densified through metacratonization processes that accompanied collision between the craton and the orogenic terranes. This is in good agreement with geological and geochemical observations indicating that the northern edge of the Congo craton and the Adamawa-Yade domain had undergone metacratonization during the Neoproterozoic. Our suggestion is also in good agreement with observations which show that the margins of many cratons worldwide have been decratonized due to subduction processes. Our work highlights the importance of potential field geophysical

  7. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  8. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; Petit, Elsa; Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding") and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  9. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  10. Impact of Refugees on Local Health Systems: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambed Tatah

    Full Text Available Hosting refugees may represent a drain on local resources, particularly since external aid is frequently insufficient. Between 2004 and 2011, over 100,000 refugees settled in the eastern border of Cameroon. With little known on how refugee influx affects health services of the hosting community, we investigated the impact of refugees on mother and child health (MCH services in the host community in Cameroon. We used Cameroon's 2004 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys to evaluate changes in MCH indicators in the refugee hosting community. Our outcome variables were antenatal care (ANC coverage, caesarean delivery rate, place of delivery and child vaccination coverage; whereas the exposure variable was residence in the refugee hosting community. We used a difference-in-differences analysis to compare indicators of the refugee hosting community to a control group selected through propensity score matching from the rest of the country. A total of 10,656 women were included in our 2004 analysis and 7.6% (n = 826 of them resided in the refugee hosting community. For 2011, 15,426 women were included and 5.8% (n = 902 of them resided in the hosting community. Between 2004 and 2011, both the proportion of women delivering outside health facilities and children not completing DPT3 vaccination in the refugee hosting community decreased by 9.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 3.9-14.1% and 9.6% (95% CI: 7.9-11.3% respectively. However, ANC attendance and caesarean delivery did not show any significant change. Our findings demonstrate that none of the evaluated MCH service indicators deteriorated (in fact, two of them improved: delivery in health facilities and completing DPT3 vaccine with the presence of refugees. This suggests evidence disproving the common belief that refugees always have a negative impact on their hosting community.

  11. Hormonal contraception, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon

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    Soskolne Varda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the effect of contraceptive methods, other than the condom, on HIV acquisition is not clear. The aim of this study was to describe hormonal contraceptive use, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon in order to provide baseline information for future analytical studies. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study based a nationally representative sample of 4486 sexually active women aged 15–49 years who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. Results The overall HIV prevalence was 7.4% (332/4486. The HIV prevalence was higher in the 25–35 year age group (10.03%, urban residents (9.39%, and formerly married (18.48%, compared to their compatriots. The prevalence was lower in women with five or more living child (3.67%, women in the low wealth index category (3.79% and women who had no formal education (3.37%. The HIV prevalence was higher among women who had two or more partners in the last 12 months (10.26% and women who reported to have had four or more partners in their lifetime (12.40%. The prevalence of HIV was higher among current hormonal contraceptive users (6.63% compared to the current non-users (3.06%, among ever users of hormonal contraception (13.27% compared to the never users (7.11%. Conclusion We conclude that the prevalence of HIV among sexually active women in Cameroon varies according to sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and hormonal contraceptive use. Our findings underscore the need to counsel women using hormonal contraception to be aware that hormonal methods do not protect against HIV infection. Given the biologic plausibility of the link between hormonal contraception and HIV infection, future research should focus on carefully designed prospective studies to establish the temporal relationship and estimate the incidence of HIV infection among women using and not using hormonal contraceptive methods.

  12. Burns in pregnancy: a case report from Buea Regional Hospital, Cameroon

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    Aimié Thierry Bitang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge similar cases of severe burns in pregnancy have not been published in Cameroon; indicating the rarity of this devastating condition and therefore the dilemma that practitioners may be confronted with in its management. This report is to help the Physician understand the factors that should determine his/her management decisions by reviewing the limited literature of burns in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach by a team of Obstetricians, Anesthetist/Intensive care Physicians, Pediatricians and Surgeons is indispensible. Adequate resuscitation, fight against sepsis, the gestational age and the severity of the burn will determine the outcome or prognosis.

  13. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  14. Determinants of modern contraceptive practice in Yaoundé-Cameroon: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njotang, Philip Nana; Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Ajong, Atem Bethel; Essi, Marie José; Akoh, Ebile Walter; Mesumbe, Nzene Edmond; Ako, Simon; Mbu, Enow Robinson

    2017-06-24

    Despite numerous efforts put in place to increase modern contraceptive use in Cameroon as a means to fight maternal and infant mortality, the prevalence of modern contraception has shown only a slow increase and maternal mortality is constantly rising. This paper attempts to identify barriers to contraceptive use in Biyem-Assi, Yaoundé-Cameroon so as to clearly define in which domain and how to intervene concerning contraceptive use in Cameroon. It was a community-based cross sectional study involving a two-steps cluster sampling. Data were collected from November 2014 to April 2015 and analysis done with Epi-Info version 3.5.4. Association between contraceptive use and independent factors was estimated by calculating odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval at 95%. Significance of association in univariate analysis was estimated by calculating the p value with chi2 test. Potential confounder (pregnancy intention) controlled in a multiple logistic regression. A total of 613 sexually active women were enrolled into the study with a mean age of 27.2 (δ ± 6.2) years. Among the women, 293 (47.8%) were in a union and 530 (86.8%) of them had attended at least a secondary education. Also, 107 (17.5%) responded that their beliefs do not approve contraceptive use and 101 (16.6%) said their partners do not approve contraception. At the moment of data collection, 361 (58.9 [54.9-62.8] %) were currently using a modern contraceptive method. The rate of use of modern contraception was significantly lower in women in a union (OR 0.57, p = 0.0002) and in those with age greater than 30 years (OR 0.45, p = 0.0004). Conversely, the rate of use was significantly higher in women whose partners approved contraception (OR 4.14, p = 0.0000) or when family planning was discussed within the couple (OR 1.93, p = 0.0028). The rate of use of modern contraception in Biyem-Assi Health District is relatively high. Women in a union and those aged greater than 30 years turn to be

  15. Generalized Extreme Value Distribution Models for the Assessment of Seasonal Wind Energy Potential of Debuncha, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip; Ebobenow Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The method of generalized extreme value family of distributions (Weibull, Gumbel, and Frechet) is employed for the first time to assess the wind energy potential of Debuncha, South-West Cameroon, and to study the variation of energy over the seasons on this site. The 29-year (1983–2013) average daily wind speed data over Debuncha due to missing values in the years 1992 and 1994 is gotten from NASA satellite data through the RETScreen software tool provided by CANMET Canada. The data is partit...

  16. Weight gain of steers on pastures of cameroon grass and braquiarão grass

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende; José Marques Pereira; Thasia Martins Macedo; Augusto Magno Ferreira Borges; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Érico de Sa Petit Lobão; Isis Miranda Carvalho Nicory

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate pastures formed of Pennisetum purpureum cv.cameroon and Urochloa brizantha.cv. Marandu aiming at greater live weight gains per animal and per hectare. The animals were crossbred male half blood Tabapuã/Nellore live weight of 280 kg (9.3 kilos). Each grass was submitted to four stocking rates in a rotated grazing system with three days of grazing and 36 days of rest, resulting in a 39 days grazing cycle. In the summer the stocking rates were 2.64, 3.49, 4.34 and 5.09 UA/ha in and w...

  17. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngachin, M; Garavaglia, M; Giovani, C; Kwato Njock, M G; Nourreddine, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbé cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg(-1), 22-36 Bq kg(-1) and 43-201 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The radioisotope (137)Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m(-3) and 5.5-8.7 kBq m(-3) in Buea and Limbé, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with gamma-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having

  18. Bio-indicator species and Central African rain forest refuges in the Campo-Ma'an area, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchouto, M.G.P.; de Wilde, J.J.F.E.; de Boer, W.F.; van der Maesen, L.J.G.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the geographical position of late Pleistocene forest refuges in the tropical lowland rain forest in southern Cameroon by analysing the distribution of 178 selected bio-indicator species. We studied the distribution patterns of these species, such as strict and narrow

  19. Preliminary studies of pest constraints to cotton seedlings in a direct seeding mulch-based system in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevault, T.; Guibert, H.; Naudin, K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pest constraints of an innovative crop management system in Cameroon involving conservation tillage and direct seeding mulch-based strategies. We hypothesized that the presence of mulch (i) would support a higher density of phytophagous arthropods particularly

  20. A new species of Colletoecema (Rubiaceae) from southern Cameroon with a discussion of relationships among basal Rubioideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonké, B.; Dessein, S.; Taedoumg, H.; Groeninckx, I.; Robbrecht, E.

    2008-01-01

    Colletoecema magna, a new species from the Ngovayang Massif (southern Cameroon) is described and illustrated. A comparative morphological study illustrates the similar placentation and fruit anatomy of the novelty and Colletoecema dewevrei, the only other species of the genus. Colletoecema magna

  1. Diversity and dynamics of mycorrhizal associations in tropical rain forests with different disturbance regimes in South Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study documents the occurrence of mycorrhizal associations in the rain forests of south Cameroon. All species investigated are mycorrhizal. Most timber species form arbuscular mycorrhiza, but some timber species, which usually occur in clumps, form ectomycorrhiza. Species

  2. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaire NKENGFACK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  3. Importance of the ectomycorrhizal network for ectomycorrhiza formation and seedling survival in rain forests of South Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken at two sites in south Cameroon to assess the importance of living roots of adult trees as sources of inoculum for survival, ectomycorrhizal colonisation and growth of seedlings of Paraberlinia bifoliolata. One-month-old seedlings of Paraberlinia bifoliolata, isolated

  4. Crisis and neoliberal reforms in Africa : civil society and agro-industry in anglophone Cameroon's plantation economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This book discusses the consequences of the economic and financial crisis that befell the Cameroonian agro-industrial sector in the 1980s, using as a case study the plantation economy of the anglophone region of Cameroon. Two agro-industrial enterprises have dominated the plantation sector: a huge

  5. Soil macrofauna community structure along a gradient of land use intensification in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madong à Birang,

    2004-01-01

    The impact of land use systems on soil macrofauna community structures is described as well as their relationships with the vegetation and soil parameters in the humid forest zone of southernCameroon

  6. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  7. Global References, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna Process Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu

    2016-01-01

    This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna Process degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…

  8. The neglected burden of snakebites in Cameroon: a review of the epidemiology, management and public health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Temgoua, Mazou N; Njim, Tsi; Celestin, Danwang; Tankeu, Ronni; Nkemngu, Njinkeng J

    2017-08-14

    Snakebite is an underestimated medical and surgical emergency in developing countries responsible for a high disease burden. Optimal management of snake envenomation in these resource-limited settings is precluded by several public health challenges. In this review, we discuss the disease burden of snakebites in Cameroon and the public health challenges of its management in view of making recommendations essential for policy-making. MEDLINE, African Journals Online and Google Scholar were searched from January 1990 to February 2017 for studies addressing snakebite in Cameroon. Our search extended to include grey literature from book chapters, conference proceedings, theses and documents from organizations. Our results suggest that snakebites pose a significant health and economic burden in Cameroon. A composite of factors contributes to the challenge of managing snakebites in Cameroon and include: inadequate disease surveillance; poor health-seeking behaviours of patients; under-production and scarcity of anti-venom serum and the relatively high cost of anti-venom serum. There is an urgent need to revamp the current health policies through health education, promotion and building of sustainable health systems. Disease surveillance and management can be improved by providing refresher courses for healthcare providers and subsidization of the prices of anti-venom serum in pharmacies in the country.

  9. Diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma'an rain forest, Cameroon: do tree species tell it all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchouto, M.G.P.; Boer, de W.F.; Wilde, de J.J.F.E.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma¿an rain forest, in south Cameroon. In this area, the structure and composition of the forests change progressively from the coastal forest on sandy shorelines through the lowland evergreen forest rich in Caesalpinioideae with

  10. The soils of the lower eastern slopes of the Cameroon mountain and their suitability for various perennial crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselo, H.N.

    1961-01-01

    On the eastern slopes of the Cameroon Mountains soils occurring below the 100- metre contour were surveyed on a scale 1:25,000. Most soils are young marine clay soils used for growing bananas, oilpalms, cocoa, rubber and tea. At some places there are lava streams from the mountains.

    A more

  11. Curriculum development at the Regional African Wildlife Colleges, with special reference to the Ecole de Faune (Cameroon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.

    2003-01-01

    Regional colleges in Tanzania, Cameroon and, recently, South Africa have trained some 4000 wildlife managers. Training need assessments called for major curriculum reforms, which were developed and implemented in the late 1990s. This is an analysis of the factors that influenced this curriculum

  12. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the adherence to stroke guidelines in high-income countries has been shown to be associated with improved patient outcomes, the research, development and implementation of rehabilitation related guidelines in African countries is lacking.Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon.Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context.Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects.Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  13. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07Cameroon.

  14. Volcanic risk perception in rural communities along the slopes of mount Cameroon, West-Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Chuyong, George; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2010-11-01

    A study of volcanic risk perception was carried out in rural communities around the Mount Cameroon volcano between August and December 2008. The results indicate that risk perception reflects the levels of threat to which a resident population has been exposed to previously. Results of 70 responses to questionnaires show that local knowledge of hazards is high. Most respondents correctly indicated that earthquake and lava flow activities would affect resident population most in the future. By contrast, respondent's ability to adapt and protect themselves from the effects of future eruptions is poor, and inhabitants would likely shift responsibility for their protection to the requisite experts. This study confirms that there is little knowledge of any existing emergency plan, little or no educational outreach activities, but a high perceived need for information about and implementation of such actions. Knowledge about natural threats is found to be directly related to past exposure to volcanic hazard, and is significantly higher for people living along the southern than those along the northern slopes of Mt. Cameroon. The data also show that the media remains the most accessible channel for hazard communication, and that the internet is a growing information source that should be used to reach out to the younger generation. It is clear from the results of this study that major education and information efforts are required to improve the public's knowledge, confidence in the government, and growing self-reliance, in order to improve both collective and individual capacity to face future volcanic emergencies.

  15. Farmer's Perception and Adoption of New Aquaculture Technologies in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njankoua Wandji, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other African countries, Cameroon is struggling to meet the food needs of its population. There are several possible solutions to this problem, such as the import of agricultural produce and increasing national production. In terms of fishery products (fish, shrimps, etc., it would not be easy to increase national production, due to the various constraints inherent in the sector and national industry, as well as low availability of farming areas. Fish farming is one of the solutions recommended as a sustainable method of producing an adequate supply of fish (farming fish in ponds. The main objective of this study is to highlight and analyse the socio-economic obstacles that are holding back the development of fish farming in the West Cameroon. Using the univariate dichotomous LOGIT model, this study has made it possible to identify the key determinants affecting the adoption of fish farming. The results indicate that its strong commercial orientation, coupled with the positive perception of its profitability, frequent contact, extension and level of education are the main determinants for the adoption of fish farming.

  16. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  17. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ashu Agbor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4±14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0% practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0% were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6% treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases.

  18. A Crispy Delicacy: Augosoma Beetle as Alternative Source of Protein in East Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Muafor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65% of consumers prefer consuming the adults, while 35% prefer consuming the larvae. About 24% of consumers derive the same satisfaction from the consumption of Augosoma or other edible insects. Close to 39% of consumers prefer other edible insects to Augosoma, while 37% prefer the consumption of Augosoma to other edible insects. This beetle usually occurs at a period when other edible insects are not available, therefore constituting a good source of alternative protein in this region where poverty, poaching, and biodiversity erosion are still a major problem. Furthermore, the gathering of this beetle for food is equally a means of biological pest control of raffia plants and a tool to enhance community-based conservation of the areas global biodiversity.

  19. Barriers to counselling support for HIV/AIDS patients in south-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonchingong, Charles C; Mbuagbo, Timothy O; Abong, Jennifer T

    2004-11-01

    The potential synergy between counselling and HIV/AIDS prevention is gaining recognition in Cameroon as counselling sessions are more often organised at health centres. In order to evaluate the actual achievements of these efforts, a qualitative ethnographic survey (based on interviews and focus group discussions) was conducted in two public and two private hospitals in the South-West Province. Churches and public health officials in Cameroon are struggling with the psycho-social, philosophical, psychological, theological, social, moral, ethical and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS, as they seek out viable prevention strategies. Health centres are also struggling to embrace the full meaning of counselling and to make psychological and spiritual support to AIDS patients available through the centres. Patients using these health centres may receive HIV testing against a backdrop of cultural standards that allow unsafe sex and bar open discussion on sex and sexuality. We propose that reversing the trend of the epidemic requires the intervention of the State, organisations in civil society and the family. Equally crucial is the role played by the churches - especially in confronting issues of stigmatisation and abandonment that often accompany patient disclosure, and in providing spiritual, emotional and psychological support to patients undergoing treatment.

  20. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  1. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  2. Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus variants circulating among children presenting with acute diarrhea in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbi, Joseph C; Agwale, Simon M; Ndip, Lucy M; Esona, Mathew D

    2012-05-01

    Molecular investigation was undertaken of circulating hepatitis A virus (HAV) associated with cases of acute diarrhea among children under 5 years of age in Kumba-Cameroon. Reverse transcription PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a 371 bp segment of the VP1/P2A junction of six isolates obtained from stool samples showed the exclusive emergence of genetically related HAV subgenotype IA. All the isolates clustered within a unique lineage exhibiting a 99.5% nucleotide identity suggesting infection from a common source. The Cameroonian HAV isolates did not intermix or cluster with those from other regions of Africa and the rest of the world. Tajima's neutralization tests using the six sequences suggested HAV/IA population expansion (D = -1.37; P = 0.016). This is the first description of indigenous HAV genotypes circulating in Cameroon revealing a community-wide spread and predominance of HAV/1A infection in the Kumba area. These findings stress the need for routine molecular tracking of HAV infection as a contributory cause of acute diarrhea in Cameroonian children. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of New Tools for Malaria Vector Control in Cameroon: Focus on Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    Background From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Methodology Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. Principal Findings All the 14 tested products were found effective (95–100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05). However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07Cameroon. PMID:24086399

  5. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

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    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  6. Logging Concessions and Local Livelihoods in Cameroon: from Indifference to Alliance?

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    Guillaume Lescuyer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management gives the opportunity to better integrate the way local populations use their customary "village terroirs" in the logging activities. This requirement is explicitly stated in all forest laws of the Congo Basin countries but its implementation on the field remains under documented. In Cameroon, 30 forest management plans (FMP for logging concessions have been reviewed to assess how they effectively include customary use rights. The integration of use rights into the FMPs is heterogeneous but always with very low enforcement. The weak influence of the FMP application on local practices is confirmed with an empirical survey that shows that natural, financial, and physical capitals in two villages of the eastern region of Cameroon have been little affected by the adjoining logging concession over the latest 13 years. Extrasector policies such as agriculture, road infrastructure, techniques, and land tenure are the real drivers of socioeconomic change at the local scale. Their impacts are facilitated by the presence of the logging concessions, which can contribute indirectly to improve local livelihoods.

  7. Adoption of the Tenera Hybrid of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. among Smallholder Farmers in Cameroon

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    Assoumou Mezui, MR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. type was studied by focusing on 208 family farmers in Cameroon. The "Average Treatment Effect" (ATE method was used. This method enables to estimate, by use of a Probit model, the effects created when a farmer is exposed to treatment (or intervention, which represents a source of improved oil palm planting material. According to the results, the estimated adoption rate for Tenera is highly significant (P< 0.05 for all the categories of producers, regardless of the supply source, which may be formal or informal. In addition, the main factors that significantly determine this adoption are: availability of arable land in forested areas and whether growers intend to increase the size of their plantations. However, the supply of pure planting material remains an important constraint because the other two types of oil palm (Dura and Pisifera which produce poor palm oil yields are still mistakenly planted on many family farms in Cameroon. Further studies will address this issue in the aim of identifying appropriate solutions.

  8. Molecular assessment of the bacterial community associated with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Begoude, Aime Didier Boyogueno; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Araki, Shigeru; Nawata, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient cycles and plant development. Their distribution and activity may depend on location and environmental heterogeneity. This study characterized soil bacterial communities in cassava fields of Eastern (Andom) and Southern (Bityili) Cameroon using molecular tools. In both sites, two improved varieties (TMS-96/1414; TMS-92/0326) and a local variety (Local) were grown in a randomized block design. Composite bulk soils were collected at 10months after planting from cassava plots. The 16S rDNA region was amplified, MiSeq was performed and sequence data analyzed. The same 17 bacterial phyla were present in both Andom and Bityili, while Chlorobi and Deinococcus-Thermus were only specific to Andom. The phyla Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant. Although both sites shared similar phyla, the principal coordinate analysis revealed significant variations in their composition, suggesting that the functions of the bacteria in nutrients cycling are likely to differ between Andom and Bityili. Cassava yields were generally higher in Andom which also displayed a higher diversity of bacterial communities. This study provides useful information on the composition of bacterial communities in cassava fields in two agro-ecologies of Cameroon. It constitutes to our knowledge the first report describing soil bacterial communities in association with cassava growth in the country, using molecular tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual violence among host and refugee population in Djohong District, Eastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen; Agrawal, Pooja; Greenough, P Gregg; Goyal, Ravi; Kayden, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The following is a population-based survey of the Central African Republic (CAR) female refugee population displaced to rural Djohong District of Eastern Cameroon and associated female Cameroonian host population to characterise the prevalence and circumstances of sexual violence. A population-based, multistage, random cluster survey of 600 female heads of household was conducted during March 2010. Women heads of household were asked about demographics, household economy and assets, level of education and sexual violence experienced by the respondent only. The respondents were asked to describe the circumstances of their recent assault. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence among Djohong district female heads of household is 35.2% (95% CI 28.7-42.2). Among heads of household who reported a lifetime incident of sexual violence, 64.0% (95% CI 54.3-72.5) suffered sexual violence perpetrated by their husband or partner. Among the host population, 3.9% (95% CI 1.4-10.5) reported sexual violence by armed groups compared to 39.0% (95% CI 25.6-54.2) of female refugee heads of household. Women who knew how to add and subtract were less likely to report sexual violence during their lifetime (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34). Sexual violence is common among refugees and host population in Eastern Cameroon. Most often, perpetrators are partners/husbands or armed groups.

  10. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, Pworker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  11. Epidemiology of sudden cardiac death in Cameroon: rationale and design of the Douala-SUD survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Aimé; Noah, Dominique Noah; Ngantcha, Marcus; Ateh, Robinson; Saka, Cécile; Wa, Jonas; Fonga, Réné; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo; Gregers Winkel, Bo; Lambiase, Pier; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-01-01

    The burden of sudden unexplained death in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the epidemiology of sudden cardiac death in Cameroon. The Douala sudden unexplained death (Douala-SUD) study is a prospective, multiple-source, community-based surveillance of all cases of unexpected death (15 years. After approval from institutional boards, all deaths occurring in residents of four areas of Douala city will be checked for circumstances of death and past medical history. Subjects who die naturally will be further investigated. Unexpected death victims will be checked for detailed demographic, clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and biological records. Autopsy background and genetic analysis (postmortem or in first relatives if the young victim is aged<40 years) will be performed as far as possible. Finally, the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts during the timeframe of sudden cardiac arrest will also be evaluated. The Douala-SUD study will provide comprehensive, contemporary data on the epidemiology of sudden unexplained and cardiac death in sub-Saharan Africa and will help in the development of strategies to prevent and manage cardiac arrest in Cameroon as well as in other sub-Saharan countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Gender and sexuality in young people at Bafoussam and Mbalmayo, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Robert, Rwenge Mburano

    2004-08-01

    Gender and sexuality of youths in Bafoussam and Mbalmayo, Cameroon. This paper outlines, while resorting to the gender perspective, the social factors that predispose youths to risky sexual practices using data from a survey of culture, gender, sexual behaviour and STD/AIDS carried out in Cameroon, at Bafoussam (Bamileke area) and Mbalamayo (Bëti area). Analysis revealed that the ideology of masculinity and feminity prevail in the populations studied, but in the Bamileke group, where gender system is unfavourable to women, young people adhere less to these ideologies than their parents. Our data also revealed that the level of the knowledge of the modes of transmission of STD/AIDS and the degree of acceptability of condoms in this group are higher among boys than girls. The young Bëti were more inclined to take risks in sexual activities than the Bamileke. It was equally found that boys were more inclined than girls to be unfaithful to their regular partners, while the boys were more inclined to use condoms than girls. Finally, our data revealed that age and other characteristics of the regular sexual partners of young people influence, among others, the probability of being engaged in risky sex especially among girls. Health education and information programmes can be improved amongst these youth populations by taking into account the totality of these elements.

  13. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  14. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  15. Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touko Adonis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This quantitative cross-sectional study examines sexual behaviour of a target group of hearing-impaired persons in Yaounde, the capital city of the Republic of Cameroon. It measures their HIV prevalence to enable assessment of their sexual vulnerability and to help reduce the gap in existing HIV serology data among people with disabilities in general and the deaf in particular. Methods The snowball sampling procedure was adopted as an adequate approach to meet this hard-to-reach group. A total of 118 deaf participants were interviewed for the behavioural component, using sign language as a means of data collection, while 101 participants underwent HIV serology testing. Descriptive analyses were done for behavioural data with Epi info software, while sera were tested by health personnel, using rapid and confirmation test reagents. Results From the results, it was clear that the hearing impaired were highly involved in risky sexual practices, as observed through major sexual indicators, such as: age at first sexual intercourse; condom use; and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. Furthermore, it was noted that the HIV prevalence rate of the hearing impaired in the capital of Cameroon was 4%, close to the prevalence in the city's general population (4.7%. Conclusions Such results suggest that there is a need for in-depth behavioural research and serological studies in this domain to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behaviour among the hearing impaired, and to propose operational prevention approaches for this group.

  16. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Methods Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Results Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and

  17. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and non-existent at the levels

  18. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (χ2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p hepatitis B infection (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29 years age group. There was no

  19. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    The Ngaoundéré granite pluton, in Central-North Cameroon, located near the Central Cameroon Shear zone (CCSZ), and previously studied for its petrography and geochemistry, is characterized by the absence of macroscopic markers of deformation. In this study, we report microstructures and magnetic fabrics (AMS) of this pluton and discuss the relationship with the Pan-African evolution of the CCSZ. The pluton consists of a porphyritic Hbl-Bt-monzogranite at its rim and a porphyritic biotite-granite at its core, a petrographic distribution denoting a normal zoning pattern, i.e. more silicic toward the centre. As expected, magnetic susceptibilities values also exhibit a zoning pattern in agreement with petrographic zonation. Thermomagnetic data indicate that this pluton is dominantly ferromagnetic in behaviour. As indicated by its microstructures, the pluton has suffered a continuum of deformation from the magmatic state to the high temperature solid-state during magma crystallization and solidification. The magnetic foliations dominantly strike NE-SW and dip moderately to steeply and the lineations mostly plunge shallowly to the NE or SW, roughly parallel to NE-to ENE-trending Central Cameroun Shear Zone (CCSZ). The foliation poles define a girdle pattern with a zone axis (52°/11°) rather close to the best line of the lineations (44°/21°). These fabrics correlate with the structures of the country rocks ascribed by several workers to a regional transpression. Toward the margins of the pluton, particularly the northern one, the lineations tend to rotate from NE to N in azimuth. This change is interpreted as due to strain partitioning, simple shearing with NE-SW extension being relayed by compression toward the northern pluton border. This new magnetic fabric study suggests that the Ngaoundéré pluton (poorly dated at c. 575 Ma) was emplaced during the late stages of the CCSZ dextral transpressive movement. It also provides some more constraints on the correlation

  20. Charletonia cameroonensis Haitlinger & Kekeunou sp. nov. and the first record of C. justynae Haitlinger, 1987 (Acari: Erythraeidae) from Cameroon with redescription of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitlinger, Ryszard; Kekeunou, Sévilor; Lupicki, Dariusz

    2014-01-30

    Charletonia cameroonensis Haitlinger & Kekeunou sp. nov. is described and illustrated from larvae obtained from Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) in Cameroon. For the first time C. justynae Haitlinger, 1987 is reported from Cameroon and from Z. variegatus and Eupezus rufipes Quedenfeldt, 1885 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). This paper also presents new morphological data and a range of metric and meristic data for C. justynae. Distribution and hosts of Charletonia found on Orthoptera are given.

  1. The population genetics of wild chimpanzees in Cameroon and Nigeria suggests a positive role for selection in the evolution of chimpanzee subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew W; Locatelli, Sabrina; Ghobrial, Lora; Pokempner, Amy A; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Nicholas, Aaron; Nkembi, Louis; Anthony, Nicola M; Morgan, Bethan J; Fotso, Roger; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2015-01-21

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) can be divided into four subspecies. Substantial phylogenetic evidence suggests that these subspecies can be grouped into two distinct lineages: a western African group that includes P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti and a central/eastern African group that includes P. t. troglodytes and P. t. schweinfurthii. The geographic division of these two lineages occurs in Cameroon, where the rages of P. t. ellioti and P. t. troglodytes appear to converge at the Sanaga River. Remarkably, few population genetic studies have included wild chimpanzees from this region. We analyzed microsatellite genotypes of 187 wild, unrelated chimpanzees, and mitochondrial control region sequencing data from 604 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees in Cameroon and eastern Nigeria comprise at least two, and likely three populations. Both the mtDNA and microsatellite data suggest that there is a primary separation of P. t. troglodytes in southern Cameroon from P. t. ellioti north and west of the Sanaga River. These two populations split ~200-250 thousand years ago (kya), but have exchanged one migrant per generation since separating. In addition, P. t. ellioti consists of two populations that split from one another ~4 kya. One population is located in the rainforests of western Cameroon and eastern Nigeria, whereas the second population appears to be confined to a savannah-woodland mosaic in central Cameroon. Our findings suggest that there are as many as three genetically distinct populations of chimpanzees in Cameroon and eastern Nigeria. P. t. troglodytes in southern Cameroon comprises one population that is separated from two populations of P. t. ellioti in western and central Cameroon, respectively. P. t. ellioti and P. t. troglodytes appear to be characterized by a pattern of isolation-with-migration, and thus, we propose that neutral processes alone can not explain the differentiation of P. t. ellioti and P. t. troglodytes.

  2. Are students kidding with health research ethics? The case of HIV/AIDS research in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Universities in Cameroon are playing an active part in HIV/AIDS research and much of this research is carried out by students, usually for the purpose of a dissertation/thesis. Student theses/dissertations present research findings in a much more comprehensive manner and have been described as the stepping-stone of a budding scientist’s potential in becoming an independent researcher. It is therefore important to verify how students handle issues of research ethics. Method Theses/dissertations on HIV/AIDS that described research studies involving the use of human research participants were screened to verify if research ethics approval and informed consent were obtained and documented. The contents of the consent forms were also qualitatively analyzed. Results Of 174 theses/dissertations on HIV, ethics approval was documented in 17 (9.77%) and informed consent in 77 (47.83%). Research ethics approval was first mentioned at all in 2002 and highly reported in the year 2007. Evidence of ethics approval was found for the first time in 2005 and informed consent first observed and evidenced in 1997. Ethics approval was mostly reported by students studying for an MD (14.01%) and was not reported in any Bachelors’ degree dissertation. Informed consent was also highly reported in MD theses (64.58%) followed by undergraduate theses (31.58%). Voluntary participation and potential benefits of the study were some of the common aspects dealt with in most of the consent forms. The right to discontinue participation in the study and management of residual samples were scarcely ever mentioned. Conclusions Overall, and given the current state of the art of research ethics around the world, student-scientists in Cameroon would seem to be merely kidding with research ethics. It is thus essential that training in health research ethics (HRE) be incorporated in the curriculum of universities in Cameroon in order that the next generation of scientists may be better

  3. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  4. Are students kidding with health research ethics? The case of HIV/AIDS research in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Tangwa, Godfrey B; Che, Chi Primus; Vidal, Laurent; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Odile

    2012-06-11

    Universities in Cameroon are playing an active part in HIV/AIDS research and much of this research is carried out by students, usually for the purpose of a dissertation/thesis. Student theses/dissertations present research findings in a much more comprehensive manner and have been described as the stepping-stone of a budding scientist's potential in becoming an independent researcher. It is therefore important to verify how students handle issues of research ethics. Theses/dissertations on HIV/AIDS that described research studies involving the use of human research participants were screened to verify if research ethics approval and informed consent were obtained and documented. The contents of the consent forms were also qualitatively analyzed. Of 174 theses/dissertations on HIV, ethics approval was documented in 17 (9.77%) and informed consent in 77 (47.83%). Research ethics approval was first mentioned at all in 2002 and highly reported in the year 2007. Evidence of ethics approval was found for the first time in 2005 and informed consent first observed and evidenced in 1997. Ethics approval was mostly reported by students studying for an MD (14.01%) and was not reported in any Bachelors' degree dissertation. Informed consent was also highly reported in MD theses (64.58%) followed by undergraduate theses (31.58%). Voluntary participation and potential benefits of the study were some of the common aspects dealt with in most of the consent forms. The right to discontinue participation in the study and management of residual samples were scarcely ever mentioned. Overall, and given the current state of the art of research ethics around the world, student-scientists in Cameroon would seem to be merely kidding with research ethics. It is thus essential that training in health research ethics (HRE) be incorporated in the curriculum of universities in Cameroon in order that the next generation of scientists may be better equipped with thorough knowledge and practice of

  5. Are students kidding with health research ethics? The case of HIV/AIDS research in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munung Nchangwi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universities in Cameroon are playing an active part in HIV/AIDS research and much of this research is carried out by students, usually for the purpose of a dissertation/thesis. Student theses/dissertations present research findings in a much more comprehensive manner and have been described as the stepping-stone of a budding scientist’s potential in becoming an independent researcher. It is therefore important to verify how students handle issues of research ethics. Method Theses/dissertations on HIV/AIDS that described research studies involving the use of human research participants were screened to verify if research ethics approval and informed consent were obtained and documented. The contents of the consent forms were also qualitatively analyzed. Results Of 174 theses/dissertations on HIV, ethics approval was documented in 17 (9.77% and informed consent in 77 (47.83%. Research ethics approval was first mentioned at all in 2002 and highly reported in the year 2007. Evidence of ethics approval was found for the first time in 2005 and informed consent first observed and evidenced in 1997. Ethics approval was mostly reported by students studying for an MD (14.01% and was not reported in any Bachelors’ degree dissertation. Informed consent was also highly reported in MD theses (64.58% followed by undergraduate theses (31.58%. Voluntary participation and potential benefits of the study were some of the common aspects dealt with in most of the consent forms. The right to discontinue participation in the study and management of residual samples were scarcely ever mentioned. Conclusions Overall, and given the current state of the art of research ethics around the world, student-scientists in Cameroon would seem to be merely kidding with research ethics. It is thus essential that training in health research ethics (HRE be incorporated in the curriculum of universities in Cameroon in order that the next generation of

  6. Adolescent deliveries in rural Cameroon: an 8-year trend, prevalence and adverse maternofoetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Valirie Ndip; Mbanga, Clarence Mvalo; Njim, Tsi

    2017-09-29

    Adolescent deliveries remain a global public health concern especially in low- and middle-income countries where 95% of these deliveries occur. In Cameroon, adolescent pregnancies have a high disease burden due to their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to evaluate the prevalence, trend and adverse maternofoetal outcomes of adolescent deliveries in a rural community in Cameroon. We carried out a retrospective register analysis of 1803 singleton deliveries in two health facilities located in the Oku sub-division over an 8-year period (2009 to 2016). We excluded: records without maternal age, babies born before arrival, birthweights less than 1000 g, multiple deliveries and deliveries before 28 weeks gestation. Data analysis was done using Epi info 7.0.8.3. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to determine time trends. P-values below 5% were considered statistically significant. The 8-year prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 20.4% (95% CI = 18.6-22.4) with a significant, downward trend between 2009 and 2016 (P trend = 0.05). Second-fourth degree perineal tears were more likely to complicate adolescent (Age trend in the prevalence of adolescent deliveries was associated with a significant decrease in the trend of neonatal asphyxia at the fifth minute. Married adolescents and their babies were as likely to develop the complications of adolescent delivery such as second-fourth degree perineal tears (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4-1.6; p = 0.456), low birthweight (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.9-4.7; p = 0.070) and fifth minute neonatal asphyxia (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.4-2.0; p = 0.832) as single adolescents and their babies. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries in this rural community is high with one of every five babies born to an adolescent mother. Despite the downward trend indicating a decrease in adolescent deliveries, our study demonstrates the need to

  7. The spectrum of skin diseases in a rural setting in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa

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    Bissek Anne-Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin disorders are generally considered to be more prevalent in the rural areas of Cameroon. This study was carried out to verify this assumption by describing the spectrum of skin disorders in a rural setting of Cameroon. Methods We carried out a community-based clinical skin examination of 400 consenting subjects from 4 villages of Cameroon: Nyamanga (27%, Yebekolo (24%, Mbangassina (23% and Bilomo (26%. Results The overall prevalence of skin diseases in our sample was 62% {95% CI: 57.2%, 66.8%} (248/400. The commonest skin disorders were: fungal infections (25.4%, parasitic infestations (21.4%, atrophic skin disorders (11.7%, hypertrophic skin disorders (9.7%, disorders of skin appendages {acne} (8.9%, benign neoplasm (6.5%, bacterial skin infections (5.2%, pigmentation disorders (4.8%, and dermatitis/eczema (4.0%. Skin infections and infestations constituted 52.82% of all skin disorders. The overall prevalence of infectious and parasitic infestation was 32.75% {95%CI: 28.17%, 37.59%} (131/400 as against 29.25% {95%CI: 24.83%, 33.98%} (117/400 for non-infectious disorders. Among people with skin infections/parasitic infestations, those with fungal infections and onchocercal skin lesions were the most prevalent, accounting for 48.1% (63/131 and 35.1% (46/131; and an overall prevalence of 15.75% {95%CI: 12.3%, 19.7%} (63/400 and 11.5% {95%CI: 8.5%, 15.0%} (46/400 respectively. There was secondary bacterial infection in 12.1% {95%CI: 8.31%, 16.82%} (30/248 of subjects with skin diseases. Hypertrophic and atrophic disorders of the skin were mainly keloids (9.68%, scarification marks (6.05% and burn scars (5.65%. Skin diseases like dermatitis and eczema (4.03%, malignant tumours and pigmentation disorders were rare in our sample. The proportion of subjects diagnosed with skin disorders after examination (62.8% was significantly higher than the proportion of 40.8% that declared having skin diseases (p  Conclusion The

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with depression among medical students in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngasa, Stewart Ndutard; Sama, Carlson-Babila; Dzekem, Bonaventure Suiru; Nforchu, Kilton Neba; Tindong, Maxime; Aroke, Desmond; Dimala, Christian Akem

    2017-06-09

    Depression is an important contributor to the global burden disease that affects people of communities all over the world. With high level of demands in academics and psychosocial pressure, medical students during their course of training tend to become depressed, leading to problems later in professional life and compromising patient care. In Cameroon, there is lack of data on the prevalence of depression and its impact on medical students. To determine the prevalence and predisposing factors associated with depression among medical students in Cameroon (preclinical and clinical). We also evaluated the impact of depression on self-reported academic performance. A cross sectional study was carried out in all 4 state medical schools in 4 different regions from December 2015 to January 2016. Diagnosis of depression, major depression and its associated factors were assessed using the 9-Item-Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and a structured questionnaire respectively. We included 618 medical students (response rate: 90.4%). About a third of them (30.6%, 95% CI: 22.8-36.7) were found to have major depressive disorder (PHQ Score ≥ 10). With regards to the severity of depression, 214 (34.6%), 163 (26.4%), 21 (3.4%), and 5 (0.80%) students were classified as having mild, moderate, moderately severe and severe depression respectively. The presence of a chronic disease (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.72-7.94, p = 0.001), major life events (OR: 2.17, 95%CI: 1.32-3.58, P = 0.002), female gender (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.37, p = 0.024) and being a student at the clinical level (OR: 4.26, 95% CI: 2.71-6.71, p depression. There was no association between depression and self-reported academic performance, (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.7, p = 0.080). The prevalence of major depressive disorders among medical students in Cameroon is high and is associated with the presence chronic disease, major life events, female gender and being a student at the clinical level. So we recommend

  9. Map of biomedical research in Cameroon; a documentary review of approved protocols from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ebile Akoh; Jerome, Ateudjieu; Marceline, Djuidje Ngounoue; Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Pierre, Watcho

    2017-11-21

    Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in biomedical research in Cameroon. However, the question of whether these research projects target major health priorities, vulnerable populations and geographic locations at risk remains to be answered. The aim of this paper is to describe the state of biomedical research in Cameroon which is a key determinant that would guide future health care policies and promote equitable access to healthcare. A documentary review of all approved protocols (proposals) of biomedical research projects, from 1997 through 2012, at the Cameroon National Ethics Committee. Protocols were reviewed systematically by independent reviewers and data were extracted on a grid. Data were analyzed by calculating proportions at 95% confidence interval, chi-square test (chi2) and p-values. Two thousand one hundred seventy two protocols were reviewed for data extraction. One thousand three hundred ninety-five (64.7%) were student projects, 369 (17.0%) projects had international sponsors, and 1528 (72.4%) were hospital-based studies. The most targeted domain was the fight against diseases 1323 (61.3%); mostly HIV 342 (25.8%) and Malaria 136 (10.3%). Over half of the studies were concentrated in the Centre region 1242 (57.2%), with the least projects conducted in the Northern region 15 (0.7%). There was strong evidence that international and local sponsors would influence the research site (p-value = 0.01) and population targets (p-value = 0.00). Although biomedical research targets some important diseases that pose a great burden to Cameroonians, the most vulnerable populations are excluded from research. Biomedical research scarcely addresses other components of the health system and emerging diseases of vital public health importance. We recommend that the government should play a central role, between researchers from academic institutions, sponsors, NGOs and research institutions, to ensure that biomedical research addresses the

  10. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  11. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Mactaggart

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments.We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013 and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014. Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters. Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only. Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations.Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7-7.4 and 7.5% (5.9-9.4 in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5-9.4 in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4-11.7 in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting participation restrictions

  12. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7-7.4) and 7.5% (5.9-9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5-9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4-11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting participation restrictions. Tools to

  13. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

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    Wotchoko Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  14. A new groundwater-dwelling species of Euryrhynchina from Cameroon (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Euryrhynchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Sammy DE; Piscart, Christophe; Kayo, Raoul P Tuekam; Anker, Arthur

    2017-04-12

    A new species of the euryrhynchid shrimp genus Euryrhynchina Powell, 1976, E. puteola sp. nov., is described from Cameroon. The new species can be easily distinguished from the only other species in the genus, E. edingtonae Powell, 1976, by the absence of a setiferous lobe on the eye peduncle, the absence of a meral spine on the ambulatory pereiopods, the shape of the scaphocerite tooth, a single spine on the uropodal diaeresis (vs. 2-3), the absence of a podobranch on the second maxilliped, and the absence of appendices internae on the male pleopods 2-5. Although the species was discovered in a phreatic well, it remains unclear if it is a true stygobiont.

  15. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data...... liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.......76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon’s current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional...

  16. An evaluation of the "Entre Nous Jeunes" peer-educator program for adolescents in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, I S; Tambashe, B O; Tegang, S P

    2001-12-01

    A quasi-experimental design is used in this study to evaluate the "Entre Nous Jeunes" peer-educator program to promote STI/HIV-preventive behaviors in Nkongsamba, Cameroon. The main objective of the study is to assess whether the young people exposed to a peer educator gained greater knowledge and practiced more protective behaviors than did those in the control community and those who were not exposed. During the 18-month intervention period, the peer educators were able to reach a large number of young people, specifically those who were sexually experienced and in need of reproductive health information. Multivariate analyses indicate that contact with a peer educator is statistically significantly associated with greater spontaneous knowledge of modern contraception, the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections, and greater use of modern contraceptives, including the condom. In the absence of a peer-education program, current contraceptive use in the intervention community would have been significantly lower.

  17. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

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    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  18. Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon

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    Menze-Djantio Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information on the social perception of malaria and the use of prevention methods in Cameroon. This study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and management of malaria in households living in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé. Results Over 82% of people interviewed associated malaria transmission to mosquito bites. Methods used for malaria prevention were: environmental sanitation 1645 (76.1%, use of bed nets 1491 (69%, insecticide spray/coils 265 (12.3% and netting of doors or windows 42 (1.9%. Bed net ownership was significantly high in Yaoundé (73.8% (P Conclusion The study revealed a high awareness of populations on malaria and ITNs. However some attitudes hindering the use of ITN or related to the management of clinical cases need further attention.

  19. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

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    Félicité M. Tchouanguep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%, cow raw milk (15.9%, breast milk (4.8%, urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%, and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%; HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  20. TOURISTY POLICIES AND THE HOTEL PARK DEVELOPEMENT OF CAMEROON (1950 - 2003

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    Violeta PUŞCAŞU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hotelier component represents an important side of the touristy activity success. In countries that have an emergent economy, as Cameroon, the tourism and the hotel business have shaped activation as a lever to the whole economy, since the second half of the 20th century. The present paperwork proposes an analytic overview of the evolution of the hotelier park in two of the main cities of the country, Douala and Yaoundé. The evolutional aspects are historically staged, correlated within the political framework and emphasize the tourist phenomenon overall. The goals of our research emphasize qualitative and quantitative upheaval recorded by the urban hotelier park for the identification of the causal terms between the phenomenon type relations/context and the possible substantiation policy in the future.

  1. Mallomonas cronbergiae (Chrysophyceae, Stramenopiles, A New Species from the Guineo-Congolian Rainforest in Cameroon

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    Piątek Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Mallomonas Perty, M. cronbergiae J. Piątek sp. nov., was found in a tropical shallow stream pool in the Guineo-Congolian rainforest in Cameroon. It belongs to the series Ouradiotae and is similar to the three other Mallomonas taxa from this series, namely M. ouradion Harris & Bradley, M. parvula Dürrschmidt and M. parvula var. nichollsii Wujek & Bland, but differs in some morphological characters that clearly differentiate M. cronbergiae as a distinct species. The new species has a different size of scales, characteristic 3–7 pores at the posterior rim, an anterior flange ornamented with papillae, and a shield thickly ornamented with papillae (14–16 per scale width. The species is described and illustrated with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Risk factors for human schistosomiasis in the Upper Benue valley, in northern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndassa, A; Mimpfoundi, R; Gake, B; Paul Martin, M V; Poste, B

    2007-09-01

    The Upper Benue valley is inhabited by human populations of mixed background and socio-economic status. The area is an old and intense focus of both urinary schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma haematobium) and intestinal schistosomiasis (caused by S. mansoni). Most of the local villages have stand-pipes that provide clean drinking water but bathing, laundry, dishwashing and swimming are largely confined to nearby, snail-infested rivers, streams, irrigation canals and pools. The results of interviews and a multivariate analysis indicated that, in this region of Cameroon, a subject's age, knowledge of schistosomiasis, ethnic group and intensity of water contact (with rivers, streams and pools) were all significantly associated with schistosome infection. Curiously, a high level of knowledge about schistosomiasis was positively associated with infection.

  3. Parameter estimation based synchronization for an epidemic model with application to tuberculosis in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Kurths, Jurgen

    2010-10-01

    We propose a method based on synchronization to identify the parameters and to estimate the underlying variables for an epidemic model from real data. We suggest an adaptive synchronization method based on observer approach with an effective guidance parameter to update rule design only from real data. In order, to validate the identifiability and estimation results, numerical simulations of a tuberculosis (TB) model using real data of the region of Center in Cameroon are performed to estimate the parameters and variables. This study shows that some tools of synchronization of nonlinear systems can help to deal with the parameter and state estimation problem in the field of epidemiology. We exploit the close link between mathematical modelling, structural identifiability analysis, synchronization, and parameter estimation to obtain biological insights into the system modelled.

  4. Parameter estimation based synchronization for an epidemic model with application to tuberculosis in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowong, Samuel, E-mail: sbowong@gmail.co [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157 Douala (Cameroon); Postdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A 31, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jurgen [Postdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A 31, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-04

    We propose a method based on synchronization to identify the parameters and to estimate the underlying variables for an epidemic model from real data. We suggest an adaptive synchronization method based on observer approach with an effective guidance parameter to update rule design only from real data. In order, to validate the identifiability and estimation results, numerical simulations of a tuberculosis (TB) model using real data of the region of Center in Cameroon are performed to estimate the parameters and variables. This study shows that some tools of synchronization of nonlinear systems can help to deal with the parameter and state estimation problem in the field of epidemiology. We exploit the close link between mathematical modelling, structural identifiability analysis, synchronization, and parameter estimation to obtain biological insights into the system modelled.

  5. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon)

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-07-07

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p\\'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p\\'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg-1 in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  7. [Telemedicine, a medical social network for humanitarian aid between Spain and Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Manchón, David

    2015-01-01

    The application of information technologies and telecommunications in healthcare in southern countries can improve the health of millions of people living in poverty without access to high-quality health services. Specifically, telemedicine not synchronized with internet platforms is a very efficient option for international cooperation projects. Since its inception, the project Health 2.0: professionals from Africa-Spain connected, of the Spanish organization, Foundation Recover, Hospitals for Africa, has managed to connect health professionals from both continents with the goal of improving health in Cameroon. Thanks to a social network with the scientific format of case management and clinical updates, Spanish physicians collaborate through volunteer e-health in the training of their African colleagues to improve the quality of care provided to residents and also create sources of knowledge and research. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Implications Of Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development And Real Exchange Rate For Economic Growth In Cameroon

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    Victalice Ngimanang Achamoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI, financial development and real exchange rate (RER on economic growth in Cameroon using Cameroon’s annual time series data spanning the period 1977 - 2010. To address these objectives, residual based Engle-Granger test, the OLS based Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL bound testing and maximum likelihood based Johansen cointegration techniques are employed. Results of Unit roots tests show that all the series possessed unit roots at level or first difference form. The ARDL model and VECM results reveal that the RER has a significant negative effect on economic growth, while FDI and Financial Development relate positively to economic growth. These findings have implications for stimulating economic growth by increasing efficiency of the financial sector in allocating credit to the private sector and preventing real exchange rate appreciation in the shortrun.

  9. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

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    Solange Meyin A. Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae, their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  10. Mycorrhiza status of Gnetum spp. in Cameroon: evaluating diversity with a view to ameliorating domestication efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechem, Eneke Esoeyang Tambe; Alexander, Ian James

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was carried out to investigate the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Gnetum spp. in Cameroon. The extent and variation of ectomycorrhizal colonisation as well as the degree of host specificity were evaluated. Gnetum spp. were found to be almost always ectomycorrhizal in all sites visited. There were just two ectomycorrhizal morphotypes ('yellow' and 'white') associated with this plant. Such low diversity is unusual for an ectomycorrhizal plant. The yellow morphotype was the most widespread and prevalent and was identified by morphological and molecular methods to have been formed with Scleroderma sinnamariense. Propagules of this fungus were present in soil collected from farm lands, cocoa plantations, Chromolaena and bush fallows, as well as in a relatively undisturbed forest harbouring ectomycorrhizal legumes. The fungus responsible for the white morphotype was identified as also belonging to the genus Scleroderma by ITS sequence similarity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal structures were absent in cleared and stained portions of the roots.

  11. Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: Long-term Outcome in 87 Patients Who Presented With Paraplegia in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesseling, P B; Mbah, G; Kouya, F; Kimbi, C; Nfor, P; Kaah, J; Kuruvilla, R; Best, A; Wharin, P

    2015-01-01

    The reported long-term outcome of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) patients who present with paraplegia is largely unknown. Records of BL patients treated with comparable short-interval cyclophosphamide chemotherapy schedules between 2004 and 2014 at three Baptist mission hospitals in Cameroon were reviewed. Survivors were followed up and examined at home or in hospital. Eighty-seven of 948 (9.2%) patients had paraplegia at diagnosis. The survival rate in eBL patients with paraplegia at diagnosis was 33% (n = 29) after follow-up of between 2 and 96 (median 40) months. Seven patients (24%) had neurological sequelae and needed rehabilitation. There was no relationship between the duration of symptoms (4 weeks) and the survival rate or the risk to have neurological sequelae. The survival rate and risk for sequelae were similar in patients with confirmed St. Jude stage III and IV diseases.

  12. Child labour in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Some lessons drawn from a survey on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Song Ntamack

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although child labour is a phenomenon widely studied around the world, there are few papers that tackle the problem in Cameroon. The objective of this paper is to fill the gap by questioning the subject in Yaoundé, the capital city. But child labour phenomenon is analysed here from a questionnaire that has two distinctive features: (i the questionnaire is exclusively devoted to child labour, and (ii all the participants in the survey are exclusively children themselves. No adult (parent, guardian, elder, employer, etc. was consulted and given a chance to answer on behalf of a child. This process is extremely rare in child labour, since in general individuals other than children are requested to testify and answer inslead of children. While some results obtained from a standard Logit model on the determinant of child labour are well known, the others are either not known or insignificant. We suspect that the reason is the data collection.

  13. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

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    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  14. Attitudes towards blood donation and transfusion in Bamenda, Republic of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, J; Hassall, O W

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted in Bamenda, Cameroon. The objectives of the study were to develop a theoretical framework to better understand local attitudes towards blood donation and transfusion, to identify factors that motivate and deter blood donation and to identify interventions to improve the supply of blood for transfusion at Bamenda Regional Hospital. The supply of blood for transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is insufficient. Cameroon has no national blood service and the collection and screening of blood is the responsibility of individual hospitals. At Bamenda Regional Hospital patient relatives recruit replacement blood donors, who may or may not be family members, and shortages of blood and delays in transfusion are frequent. Qualitative research methods were used: direct observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and a simulation exercise. Participants were clinical and laboratory staff, patient relatives, blood donors, secondary school students and community members. Attitudes towards blood donation and transfusion fit a transanctionalist framework of health decision making. Deterrents to blood donation are multiple and varied. Some form of compensation is often expected, even by family members, although the blood donation is still considered 'voluntary' by the donor. This study confirms that interventions to improve the blood supply must take into account local attitudes and conditions. In Bamenda, a variety of pragmatic approaches are required including education around specific biological misperceptions identified in the study and the retention of replacement donors as repeat donors. Issues around compensation for blood donation require further work. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Poverty and health among CDC plantation labourers in Cameroon: Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoge, Valerie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Maat, Harro; Koelen, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond to diseases that adversely affect their health and wellbeing. Living in plantation camps is associated with poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation and the rapid spread of diseases. In a survey of 237 CDC camp dwellers in Cameroon, we used the health belief model to understand the drivers (perceived threats, benefits and cues for treatment seeking) of reported responses. Using logistic regression analysis, we looked for trends in people's response to malaria. We calculated the odds ratio of factors shown to have an influence on people's health, such as food, water, sanitation challenges and seeking formal healthcare for malaria. Malaria (40.3%), cholera (20.8%) and diarrhoea (17.7%) were the major PRDs perceived by camp dwellers. We found a strong link between what respondents perceived as PRDS and hygiene conditions. Poverty for our respondents was more about living in poor hygiene conditions than lack of money. Respondents perceived health challenges as stemming from their immediate living environment. Moreover, people employed self-medication and other informal health practices to seek healthcare. Interestingly, even though respondents reported using formal healthcare services as a general response to illness (84%), almost 90% stated that, in the case of malaria, they would use informal healthcare services. Our study recommends that efforts to curb the devastating effects of PRDs should have a strong focus on perceptions (i.e. include diseases that people living in conditions of poverty perceive as PRDs) and on hygiene practices, emphasising how they can be improved. By providing insights into the inter-linkages between poverty and disease, our study offers relevant

  16. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Motorcycle injury among secondary school students in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagwui, Asonganyi Edwin; Fredinah, Namatovu; Che, Longho Bernard; Yulia, Blomstedt

    2016-01-01

    Injury from motorcycle is a considerable cause of disability and death in the world and especially in low and middle-income countries; it is one of the most serious public health problems. In Cameroon, motorcycle is commonly used for transportation particularly among students. The aim of this paper is to study the risk-factors of the motorcycle-related accidents and injuries among secondary school students' in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon. A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2012 on 391 students age 16-24 from public and private schools in the Tiko Municipality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between risk factors and injuries. A closed-ended and few open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. The study showed that over 70% of students used motorcycles always or often. Few had undergone any formal training for driving a motorcycle. The vast majority reported not wearing protective gear while driving or riding a motorcycle. Usage of protective gear was particularly low among girls. Over 16% reported using a motorbike always or occasionally under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Over 58% of respondents reported having an accident and over 35% were injured when driving or riding a motorcycle. Those who lived at the Tiko-Douala road have three times higher probability to sustain accidents and injuries than students residing elsewhere (OR 3.19 (1.20-8.46). It is deeply alarming that every second respondent in the study reported having been in an accident and every third motorcycle user was somehow injured. We therefore call for an immediate attention and a deeper investigation into the highlighted situation, particularly at Tiko-Douala road.

  18. A comparative review of petrogenetic processes beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Geochemical constraints

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    Asobo N.E. Asaah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The origin and petrogenesis of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, composed of volcanoes that form on both the ocean floor and the continental crust, are difficult to understand because of the diversity, heterogeneity, and nature of available data. Major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks of the CVL spanning four decades have been compiled to reinterpret their origin and petrogenesis. Volcanic rocks range from nephelinite, basanite and alkali basalts to phonolite, trachyte and rhyolite with the presence of a compositional gap between SiO2 58–64 wt.%. Similarities in geochemical characteristics, modeled results for two component mixing, and the existence of mantle xenoliths in most mafic rocks argue against significant crustal contamination. Major and trace element evidences indicate that the melting of mantle rocks to generate the CVL magma occurred dominantly in the garnet lherzolite stability field. Melting models suggest small degree (<3% partial melting of mantle bearing (6–10% garnet for Mt. Etinde, the Ngaoundere Plateau and the Biu Plateau, and <5% of garnet for the oceanic sector of the CVL, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Bambouto, Mt. Manengouba and the Oku Volcanic Group. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics suggest that mixing in various proportions of Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM with enriched mantle 1 and 2 (EM1 and EM2 could account for the complex isotopic characteristics of the CVL lavas. Low Mg number (Mg# = 100 × MgO/(MgO + FeO and Ni, Cr and Co contents of the CVL mafic lavas reveal their crystallization from fractionated melts. The absence of systematic variation in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios, and Sr-Nd isotope compositions between the mafic and felsic lavas indicates progressive evolution of magmas by fractional crystallization. Trace element ratios and their plots corroborate mantle heterogeneity and reveal distinct geochemical signatures for individual the CVL volcanoes.

  19. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of emergency contraception among university students in Cameroon

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    Kouam Luc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700. General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664. However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664 believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000. Forty-nine students (7.4% had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which

  20. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

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    Yotat Michele Lolita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4% males, and 100 (54,6% females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%; 86 (47.3% and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4% had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6% had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1% had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3% had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6% had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4% have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7% were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6% at the mandible, 2 (1.1% were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6% at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%, financial difficulties 124 (67.8%, and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%. Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor.

  1. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Lolita, Yotat; Ashu Michael, Agbor; Hubert, Ntumba; Florence, Djachechi; Jacques, Bolenge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4%) males, and 100 (54,6%) females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%); 86 (47.3%) and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4%) had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6%) had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1%) had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3%) had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6%) had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4%) have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7%) were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6%) at the mandible, 2 (1.1%) were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6%) at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%), financial difficulties 124 (67.8%), and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%). Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor. PMID:26633972

  2. Some social determinants of urinary schistosomiasis in Northern Cameroon: implications for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takougang, Innocent; Meli, Jean; Fotso, Siméon; Angwafo, Fru; Kamajeu, Raoul; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the perceptions of hematuria, the most conspicuous sign of urinary schistosomiasis, in selected communities of the sudano-sahelian zone of Cameroon. Study questionnaires related to knowledge, beliefs and stigma associated with hematuria were administered to 964 pupils from 15 randomly selected schools. In order to ascertain children perceptions, we interviewed 143 adults living less than 2 kilometers from the target school. School children provided urine samples that were examined using the dip stick and sedimentation methods. Exposure to sun was the most reported cause of hematuria (53% adult and 62% children respondents), followed by drinking of dirty water (18% adults and 41% children). Only 15% of adult and 26% school children could relate hematuria to wading, a common means of exposure to urinary schistosomiasis. More than half of the school children stated that hematuria was a sign of disease (56%). Few pupils perceived hematuria to be a sign of strength (6%), while others related it to puberty (30%). Most pupils (80%) reported that hematuria was preventable while others (20% ) ascribed it to witchcraft. Pupils reported that hematuria could be cured in the hospital (65%), by the traditional healer (21%), or by reading Holy Scriptures (14%). Some respondents (35% of adult, and 40% of school children) stated that it was shameful to have blood in urine. Almost half of the adult respondents and 26% of the school children reported that hematuria was contagious. Boys and girls had similar levels of oviuria (OR=0.79 p>0.05), but boys were 4 times more likely to report hematuria (OR= 3.62, p<0.001). There was a poor understanding of the means of exposure, transmission and treatment of hematuria. Some aspects of the perceptions of hematuria reported herein corroborate with previous studies carried out in Cameroon, Niger, Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania. They should be considered, together with other socioeconomic and cultural

  3. Strengths and weaknesses of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon

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    Nkongho Raymond N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an evaluation of the current strengths and weaknesses of the oil palm smallholder sector in Cameroon, or more precisely of the non-industrial sector, as some holdings owned by elites can reach hundreds of hectares. A randomized sample of oil palm producers was chosen after categorization into elites, migrants, natives and company workers (past and present in four palm oil production basins in the Southern part of the country. 176 semi-structured questionnaires were administered. The production basins included: Eseka, Dibombari, Muyuka, and Lobe. Results from the study revealed that elites owned larger average areas (41.3 ha than the other categories of oil palm producers. All categories recorded low average plantation yields, ranging from 7 to 8.4 t FFB/ha/year (with minimum yields of 3 t FFB/ha. Though the elites showed better bargaining power and higher income, all categories of producers faced similar problems such as the high cost of inputs with no governmental subsidies, the difficulty in accessing loans with low interest rates and the use of rudimentary working tools. Despite such weaknesses, the sector also demonstrates some strengths such as the ability to impose little threat to the primary forest when compared to agro-industrial plantations, the availability of a domestic and sub-regional market for red palm oil, the availability of artisanal mills with low extraction rates although able to generate more income for the producers. There is a need for governmental policies that will strengthen partnership between small and medium oil palm producers and agro-industries as it was the case during the Fonader period, in order to converge with the poverty reduction strategy intiated by the government of Cameroon.

  4. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

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    Jodie Dionne-Odom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%, HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%, and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8% with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4 and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7. Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%, HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%, syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%, malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%. Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  5. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  6. Setting performance-based financing in the health sector agenda: a case study in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieleunou, Isidore; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Fotso, Jean-Claude Taptué; Tamga, Denise Magne; Yumo, Habakkuk Azinyui; Kouokam, Estelle; Ridde, Valery

    2017-08-01

    More than 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced performance-based financing (PBF) in their healthcare systems. Yet, there has been little research on the process by which PBF was put on the national policy agenda in Africa. This study examines the policy process behind the introduction of PBF program in Cameroon. The research is an explanatory case study using the Kingdon multiple streams framework. We conducted a document review and 25 interviews with various types of actors involved in the policy process. We conducted thematic analysis using a hybrid deductive-inductive approach for data analysis. By 2004, several reports and events had provided evidence on the state of the poor health outcomes and health financing in the country, thereby raising awareness of the situation. As a result, decision-makers identified the lack of a suitable health financing policy as an important issue that needed to be addressed. The change in the political discourse toward more accountability made room to test new mechanisms. A group of policy entrepreneurs from the World Bank, through numerous forms of influence (financial, ideational, network and knowledge-based) and building on several ongoing reforms, collaborated with senior government officials to place the PBF program on the agenda. The policy changes occurred as the result of two open policy windows (i.e. national and international), and in both instances, policy entrepreneurs were able to couple the policy streams to effect change. The policy agenda of PBF in Cameroon underlined the importance of a perceived crisis in the policy reform process and the advantage of building a team to carry forward the policy process. It also highlighted the role of other sources of information alongside scientific evidence (eg.: workshop and study tour), as well as the role of previous policies and experiences, in shaping or influencing respectively the way issues are framed and reformers' actions and choices.

  7. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in coastal south-western Cameroon

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    Titanji Vincent PK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Cameroon. Unlike in the southern forested areas where the epidemiology of malaria has been better studied prior to the implementation of control activities, little is known about the distribution and role of anophelines in malaria transmission in the coastal areas. Methods A 12-month longitudinal entomological survey was conducted in Tiko, Limbe and Idenau from August 2001 to July 2002. Mosquitoes captured indoors on human volunteers were identified morphologically. Species of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Mosquito infectivity was detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR. Malariometric indices (plasmodic index, gametocytic index, parasite species prevalence were determined in three age groups (15 yrs and followed-up once every three months. Results In all, 2,773 malaria vectors comprising Anopheles gambiae (78.2%, Anopheles funestus (17.4% and Anopheles nili (7.4% were captured. Anopheles melas was not anthropophagic. Anopheles gambiae had the highest infection rates. There were 287, 160 and 149 infective bites/person/year in Tiko, Limbe and Idenau, respectively. Anopheles gambiae accounted for 72.7%, An. funestus for 23% and An. nili for 4.3% of the transmission. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 41.5% in children 15 years, and Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant parasite species. Conclusion Malaria transmission is perennial, rainfall dependent and An. melas does not contribute to transmission. These findings are important in the planning and implementation of malaria control activities in coastal Cameroon and West Africa.

  8. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

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    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  9. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

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    Pongou Roland

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

  10. Profile of suicide in rural Cameroon: are health systems doing enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keugoung, Basile; Kongnyu, Emmanuel Tabah; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2013-08-01

    To describe the characteristics of suicide and assess the capacity of health services at the district level in Cameroon to deliver quality mental health care. The study covered the period between 1999 and 2008 and was carried out in Guidiguis health district which had a population of 145 700 inhabitants in 2008. Data collection was based on psychological autopsy methods. To collect data, we used documentary review of medical archives, semi-structured interviews of relatives of suicide completers, a focus group discussion of health committee members and a survey to consulting nurses working at the primary health care level. Forty-seven suicides were recorded from 1999 to 2008: 37 (78.7%) males and 10 (21.3%) females, yielding rates of reported suicides that ranged from 0.89 to 6.54 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most frequently used suicide method was the ingestion of toxic agricultural chemicals (in 76.6% of cases). According to the relatives, the suicides were due to an ongoing chronic illness (31.9%), sexual and marital conflicts (25.5%), witchcraft (14.9%), financial problems (8.5%) or unknown cause (25.5%). In 25 (53.2%) cases, suicide victims exhibited symptoms suggestive of a mental disorder but only six of the suicide committers who presented behavioural symptoms sought health care. Only two of the 15 consulting nurses were able to cite at least three symptoms of depression and were aware that depression can lead to suicide. All of the nurses acknowledged that they had never received any specific training or supervision in mental health care. Suicides are not a rare event in rural settings in Cameroon. The health district capacity to provide quality mental care is almost insignificant. The integration of minimal mental health care services at the community and primary health care levels should be considered a priority in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium in adult Amblyomma variegatum collected from cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esemu, Seraphine N; Besong, Willington O; Ndip, Roland N; Ndip, Lucy M

    2013-03-01

    Ehrlichia ruminantium, the etiologic agent of the economically important disease heartwater, is an obligate intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, particularly A. hebraeum and A. variegatum. Although serologic and microscopic evidence of the presence of heartwater have been reported in ruminants in Cameroon, knowledge of E. ruminantium infection in the tick vector, A. variegatum, is lacking. In order to determine the infectivity of A. variegatum ticks by E. ruminantium, we analysed 500 un-engorged A. variegatum ticks collected by hand-picking from predilection sites from 182 cattle [115 ticks from 82 cattle at Société de Développement et d'Exploitation des Productions Animales (SODEPA) Dumbo ranch (SDR) and 385 ticks from 100 cattle at the Upper Farms ranch (UFR)] by amplification of the open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the pCS20 region of E. ruminantium. PCR amplification of the 279 bp fragment of the pCS20 region detected E. ruminantium DNA in 142 (28.4 %) of the 500 ticks with a higher infection rate (47/115; 40.9 %) observed in ticks from SDR and 24.7 % (95/385) of ticks collected from cattle at UFR. Twenty five randomly selected PCR products were sequenced and results indicated that some of the isolates shared homology with one another and to sequences of E. ruminantium in the GenBank. This report represents the first molecular evidence of E. ruminantium infection in A. variegatum ticks in Cameroon and suggests possible exposure of cattle to this pathogen in our environment.

  13. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  14. Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: What the People Say

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    Mbu Daniel TAMBI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is entitled “Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: what the people say”. The objectives are: (i document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, (ii analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, (iii explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and (iv suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups derived from different backgrounds in our framework. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them more money. Based on this, we recommend that decision makers should promote child health outcomes as it’s a tool to promote maternal labour and wealth accumulation in Cameroon

  15. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

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    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

  16. Determinants of retention in care in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in urban Cameroon, 2003?2005

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Cecile Zoung-Kanyi; Lucienne Assumpta Bella; Carno Tchuani; Helene Epee; Louis Menyeng; Regis Pouillot; Jembia Mosoko; Claudine Essomba; Yacouba Njankouo Mapoure; Madeleine Mbangue; Therese Abong; Mathurin Tejiokem; Charles Kouanfack; Alain Kenfak; Koulla, Sinata S

    2008-01-01

    Background:Retention in long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) program remains a major challenge for effective management of HIV infected people in sub-Saharan Africa. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) discontinuation raises concerns about drug resistance and could negate much of the benefit sought by ART programs. Methods:Based on existing patient records, we assessed determinants of retention in HIV care among HIV patients enrolled in an urban ART at two urban hospitals in Cameroon...

  17. Measuring the Costs of Vitamin A Interventions: Institutional, Spatial, and Temporal Issues in the Context of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagin, Justin; Vosti, Stephen A; Engle-Stone, Reina; Rettig, Erica; Brown, Kenneth H; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex

    2015-09-01

    To address vitamin A (VA) deficiency, an array of interventions have been developed for increasing VA status among young children. With numerous possible combinations of interventions, however, comes the need to take decisions regarding which intervention or combination of interventions is most cost effective for achieving VA deficiency reduction targets. Detailed intervention-specific, "macro-region"-level data in Cameroon are used to generate estimates of the costs associated with delivering VA to children aged 6 to 59 months. In Cameroon, our estimates of costs per effectively-covered child (ie, children at risk of inadequate intake of VA who are exposed to an intervention and who achieve adequate intake) each year (2 rounds of Child Health Days [CHDs]) were US$3.31 for VA supplements. VA fortification of edible oil and bouillon cube was US$2.95 and US$2.41, respectively, per child effectively covered per year, and biofortification of maize was US$5.30 per child effectively covered per year. Combinations of interventions could reduce costs (eg, delivering additional interventions that affect VA status through the CHDs). Spatial differences in costs within Cameroon were also evident, for example, delivering high-dose VA capsules through CHDs leads to a cost of US$0.77 per child reached in the northern regions compared to US$1.40 per child reached in the southern regions. The costs associated with alternative VA interventions in Cameroon differ spatially, temporally, and in their cost-effectiveness. Choosing the appropriate combination of interventions can produce a more efficient portfolio of interventions to address VA deficiencies and VA-related deaths. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Cameroon, West Africa, revealed by 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Chen, Haopeng; Xie, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To understand the depth variation of deformation beneath Cameroon, West Africa, we developed a new 3D model of S-wave isotropic velocity and azimuthal anisotropy from joint analysis of ambient seismic noise and earthquake surface wave dispersion. We found that the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is well delineated by slow phase velocities in contrast with the neighboring Congo Craton, in agreement with previous studies. Apart from the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt, the uppermost mantle revealed a relatively slow velocity indicating a thinned or thermally altered lithosphere. The direction of fast axis in the upper crust is mostly NE-SW, but trending approximately N-S around Mt. Oku and the southern CVL. The observed crustal azimuthal anisotropy is attributed to alignment of cracks and crustal deformation related to magmatic activities. A widespread zone of weak-to-zero azimuthal anisotropy in the mid-lower crust shows evidence for vertical mantle flow or isotropic mid-lower crust. In the uppermost mantle, the fast axis direction changed from NE-SW to NW-SE around Mt. Oku and northern Cameroon. This suggests a layered mechanism of deformation and revealed that the mantle lithosphere has been deformed. NE-SW fast azimuths are observed beneath the Congo Craton and are consistent with the absolute motion of the African plate, suggesting a mantle origin for the observed azimuthal anisotropy. Our tomographically derived fast directions are consistent with the local SKS splitting results in some locations and depths, enabling us to constrain the origin of the observed splitting. The different feature of azimuthal anisotropy in the upper crust and the uppermost mantle implies decoupling between deformation of crust and mantle in Cameroon.

  19. An Economic Analysis of Boko Haram’s Activities in the Chad-Cameroon-Nigeria Border Area

    OpenAIRE

    TAMBA Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism is fast becoming a worldwide phenomenon with about 25% of attacks committed in developing countries. These attacks devastate societies causing huge economic loss with negative growth effects. Recent attacks suspectively conducted by Boko Haram in the north of Nigeria and along its border with Cameroon and Chad are already inflicting damage to local economies with a general drop in savings, investment, trade and a strain on domestic budgets. Poverty and exclusion generate dissidents ...

  20. An Economic Analysis of Boko Haram’s Activities in the Chad-Cameroon-Nigeria Border Area

    OpenAIRE

    TAMBA Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism is fast becoming a worldwide phenomenon with about 25% of attacks committed in developing countries. These attacks devastate societies causing huge economic loss with negative growth effects. Recent attacks suspectively conducted by Boko Haram in the north of Nigeria and along its border with Cameroon and Chad are already inflicting damage to local economies with a general drop in savings, investment, trade and a strain on domestic budgets. Poverty and exclusion generate dissidents ...

  1. Marine fisheries management in Cameroon : overview and perspectives for improvement of the survey system and data collection

    OpenAIRE

    Njifonjou, O.; Laloë, Francis; Chaboud, Christian; Simier, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Since 1982, a data-collection system has been in place in Cameroon to obtain statistics for the small-scale marine fisheries sector. Surveys have been conducted in an attempt to determine the impact of fishing effort on the resources, and data collected refer mostly to catch and effort. Although such data may be used for analysis of resource dynamics, they are generally inappropriate for analysing fishing activity in terms of the dynamics of exploitation. The latter analysis is necessary in o...

  2. Characteristics of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody-positive patients in a hospital setting in Douala, Cameroon

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    Henry Namme Luma

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In the gastroenterology clinic of Douala General Hospital, while almost 40% of patients who were anti-HCV antibody-positive were asymptomatic and diagnosed fortuitously, some already presented complications, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is an urgent need to put in place programs to increase awareness and diagnosis of HCV infection and to develop extensive and targeted anti-HCV treatment guidelines to improve the management of these patients in Cameroon.

  3. Determinants of Tax Compliance Behaviour of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon's Littoral and Central Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    AKİNBOADE, Oludele Akinloye

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a survey of 575 small and medium size businesses operating in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors, that seeks to examine tax compliance behaviour in Cameroon's Littoral and Central Provinces. The study suggests that high registration cost and time consuming processes promote non-compliance of SME operators. The perception of a complex tax system results in registration non-compliance. A tedious compliance process results in filing non-compliance of SME own...

  4. Determinants of Tax Compliance Behaviour of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon's Littoral and Central Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    AKİNBOADE, Oludele Akinloye

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a survey of 575 small and medium size businesses operating in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors, that seeks to examine tax compliance behaviour in Cameroon's Littoral and Central Provinces. The study suggests that high registration cost and time consuming processes promote non-compliance of SME operators. The perception of a complex tax system results in registration non-compliance. A tedious compliance process results in filing non-compliance of SM...

  5. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among rural and urban dwellers of the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogoum, Daniel; Van de Borne, Philippe; Lele, Claude Elysée Bika; Damasceno, Albertino; Ngatchou, William; Amta, Pierre; Leeman, Marc; Preumont, Nicolas; Degaute, Jean-Paul; Kamdem, Felicité; Hermans, Michel P; Donnen, Philippe; Bovet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure (BP) and awareness, treatment, and control rates in the Far North Region of Cameroon, where these variables have not been explored so far. In total, 889 individuals (41.5% women) aged at least 18 years participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Maroua (urban area) and Tokombere (rural area) from November 2014 to May 2015, using a multistage cluster sampling frame. Anthropometric variables, BP, and fasting capillary glucose were assessed in all participants. Hypertension was defined as BP at least 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive therapy and BP control as BP less than 140/90 mmHg. Prevalence estimates were age standardized to the Cameroon population. The prevalence of hypertension was 37.8% (rural: 34%; urban: 41.2%; men: 38.8%; women: 37.9%). Hypertension was associated with urban environment (odds ratio: 1.42; 95%; confidence interval 1.06-1.89), age at least 70 years (4.06; 2.02-6.14), male sex (4.06; 2.02-6.14), abdominal obesity (2.36; 1.54-3.61), and high blood sugar (2.01; 1.31-3.08). Among individuals with hypertension, 18.6% (rural: 17.9%; urban: 19.5%) were aware of having high BP. Among those aware, 29.3% (rural: 17.3%; urban: 36.3%) reported receiving treatment, of whom 16.3% (rural: 22.6%; urban: 4.2%) had BP controlled. Awareness, treatment, and BP control levels were higher in women than men. Hypertension is highly prevalent in Far North Cameroon and awareness, treatment, and control rates are low. Efforts to improve detection, treatment, and control of hypertension in Cameroon are needed.

  6. Challenges to implementing Gavi's health system strengthening support in Chad and Cameroon: results from a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Emily; Miangotar, Yodé; Squires, Ellen; Mimche, Honoré; El Bcheraoui, Charbel

    2017-11-16

    Since 2005, Gavi has provided health system strengthening (HSS) grants to address bottlenecks affecting immunization services. This study is the first to evaluate the Gavi HSS implementation process in either Cameroon or Chad, two countries with significant health system challenges and poor achievement on the child and maternal health Millennium Development Goals. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative data including financial records, document review, field visit questionnaires, and key informant interviews (KII) with representatives from the Ministries of Health, Gavi, and other partners. We conducted a Root Cause Analysis of key implementation challenges, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We conducted 124 field visits and 43 KIIs in Cameroon, and 57 field visits and 39 KIIs in Chad. Cameroon's and Chad's HSS programs were characterized by delayed disbursements, significant deviations from approved expenditures, and reprogramming of funds. Nearly a year after the programs were intended to be complete, many district and facility-level activities were only partially implemented and significant funds remained unabsorbed. Root causes of these challenges included unpredictable Gavi processes and disbursements, poor communication between the countries and Gavi, insufficient country planning without adequate technical assistance, lack of country staff and leadership, and weak country systems to manage finances and promote institutional memory. Though Chad and Cameroon both critically needed support to strengthen their weak health systems, serious challenges drastically limited implementation of their Gavi HSS programs. Implementation of future HSS programs in these and similar settings can be improved by transparent and reliable procedures and communication from Gavi, proposals that account for countries' programmatic capacity and the potential for delayed disbursements, implementation practices that foster learning and adaptation

  7. Identification of the Plasmodium species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Latz, Andreas; Tufon, Kukwah Anthony; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Malaria in Cameroon was previously known to be caused solely by Plasmodium falciparum but today, evidence points to other Plasmodium species including P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. The purpose of this study was to identify the Plasmodium species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon, so as to advise control policies. One thousand six hundred nine febrile children (≤15 years) were recruited from five epidemiological strata of malaria including the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata and the Coastal (C) strata. Malaria parasites were detected by Giemsa microscopy (GM) while a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the Plasmodium species. Statistical analysis performed included the Pearson chi-square test, and statistical significance was set at p strata) (p < 0.001). Contrariwise, the prevalence of malaria was not associated with gender (p = 0.239). P. falciparum was identified in all (100%) the cases of malaria; P. ovale, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. knowlesi were all absent. No case of mixed infection was identified. P. falciparum was the only species causing clinical malaria in the target population, which is contrary to studies that have reported P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale as causing clinical malaria in Cameroon.

  8. Prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among adults residing in Cameroon: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigna, Jean Joel; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Katte, Jean-Claude; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2018-01-08

    To summarize current data on the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus in Cameroon. Population-based cross-sectional studies published between January 1, 2000 and April 30, 2017 including apparently healthy adults residing in Cameroon were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online, and African Index Medicus. We used a random-effects model to pool data. All included studies had a low risk of bias. Six studies were conducted in an urban setting only, one in a rural setting only, and five in both settings. The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 5.8% (95%CI 4.1-7.9; 12 studies) in a pooled sample of 37,147 participants. The prevalence of prediabetes was 7.1% (95%CI: 3.0-21.9; 4 studies) in a pooled sample of 5,872 people. In univariable meta-regression analysis, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus increased with age, hypertension, overweight and obesity. There was no difference for sex and settings (rural versus urban). This study reports a relatively high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in Cameroon, with no difference between urban and rural settings and between sexes. The main drivers include increasing age, overweight and obesity. Community-based educational programs are needed to tackle the burden of the disease in the country. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Public health implications of contamination of Franc CFA (XAF) circulating in Buea (Cameroon) with drug resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Gaelle, Nana; Dilonga, Henry Meriki; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa K

    2014-01-08

    Studies in different parts of the world have implicated money as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens. Such information which is necessary to facilitate infection control strategies is lacking in many sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon. This study analyzed the Franc de la Communauté Financiere d'Afrique (Franc CFA), the currency used in Cameroon and other countries in the Central African sub-region, as a potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, particularly drug-resistant strains, to generate findings which could create awareness on currency contamination and serve as a guide when formulating health policies on currency. Two hundred and thirteen currency samples representing various denominations of notes and coins randomly collected from diverse sources in Buea, Cameroon were analyzed for bacteria and fungi. The sensitivity of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested using the disc diffusion method. The relationship between contamination and physical state, source or denomination of currency was assessed using the χ2 test. All statistics were discussed at 0.05 significance level. Two hundred (93.9%) samples were contaminated with notes (96.6%) showing higher contamination than coins (88.2%). Uncirculated (mint) samples showed no contamination. There was a significant difference (PCFA franc circulating in Buea could serve as a vehicle for transmission of drug resistant pathogenic or potential organisms and contamination could be due to currency usage and handling as mint notes were not contaminated. Hygiene practices during or after handling currency is greatly encouraged to prevent infection.

  10. Empowering Women or Pleasing Men? Analyzing Male Views on Female Condom Use in Zimbabwe, Nigeria and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Winny; Bruinderink, Marije Groot; Janssens, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Usage rates of female condoms are low throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Programs have traditionally presented female condoms as a means of women's empowerment. However, prevailing gender norms in Sub-Saharan Africa assign sexual decision making to men, suggesting that male acceptance is imperative for increased use. In 2011, data on perceptions of and experiences with female condom use were collected from 336 men in Zimbabwe, Nigeria and Cameroon through 37 focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews; participants also completed pre-focus group discussion questionnaires. The data were analyzed by country, using thematic content analysis. Results were stratified by marital status and regularity of female condom use. Perceived advantages of female condoms over other protection methods were enhanced pleasure, effectiveness and lack of side effects. Single and married men preferred using female condoms with stable rather than casual partners, and for purposes of contraception rather than protection from infections. In Cameroon and Nigeria, where contraceptive rates are lower than in Zimbabwe, men favored female condoms as a contraceptive device. Its acceptability as a method of protection from HIV infection is greater in highly AIDS-affected Zimbabwe than in the other two countries. In Cameroon, some men did report regular use of female condoms in casual encounters. Initiation of female condom use by men's stable partners was not acceptable in any of the countries. The findings suggest the importance of accounting for local contexts and targeting both men and women in campaigns to promote female condom use.

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Due to the infectious nature of some clinical waste, poor disposal practices have sparked concern regarding the impact on public health and the environment. Lack of sufficient knowledge of the associated risks may be a strong factor contributing to inadequate disposal practices. We conducted a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy--national or international--on safe clinical waste management. Methods of collecting, segregating, transporting and disposing clinical waste at the three hospitals was poor. The development of a comprehensive policy on efficient clinical waste management in Cameroon is imperative.

  13. REDD+ Policy Approaches in the Congo Basin: A Comparative Analysis of Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

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    Kalame Fobissie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Congo Basin forests are a prime location for implementing REDD+. National REDD+ policy processes are ongoing and many REDD+ pilot initiatives are being demonstrated. However, the level of national engagement, progress and distribution of REDD+ activities varies considerably in the different Congo Basin countries. This study therefore uses a set of criteria to assess national and international policy initiatives and approaches for advancing REDD+ implementation in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic Congo (DRC, two countries where more than two thirds of the Congo Basin forests are concentrated. Our findings show that (i both countries have shown the highest political presence at the international climate negotiations but DRC has invested more in the size of its delegation and side events; (ii REDD+ donors, initiatives, and funding are disproportionately skewed towards DRC making it technically more advanced; (iii the high political interest and institutional reforms in DRC favors private sector investments in REDD+ programs; and (iv the REDD+ policy process is internally-driven in Cameroon with a strong national ownership, while it is externally-driven in DRC with weak national ownership. To advance REDD+, the government of DRC should embark on capacity building programs that ensure the transfer of REDD+ technical know-how from international to national actors while Cameroon needs to speed-up governance reforms and be more flexible in order to attract influential international REDD+ actors. This paper further provides specific recommendations.

  14. Implementing a Fee-for-Service Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Program in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Geneva; Manga, Simon; Kiyang, Edith; Manjuh, Florence; Bradford, Leslie; Cholli, Preetam; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening is one of the most effective cancer prevention strategies, but most women in Africa have never been screened. In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, a large faith-based health care system in Cameroon, initiated the Women's Health Program (WHP) to address this disparity. The WHP provides fee-for-service cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC), prioritizing care for women living with HIV/AIDS. They also provide clinical breast examination, family planning (FP) services, and treatment for reproductive tract infection (RTI). Here, we document the strengths and challenges of the WHP screening program and the unique aspects of the WHP model, including a fee-for-service payment system and the provision of other women's health services. We retrospectively reviewed WHP medical records from women who presented for cervical cancer screening from 2007-2014. In 8 years, WHP nurses screened 44,979 women for cervical cancer. The number of women screened increased nearly every year. The WHP is sustained primarily on fees-for-service, with external funding totaling about $20,000 annually. In 2014, of 12,191 women screened for cervical cancer, 99% received clinical breast exams, 19% received FP services, and 4.7% received treatment for RTIs. We document successes, challenges, solutions implemented, and recommendations for optimizing this screening model. The WHP's experience using a fee-for-service model for cervical cancer screening demonstrates that in Cameroon VIA-DC is acceptable, feasible, and scalable and can be nearly self-sustaining. Integrating other women's health services enabled women to address additional health care needs. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Women's Health Program successfully implemented a nurse-led, fee-for-service cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid-enhanced by digital cervicography in

  15. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  16. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

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    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  17. Hydrocarbon potential, palynology and palynofacies of four sedimentary basins in the Benue Trough, northern Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessong, Moïse; Hell, Joseph Victor; Samankassou, Elias; Feist-Burkhardt, Susanne; Eyong, John Takem; Ngos, Simon, III; Nolla, Junior Désiré; Mbesse, Cecile Olive; Adatte, Thierry; Mfoumbeng, Marie Paule; Dissombo, Edimo André Noel; Ntsama, Atangana Jacqueline; Mouloud, Bennami; Ndjeng, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Organic geochemical, palynological and palynofacies analyses were carried out on 79 selected samples from four sedimentary basins (Mayo-Rey, Mayo-Oulo-Lere, Hamakoussou and Benue) in northern Cameroon. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and Total Organic Carbon results indicate that most of the samples of the studied basins are thermally immature to mature. The organic matter consists of terrestrial components (peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite) associated with organic matter of marine origin. Based on the appraisal of multiple parameters: Total Organic Carbon (TOC), maximum Temperature (T-max), Hydrogen Index (HI), Oxygen Index (OI) and Production Index (PI), some samples are organically rich both in oil and/or gas-prone kerogen Type-II, II/III and III. The source rock quality ranges from poor to very good. The source material is composed of both algae and higher plants. Samples from these basins yielded palynological residue composed of translucent and opaque phytoclasts, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM), fungal remains, algal cysts pollen and pteridophyte spores. Abundance and diversity of the palynomorphs overall low and include Monoporopollenites annulatus (= Monoporites annulatus), indeterminate periporate pollen, indeterminate tetracolporate pollen, indeterminate tricolporate pollen, indeterminate triporate pollen, indeterminate trilete spores, Polypodiaceoisporites spp., Biporipsilonites sp., Rhizophagites sp., Striadiporites sp., Botryococcus sp. (colonial, freshwater green algae), and Chomotriletes minor (cyst of zygnematalean freshwater green algae). Age assigned confidently for all these basins the palynological data except for one sample of Hamakoussou that can be dated as Early to Mid-Cretaceous in age. Callialasporites dampieri, Classopollis spp., Eucommiidites spp. and Araucariacites australis indicate, an Aptian to Cenomanian age. The other pollen and spores recovered may indicate a Tertiary or younger age (especially Monoporopollenites annulatus), or

  18. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

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    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  19. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

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    Fotsing Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of

  20. Postpartum mummification of a co-twin fetus in a Cameroon dwarf goat doe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutt, C L

    1997-03-01

    An 18-month-old Cameroon dwarf goat doe had chronic, bilateral hindlimb paresis and difficulty in rising two months after the birth of a normal kid. The doe was weak, pyrexic and had a purulent vaginal discharge. A large, firm mass was palpated in the caudodorsal abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an ill-defined impenetrable mass which cast acoustic shadows. Radiography identified the mass as a fetus. The doe had a low normal haematocrit and a marked leucocytosis. A caesarian section through the caudal left paralumbar fossa was attempted, but contraction of the uterus had trapped the fetus in the cranial entrance of the pelvic canal preventing the uterus from being exteriorised. Adhesions were found between the uterus and abdominal viscera. The doe's inability to rise was attributed to the chronic pressure exerted on the ischiadic nerve by the fetus. A diagnosis of fetal mummification secondary to obstructive dystocia and fetal death was made. Radiography was a better diagnostic tool than ultrasonography in this case.

  1. New thermoluminescence age estimates for the Nyos maar eruption (Cameroon Volcanic Line).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph; Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Nkouamen Nemzoue, Peguy Noel; Ayaba, Félicité; Nformidah-Ndah, Siggy Signe; Nformi Chifu, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Nyos maar is located in the Cameroon Volcanic Line and generates a multitude of primary and secondary hazards to the local population. For risk assessment and hazard mitigation, the age of the Nyos maar eruption provides some vital information. Since previous dating efforts using a range of techniques resulted in vastly varying eruption ages, we applied thermoluminescence (TL) methods to obtain independent and direct chronological constraints for the time of maar formation. Target minerals were granitic quartz clasts contained in pyroclastic surge deposits. Thermoluminescence plateau results prove that heat and/or pressure during the phreatomagmatic eruption was sufficient to reset the inherited luminescence signal of granitic bedrock quartz. Parallel application of three TL measurement protocols to one of the two samples gave consistent equivalent doses for the quartz ultra-violet emission. Despite the robustness of our dose estimates, the assessment of the dose rate was accompanied by methodological challenges, such as estimation of the original size distribution of quartz grains in the pyroclastic deposits. Considering results from additional laboratory analyses to constrain these uncertainties, we calculate an average maximum TL age of 12.3 ± 1.5 ka for the Nyos maar eruption. Based on these new data, a more solid risk assessment can be envisaged.

  2. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  3. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n=43) and SIV-negative (n=71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV− samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1 % of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8 %) and Blastocystis (2.9 %), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8 %. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation. PMID:24781023

  4. Patterns of non-traumatic myelopathies in Yaounde (Cameroon): a hospital based study.

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    Lekoubou Looti, Alain Zingraff; Kengne, André Pascal; Djientcheu, Vincent de Paul; Kuate, Callixte T; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2010-07-01

    The relative frequency of compressive and non-compressive myelopathies and their aetiologies have not been evaluated extensively in most sub-Saharan African countries. The case of Cameroon is studied. Admission registers and case records of patients in the neurology and neurosurgery departments of the study hospital were reviewed from January 1999 to December 2006. 224 (9.7% of all admissions) cases were non-traumatic paraplegia/paraparesis or tetraplegia/tetraparesis and 147 were due to myelopathies, representing 6.3% of all cases admitted during the study period and 65.6% of cases of paraplegia or tetraplegia; 88% were compressive myelopathies. Aetiologies were dominated by primary and secondary spinal tumours (mainly prostate carcinoma, lymphoma and liver carcinoma) that each accounted for 24.5% of cases. Other causes included spinal tuberculosis (12.9%), tropical spastic paraparesis (five positive for human T cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I and one for HTLV-II) (4.8%), spinal degenerative disease (4.1%), acute transverse myelitis (4.1%), HIV myelopathy (1.4%), vitamin B12 deficiency myelopathy and multiple sclerosis (0.7%). No aetiology was found in 21.1% of participants. Myelopathies in our setting are dominated by spinal compressions. Metastasis is a leading cause of spinal cord compression with liver carcinoma being more frequent than reported elsewhere. Infections nevertheless remain a major cause of spinal cord disease and both cancers and infections constitute public health targets for reducing the incidence of myelopathies.

  5. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality.

  6. Evaluation of the Genetic Variation of Cowpea Landraces (Vigna unguiculata from Western Cameroon Using Qualitative Traits

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    Toscani NGOMPE-DEFFO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic diversity and analysis of the genetic relationship between accessions of a crop species is a key step in breeding superior cultivars. The main objective of the hereby study was to determine the genetic variation between 30 cowpea accessions collected throughout the eight divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon using qualitative traits. Phenotypic variation of these accessions was evaluated using diversity indices and cluster analyses. A total of twenty qualitative traits were used for the study. Fifteen of them (75% were polymorphic, displaying each at least two phenotypic classes. The monomorphic characters were growth pattern, leaf color, leaf hairiness, plant hairiness and pod hairiness, each with only one phenotypic class. Results showed a relatively significant level of genetic diversity among the studied cowpea accessions. Overall, the average of the observed and effective number of phenotypic classes per qualitative trait were Na = 2.350 and Ne = 1.828 respectively. The Nei’s genetic diversity and the Shannon weaver diversity index were He = 0.369, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.655 (growth habit and H’ = 0.609, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.996 (seed crowding, respectively. The dendrogram constructed from the twenty qualitative traits revealed 05 accessions clusters with the number of accessions in each cluster varying from one to eleven. Information obtained from this study is likely be useful for future cowpea breeding program.

  7. Reduce pests, enhance production: benefits of intercropping at high densities for okra farmers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Hanna, Rachid; Houmgny, Raissa; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2017-10-01

    Intercropping can help reduce insect pest populations. However, the results of intercropping can be pest- and crop-species specific, with varying effects on crop yield, and pest suppression success. In Cameroon, okra vegetable is often grown in intercropped fields and sown with large distances between planting rows (∼ 2 m). Dominant okra pests include cotton aphids, leaf beetles and whiteflies. In a field experiment, we intercropped okra with maize and bean in different combinations (okra monoculture, okra-bean, okra-maize and okra-bean-maize) and altered plant densities (high and low) to test for the effects of diversity, crop identity and planting distances on okra pests, their predators and yield. We found crop identity and plant density, but not crop diversity to influence okra pests, their predators and okra yield. Only leaf beetles decreased okra yield and their abundance reduced at high plant density. Overall, okra grown with bean at high density was the most economically profitable combination. We suggest that when okra is grown at higher densities, legumes (e.g. beans) should be included as an additional crop. Intercropping with a leguminous crop can enhance nitrogen in the soil, benefiting other crops, while also being harvested and sold at market for additional profit. Manipulating planting distances and selecting plants based on their beneficial traits may thus help to eliminate yield gaps in sustainable agriculture. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis in urban sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Marie Patrice; Zebaze, Paul Narcisse; Mbofung, Carl M; Kaze, Francois; Mbiatat, Hilaire; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Malnutrition is an important predictive factor for morbidity and mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis. The evidence on the magnitude of the problem in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. We assessed the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis in the renal unit of the Douala General Hospital (Cameroon). Patients on maintenance hemodialysis for ≥3 months were enrolled between March and June 2012. Nutritional status was assessed via dietary recalls, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements including body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. A total of 113 patients (75 men) were included. They were aged 49.4 years, and had been on dialysis for a median of 25 months. The mean BMI, MAMC and serum albumin was 22.4 kg/m(2), 23.7 cm and 42.4 g/l respectively. We observed that 28.3 % of patients were underweight (BMI ≤20 kg/m(2)), 23.9 % had muscle wasting (MAMC nutrition were 26.3 % (low plasma cholesterol), 28 % (positive CRP) and 82.7 % (anemia). Female gender, younger age, less meals/day and frequent vegetable intake were associated with malnutrition risk. Patients on maintenance hemodialysis in this setting have rates of malnutrition similar to those reported elsewhere. However, the high prevalence of malnutrition among women and young patients deserves further consideration.

  9. Vulnerability to Climate Change of Mangroves: Assessment from Cameroon, Central Africa

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    Isabella Zouh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal mangrove ecosystems are sensitive to climate change impacts, particularly to associated relative sea level rise. Human stressors and low tidal range add to vulnerability, both characteristics of the Doula Estuary, Cameroon. To investigate vulnerability, spatial techniques were combined with ground surveys to map distributions of mangrove zones, and compare with historical spatial records to quantify change over the last few decades. Low technology techniques were used to establish the tidal range and relative elevation of the mapped mangrove area. Stratigraphic coring and palaeobiological reconstruction were used to show the longer term biological history of mangroves and net sedimentation rate, and oral history surveys of local communities were used to provide evidence of recent change and identify possible causes. Results showed that the seaward edge of mangroves had over two thirds of the shoreline experienced dieback at up to 3 m per year over the last three decades, and an offshore mangrove island had suffered 89% loss. Results also showed low net sedimentation rates under seaward edge mangroves, and restricted intertidal elevation habitats of all mangroves, and Avicennia and Laguncularia in particular. To reduce vulnerability, adaptation planning can be improved by reducing the non-climate stressors on the mangrove area, particularly those resulting from human impacts. Other priorities for adaptation planning in mangrove areas that are located in such low tidal range regions are to plan inland migration areas and strategic protected areas for mangroves, and to undertake management activities that enhance accretion within the mangroves.

  10. [Risk factors associated with gastroduodenal lesions in a Douala referral hospital (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloumou Bagnaka, S A F; Luma Namme, H; Noah Noah, D; Essomba, N E; Malongue, A; Manga, A; Tzeuton, C; Biwole Sida, M

    2016-01-01

    The causes of gastroduodenal lesions are multifactorial, and few studies have assessed the impact of each of these factors in Africa. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the occurrence of gastroduodenal lesions in Cameroon. This prospective, analytical study took place over a 5-month period in the endoscopy unit of the Douala General Hospital. Lifestyle, medical history, demographic, and clinical variables were collected. Infection with Helicobacter pylori was determined with a rapid urease (CLO) test. Multivariate regression was used to determine risk factors. The study included 234 of 265 patients seen in the department over the study period. Gastroscopy was normal for 54.2% of the subjects. The prevalence of peptic ulcers was 17.1% and of inflammatory lesions 26.4%. Risk factors associated with a gastroduodenal lesion were: age greater than 60 years [OR age = 2.953; 95% CI: 1.399 to 6.231; p = 0.004], H. pylori infection [OR = 2.953; 95% CI: 1.399 to 6.231; p = 0.003] and regular NSAID use [OR = 0.912; 95% CI: 0.112 to 2.733; p = 0.044] either a month before the examination or over the long term. Age greater than 60 years, NSAID consumption, and H. pylori infection are associated with the occurrence of gastroduodenal lesions.

  11. Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon).

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    Ndo, Cyrille; Menze-Djantio, Benjamin; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe

    2011-09-20

    There is little information on the social perception of malaria and the use of prevention methods in Cameroon. This study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and management of malaria in households living in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé. Over 82% of people interviewed associated malaria transmission to mosquito bites. Methods used for malaria prevention were: environmental sanitation 1645 (76.1%), use of bed nets 1491 (69%), insecticide spray/coils 265 (12.3%) and netting of doors or windows 42 (1.9%). Bed net ownership was significantly high in Yaoundé (73.8%) (P malaria treatment was estimated at 2377 fcfa (3.6 euros) and 4562 fcfa (6.95 euros) respectively. These amounts were not significantly different between households of Douala and Yaoundé. Concerning management of malaria cases, 18.6% of people declare going to the hospital when suffering from malaria. The majority of people (81.4%) do self medication - they either buy drugs from the pharmacists, street sellers or they use plants to cure malaria. The study revealed a high awareness of populations on malaria and ITNs. However some attitudes hindering the use of ITN or related to the management of clinical cases need further attention.

  12. HIV status and age at first marriage among women in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Timothy

    2008-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females.

  13. New thermoluminescence age estimates for the Nyos maar eruption (Cameroon Volcanic Line.

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    Christoph Schmidt

    Full Text Available Nyos maar is located in the Cameroon Volcanic Line and generates a multitude of primary and secondary hazards to the local population. For risk assessment and hazard mitigation, the age of the Nyos maar eruption provides some vital information. Since previous dating efforts using a range of techniques resulted in vastly varying eruption ages, we applied thermoluminescence (TL methods to obtain independent and direct chronological constraints for the time of maar formation. Target minerals were granitic quartz clasts contained in pyroclastic surge deposits. Thermoluminescence plateau results prove that heat and/or pressure during the phreatomagmatic eruption was sufficient to reset the inherited luminescence signal of granitic bedrock quartz. Parallel application of three TL measurement protocols to one of the two samples gave consistent equivalent doses for the quartz ultra-violet emission. Despite the robustness of our dose estimates, the assessment of the dose rate was accompanied by methodological challenges, such as estimation of the original size distribution of quartz grains in the pyroclastic deposits. Considering results from additional laboratory analyses to constrain these uncertainties, we calculate an average maximum TL age of 12.3 ± 1.5 ka for the Nyos maar eruption. Based on these new data, a more solid risk assessment can be envisaged.

  14. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

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    Jessica M. Healy Profitós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries, leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality.

  15. Sustaining mother tongue medium education: An inter-community self-help framework in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatoh, Blasius A.

    2011-12-01

    Advocating mother tongue education implies recognising the centrality of linguistic and cultural diversity in quality and accessible education planning and delivery. In minority linguistic settings, this need becomes particularly urgent. Decades of exclusive promotion of foreign languages have rendered the educational system incapable of guaranteeing maximum quality, accessibility and equity. Also, due to long periods of marginalisation and disempowerment, most indigenous communities are unable to undertake viable self-reliant educational initiatives. As a result, planning and management of education is not adapted to the needs and realities of target populations. What such an educational approach has succeeded in achieving is to cultivate a culture of near-total dependence and consumerism. In minority language situations where mother tongue education is still primarily in the hands of private institutions and individuals, successful planning also means influencing the perceptions and attitudes of indigenous people and systematically integrating them into the educational process. This paper discusses grass-roots mother tongue education in Cameroon. It focuses on the inter-community self-help initiative as a local response framework and argues that this initiative is a strong indication of the desire of communities to learn and promote learning in their own languages.

  16. History of partnership between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon

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    Nkongho Raymond N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores the origin and changes in partnership agreements established between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon. The different forms of partnership which have existed over the years in the oil palm sector until now are assessed, notably the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme (1978 to 1991 and more recently the Afriland First Bank sponsored villagisation project of Socapalm Eseka (2007/2008 to present. Special attention is given to the factors and conditions that have influenced the outcomes of these partnerships, specifically the failure of the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme. The authors conclude that with the current absence of steady support from the government to oil palm smallholders, especially after the implementation of the structural adjustment plans, private partnership schemes between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders could be highly profitable for both stakeholders. Such partnerships can foster social cohesion and limit further encroachment of agro-industries into the primary forest, provided such partnership agreements are carefully planned and adequately implemented.

  17. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

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    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  18. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  19. Potential and limitations of risk scenario tools in volcanic areas through an example at Mount Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, P.; Quinet, C.; Le Cozannet, G.; Kouokam, E.; Thierry, P.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to conduct a scenario-based volcanic risk assessment on a variety of exposed assets, such as residential buildings, cultivated areas, network infrastructures or individual strategic buildings. The focus is put on the simulation of scenarios, based on deterministic adverse event input, which are applied to the case study of an effusive eruption on the Mount Cameroon volcano, resulting in the damage estimation of the assets located in the area. The work is based on the recent advances in the field of seismic risk. A software for systemic risk scenario analysis developed within the FP7 project SYNER-G has been adapted to address the issue of volcanic risk. Most significant improvements include the addition of vulnerability models adapted to each kind of exposed element and the possibility to quantify the successive potential damages inflicted by a sequence of adverse events (e.g. lava flows, tephra fall, etc.). The use of an object-oriented architecture gives the opportunity to model and compute the physical damage of very disparate types of infrastructures under the same framework. Finally, while the risk scenario approach is limited to the assessment of the physical impact of adverse events, a specific focus on strategic infrastructures and a dialogue with stakeholders helps in evaluating the potential wider indirect consequences of an eruption.

  20. Potential and limitations of risk scenario tools in volcanic areas through an example in Mount Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, P.; Quinet, C.; Le Cozannet, G.; Kouokam, E.; Thierry, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to conduct a scenario-based volcanic risk assessment on a variety of exposed assets, such as residential buildings, cultivated areas, network infrastructures or individual strategic buildings. The focus is put on the simulation of scenarios, based on deterministic adverse events input, which are applied to the case-study of an effusive eruption on the Mount Cameroon volcano, resulting in the damage estimation of the assets located in the area. The work is based on the recent advances in the field of seismic risk. A software for systemic risk scenario analysis developed within the FP7 project SYNER-G has been adapted to address the issue of volcanic risk. Most significant improvements include the addition of vulnerability models adapted to each kind of exposed element and the possibility to quantify the successive potential damages inflicted by a sequence of adverse events (e.g. lava flows, tephra fall, etc.). The use of an object-oriented architecture gives the opportunity to model and compute the physical damage of very disparate types of infrastructures under the same framework. Finally, while the risk scenario approach is limited to the assessment of the physical impact of adverse events, a specific focus on strategic infrastructures and a dialogue with stakeholders helps in evaluating the potential wider indirect consequences of an eruption.

  1. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

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    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  2. Water quality and occurrence of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Nkeng, George Elambo; Takem, Gloria Eyong Eneke

    2009-01-01

    The monthly occurrence and mean age distribution of water-borne diseases in the Douala 4th District, Cameroon (1995-2006) were studied and probable causes of diseases spread were established. Diseases of interest included gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera. Water-borne disease occurrence was observed to follow a seasonal pattern with peaks occurring between the months of January and May followed by drops between June and October and rose again from November. Children below 5 years were found to be more vulnerable to diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, amoebic dysentery while persons between 15-44 years were more vulnerable to typhoid and cholera. Physico-chemically, water samples had turbidities varying between 5.5-86 NTU, pH values between 4.2 and 7.1 and zero residual chlorine. Bacteriological analysis showed that the total coliform count was averagely 74/100 ml, the faecal colform count was 43/100 ml and the faecal streptococci count was 27/100 ml. Lack of access to potable water, absence of sanitation facilities and environmental factors could be advanced as the probable causes of water-borne disease spread.

  3. Muddying the waters: a new area of concern for drinking water contamination in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Seungjun; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Tien, Joe; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-11-28

    In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries), leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals) was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship's impact on drinking water quality.

  4. Potential and limitations of risk scenario tools in volcanic areas through an example at Mount Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gehl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to conduct a scenario-based volcanic risk assessment on a variety of exposed assets, such as residential buildings, cultivated areas, network infrastructures or individual strategic buildings. The focus is put on the simulation of scenarios, based on deterministic adverse event input, which are applied to the case study of an effusive eruption on the Mount Cameroon volcano, resulting in the damage estimation of the assets located in the area. The work is based on the recent advances in the field of seismic risk. A software for systemic risk scenario analysis developed within the FP7 project SYNER-G has been adapted to address the issue of volcanic risk. Most significant improvements include the addition of vulnerability models adapted to each kind of exposed element and the possibility to quantify the successive potential damages inflicted by a sequence of adverse events (e.g. lava flows, tephra fall, etc.. The use of an object-oriented architecture gives the opportunity to model and compute the physical damage of very disparate types of infrastructures under the same framework. Finally, while the risk scenario approach is limited to the assessment of the physical impact of adverse events, a specific focus on strategic infrastructures and a dialogue with stakeholders helps in evaluating the potential wider indirect consequences of an eruption.

  5. Assessment of Physical-Chemical Drinking Water Quality in the Logone Valley (Chad-Cameroon

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    Martin B. Ngassoum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe drinking water is one of the main concerns in developing countries. In order to deal with this problem, a cooperation project was set up by the ACRA Foundation in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon. Water supplies were sampled throughout the villages of this area mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as some piped waters. The samples were analysed for their physical-chemical and microbiological quality in order to identify the contamination problems and suggest appropriate solutions. Results of the assessment confirmed that in the studied area there are several parameters of health and aesthetic concern. Elevated lead levels were detected both in aquifers and in surface waters, confirming that further investigations of the occurrence of lead contamination in the Logone valley are warranted. In addition, many groundwater sources are negatively impacted by parameters of aesthetic concern, such as turbidity, iron and manganese. Even though they do not affect human health, elevated levels of these parameters cause consumers to abandon improved water supplies, often in favour of surface water sources that are microbiologically contaminated. The use of alternative sources, improvement of water supply structures and water treatment are possible solutions to improve the quality of drinking water in the Logone valley.

  6. Bacteriological assessment of the hospital environment in two referral hospitals in Yaoundé-Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Guenou, Etienne; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Tankeu, Dongmo Norbert; Mbopi-Keou, Francois Xavier; Takongmo, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Many studies still show significant numbers of surgical patients contracting nosocomial infections each year globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacteria reservoirs that may be responsible for nosocomial infection in surgical services in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH) and the Central Hospital Yaoundé (CHY). A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2012. Air, water, and surface samples were collected from two surgical services and subjected to standard bacteriological analysis. A total of 143 surface samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated in all surfaces except from one trolley sample and a surgical cabinet sample. The predominant species in all services was coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS). The average number of colonies was 132. 82 CFU/25 cm(2). The bacteria isolated in the air were similar to those isolated from surfaces. From the 16 water samples cultured, an average of 50.93 CFU/100ml bacteria were isolated. The distribution of isolated species showed a predominance of Burkholderia cepacia. These results showed the importance of the hospital environment as a potential reservoir and source of nosocomial infections amongst surgical patient at YUTH and CHY, thus we suggest that Public health policy makers in Cameroon must define, publish guidelines and recommendations for monitoring environmental microbiota in health facilities.

  7. Risky sexual behaviour among unmarried young people in Cameroon: another look at family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the association between family structure and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents and young adults have employed a risk perspective which assumes that, compared with other types, two-parent families are protective. Drawing from a positive-oriented approach in this study, it is hypothesized that within each family type some influential factors may mitigate such anticipated deleterious effects of non-intact families and decrease sexual risk-taking. The paper examines specifically the effects of risk and protective factors with an emphasis on family processes associated with resilience, using data from a pooled sample of 1025 females and males aged 12-24 years from Bandjoun (West Cameroon). Findings show that the quality of parent/guardian-youth relationships significantly decreases the odds of risky sexual behaviour by 36%, 65% and 50% in neither-, one- and two-parent families, respectively. For two-parent families only, parental control acts as a significant protective factor; it decreased by 41% the odds of risky sexual behaviour. Programmatically, protective family factors such as parent/guardian-youth interactions need to be promoted to improve the efficiency of reproductive health and HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouetchognou, Julienne Stéphanie; Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Jemea, Bonaventure; Mesumbe, Edmond Nzene; Mbanya, Dora

    2016-12-08

    Nosocomial infections (NI) represent a real public health problem in developing countries. Their surveillance is recommended to provide needed information for better control. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of NI in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH). It was a longitudinal and descriptive study targeting hospitalized patients in the intensive care, gynaecological, surgical and neonatal units. Each consenting patient was administered a questionnaire at the beginning of the study and followed up daily for the duration of their hospitalization using a standardized grid to detect all nosocomial infections. Cumulative incidence was used to estimate NI frequency. There were 307 patients included. The cumulative incidence and specific mortality rate of NI were 19.21% (16.9-21.5) and 28% (16.2-42.5) respectively. Septicaemia (20.34%), infection of the skin and soft tissues (20.34%) and urinary tract infections (15.25%) were the most frequent type of NI. Klebsiella spp. was the most frequently isolated bacterium (27%). Nosocomial infections contribute to high hospital morbidity in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital. Strategies need to be identified for a sustainable and continuous monitoring of NI in all health facilities of Cameroon. In addition, Further studies should identify NI determinants and interventions for efficient and better control.

  9. Female sex workers' empowerment strategies amid HIV-related socioeconomic vulnerabilities in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cange, Charles W; LeBreton, Matthew; Saylors, Karen; Billong, Serge; Tamoufe, Ubald; Fokam, Pamella; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that female sex workers use a variety of empowerment strategies to protect one another and their families. This study examines the strategies Cameroonian sex workers employ to do so. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with 100 sex workers. Coded texts were analysed for recurring themes. Sex workers reported being concerned with physical violence and sexual assault and demands from authorities for bribes to avoid fines and/or imprisonment. Women described strategies such as 'looking out for' each other when faced with security threats. Many reported staying in sex work to provide for their children through education and other circumstances to allow them to lead a better life. Sex worker mothers reported not using condoms when clients offered higher pay, or with intimate partners, even when they understood the risk of HIV transmission to themselves. Concern for their children's quality of life took precedence over HIV-related risks, even when sex workers were the children's primary carers. A sex worker empowerment programme with a focus on family-oriented services could offer an effective and novel approach to increasing coverage of HIV prevention, treatment and care in Cameroon.

  10. Dietary patterns associated with hypertension prevalence in the Cameroon defence forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkondjock, A; Bizome, E

    2010-09-01

    To assess the possible role of particular patterns of food consumption in the occurrence of hypertension. A cross-sectional study of 571 members of defence forces was carried out in eight military institutions in Yaounde, Cameroon. Blood pressure was measured with automatic sphygmomanometers simultaneously at both arms. Food consumption data were obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire was used to ascertain information on physical activity and other risk factors. Two dietary patterns were identified. The 'fruit and vegetable' pattern was typified by a high intake of fruits, vegetables, tubers and legumes. The 'meat' pattern was characterized by a high intake of bush meat, poultry and red meat. After adjustment for age, body mass index, rank, vigorous physical activity and total energy intake, the fruit and vegetable pattern was significantly associated with a reduced risk of hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.20-0.83, P=0.04) when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary pattern scores. No significant relationship was apparent between the meat pattern and hypertension. Our findings suggest that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, tubers and legumes may have an important role in regulating blood pressure. More prospective and extensive data are warranted to investigate the magnitude of cardiovascular disease in that specific population.

  11. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

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    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  12. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoué-Piéboji, J; Pegnyemb, D E; Niyitegeka, D; Nsangou, A; Eze, N; Minyem, C; Mbing, J Ngo; Ngassam, P; Tih, R Ghogomu; Sodengam, B L; Bodo, B

    2006-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 plant species (Voacanga africana, Crepis cameroonica, Plagiostyles africana, Crotalaria retusa, Mammea africana, Lophira lanceolata, Ochna afzelii, Ouratea elongata, Ou. flava and Ou. sulcata), each of which is currently used in the traditional medicine of Cameroon, were investigated in vitro. The activities of a methanol extract of each plant were tested, in disc-diffusion assays, against 37 reference or laboratory strains of seven species of microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each extract were then estimated, against each of the more susceptible microorganisms (i.e. those giving an inhibition zone measuring at least 9 mm in diameter in the disc-diffusion assays), by agar dilution. Although, in the disc-diffusion assays, each of the 10 methanol extracts investigated displayed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one species of microorganism, no activity against the Gram-negative bacteria (Es. coli, K. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa) was observed. The extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of Pl. africana (Euphorbiaceae).

  13. Socioeconomic and gender differences in adolescents' nutritional status in urban Cameroon, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapi, Léonie N; Janlert, Urban; Nouedoui, Christophe; Stenlund, Hans; Håglin, Lena

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' nutritional status according to socioeconomic status (SES) and sex using anthropometry in urban Cameroon, Africa. Adolescent boys (n = 248) and girls (n = 333) 12 to 16 years old were recruited from randomly selected schools in a cross sectional study in Yaoundé city and grouped according to SES. Weight, height, skinfold thickness, and circumferences were measured, and body mass index, waist/hip ratio, arm muscle, and arm fat areas were calculated. Stunting, underweight, and overweight were determined using international cutoff points. Adolescents with medium and high SES were less likely to be stunted than adolescents with low SES (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; P underweight (3%, 4%, and 1%) were higher among the adolescents with low and medium SES than those with high SES. Overweight prevalence was high among the adolescents with low (8%), medium (11%), and high (9%) SES. The OR for overweight was higher among girls than boys (OR, 4.13; P underweight than boys (OR, 0.29 [P underweight (5% and 2%) were higher among boys than girls. Pubescent adolescents were less likely to be stunted than nonpubescent (OR, 0.53; P underweight and stunted than adolescents with high SES. Girls were more overweight, less stunted, and underweight than boys.

  14. Anemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis in Cameroon: prevalence, characteristics and management in low resources setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaze, Francois Folefack; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Mambap, Alex Tatang; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Mbanya, Dora; Ashuntantang, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the prevalence, characteristics and management of anemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis and assessed the response to blood-transfusion based management in Cameroon. This was a cohort study of five months' duration (August-December 2008) conducted at the Yaoundé General Hospital's hemodialysis center, involving 95 patients (67 men, 70.5%) on chronic hemodialysis by a native arteriovenous fistula. A monthly evaluation included full blood counts, number of pints of red cell concentrates transfused, and vital status. At baseline, 75 (79%) patients had anemia which was microcytic and hypochromic in 32 (43%). Anemia was corrected in 67 (70.5%) patients using blood transfusion only, while 28 (29.5%) patients were receiving erythropoietin (11 regularly, 39%). Only 77.2% of 342 pints (median 3.0, range 0-17 per patients) of red cell concentrates prescribed were effectively received during the follow-up at an unacceptably high cost to patients and families. Mean hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels remained stable during follow-up, while mean corpuscular volume increased. Erythropoietin treatment was the main determinant of favorable trajectories of hematological markers. Patients on chronic hemodialysis have predominantly microcytic hypochromic anemia, with limited capacity for correction using blood transfusion.

  15. An integrated method for improving the dairy production sector in developing countries: the case of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayemi, P H; Webb, E C

    2009-04-01

    During the past six years, ten research topics were carried out with the aim of developing an integrated method to improve production and sustainability of dairy systems in Cameroon. This involved reviewing dairy research done in the country, carrying out a participatory rural appraisal and an economic opportunity survey in selected dairy farms, setting up on-farm interventions, investigating cow reproduction, evaluating milk quality and the impact of integrated interventions. Guidelines for improvement of the dairy sector were set up. It was found that the developed integrated method had a positive impact on dairy farms. Farmers who adopted interventions had nearly 200% higher economic returns. In order to boost the Cameroonian dairy sector, it is suggested that the government acts as a motivating force by organizing the market, ensuring the monitoring of epizootic diseases and providing artificial insemination services and organizing breeding societies. It is also suggested that the integrated method becomes a discipline in dairy science and be applied in other developing countries.

  16. Influences of family structure experiences on the risk of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidze, Estelle Monique; Defo, Barthélemy Kuate

    2013-12-01

    The link between family structure experiences and premarital sexual initiation in sub-Saharan African settings has been investigated using primarily the socialization perspective. This article tests additional hypotheses using the perspectives of change and duration of exposure. The analyses are based on time-dependent retrospective data on family living arrangements from a sample of 1182 individuals aged 12-24 years old, drawn from the Cameroon Family and Health Survey. From the socialization perspective for both females and males: living without both biological parents does not necessarily increase the probability of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence; the timing of family structure experiences is an important factor to consider in life course transitions; and other relatives play a protective role during adolescence, especially among females living in mother-only families. Findings also provide some support for the instability and change hypothesis as well as for the duration of exposure conjecture: a change from other family structure types to a both biological parents structure between age 6 and age 12 (change perspective) and living with the biological mother only at all the time (duration of exposure perspective) are associated with lower risks of premarital sexual initiation during adolescence among females. Our results have implications for preventing risky sexual behaviours during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of different combination therapies on oxidative stress markers in HIV infected patients in cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etame Lucten

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study assessed the effect of some highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART, used in the management of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon, on oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (as TBARs, albumin, protein carbonyl content and protein sulfhydryls groups. 85 HIV positive patients (34.8 ± 9.3 years were on three different highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART patients. 65 HIV positive patients (32.2 ± 10.9 years on no treatment (Pre-HAART patients, and 90 non-HIV infected patients (32.6 ± 9.3 years, were the control groups. Plasma TBARs as well as carbonyl levels were significantly higher in HIV patients on HAART compared to pre-HAART patients or non-HIV infected controls. On the other hand, the protein sulfhydryl group content was not different for patients on HAART compared to pre-HAART patients, but both were significantly lower than non-HIV infected controls (P HIV infection therefore increases the oxidative stress process, while antiretroviral combination therapy increased protein oxidation as well as the level of oxidative stress already present in HIV infection.

  18. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfotabong-Atheull, Adolphe; Din, Ndongo; Essomè Koum, Léopold G; Satyanarayana, Behara; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2011-12-06

    Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystems

  19. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert F; Hamman, Saidou M; Morgan, Kenton L; Nkongho, Egbe F; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C

    2016-01-01

    Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires strategies that

  20. An ethical approach to socio-economic information sources in ongoing vulnerability and resilience studies: the Mount Cameroon case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilaria Pannaccione Apa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vulnerability of facing natural and man-made hazards, with the related resilient answers belong to the complex and articulate field of social sciences called ‘Disaster Anthropology’. Vulnerability is generally defined as a weak point in facing an aggressive event that is difficult to manage. Resilience is the subsequent capacity for self-repair after a sustained natural or anthropogenic stress. Consequently, the theoretical model of economic resilience is the ability to restore an economic background that can support the gradual recovery of social benefits following a disaster. Moreover, the presence in the territory of different systems of production (natural eco-systems and/or technical systems should allow multi-resilient communities. The mathematical structure of these economic theorems makes their practical application difficult inside an ethno-anthropological context, as it conflicts with cultural variables of the socio-structural fabric. An example can be given by some urban and rural family structures that are settled around the Mount Cameroon volcano (southwest Cameroon, in which the general psychological pressure increases because of both the constant exposure to natural hazards and the vulnerability arising from its social environment (e.g. castes, forced housing allocation, cultural estrangement to local chiefdom. Therefore, the rational heuristic model to be adopted in this social vulnerability study is performed by several combined analyses that have many interpretive obstacles. In 2009, within FP7-MIA-VITA, the first fieldwork mission for the study of socio-economic development of communities living around Mount Cameroon was launched. This completed 108 interviews across several social groups of different ethnicities and religions. The resulting information is being re-tested and verified from the second fieldwork mission in 2011, for completion of the study area.

  1. Perceptions of consent, permission structures and approaches to the community: a rapid ethical assessment performed in North West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2014-10-02

    Understanding local contextual factors is important when conducting international collaborative studies in low-income country settings. Rapid ethical assessment (a brief qualitative intervention designed to map the ethical terrain of a research setting prior to recruitment of participants), has been used in a range of research-naïve settings. We used rapid ethical assessment to explore ethical issues and challenges associated with approaching communities and gaining informed consent in North West Cameroon. This qualitative study was carried out in two health districts in the North West Region of Cameroon between February and April 2012. Eleven focus group discussions (with a total of 107 participants) were carried out among adult community members, while 72 in-depth interviews included health workers, non-government organisation staff and local community leaders. Data were collected in English and pidgin, translated where necessary into English, transcribed and coded following themes. Many community members had some understanding of informed consent, probably through exposure to agricultural research in the past. Participants described a centralised permission-giving structure in their communities, though there was evidence of some subversion of these structures by the educated young and by women. Several acceptable routes for approaching the communities were outlined, all including the health centre and the Fon (traditional leader). The importance of time spent in sensitizing the community and explaining information was stressed. Respondents held relatively sophisticated understanding of consent and were able to outline the structures of permission-giving in the community. Although the structures are unique to these communities, the role of certain trusted groups is common to several other communities in Kenya and Ethiopia explored using similar techniques. The information gained through Rapid Ethical Assessment will form an important guide for future studies in

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for pregnant women׳s health conditions in Menoua division-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemele, M D; Telefo, P B; Lienou, L L; Tagne, S R; Fodouop, C S P; Goka, C S; Lemfack, M C; Moundipa, F P

    2015-02-03

    In Cameroon, most women use traditional medicine for the treatment of pregnancy and childbirth complaints. In order to identify some of the medicinal plants locally used to alleviate these complaints, an ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in five villages of Menoua Division (West-Cameroon). Interviews were conducted through structured questionnaires among 24 traditional healers and 179 women living either in the town of Dschang or in 4 neighboring villages. After having recorded the interviewee personal information on issues related to medicinal plants utilization, a literature investigation on their therapeutic or pharmacological effects and phytochemical composition was conducted. A total of 88 medicinal plants species used to treat 24 conditions occurring during or after pregnancy and belonging to 70 genera or 34 families were recorded. Maximum medicinal uses of plants are reported for the treatment of the following ailments: swelling of legs and ankles (23%), facilitation of delivery (22%), cleaning of the baby (12%). Most herbal remedies are prepared with the leaves (30%), leaves+stems (28%) and whole plant (23%) as maceration (76%). The majority of women who used medicinal plants were very satisfied (75 %) and it is reported that most of these plants are used in the treatment of women health conditions. Many herbal remedies used for the treatment of pregnant women׳s health conditions in Menoua division-West Cameroon have been revealed. It would therefore be judicious for our government and research institution to evaluate the therapeutic and toxicological potentials of these plants in order to valorize their use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cryptoccocal meningitis in Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients: Diagnosis, frequency and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates susceptibility study to fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammalac Ngouana, T; Dongtsa, J; Kouanfack, C; Tonfack, C; Fomena, S; Mallié, M; Delaporte, E; Boyom, F-Fekam; Bertout, S

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a mycosis encountered especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is fatal in the absence of treatment. Information on epidemiology, diagnosis and susceptibility profile to antifungal drugs, are scarce in Cameroon. Authors evaluated the diagnosis possibilities of the cryptococcal meningitis in Cameroon, and studied the antifungal susceptibility of isolated strains to fluconazole, used as first line treatment of the disease in Cameroon. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 146 cerebrospinal fluids obtained from HIV patients with suspicion of meningitis were analysed. The diagnosis procedure involved macroscopic and cyto-chemical analysis, India ink test, culture on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium and antigen latex agglutination test. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolated strains to fluconazole was done by the E-test(®) method. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis gave 28.08% positive cases. Among these patients, 80% were at stages III and IV and 20% at stage I of the HIV infection, according to the WHO previous classification. Cyto-chemical analysis showed current findings in the case of cryptococcal meningitis. India ink test and latex agglutination test exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity (>94%). Fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing gave MICs lower than 32μg/mL to 92.7% of isolated strains and MICs greater than this value to 7.3% of isolates. These results showed that cryptococcal meningitis remains a real problem among HIV infected patients in Yaoundé. The emergence of fluconazole reduced susceptibility strains is worrying. Nevertheless, efficacy of rapid detection tests is interesting because this will help in rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiretroviral therapy supply chain quality control and assurance in improving people living with HIV therapeutic outcomes in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djobet, M P Ngogang; Singhe, David; Lohoue, Julienne; Kuaban, Christopher; Ngogang, Jeanne; Tambo, Ernest

    2017-04-04

    Evaluation of medication efficacy and safety is an essential guarantee to successful therapeutic outcome in public health practices. However, larger distribution chain supply in developing countries such as Cameroon is often challenged by counterfeit drugs, poor manufacturing, storage and degradation leading to health and patient adverse consequences. Yet, access to supply chain management in strengthening ARVs quality assurance and outcomes remains poorly documented. More than 53,000 patients have been enrolled on free ARVs medications, but little is documented on quality assurance and validity of safety for affected populations along the supply chain management since 2008. The cross sectional study was conducted in ARVs distribution units and centers in central, littoral and south west regions of Cameroon. ARVs drugs samples included Nevirapine, Efavirenz, and fixed dose combinations of Zidovudine + Lamivudine, Lamivudine + Stavudine and Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine. Drugs packaging and labeling was assessed and galenic assays were performed at National Laboratory of quality Control of Medications and Expertise (LANACOME), Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study covered 16 structures located in eight different towns including the central ARVs store, two regional pharmaceutical procurement centers and thirteen HIV approved treatment centers and management units. A total of 35 ARVs products were collected. Only eight ARVs drugs containing Lamivudine and Stavudine presented with white stains on tablets, however these drugs were standard for all other tests performed. The others 28 ARVs products were standards to all assays performed. We concluded that ARVs drugs freely accessible and distributed to PLWHA are of good quality in Cameroon. However, with the increase number of patients under HAART since 2013, adoption of "Test and Treat" approach to reach the 90-90-90 goals and with the implementation of new national antiretroviral regimen guidelines and molecules

  5. Determinants of labor market gender inequalities in Cameroon, Senegal and Mali: the role of human capital and the fertility burden

    OpenAIRE

    KUEPIE Mathias; DZOSSA Anaclet Désiré; KELODJOUE Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of human capital and the fertility burden on labor market inequalities between men and women, in particular as regards access to the most highly paid jobs. The study covers Cameroon, Mali and Senegal, three countries in sub-Saharan Africa with similar socioeconomic characteristics. The findings show that, even with the same level of education as men, women still stand less of a chance of getting into the top job segment, because education is ...

  6. New evidence for the asthenospheric origin of the Cameroon Volcanic Line from 1D shear wave velocities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tokam, AP

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available structure of central Africa and the architecture of Precambrian lithosphere beneath the Congo Basin. In prep. Reusch, A.M., Nyblade, A.A., Wiens, D.A., Shore, P.J., Ateba, B., Tabod. C.T. and Nnange, J.M. 2010. Upper mantle structure beneath Cameroon... of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline, volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent (Lee et al. 1994). The line has been recently investigated using earthquake seismology data (Tabod et al., 1992...

  7. Cholera in Cameroon, 2000-2012: Spatial and Temporal Analysis at the Operational (Health District and Sub Climate Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise C Ngwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent cholera outbreaks have been reported in Cameroon since 1971. However, case fatality ratios remain high, and we do not have an optimal understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, due in part to the diversity of Cameroon's climate subzones and a lack of comprehensive data at the health district level.A unique health district level dataset of reported cholera case numbers and related deaths from 2000-2012, obtained from the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon and World Health Organization (WHO country office, served as the basis for the analysis. During this time period, 43,474 cholera cases were reported: 1748 were fatal (mean annual case fatality ratio of 7.9%, with an attack rate of 17.9 reported cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Outbreaks occurred in three waves during the 13-year time period, with the highest case fatality ratios at the beginning of each wave. Seasonal patterns of illness differed strikingly between climate subzones (Sudano-Sahelian, Tropical Humid, Guinea Equatorial, and Equatorial Monsoon. In the northern Sudano-Sahelian subzone, highest number of cases tended to occur during the rainy season (July-September. The southern Equatorial Monsoon subzone reported cases year-round, with the lowest numbers during peak rainfall (July-September. A spatial clustering analysis identified multiple clusters of high incidence health districts during 2010 and 2011, which were the 2 years with the highest annual attack rates. A spatiotemporal autoregressive Poisson regression model fit to the 2010-2011 data identified significant associations between the risk of transmission and several factors, including the presence of major waterbody or highway, as well as the average daily maximum temperature and the precipitation levels over the preceding two weeks. The direction and/or magnitude of these associations differed between climate subzones, which, in turn, differed from national estimates that ignored subzones

  8. Cholera in Cameroon, 2000-2012: Spatial and Temporal Analysis at the Operational (Health District) and Sub Climate Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise C; Liang, Song; Kracalik, Ian T; Morris, Lillian; Blackburn, Jason K; Mbam, Leonard M; Ba Pouth, Simon Franky Baonga; Teboh, Andrew; Yang, Yang; Arabi, Mouhaman; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent cholera outbreaks have been reported in Cameroon since 1971. However, case fatality ratios remain high, and we do not have an optimal understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, due in part to the diversity of Cameroon's climate subzones and a lack of comprehensive data at the health district level. A unique health district level dataset of reported cholera case numbers and related deaths from 2000-2012, obtained from the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon and World Health Organization (WHO) country office, served as the basis for the analysis. During this time period, 43,474 cholera cases were reported: 1748 were fatal (mean annual case fatality ratio of 7.9%), with an attack rate of 17.9 reported cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Outbreaks occurred in three waves during the 13-year time period, with the highest case fatality ratios at the beginning of each wave. Seasonal patterns of illness differed strikingly between climate subzones (Sudano-Sahelian, Tropical Humid, Guinea Equatorial, and Equatorial Monsoon). In the northern Sudano-Sahelian subzone, highest number of cases tended to occur during the rainy season (July-September). The southern Equatorial Monsoon subzone reported cases year-round, with the lowest numbers during peak rainfall (July-September). A spatial clustering analysis identified multiple clusters of high incidence health districts during 2010 and 2011, which were the 2 years with the highest annual attack rates. A spatiotemporal autoregressive Poisson regression model fit to the 2010-2011 data identified significant associations between the risk of transmission and several factors, including the presence of major waterbody or highway, as well as the average daily maximum temperature and the precipitation levels over the preceding two weeks. The direction and/or magnitude of these associations differed between climate subzones, which, in turn, differed from national estimates that ignored subzones differences in

  9. The implications of wood exploitation for fish smoking on mangrove ecosystem conservation in the South West Province, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mario, G.M.; Njisuh, Z. F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the use of mangrove wood for fish smoking by local people in some localities of the South West (SW) Province of Cameroon may be in conflict with the conservation and sustainability of mangrove ecosystems. With the use of socio-economic surveys, from February to July 2006, we established that the amount of the annual fuel-wood harvest for five study sites was about 102,650 m3 (i.e., an amount equivalent to clearing about 205.3 ha of mangrove forests annually)....

  10. Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of and factors associated with condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecel Pilapil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Young women are more likely to be infected with HIV globally, in sub-Saharan Africa, and in Cameroon. Despite its clear clinical and public health benefits, condom use among HIV-infected women continues to be low. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected women in Cameroon and the factors associated with it. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected young women aged 17–26 years from three semi-urban HIV clinics in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. This study was a subgroup analysis of a previously reported study on inconsistent condom use in HIV-infected and -uninfected youth. Inconsistent condom use was defined as reporting “sometimes” or “never” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with inconsistent condom use. Results: A total of 84 participants were recruited and submitted completed questionnaires for analysis. Median age was 24 years (interquartile range = 22–25 and the median age at HIV diagnosis was 21 years (interquartile range = 20–23. Fifty percent of the participants reported no prior schooling or only primary school education. Overall, 61/84 (73% reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, education to the secondary school level was protective against inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval: 0.04–0.95, and having ≥2 pregnancies was associated with inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 7.52; confidence interval: 1.67–34.00. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of inconsistent condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon, which appears to be associated with lower levels of educational attainment and higher parity. Further larger studies assessing the factors associated with poor condom use in this population are warranted and may inform public health

  11. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ames

    Full Text Available Understanding stakeholders' (parents', communities' and health workers' perspectives of communication about childhood vaccination, including their preferences for its format, delivery and content, is an important step towards designing better communication strategies and ensuring more informed parents. Our objectives were to explore stakeholders' views, experiences and preferences for childhood vaccination communication in Cameroon.In 2014, in the Central and North West Regions of Cameron, we gathered qualitative data for our case study using the following methods: semi structured interviews; observations and informal conversations during routine immunization clinics and three rounds of the National Polio Immunization Campaign; document analysis of reports and mass media communications about vaccination; and a survey of parents. We conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify themes relating to views, experiences and perceptions of vaccination information and its delivery. Survey data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics.All of the parents interviewed felt that vaccinating their child was important, and trusted the information provided by health workers. However, many parents wanted more information. Parents did not always feel that they could ask questions during vaccination appointments. All participants felt that health workers and vaccination clinics were important sources of information. Social mobilisation activities such as door-to-door visits and announcements during religious services were important and accepted ways of communicating information, especially during vaccination campaigns. Information communicated through mass media and text messages was also seen as important. In general, stakeholders believed that more consistent messaging about routine vaccination through community channels would be helpful to remind parents of the importance of routine vaccination during ongoing rounds of vaccination

  12. Evaluation of HIV and AIDS knowledge in rural Cameroon men with the use of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, Hendt Paul; Bakia, Affuenti; Koopman, Hendrik Maria; Kraaij, Vivian; Versteegh, Florens Gerard Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS, the most important health problem in Africa, is the leading cause of death on the continent. Ignorance on HIV/AIDS status will hamper treatment and prevention. To investigate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in a rural area, we performed a questionnaire study on HIV/AIDS knowledge in men living in Banga Bakundu, a rural village in Cameroon. Forty-eight men, aged 17-66 years, were interviewed. They were divided in 2 groups: ≤ 29 years, being those young enough to be able to have knowledge about HIV/AIDS at the time of their first sexual contact, and those > 29 years who weren't. A semi-structured clinical interview was performed to obtain information about socio-demographic characteristics, sexual activity, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its prevention. There is an overall good HIV/AIDS knowledge and what should be done about it. Men with a higher level of education and more HIV/AIDS knowledge seem to take less preventive measures. The differentiation per age group showed that age influenced the data on knowledge and behaviour. Our data are consistent with other studies. Remarkable is the difference in HIV/AIDS knowledge between the 2 age groups, and the relation between HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual habits and prevention. Sufficient HIV/AIDS knowledge did not lead to significant changes in sexual behaviour. The questionnaire showed to provide sufficient information and was easy to use. Further research should be performed.

  13. The profile of patients with obstructive uropathy in Cameroon: case of the Douala General Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Marie Patrice; Toukep, Linda Njonkam; Nzuobontane, Samuel Ekane; Ebana, Hermine Fouda; Ekane, Gregory Halle; Priso, Eugene Belley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive uropathy can lead to irreversible kidney damage. The etiology largely determined by the patient's age can be benign or malignant. This study aimed at determining the profile and outcome of patients with obstructive uropathy in Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional study carried out in the urology unit of the Douala General Hospital, including patients with a diagnosis of obstructive uropathy seen from January 2004 to December 2013. Clinical profile, treatment and outcome data were obtained from patients records. Results Of the 229 patients included 69% were men, mean age 50 ±18 years. Associated comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. Mean haemoglobin 8,40±2,4g/dl, mean GFR 10,3 ±10ml/min, 94 (41%) patients needed emergency dialysis. Symptoms at presentation: asthenia (57%), anorexia (55%), loin pain (37%), vomiting (28%), oedema (20%), and anuria (15%). Urinary tract infection was present in 33 patients. Main aetiologies of obstruction: urolithiasis (35%), begnin prostatic hypertrophy (27%), prostatic cancer (12%), cervical cancer (16%), and congenital malformations (5%). Drainage was effective in 102 (45%) patients, 63 (28%) recovered completely, 91 (41%) were loss to follow up, 49 (22%) died and more women (p = 0.02). Mortality was associated with prostatic cancer (p = 0.000), cervical cancer (p = 0.004) and radiotherapy (p = 0.03). Conclusion Patients with obstructive uropathy presented with significant impaired renal function. Main causes were urinary stones, prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic and cervical cancers. Renal recovery was poor, loss to follow up and mortality high. Specific strategies to target improvement in renal recovery and patient's survival are needed in this patient's group. PMID:27217891

  14. Geochemical Composition of Surface Water in the Mineralized Lom Basin, East Cameroon: Natural and Anthropogenic Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimba, M. E.; Ohba, T.; Nguemhe Fils, S. C.; Wirmvem, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of people in East Cameroon depend on surface water for consumption and domestic purposes. The Lom basin, north of the region, is heavily mineralized especially in gold owing to its regional geological setting. Although research has been done regarding the rock type, age, formation history and reconnaissance gold surveys, surface water investigation in the area has received limited attention. Thus, this study appraises the first regional hydrogeochemical program for environmental assessment of the mineralized Lom basin. Fifty-two representative stream water samples were collected under base flow conditions and analysed for major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ ), major anions (HCO3-, F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, Br-, PO43-, SO42- ) and stable isotopes (δD and δ18O). Calcium and HCO3- were the dominant ions. The chemical facies were CaHCO3 and NaHCO3 indicating surface water draining igneous/metamorphic rocks in hot and humid equatorial climate, resulting in the discordant dissolution of primary silicate minerals. From the isotopic evaluation, the stream water is of meteoric origin, shows negligible evaporation effect and has a common recharge source. The major ion geochemistry demonstrated the potential to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic origins. Distribution trends of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3- and SO42- showed a correlation with the lithology and the occurrence of sulphide minerals associated with hydrothermal gold mineralization in the area. The distribution patterns of NO3- and Cl- reflect pollution from settlement. Overall, the chemistry of stream water in the Lom basin is mainly controlled by rock weathering compared to anthropogenic influence. Surface water quality is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities, and stream sediment collects effectively trace metals resulting from such activities. Hence, geochemical mapping incorporating stream water and stream sediment is of considerable value in future investigations within the Lom basin.

  15. Vegetation structure, carbon sequestration potential and species conservation in four agroforestry systems in Cameroon (Tropical Africa

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    Valery Noiha Noumi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As the rate of forest degradation continues to rise, agroforestry may serve as a way of conserving species and carbon sinks. The aim of this study was to assess agrobiodiversity and carbon sequestration potential in agrosystems in Cameroon. Three age groups of agrosystems were studied. Data were collected in 100x50 m2 quadrates. Density ranged from 53.17±0.08 to 1463±50.11; basal area from 2.07±0.00 to 988.39±16.13 m2/ha; Shannon diversity from 3.3±0.71 to 3.68±0.72; Carbon storage from 12.1±0.27 to 54.65±1.38 t C/ha for 1-10-year-old agrosystems with lowest values in neem; 34.78±0.87 to 71.34±1.6 t C/ha for 10-20-year-old stands with lowest values in cashew; 28.24±0.04 to 108.51±2.46 t C/ha for +20-year-old stands with highest values in eucalyptus; Carbon sequestration potential from 296.7±1.98 to 859.33±10.01 t CO2eq/ha. The highest carbon stocks were found in eucalyptus stands (p<0.05. Several endogenous species, especially Afzelia bipindensis (EN, Leptoderris ledermannii (EN, Mansonia altissima (EN, Entandrophragma cylindricum (VU, Nesogordonia papaverifera (VU, Quassia sanguinea (VU, Vitellaria paradoxa (VU, Afzelia africana (VU, Erythrina senegalensis (LC, Detarium microcarpum (LC, senna spectabilis (LC, were assessed. Other overexploited species, especially Carissa edulis, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Adansonia digitata, Securidaca longepedonculata, were assessed as well. The studied systems are significant CO2eq sinks and refuge centre for agrobiodiversity.

  16. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

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    Arnaud Landry Suffo Kamela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked, milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet, DI (egg white as reference protein, DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus, DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus, DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus, and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus. The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes.

  17. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njang, Diangha Mabel; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Oku, Afiong; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Kum, Awah Paschal; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding stakeholders’ (parents’, communities’ and health workers’) perspectives of communication about childhood vaccination, including their preferences for its format, delivery and content, is an important step towards designing better communication strategies and ensuring more informed parents. Our objectives were to explore stakeholders’ views, experiences and preferences for childhood vaccination communication in Cameroon. Methods In 2014, in the Central and North West Regions of Cameron, we gathered qualitative data for our case study using the following methods: semi structured interviews; observations and informal conversations during routine immunization clinics and three rounds of the National Polio Immunization Campaign; document analysis of reports and mass media communications about vaccination; and a survey of parents. We conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify themes relating to views, experiences and perceptions of vaccination information and its delivery. Survey data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. Results All of the parents interviewed felt that vaccinating their child was important, and trusted the information provided by health workers. However, many parents wanted more information. Parents did not always feel that they could ask questions during vaccination appointments. All participants felt that health workers and vaccination clinics were important sources of information. Social mobilisation activities such as door-to-door visits and announcements during religious services were important and accepted ways of communicating information, especially during vaccination campaigns. Information communicated through mass media and text messages was also seen as important. In general, stakeholders believed that more consistent messaging about routine vaccination through community channels would be helpful to remind parents of the importance of routine vaccination during ongoing

  18. Use of oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essomba, N E; Kedy Koum, D C; Adiogo, D; Ngwe, M I; Coppieters, Y

    2015-06-01

    The use of oral rehydration solutions in our context remains limited. This study was conducted to analyze the rate of this use in Douala, Cameroon and thereby determine the factors associated with it. A cross-sectional survey was administered to parents of children aged five years and younger during a six-month study period. The studied variables focused on the socio-demographic data of the population, data on diarrhoea and its severity, data on oral rehydration salts (ORS), and data related to other interventions for diarrhoea. The chi-square test was used to qualify associations between variables, with the significance level being set at 5%. Overall, 672 people agreed to participate in the study. Among them, 418 (62.2%) correctly defined diarrhoea. When their children develop diarrhoea, the majority of the parents (348, 51.8%) reported seeking hospital assistance before any intervention, while 225 parents (33.5%) preferred the use of ORS first. Four hundred seventy-five parents (70.7%) had heard of ORS and among them 313 (65.9%) had actually given ORS to their children as treatment during these children's most recent episodes of diarrhoea. Of the parents who had given their children ORS, 217 (69.3%) knew how to prepare it, and 122 (39.0%) knew how to administer it. One hundred thirty-five parents (20.1%) had administered metronidazole to treat their children's diarrhoea. The age of the children, the parents' level of education, and the number of children in the household significantly influenced the use or non-use of ORS (respectively, p Rehydration was correctly identified by 234 parents (34.8%) as the purpose of administering ORS. The knowledge and the use of ORS in diarrhoea by the study sample was insufficient. The role of ORS was poorly known. Awareness campaigns can be carried out in order to improve the use of this effective intervention for diarrhoea.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in bakers in Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Nde, Francis; Ngomo, Eliane; Mapoure Njankouo, Yacouba; Njock, Louis Richard

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis among bakers in Douala. A cross-sectional study; the logistic regression model was use to find the risk factors of allergic rhinitis. The study was conducted in 42 bakeries randomly selected among a total of 151 bakeries in the city of Douala. All bakers who consented to participate in the study between 1 May and 31 July 2013. Allergic rhinitis was the outcome of interest. It was defined as the presence of the following symptoms: itchy nose, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and sneezing. During the study period, a total of 273 bakers were invited and 229 finally agreed to participate in this study. Males were the most represented gender with 222 (96.9%) participants. The mean age of the participants was 36.29±8.9 years. Smoking was found in 55 participants (24.5%). The symptoms of allergic rhinitis were observed in 24.5% of participants. Work related nasal symptoms were present in 15% of participants. Sensitisation to wheat flour and α-amylase was found in 16.6% and 8.3% of participants, respectively. The Prick test was positive for mites in 12.2% of participants. After multivariate analysis, sensitisation to flour (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.85 to 8.47) and storage mites (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.45 to 8.18) were the factors independently associated with symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is frequent among bakers in Cameroon. Implementation of preventive measures against inhalation of airborne allergens in bakeries and clinical monitoring of bakers sensitised to wheat flour and mites could help to reduce the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among bakers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Kouojip-Mabou, Alida; Nganou, Christ Nadège; Saijo, Yasuaki; Knapp, Jenny; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2010-07-06

    Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old) were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3%) with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%), 72 (42.8%), and 19 (11.3%) persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 25 (14.9%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early treatment.

  1. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

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    Agathe Nkouawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3% with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined.Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%, 72 (42.8%, and 19 (11.3% persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%, 25 (14.9% and 2 (1.2% of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas.Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic areas for the early treatment.

  2. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Heather; Njang, Diangha Mabel; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Oku, Afiong; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Kum, Awah Paschal; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding stakeholders' (parents', communities' and health workers') perspectives of communication about childhood vaccination, including their preferences for its format, delivery and content, is an important step towards designing better communication strategies and ensuring more informed parents. Our objectives were to explore stakeholders' views, experiences and preferences for childhood vaccination communication in Cameroon. In 2014, in the Central and North West Regions of Cameron, we gathered qualitative data for our case study using the following methods: semi structured interviews; observations and informal conversations during routine immunization clinics and three rounds of the National Polio Immunization Campaign; document analysis of reports and mass media communications about vaccination; and a survey of parents. We conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify themes relating to views, experiences and perceptions of vaccination information and its delivery. Survey data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. All of the parents interviewed felt that vaccinating their child was important, and trusted the information provided by health workers. However, many parents wanted more information. Parents did not always feel that they could ask questions during vaccination appointments. All participants felt that health workers and vaccination clinics were important sources of information. Social mobilisation activities such as door-to-door visits and announcements during religious services were important and accepted ways of communicating information, especially during vaccination campaigns. Information communicated through mass media and text messages was also seen as important. In general, stakeholders believed that more consistent messaging about routine vaccination through community channels would be helpful to remind parents of the importance of routine vaccination during ongoing rounds of vaccination campaigns against

  3. Characterization of occult hepatitis B virus infection among HIV positive patients in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachara, George; Magoro, Tshifhiwa; Mavhandu, Lufuno; Lum, Emmaculate; Kimbi, Helen K; Ndip, Roland N; Bessong, Pascal O

    2017-03-08

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among HIV positive patients varies widely in different geographic regions. We undertook a study to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among HIV infected individuals visiting a health facility in South West Cameroon and characterized occult HBV strains based on sequence analyses. Plasma samples (n = 337), which previously tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), were screened for antibodies against hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) and surface (anti-HBs) antigens followed by DNA extraction. A 366 bp region covering the overlapping surface/polymerase gene of HBV was then amplified in a nested PCR and the amplicons sequenced using Sanger sequencing. The resulting sequences were then analyzed for genotypes and for escape and drug resistance mutations. Twenty samples were HBV DNA positive and were classified as OBI giving a prevalence of 5.9%. Out of these, 9 (45%) were anti-HBs positive, while 10 (52.6%) were anti-HBc positive. Additionally, 2 had dual anti-HBs and anti-HBc reactivity, while 6 had no detectable HBV antibodies. Out of the ten samples that were successfully sequenced, nine were classified as genotype E and one as genotype A. Three sequences possessed mutations associated with lamivudine resistance. We detected a number of mutations within the major hydrophilic region of the surface gene where most immune escape mutations occur. Findings from this study show the presence of hepatitis B in patients without any of the HBV serological markers. Further prospective studies are required to determine the risk factors and markers of OBI.

  4. Introduction of high risk pregnancy care in rural Cameroon: health service research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, R J; Nasah, B T; Mtango, F D

    1988-05-01

    A 3-year study (1982-1985) in Cameroon showed that high-risk pregnancy identification and care could successfully be introduced in rural communities through inexpensive training and supervision of local nurses, particularly when motivation for use of antenatal clinics (ANCs) was provided by the local Community Women's Organization (CWO). 11 communities, all rural except Tsinga, were randomly allocated to Groups I (control) or II. A retrospective baseline survey of ANCs showed that high-risk pregnancy detection had been nonexistent. For both groups, nurses were given 2-week training courses on high-risk identification and family planning. The registers for recording prenatal consultations and deliveries were modified to include recording of risk factors. Special forms were created for reporting on each high-risk case thus identified. These forms proved more difficult for the nurses to complete than the registers. For Group II communities, CWO leaders were recruited to urge women to attend ANCs. 2548 cases of high-risk pregnancy (21.9% of pregnancies) were identified on the special forms, although the number of cases identified in clinic registers was consistently higher. Posttest attendance at ANCs was higher than pretest and significantly higher in areas where CWO motivation had been used. Major risk factors in the identified cases were grand multiparity, teenage pregnancy and previous complicated obstetrics history, although semiurban Tsinga had less grand multiparity and teenage pregnancy and more obesity, diabetes, hypertension and preclampsia. Only 23.4% of the identified cases delivered in the clinics, showing the need for more comprehensive maternal service programs. Since only 5% of the high-risk pregnancy population accepted modern contraceptives after delivery, research is needed on the determinants.

  5. Contentious corporate social responsibility practices by British American tobacco in Cameroon

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    Kingsly Awang Ollong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, tobacco companies have intensified market expansion strategies in several African countries. They have used music to target youths and children. They organised fashion shows to entice women into smoking. They offered kids free cigarettes on the streets and for a very long time undermined efforts by governments to put in place effective tobacco legislation. They actively participated in the smuggling of tobacco products into the continent. Worse still, tobacco companies persuaded some African governments to promote tobacco cultivation as a major source of foreign earnings. And in recent years, the tobacco industry has resorted to using Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR to massage its image and cover its tracks. British American Tobacco (BAT, which is the focus of this paper, had a virtual monopoly in parts of Africa, both in terms of tobacco manufacturing and sales of cigarettes. In eleven African countries BAT had more than a 90% share of the cigarette market. This paper examines some of the health, social and economic impacts of BAT’s activities in Africa from 1985 to 2010 using Cameroon as a case study. The paper concludes that though the full effects of rising tobacco consumption (namely a steep rise in smoking-induced illness and premature death was at the dawn of the 21st century, Africa was already in the grip of a major tobacco epidemic. There is no doubt therefore that, BAT’s heavy footprint on the African continent wreaked havoc on the economy, health and welfare of the people, thus partially contributing to the non-realisation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs that were designed to help the world’s poorest people.

  6. Introduction of an obstetric health information system: results of a pilot study in North Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmo, R; Fenieys, D; Aminou, M; Calvez, T; Gruénais, M-E; Thonneau, P

    2006-12-01

    International safe motherhood programs have placed increasing emphasis on assessing progress in reducing maternal mortality in developing countries. We assess the feasibility and relevance of an obstetric health information system introduced in Maroua urban district in North Cameroon. During the study period, an obstetric observation register was introduced for obstetric data collection, complemented by anthropological case studies on maternal deaths. At the end of the study period, implementation and data collection processes were correctly done, and the overall rate of completion of obstetric registers was 95% (ranging from 82.5% to 98.5% between maternity units). Eight hundred and twenty-six deliveries (n=826) were recorded and evenly distributed over the nine weeks of the study period. Eight women (1%) were transferred from non-surgical to surgical health facilities. Thirteen C-sections (n=13; 1.6%; CI: 0.8-2.7%) mainly in the provincial hospital of Maroua (11/13), and four maternal deaths were recorded, giving a maternal mortality rate of 4/826 (484 for 100,000; CI: 132-1240 for 100,000 deliveries). Nevertheless, anthropological enquiry recorded five maternal deaths during the same study period. Analysis of the geographical origin of these women showed that four of the five came from very remote areas. Rapid analysis and dissemination of results have initiated changes in obstetric practices (introduction of the partograph, modifications in the attitudes of health personnel), and also to the creation of a network between maternity units (those with and without surgical facilities) and provincial health headquarters. The introduction and use of a basic obstetric health information system combined with anthropological survey can provide a relatively accurate assessment of the maternal health situation. Such knowledge would be an excellent basis for implementing obstetric networking and relevant tools for active management of the obstetric pyramid at a regional

  7. Demographic variation and habitat specialization of tree species in a diverse tropical forest of Cameroon

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    David Kenfack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Many tree species in tropical forests have distributions tracking local ridge-slope-valley topography. Previous work in a 50-ha plot in Korup National Park, Cameroon, demonstrated that 272 species, or 63% of those tested, were significantly associated with topography. Methods We used two censuses of 329,000 trees ≥1 cm dbh to examine demographic variation at this site that would account for those observed habitat preferences. We tested two predictions. First, within a given topographic habitat, species specializing on that habitat (‘residents’ should outperform species that are specialists of other habitats (‘foreigners’. Second, across different topographic habitats, species should perform best in the habitat on which they specialize (‘home’ compared to other habitats (‘away’. Species’ performance was estimated using growth and mortality rates. Results In hierarchical models with species identity as a random effect, we found no evidence of a demographic advantage to resident species. Indeed, growth rates were most often higher for foreign species. Similarly, comparisons of species on their home vs. away habitats revealed no sign of a performance advantage on the home habitat. Conclusions We reject the hypothesis that species distributions along a ridge-valley catena at Korup are caused by species differences in trees ≥1 cm dbh. Since there must be a demographic cause for habitat specialization, we offer three alternatives. First, the demographic advantage specialists have at home occurs at the reproductive or seedling stage, in sizes smaller than we census in the forest plot. Second, species may have higher performance on their preferred habitat when density is low, but when population builds up, there are negative density-dependent feedbacks that reduce performance. Third, demographic filtering may be produced by extreme environmental conditions that we did not observe during the census interval.

  8. Seasonality in diabetes in Yaounde, Cameroon: a relation with precipitation and temperature

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    Eric Lontchi-Yimagou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a growing health concern in developing countries, with Cameroon population having an estimated 6% affected. Of note, hospital attendees appear to be increasing all over the country, with fluctuating numbers throughout the annual calendar. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between diabete hospitalization admission rates and climate variations in Yaounde. Methods A retrospectively designed study was conducted in four health facilities of Yaounde (Central Hospital, University teaching hospital, Biyem-Assi and Djoungolo District Hospitals, using medical records from 2000 to 2008. A relationship between diabetes (newly diagnosed diabetes patients or decompensated diabetics hospitalization admissions and climate variations was determined using the “2000–2008” national meteorological database (precipitation and temperature. Results The monthly medians of precipitation and temperature were 154mm and 25 °C, respectively. The month of October received 239mm of precipitation. The monthly medians of diabetic admissions rates (newly diagnosed or decompensated diabetes patients were 262 and 72 respectively. October received 366 newly diagnosed diabetics and 99 decompensated diabetics. Interestingly, diabetic hospitalization admissions rates were higher during the rainy (51 %, 1633/3232 than the dry season, though the difference was non-significant. The wettest month (October reported the highest cases (10 %, 336/3232 corresponding to the month with the highest precipitation level (239mm. Diabetes hospitalization admissions rates varied across health facilities [from 6 % (189/3232 in 2000 to 15 % (474/3232 in 2008]. Conclusion Diabetes is an important epidemiological disease in the city of Yaounde. The variation in the prevalence of diabetes is almost superimposed to that of precipitation; and the prevalence seems increasing during raining seasons in Yaoundé.

  9. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

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    Meekers Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1 identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2 establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003 of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24. Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths

  10. An Investigation of the Attitudes Held by General Education Teachers toward Students with Disabilities in a Pilot Inclusive Education Program in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mngo, Agnes Y.

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: The literature from Cameroon depicts that the implementation of inclusive education is not only in its embryonic stage but faces resistance from educators who are still not accepting of the presence of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. This resistance has been attributed to several factors ranging from…

  11. ‘My "veil" does not go with my jeans’: veiling, fundamentalism, education and women’s agency in northern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the struggle over the Muslim ‘veil’ in public schools, which is related to tensions between the norms of secular democracy and principles of religious tolerance, has also become a topic of debate in Cameroon. I take the life of a young woman, Maimouna, whose life I

  12. Conference on the political economy of Cameroon, historical perspectives = Colloque sur l'‚conomie politique du Cameroun, perspectives historiques : proceedings/contributions Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.L.; Konings, P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This collection comprises the papers, opening speeches, and discussants' notes presented at the conference 'The political economy of Cameroon - historical perspectives', which was held at Leiden from 1-4 June, 1988. The 34 papers were presented in ten sessions, dealing respectively with: The economy

  13. Biome-specific effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the photosynthetic characteristics of trees at a forest-savanna boundary in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Domingues, Tomas; Ishida, F.Y.; Feldpausch, T.R.; Grace, John; Meir, Patrick; Saiz, Gustavo; Sene, Olivier; Schrodt, Franziska; Sonké, Bonaventure; Taedoumg, Herman; Veenendaal, E.M.; Lewis, Simon; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis/nutrient relationships of proximally growing forest and savanna trees were determined in an ecotonal region of Cameroon (Africa). Although area-based foliar N concentrations were typically lower for savanna trees, there was no difference in photosynthetic rates between the two

  14. An Exploratory Multi-Method Analysis of Cybercrime Perpetrators' Perceptions to Combat Cyber Crime in Sub Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuta, Eric Agwe-Mbarika

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has projected much of Africa as a haven for cybercrime perpetration. This view was widely evidenced in Cameroon, a country regarded as a miniature Africa due to its diverse socio-cultural, economic and political characteristics. In spite of efforts by government to curb cybercrime, the perpetration rate has not declined due to a…

  15. Land-use related organic matter dynamics in North Cameroon soils assessed by C-13 analysis of soil organic matter fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J; Obale-Ebanga, F; Meijer, HAJ

    Topsoil samples from cultivated and adjacent non-cultivated fields on three major agricultural soils in North Cameroon were fractionated into particle-size fractions that were analysed subsequently for their C and C-13 contents. The aim was to obtain further insight into the dynamics of soil organic

  16. Correlation between the Availability of Resources and Efficiency of the School System within the Framework of the Implementation of Competency-Based Teaching Approaches in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esongo, Njie Martin

    2017-01-01

    The study takes an in-depth examination of the extent to which the availability of resources relates to the efficiency of the school system within the framework of the implementation of competency-based teaching approaches in Cameroon. The study employed a mix of probability sampling approaches, namely simple, cluster and stratified random…

  17. Iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B12 status increased among women and children in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon, one year after introducing fortified wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few data, to our knowledge, are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y ...

  18. Win-wins in forest product value chains? : how governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as nuts, leaves, resins, barks and honey from Cameroon have medicinal, food, energy and cultural uses. This study examines the arrangements governing eight such NTFP value chains, worth over 32 million US$ annually with around 34,000 people active,

  19. Win-wins in forest product value chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as nuts, leaves, resins, barks and honey have medicinal, food, energy and cultural uses. This study examines eight such NTFP value chains from Cameroon, sold in markets locally and exported worldwide. It finds that these products are more valuable than

  20. Serotype Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus in Livestock without History of Vaccination in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, A; Ahmed, Z; Pomeroy, L W; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G R; Moritz, M; Dickmu, S; Abdoulkadiri, S; Arzt, J; Garabed, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2016-02-01

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Traditional African Religions and Their Influences on the Worldviews of Bangwa People of Cameroon: Expanding the Cultural Horizons of Study Abroad Students and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemanu, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    This essay explores the traditional African religious beliefs and practices of the people of Bangwa in the Southwestern region of Cameroon in order to uncover how those beliefs influence their thought processes and worldviews. In the course of rethinking and re-examining their belief systems and their traditional religious practices, the following…

  2. The interactions of human mobility and farming systems and impacts on biodiversity and soil quality in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and the drop in the returns from the major cash crop (coffee) for small farmers are the main drivers that have influenced the farming systems and mobility of farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon (WHC). The main objective of this research activity was to determine the

  3. The North South Paleozoic to Quaternary trend of alkaline magmatism from Niger Nigeria to Cameroon: Complex interaction between hotspots and Precambrian faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngako, Vincent; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Aka, Festus Tongwa; Affaton, Pascal; Nnange, Joseph Metuk

    2006-07-01

    The alkaline magmatism from Niger-Nigeria to Cameroon forms large scale magmatic provinces across the African plate. It displays a N-S trend from Aïr in Niger to Jos Plateau in Nigeria changing southeastwards towards Cameroon. We have compiled recent petrological, geochemical and structural data on these magmatic provinces. The data show that although there is a general age decrease from one province to another (407 ± 8 Ma in Aïr to ⩽66 Ma in Cameroon), there is no age migration in any given province, except in the Nigeria province (Younger Granites) where a rough NE-SW age decrease is observed. The relationship between these different magmatic provinces that share similar geochemical data, added to the SW-NE parallel trends of Nigeria, Benue Trough and Cameroon Line, is difficult to explain in terms of a simple northward motion of the African plate over a single hotspot. In the light of recent tectonic models, we suggest complex interaction between, on the one hand, at least two mantle plumes acting in succession (including the St. Helena mantle plume) and, on the other hand, lithospheric fractures that induce oblique alignments of new magmatic complexes.

  4. Geochemistry of the volcanic rocks from Bioko Island (“Cameroon Hot Line”: Evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction

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    Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioko Island (3008 m a.s.l is located in the presently more active volcanic zone of the Cameroon Line and composed essentially of alkaline basalts and hawaiites, and lesser mugearites. The rocks show microlitic porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of olivine (83% < Fo < 87% and clinopyroxene in a matrix of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and oxides. Hawaiites and mugearites also include phenocrysts of plagioclase (An62-67Ab35-32Or3-1. Major element variation diagrams show an increase in SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O with increasing MgO for the studied rock groups. The rocks are characterized by low (86Sr/87Sri ratios (0.70320–0.70406, high ɛNd(t values (2.56–4.33 and high (206Pb/204Pbi ratios (20.032–20.035 values. Basalts are enriched in LILE and LREE, and have (Hf/SmN = 0.57–1.16. These geochemical signatures are similar to those of the Mount Cameroon rocks, and might be attributed to low degrees of partial melting from a garnet-amphibole-bearing mantle source. The trace elements and isotopic compositions suggest that the parental magma source might have involved HIMU- and EM1-components.

  5. Perspective of Valorization of Logs Residues from Sustainable Management Forest in Form of Electrical Energy in East Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingue Sobgoum, Joseph (SFID GROUPE ROUGIER Cameroon, P.O. Box 1343, Douala (Cameroon)). E-mail: jskingue@yahoo.fr

    2008-10-15

    In the context of advanced valorization of the log residues in the forests of great Congo basin, particularly in East Cameroon, techniques of cogeneration should be applied in order to develop this type of biomass in form of electricity profitable to industries and local populations. Forest concessions FMU (Forest Management Unit) assigned by the Cameroon government state do not promote logs residues resulting from forestry site. These woods are abandoned in forest and parks, whereas they should contribute to production of green energy, alternative to oil/diesel which is responsible for greenhouse effect. Enquiries on diesel use for electrical generator sets show 75000 litres consumption per day in the province; That is to say 20 563 466 Euros per year. In spite of this very high cost, only 40% of the population have access to electricity and the slice that benefit from this is regularly victim of power cut. Considering this assessment, it is evident from our study, circumscribes of 30 forest concessions FMU in activity belonging to 15 forest industries that potential volume of logs residues exploitable in form of electrical and thermal energy is 614 522 m3 per year, equivalent to 361 229 tonnes of residues; giving a possibility in electrical energy of 361 229 MWh and 722 400 MWh in thermal energy

  6. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  7. Burden of human scabies in sub-Saharan African prisons: Evidence from the west region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Sangare, Abdoulaye; Moguieu Bogne, Léonnelle-Lynda; Sieleunou, Isidore; Adegbidi, Hugues; Tameyi Tatsa, Joël; Moyou Somo, Roger

    2018-02-01

    There is little data on the profile and magnitude of scabies in sub-Saharan African prisons. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of scabies in prisons of the west region of Cameroon. We conducted a cross-sectional study from March to August 2014, and consecutively recruited volunteer detainees of three randomly selected prisons in the West Region of Cameroon. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings after assessment by two experienced and well-trained dermatologists. We enrolled 755 prisoners, 17 (2%) of whom were women. Their mean age was 32 ± 12 years. There were 242 cases (32%) of scabies, with significantly more cases in the most crowded prison (P 10 (aOR 1.89; P = 0.002), but not age, duration of incarceration, number of baths/week and washing/week, were independent drivers of scabies occurrence. Almost one-third of prisoners suffered from scabies in our prisons. A low educational level, the sharing of clothes/bedding and number of detainees/cell > 10 were independent determinants of the disease. Urgent measures must be undertaken to reduce the burden of scabies in our prisons. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus: Indigenous naming, indigenous diagnosis and self-management in an African setting: the example from Cameroon

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    Awah Paschal K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to examine how the indigenous naming, indigenous self-diagnosis and management of diabetes evolved with awareness in order to develop a socially oriented theoretical model for its care. Methods The data was collected through a one-year extended participant observation in Bafut, a rural health district of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 72 participants in a rural health district of Cameroon (men and women with type 2 diabetes. We used participant observation to collect data through focus group discussions, in depth interviews and fieldwork conversations. The method of analysis entailed a thick description, thematic analysis entailing constant comparison within and across FGD and across individual participants and content analysis. Results The core concepts identified were the evolution of names for diabetes and the indigenous diagnostic and self-management procedures. Participants fell into one of two naming typologies: (a Naming excluding any signs and symptoms of diabetes; (b naming including signs and symptoms of diabetes. Participants fell into two typologies of diagnostic procedures: (a those that use indigenous diagnostic procedures for monitoring and controlling diabetes outcomes and b those that had initially used it only for diagnosis and continued to use them for self management. These typologies varied according to how participants' awareness evolved and the impact on self-diagnosis and management. Conclusion The evolution of names for diabetes was an important factor that influenced the subsequent self-diagnosis and management of diabetes in both traditional and modern biomedical settings.

  9. Integration of HIV services into the National Tuberculosis Program of Cameroon: the experience of the Littoral Province

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    Christoph Josef Hemmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the implementation of collaborative HIV/TB activities recommended by the World Health Organization in the Littoral Province of Cameroon from 2007 to 2009. Methods: Data from the tuberculosis (TB and HIV registers of 30 health facilities (basic management units for TB from 2007 to 2009 were analysed. During this time period, standard operating procedures for antituberculous therapy, HIV testing of TB patients, and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV positive TB patients, had been introduced and monitored. Measures had been taken to ensure the continuous availability of HIV test reagents and cotrimoxazole, and charges for HIV tests and cotrimoxazole had been abolished. Results: The HIV testing rate rose from 55.0% in 2007 to 91.7% in 2009 (P < 0.000 1. The cotrimoxazole prescribing rate in TB/HIV co-infected patients increased from 76.1% in 2008 to 93.5% in 2009 (P < 0.000 1. The mortality of newly-recruited TB patients fell from 7.2% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2009 (P < 0.000 1. Conclusions: A structured approach towards integration of HIV and TB services effectively improves HIV case detection and cotrimoxazole prescription among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Cameroon. This approach can achieve a significant reduction of the mortality in this patient group.

  10. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  11. Initiation of a medical genetics service in sub-Saharan Africa: experience of prenatal diagnosis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Tekendo, Cedrik Ngongang; Sama, Dohbit Julius; Zambo, Huguette; Dahoun, Sophie; Béna, Frédérique; Morris, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis (PND) has laid the foundation of the first medical genetic service in Cameroon. Cross-sectional descriptive study, illustrating some aspects of the genetic service using a small 24-months PND experience. The service began with a medical geneticist who had to follow-up the building and equipments supplies of the diagnosis laboratory; and to personally perform genetic consultations, molecular experiments and post-results counseling. PND was indicated for sickle cell disease (SCD) in 33 cases (55%) and chromosomal anomalies in 27 cases (45%). With international collaboration, DNA analysis revealed 6 SCD-affected foetuses (20.7%); QF-PCR (N=25) and full karyotype (N=8) analysis revealed cases of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Following PND success, national effort granted more human and material resources to improve the service. The preliminary experience was made possible by three factors: 1) the availability of a trained Cameroonian medical geneticist 2) the availability of obstetricians trained in fetal medicine and 3) advocacy initiatives at national and international levels, which have proven invaluable for advice, training, sourcing of materials, and back-up reference diagnostic laboratory. The practice of medical genetics, involving prenatal genetic diagnosis of sickle cell disease and chromosomal anomalies, is possible in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Community-based peer support significantly improves metabolic control in people with Type 2 diabetes in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assah, F K; Atanga, E N; Enoru, S; Sobngwi, E; Mbanya, J C

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a community-based multilevel peer support intervention in addition to usual diabetes care on improving glycaemic levels, blood pressure and lipids in patients with Type 2 diabetes in Yaoundé, Cameroon. A total of 96 subjects with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes (intervention group) and 96 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited and followed up over 6 months. The intervention subjects underwent a peer support intervention through peer-led group meetings, personal encounters and telephone calls. Both intervention subjects and controls continued their usual clinical care. HbA1c , blood pressure, blood lipids and self-care behaviours were measured at 0 and 6 months. There was significant reduction in HbA1c in the intervention group [-33 mmol/mol (-3.0%)] compared with controls [-14 mmol/mol (-1.3%)]; P metabolic control in patients with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes in Yaoundé, Cameroon. This could provide a model for optimizing diabetes care and control in other settings with limited healthcare and financial resources. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  13. Assessing the accessibility of HIV care packages among tuberculosis patients in the Northwest Region, Cameroon

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    Miguel San

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection is a major source of morbidity and mortality globally. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that HIV counselling and testing be offered routinely to TB patients in order to increase access to HIV care packages. We assessed the uptake of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC, antiretroviral (ART and co-trimoxazole preventive therapies (CPT among TB patients in the Northwest Region, Cameroon. Methods A retrospective cohort study using TB registers in 4 TB/HIV treatment centres (1 public and 3 faith-based for patients diagnosed with TB between January 2006 and December 2007 to identify predictors of the outcomes; HIV testing/serostatus, ART and CPT enrolment and factors that influenced their enrolment between public and faith-based hospitals. Results A total of 2270 TB patients were registered and offered pre-HIV test counselling; 2150 (94.7% accepted the offer of a test. The rate of acceptance was significantly higher among patients in the public hospital compared to those in the faith-based hospitals (crude OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.33 - 2.92 and (adjusted OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.24 - 2.97. HIV prevalence was 68.5% (1473/2150. Independent predictors of HIV-seropositivity emerged as: females, age groups 15-29, 30-44 and 45-59 years, rural residence, previously treated TB and smear-negative pulmonary TB. ART uptake was 50.3% (614/1220 with 17.2% (253/1473 of missing records. Independent predictors of ART uptake were: previously treated TB and extra pulmonary TB. Finally, CPT uptake was 47.0% (524/1114 with 24% (590/1114 of missing records. Independent predictors of CPT uptake were: faith-based hospitals and female sex. Conclusion PITC services are apparently well integrated into the TB programme as demonstrated by the high testing rate. The main challenges include improving access to ART and CPT among TB patients and proper reporting and monitoring of

  14. Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofeu, Casimir Ledoux; Warszawski, Josiane; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Penda, Ida Calixte; Tetang Ndiang, Suzie; Guemkam, Georgette; Makwet, Nicaise; Owona, Félicité; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Tchendjou, Patrice; Texier, Gaëtan; Tchuente, Maurice; Faye, Albert; Tejiokem, Mathurin Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (−2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are

  15. Mortality risk factors among HIV-exposed infants in rural and urban Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ragna S; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Orock, Sammy Oben; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Hartdorff, Caroline M; Bakia, Affuenti; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2015-02-01

    HIV-exposed infants, including those who do not become infected, have higher morbidity and mortality rates than HIV unexposed infants. The underlying mechanisms of this difference are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for mortality among HIV-exposed (infected as well as uninfected) infants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Cameroon. We analysed the data from 319 mother-infant pairs included in a PMTCT programme at a rural and an urban hospital between 2004 and 2012. The programme offered free formula feeding, monthly follow-up visits and antiretroviral therapy (ART) according to national PMTCT guidelines. Mother-infant pairs were divided in three study groups, based on year of recruitment and study site: (I) rural hospital, 2004-07; (II) rural hospital, 2008-12; (III) urban hospital, 2008-12. Two hundred and eighty-five medical records were included in the final analysis. Infant mortality rates were 23.9%, 20.0% and 5.3% in group I, II and III, respectively (P = 0.02). Hazard ratios of infant mortality were 6.4 (P < 0.001) for prematurity, 4.6 (P = 0.04) for no maternal use of ARTs, 5.6 (P = 0.025) for mixed feeding, 2.7 for home deliveries (P = 0.087) and 0.4 (P = 0.138) for urban study group. In this programme, prematurity, no ART use, and the practice of mixed feeding were independent predictors of infant mortality. Mixed feeding and not using ART increased the hazard of death, probably through its increased risk of HIV infection. Although mortality rates were significantly higher in the rural area, rural setting was not a risk factor for infant mortality. These findings may contribute to the development of tailor-made programmes to reduce infant mortality rates among HIV-exposed infants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Childhood Diarrhea Determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross Sectional Study of Tiko-Cameroon

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    Ayuk Betrand Tambe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death among children under five years globally. Nearly one in five child deaths, about 1.5 million each year, are due to diarrhea. It kills more young children than Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, malaria and measles combined. World Health Organization has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhea in all geographical areas. The main research objectives were to estimate the prevalence of diarrhea and identify factors associated with diarrheal diseases in Tiko city in Cameroon. Method: The present study was a cross-sectional community household survey which was conducted in Tiko town from 1st to 31st of August 2012. With the use of a questionnaire, a total of 602 households that had at least one child under five years of age were interviewed. Mothers/caregivers were questioned on the morbidity of diarrhea and the logistic regression model was employed to examine the determinants of childhood diarrhea. Both univariable and multivariable data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 23.8% and children under 24 months were highly affected. We found children using the main toilet and other types of toilet facilities such as bushes, diaper, and streams (OR: 0.194; p < 0.001, 95% CI and usage of narrow-mouth container for storage of drinking water (OR: 0.492; p < 0.001, 95% CI less likely to suffer from diarrhea. In contrast, higher rates of diarrhea prevalence were seen in children from households with two or more siblings (OR: 1.222; p < 0.001, 95% CI and whose mothers/caregivers never had the knowledge of safe sources of drinking water (OR: 1.849; p < 0.01, 95% CI. Conclusion: Childhood diarrhea is a public health problem in Tiko city. Hence, interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence should take into consideration the integration of family planning

  17. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon

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    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years. Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5 is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50. Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care

  18. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Z K; Nsagha, Sarah M; Njunda, Anna L; Assob, Jules C N; Tabah, Earnest N; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O O; Nde, Peter F; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2011-03-01

    Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0). The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 74.4-81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1%) respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7-86.5%). Four hundred and three (83.9%) participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7-87.3%). A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9-88.4%) participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%-75.5%) participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1) and Boyo (4.8) divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing in the

  19. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon

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    Dickson S. Nsagha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0. The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 74.4-81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1% respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7-86.5%. Four hundred and three (83.9% participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7-87.3%. A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9-88.4% participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%-75.5% participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1 and Boyo (4.8 divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening in Cameroon: Interobserver Agreement on the Interpretation of Digital Cervicography Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Simon; Parham, Groesbeck; Benjamin, Nkoum; Nulah, Kathleen; Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Bradford, Leslie; Sando, Zacharie; Shields, Ray; Welty, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The World Health Organization recommends visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In Cameroon, we use digital cervicography (DC) to capture images of the cervix after VIA. This study evaluated interobserver agreement of DC results, compared DC with histopathologic results, and examined interobserver agreement among screening methods. Three observers, blinded to each other's interpretations, evaluated 540 DC photographs as follows: (1) negative/positive for acetowhite lesions or cancer and (2) assigned a presumptive diagnosis of histopathologic lesion grade in the 91 cases that had a histopathologic diagnosis. Observer A was the actual screening nurse; B, a reproductive health nurse; C, a gynecologic oncologist; and D, the histopathologic diagnosis. We compared inter-rater agreement of DC impressions among observers A, B, and C, and with D, with Cohen kappas. For interpretations of DC, (negative/positive) strengths of agreement of paired observers were the following: A/B, moderate [K, 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.61], A/C, fair (K, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.29-0.44), and B/C, moderate (K, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.37-0.53). For presumptive pathologic grading, strengths of agreement for weighted Ks were as follows: A/B, moderate (K, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28-0.56); A/C, fair (K, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.20-0.46); B/C, fair (K, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.67); A/D, moderate (K, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45-0.74); B/D, moderate (K, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.46-0.70); and C/D, moderate (K, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37-0.63). Interobserver agreement of DC interpretations was mostly moderate among the 3 observers, between them and histopathology, and comparable to that of other visual-based screening methods, i.e., VIA, cytology, or colposcopy.

  1. Children's daily activities and knowledge acquisition: A case study among the Baka from southeastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Sandrine; Duda, Romain; Hewlett, Barry; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-12-24

    The acquisition of local knowledge occurs through complex interactions between individual and contextual characteristics: as context changes, so it changes the acquisition of knowledge. Contemporary small-scale societies facing rapid social-ecological change provide a unique opportunity to study the relation between social-ecological changes and the process of acquisition of local knowledge. In this work, we study children's involvement in subsistence related activities (i.e., hunting and gathering) in a context of social-ecological change and discuss how such involvement might condition the acquisition of local knowledge during childhood. We interviewed 98 children from a hunter-gatherer society, the Baka, living in two different villages in southeastern Cameroon and assessed their involvement in daily activities. Using interviews, we collected self-reported data on the main activities performed during the previous 24 h. We describe the frequency of occurrence of daily activities during middle childhood and adolescence and explore the variation in occurrence according to the sex, the age group, and the village of residency of the child. We also explore variation according to the season in which the activity is conducted and to the predicted potential of the activity for the acquisition of local knowledge. Baka children and adolescents engage in subsistence-related activities (i.e., hunting and gathering) and playing more frequently than in other activities (i.e., traditional tales or schooling). Gender differences in children's subsistence activities emerge at an early age. Engagement in activities also varies with age, with adolescents spending more time in agricultural activities, modern leisure (i.e., going to bars), and socializing than younger children. When conducting similar activities, adolescents use more complex techniques than younger children. Subsistence activities, which present a high potential for transmission of local knowledge, continue to be

  2. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

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    Rose Lydie Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  3. Operational barriers to the implementation of multidrug therapy and leprosy elimination in Cameroon

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    Nsagha Dickson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization targeted to eliminate leprosy from the world with multidrug therapy (MDT by 2000. But, leprosy remains a problem in Essimbiland of Menchum Division of Cameroon, with a prevalence of 1.7/10,000 and high rate of case detection in children. Aims: To assess knowledge and practices on the cure of leprosy, treatment duration, drug availability and problems faced by leprosy patients acquiring drugs in order to enhance MDT implementation and leprosy elimination in Menchum and Boyo divisions. Methods: Observational study in which a structured questionnaire was administered to leprosy patients, their contacts and a control group. Results: 480 respondents were interviewed and 405 (84.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.6-87.2% knew that leprosy can be cured. These respondents comprised 166 (92.2% of 180 contacts, 129 (93.5% of 138 patients and 110 (67.9% of 162 controls. Two hundred and fourteen (44.6% (95% CI: 40.1-48.9% respondents knew that leprosy treatment is free, comprising of 110 (51.4% patients, 99 (46.3% contacts and five (2.3% controls. A statistically significant difference in the knowledge on free treatment of leprosy was found to exist between leprosy patients, contacts and controls, with leprosy patients having a better knowledge (79.71% (95% CI: 73-86.42%, followed by contacts (55.0% (95% CI: 47.73-62.26% and controls (3.1% (95% CI: 0.43-5.77% (P = 0.00. Pertinent problems faced by patients in getting MDT included distant health facilities and poor road network (91[19.0%], lack of confidence in treatment (56 [11.7%], MDT shortage (45 [9.4%], few health facilities (52 [10.8%], gratification demands (25 [5.2%], disturbance from other illnesses (24 [5.0], ignorance (21 [4.4%] and poor relationship with nurses (24 [5.0%]. Conclusion: Patients still face problems in getting free MDT. Better MDT implementation and leprosy elimination strategies are proposed.

  4. High mosquito burden and malaria transmission in a district of the city of Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Defo-Talom, Blaise; Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Tene-Fossog, Billy; Ndo, Cyrille; Lehman, Leopold Gustave; Tchuinkam, Timoléon; Kengne, Pierre; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2012-10-30

    Rapid demographic growth in Douala city, Cameroon, has resulted in profound ecological and environmental changes. Although demographic changes can affect anopheline mosquito breeding sites, there is a lack of understanding about the epidemiological impact that such changes might have on vector ecology and malaria transmission. A 12-month entomological study was conducted in a highly populated district of Douala called Ndogpassi. Adult mosquitoes were collected using two methods: 1) human landing catches (HLC); and 2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps; these methods were used twice monthly from January to December 2011. Mosquito genus and species were identified with morphological and molecular diagnostic tools. The sampling efficiency of the CDC light trap and HLC were compared. Anopheles gambiae infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected using ELISA. Susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin insecticides were also determined. A total of 6923 mosquitoes were collected by HLC (5198) and CDC light traps (1725). There was no equivalence in the sampling efficiency between light traps and human landing catches (P > 0.01). With 51% of the total, Culex was the most common, followed by Anopheles (26.14%), Mansonia (22.7%) and Aedes (0.1%). An. gambiae ss (M form) comprised ~98% of the total anophelines collected. An. gambiae had a biting rate of 0.25 to 49.25 bites per human per night, and was the only species found to be infected with P. falciparum. A P. falciparum infection rate of 0.5% was calculated (based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using the circumsporozoite surface protein). The entomological inoculation rate was estimated at 31 infective bites per annum. Insecticide susceptibility tests on An. gambiae females revealed a mortality rate of 33%, 76% and 98% for DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. The West African kdr allele (L1014F) was detected in 38 of the 61 An. gambiae analyzed (62.3%). The present

  5. High mosquito burden and malaria transmission in a district of the city of Douala, Cameroon

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    Antonio-Nkondjio Christophe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid demographic growth in Douala city, Cameroon, has resulted in profound ecological and environmental changes. Although demographic changes can affect anopheline mosquito breeding sites, there is a lack of understanding about the epidemiological impact that such changes might have on vector ecology and malaria transmission. Methods A 12-month entomological study was conducted in a highly populated district of Douala called Ndogpassi. Adult mosquitoes were collected using two methods: 1 human landing catches (HLC; and 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC light traps; these methods were used twice monthly from January to December 2011. Mosquito genus and species were identified with morphological and molecular diagnostic tools. The sampling efficiency of the CDC light trap and HLC were compared. Anopheles gambiae infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected using ELISA. Susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin insecticides were also determined. Results A total of 6923 mosquitoes were collected by HLC (5198 and CDC light traps (1725. There was no equivalence in the sampling efficiency between light traps and human landing catches (P > 0.01. With 51% of the total, Culex was the most common, followed by Anopheles (26.14%, Mansonia (22.7% and Aedes (0.1%. An. gambiae ss (M form comprised ~98% of the total anophelines collected. An. gambiae had a biting rate of 0.25 to 49.25 bites per human per night, and was the only species found to be infected with P. falciparum. A P. falciparum infection rate of 0.5% was calculated (based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using the circumsporozoite surface protein. The entomological inoculation rate was estimated at 31 infective bites per annum. Insecticide susceptibility tests on An. gambiae females revealed a mortality rate of 33%, 76% and 98% for DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. The West African kdr allele (L1014F was detected in 38 of

  6. One year survey of human rotavirus strains suggests the emergence of genotype G12 in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndze, Valentine N; Papp, Hajnalka; Achidi, Eric A; Gonsu, Kamga H; László, Brigitta; Farkas, Szilvia; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Béla; Esona, Mathew D; Bowen, Michael D; Bányai, K; Gentsch, Jon R; Odama, Abena M T

    2013-08-01

    In this study the emergence of rotavirus A genotype G12 in children G genotyped by reverse transcriptase PCR. Six different rotavirus VP7 genotypes were detected, including G1, G2, G3, G8, G9, and G12 in combinations with P[4], P[6] and P[8] VP4 genotypes. Genotype G12 predominated in combination with P[8] (54.1%) and P[6] (10.4%) genotypes followed by G1P[6] (8.2%), G3P[6] (6.7%), G2P[4] (5.9%), G8P[6] (3.7%), G2P[6] (0.7%), G3P[8] (0.7%), and G9P[8] (0.7%). Genotype P[6] strains in combination with various G-types represented a substantial proportion (N=44, 32.6%) of the genotyped strains. Partially typed strains included G12P[NT] (2.2%); G3P[NT] (0.7%); G(NT)P[6] (1.5%); and G(NT)P[8] (0.7%). Mixed infections were found in five specimens (3.7%) in several combinations including G1+ G12P[6], G2+ G3P[6] + P[8], G3+ G8P[6], G3 + G12P[6] + P[8], and G12P[6] +P[8]. The approximately 10% relative frequency of G12P[6] strains detected in this study suggests that this strain is emerging in Cameroon and should be monitored carefully as rotavirus vaccine is implemented in this country, as it shares neither G- nor P-type specificity with strains in the RotaTeq® and Rotarix® vaccines. These findings are consistent with other recent reports of the global spread and increasing epidemiologic importance of G12 and P[6] strains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. “…Nothing’s lost. Or else, all is translation. And every bit of us is lost in it…” Informal collaborative learning amongst university students in Cameroon : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tchoumbou Ngantchop, Michel Auguste

    2017-01-01

    Cameroon university students are drawn to informal small group talks as a highly valued learning strategy, particularly in relation to assessment. This research investigates this practice in-depth as an ‘instance in action,’ with academic, social and cultural implications in the life of the average university learner in Cameroon. Showing the methodological limitations of current discourses on student group talks in higher education teaching and learning, the study draws from bakhtinian ‘dialo...

  8. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon.

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    Robert F Kelly

    Full Text Available Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases.A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon.Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk.Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires

  9. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

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    Nfotabong-Atheull Adolphe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region, 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45% in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp. and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb. Wurmb. purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to

  10. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of Malartin and Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination against Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Dibanda, Southwest Cameroon

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    Helen Kuokuo Kimbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin derivatives are now the most potent and rapidly acting antimalarials. The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo efficacy and tolerability of a combination of Malartin (an artesunate and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Dibanda, Cameroon. A total of 197 subjects were recruited into the study and administered Malartin for 3 days and SP as a single dose on day 0. Only 174 of the subjects were successfully followed up on days 3, 7, and 14. The overall success rate of the drug combination was 92.53%. Parasite density decreased during the follow-up period in different age groups, sexes, and social classes. The prevalence of anaemia decreased from 22.99% at enrolment to 9.77% on day 14, and the difference was significant (P<0.05 on all days of followup. The drug combination did not give rise to any serious side effects.

  12. An Economic Analysis of Boko Haram’s Activities in the Chad-Cameroon-Nigeria Border Area

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    TAMBA Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is fast becoming a worldwide phenomenon with about 25% of attacks committed in developing countries. These attacks devastate societies causing huge economic loss with negative growth effects. Recent attacks suspectively conducted by Boko Haram in the north of Nigeria and along its border with Cameroon and Chad are already inflicting damage to local economies with a general drop in savings, investment, trade and a strain on domestic budgets. Poverty and exclusion generate dissidents and reactionary groups activities such as Boko Haram. But, the historical background permits to understand the emergency and the development of some of them. Tackling the Boko Haram threat requires a concerted multinational approach with a key socioeconomic component that incorporates the fact that conflict thrives better in circumstances of poverty and inequality.

  13. Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoh, L N; Shepherd, M D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults who had a prescription for a solid oral dosage form of antibiotic medications were developed and evaluated. The researchers conceptualized the educational messages while a local artist produced the visual aids. Seventy-eight female ambulatory patients were evaluated for comprehension and compliance with antibiotic prescription instructions. The study was conducted in three health centers in Cameroon, West Africa and followed a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up format for three groups: two experimental, and one control. All participants were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups, 26 patients to each group. Subjects in the experimental groups received visual aids alone or visual aids plus an Advanced Organizer. A comparison of the three groups showed that subjects in the experimental groups scored significantly higher than the control group in both the comprehension and compliance measures.

  14. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.

  15. Algorithmic Optimal Management of a Potable Water Distribution System: Application to the Primary Network of Bonaberi (Douala, Cameroon

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    Zineb Simeu-Abazi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of a potable water distribution system requires the control of the reference (standard data, the control points, control of the drainage parameters (pressure, flow, etc. and maintenance parameters. The control of the mentioned data defines the network learning process [1]. Besides classic IT functions of acquisition, storage and data processing, a geographical information system (GIS can be used as the basis for an alarm system, allowing one to identify and to localize the presence of water leaks in the network [2]. In this article we propose an algorithm coupling the various drainage parameters for the management of the network. The algorithm leads to an optimal management of leaks. An application is in progress on the primary network in the region of Bonaberi in Douala, the largest city of Cameroon.

  16. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Association with Opportunistic Infections, Depression, ART Regimen and Side Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Y Fonsah

    Full Text Available Following global efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART access in Sub-Saharan Africa, ART coverage among HIV-infected Cameroonians increased from 0% in 2003 to 22% in 2014. However, the success of current HIV treatment programs depends not only on access to ART, but also on retention in care and good treatment adherence. This is necessary to achieve viral suppression, prevent virologic failure, and reduce viral transmission and HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Previous studies in Cameroon showed poor adherence, treatment interruption, and loss to follow-up among HIV+ subjects on ART, but the factors that influence ART adherence are not well known. In the current cross-sectional study, patient/self-reported questionnaires and pharmacy medication refill data were used to quantify ART adherence and determine the factors associated with increased risk of non-adherence among HIV-infected Cameroonians. We demonstrated that drug side-effects, low CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads are associated with increased risk of non-adherence, and compared to females, males were more likely to forego ART because of side effects (p40 years were less likely to be non-adherent (p<0.01 and had shorter non-adherent periods (p<0.0001. The presence of depression symptoms correlated with non-adherence to ART during antibiotic treatment (r = 0.53, p = 0.04, and was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.04 and longer non-adherent periods (p = 0.04. Change in ART regimen was significantly associated with increased likelihood of non-adherence and increased duration of the non-adherence period. Addressing these underlying risk factors could improve ART adherence, retention in care and treatment outcomes for HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon.

  17. Chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and toxicity evaluation of the essential oil of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Gerald Ngo; Elisée, Kemadjou Nana; Roger, Kuiate Jules

    2013-06-13

    The leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. are used in the western highlands of Cameroon for their medicinal property. The leaves of this species were collected in the West Region of Cameroon in August 2010 and subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oil. The oil was fractionated using adsorption column chromatography. The chemical composition of this oil and its fractions was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial species and six species of Candida by the agar diffusion method. Macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal and/or fungicidal concentrations (MBCs and MFCs). The toxicity profile of the oil was studied using Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. Forty-nine compounds were identified in the essential oil. The main components were germacrene D (18.5%), epi-zonarene (8.2%), cis-calamenene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), linalool (6.0%) and umbellulone (6.0%). Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans were most susceptible to the oil (MICs of 1.25 and 0.16% for bacteria and fungi respectively). The estimated oral LD50 was 6.33 g/kg. There was an increase in sera ALT and AST activities while the blood cells and protein levels decreased in treated animals. The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of C. lusitanica leaf oil in the treatment of whooping cough and skin infections though it should be used with care. This plant oil could be useful in the standardisation of phytomedicine.

  18. Primary care physicians' practice regarding diabetes mellitus diagnosis, evaluation and management in the West region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingi, Ahmadou M; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2015-04-04

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) are the main providers of diabetes care especially in resource-limited countries which experience extreme shortage of specialists. The present study aimed to evaluate PCPs' approach towards diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis, evaluation and management in Cameroon. We carried-out a cross-sectional survey in February 2012 in the West Region of Cameroon. Using a structured pretested questionnaire, we interviewed all PCPs working in the region who were present at their working place when the investigators visited, and volunteered to be enrolled in the study. Sixty-six PCPs were interviewed. Their ages ranged from 24 to 56 years (mean 38.3, standard deviation 9.2 years). The levels of knowledge of PCPs regarding DM diagnosis were: 72.7%, 37.9%, 19.7% and 32.8% respectively obtained when using fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial glycemia, random glycemia and glycated hemoglobin as diagnostic tools. Only 6 PCPs (9.9%) prescribed the correct minimal work-up to evaluate diabetes patients at diagnosis. PCPs advised lifestyle modifications in 92.4% of cases, and thirty nine (53.1%) PCP's used to prescribe both generic and specialty oral anti-diabetic drugs in case of uncomplicated type 2 DM management. The two main classes of anti-diabetic drugs prescribed were biguanides (77.3%) and sulfonamides (60.6%). Nearly all PCPs (97%) used to give frequent follow-up appointments to their patients. Ninety eight point five percent of participants were willing to receive any further continuous training on DM management. PCPs knowledge and practices towards diabetes mellitus diagnosis, evaluation and management were not optimal, stressing the need to improve their capacities regarding diabetes care. As such, more educational initiatives should be taken on, alongside regular upgrade and dissemination of clinical guidelines.

  19. Cocoa Farmers’ Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE. Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers’ instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced (p < 0.05 by region of residence of cocoa farmers, gender, possession of formal education and farming as primary occupation. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the log of number PPE worn was significantly influenced (p < 0.10 by region, marital status, attainment of formal education, good health, awareness of manufacturers’ instructions, land area and contact index. It was among others concluded that efforts to train farmers on the need to be familiar with manufacturers’ instructions and use PPE would enhance

  20. An Economic Optimization Model for Improving the Efficiency of Vitamin A Interventions: An Application to Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosti, Stephen A; Kagin, Justin; Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kennth H

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin A (VA) intervention programs in developing countries do not generally consider spatial differences in needs or in intervention costs. New data from Cameroon reveal nonuniform spatial distributions of VA deficiency among young children and of costs of some of the programs designed to address them. We develop a spatially explicit, intertemporal economic optimization tool that makes use of subnational dietary intake data and VA intervention program costs to identify more efficient sets of interventions to improve VA nutrition among young children aged 6 to 59 months in Cameroon. The model suggests substantial changes in the composition and geographic foci of VA intervention programs vis-à-vis a business-as-usual scenario. National VA-fortified edible oil and bouillon cube programs are cost-effective, even when start-up costs are considered. High-dosage VA supplementation delivered via Child Health Days is most cost-effective in the North macro-region, where needs are greatest and the cost per child effectively covered is lowest. Overall, the VA intervention programs suggested by the optimization model are approximately 44% less expensive, with no change in the total number of children effectively covered nationwide. The VA intervention programs should consider spatial and temporal differences in needs and in the expected benefits and costs of alternative VA interventions. Doing so will require spatially disaggregated strategies and the data and political will to support them, longer planning time horizons than are currently used in most developing countries, and long-term funding commitments. © The Author(s) 2015.