WorldWideScience

Sample records for cameroon

  1. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  2. CAMEROON FIGHTING BOKO HARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж КЖ Кума

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to retrace Boko Haram atrocities in Cameroon as well as the history of international cooperation against the Islamist sect since the declaration of the war against it in 2014. The principal internal counter-terrorist efforts are shown, including establishement of “Operational Com-mand” missions, partial reorganization of the territorial map of the army’s command, the expansion of defense policy at the subregional level and the gradual redefinition of military, the allocation of re-sources and tools adapted to these new missions. Cameroon engages in a process of multilateralization of the challenges of counter-terrorism coopera-tion, which gives a new dimension to the action of the defense and security forces as well as the multi-lateralization of the stakes of cooperation. The role of major powers and the countries of the subregion as well as the African Union and the United Nations is revealed. Cameroon is a traditional beneficiary of French military assistance. Counter-terrorist assistance also came from Russia, US, UK and Germany. The role of the Multinational Joint Task Force of Commission of the Lake Chad Basin (LCBC is shown. The author also shows that the war against Boko Haram seems to produce exceptional results that force both admiration and criticism of the Cameroonian people and the international community. The case of criticism by the NGO Amnesty International is analysed in details.

  3. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  4. An endangered species in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justine Nzweundji

    2015-08-19

    Aug 19, 2015 ... 2002) and one of the main sources of supply to satisfy this demand consists of Cameroon natural populations. (Nsawir and Ingram, 2007). Unfortunately, much of this exploitation has been ..... Prunus africana: Money growing on trees? A plant that can boost rural economies in the Cameroon Highlands.

  5. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  6. Mount Oku, Cameroon Volcanic Line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and continental sectors especially for trace elements in basalts. ... continental sector of the trend is a complex .... values higher than those of HIMU but is within ...... (Mount Cameroon, Central Africa): petrogenetic implications. Miner. Petrol.,.

  7. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  8. The present status and perspectives of Biotechnology in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the rapid exploitation of biotechnology for the socioeconomic development of Cameroon, subject to the mobilization of the necessary venture capital. Keywords: Cameroon, Biotechnology, GMO, Biodiversity, Economic Development, Recombinant DNA JOURNAL OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol.

  9. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  10. Cameroon's national literatures: An introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... In the Afterword of my book The Sacred Door and Other Stories: .... (Cameroon National Union) in 1966, and declared a unitary state in 1972 known as ... censorship, and to the general feeling of hopelessness of the 2000s.

  11. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  12. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... 3. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon. 4. Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, ... the leading causes of death. Lung cancer has been reported from Cameroon17 but no association has been established between cigarette smoking and lung ...

  13. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  14. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  15. Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary Institutions In The Absence Of International Offices. ... The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been handled by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    passed to facilitate the implementation of this law. (Oyono, 2004; Alemagi ... to be responsible for their negative environmental impacts and offers a vision for ... socio-economic sustainability within the forestry sector in. Cameroon, it is important ...

  17. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high ... cultural practices, deforestation, etc., have also resulted in ..... (Cameroon): influence of urban agriculture and pollution.

  18. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... sector, and proffers a series of policy recommendations for advancing sustainable forest management in ... Since the enactment of Cameroon's comprehensive forestry law (Law N0.

  19. [The demographic situation in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeck, R A

    1984-01-01

    The population census in 1976 and the Cameroon Fertility Survey (CFS) of 1978 have allowed the population profile of Cameroon to be better known, but data are still scarce on many topics. Several hypotheses were adopted for the elaboration of population estimates for 1983: mortality was assumed constant between 1976-86 despite constant improvements in the health infrastructure, fertility was assumed to be constant despite increases over the previous 2 decades, net migration was assumed to be negligible, and different structures such as education and employment were assumed constant in the absence of data. The population of Cameroon was estimated at about 9,540,000 as of June 1984. 42.8% was under 15 years of age. Children of school age (6-14 years) represented 23.7% of the total population, and 4.9% was over 60 years of age. The masculinity ratio was 99.6. In some rural areas the sex ratio was under 70 between ages 20-30. According to the 1976 census, in 1976 among men and women respectively, 39.5 and 15.9% were single, 55.8% and 66.8% were married, 2.1% and 13.9% were widowed, and 2.6% and 3.4% were divorced. According to CFS data, among men and women in 1978, 36.0% and 13.6% were single, 58.5% and 69.6% were married, 2.2% and 13.5% were widowed, and 3.0% and 3.6% were divorced. CFS data indicated that 63% of women and 46% of men had never attended school. 39.9% of the population was economically active in 1976. Unemployment reached 17.2% in urban areas and 4.3% in rural areas. The birth rate increased from 43/1000 in 1960-65 to 45/1000 in 1976. The mortality rate declined from 23/1000 in 1960-65 to 20/1000 in 1976, and life expectancy at birth increased from 37.5 to 44.6 in the same period (47 years for women and 42.3 for men). The infant mortality rate was 113/1000 in 1978, and the rate of natural increase was estimated at 2.5%.

  20. Linguistic inequality in Cameroon: The case of advertising in Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linguistic inequality in Cameroon: The case of advertising in Douala. ... multilingualism and multiculturalism in Cameroon, very little has been done in advertising as it reflects language representation. Much of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Implications of the Bakassi conflict resolution for Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the security and economic interests of the colonial powers. After independence, ... nation-state intervenes in the domestic disputes of another state. Occasionally, a .... and in Cameroon, where the Southern Cameroon National Council (SCNC).

  2. Opposition Politics and Electoral Democracy in Cameroon, 1992-2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... This article seeks to assess the impact of electoral democracy in. Cameroon especially ... Democratic Party (KNDP), the Cameroon People National Congress (CPNC) and the Cameroon .... The Supreme Court cancelled the election results in seven constituencies ..... Church and the media (Ake 2000:135).

  3. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  4. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, H.C.; Hasling, W.; Hera, C.H.; Maudarbocus, A.Y.; Mtimet, S.

    1993-10-01

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  5. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  6. Vegetable Consumption patterns in Yaounde, Cameroon | Kamga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in August and September 2008 in Yaoundé, Cameroon to assess vegetable consumption attitudes, constraints and factors that stimulate households' consumption. Stratified sample based on district size, socioeconomic status and ethnics groups were used. Three hundred households were ...

  7. The Bildungsroman in Cameroon Anglophone Literature: John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the bildungsroman genre in postcolonial Cameroon Anglophone fiction through a textual analysis of John Nkemngong Nkengasong's Across the Mongolo and Margaret Afuh's Born before Her Time. It seeks to show that these two writers have borrowed a foreign genre and successfully manipulated ...

  8. Regulation of Biotechnology in Cameroon W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... security and public health are high on government's policy agenda. ... tion by the Cameroon Development Corporation. (CDC) of a ... can model law on Safety in Biotechnology (and the Convention ..... its biosafety regulation on liability and redress in due course. ... in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in February this year. (2004).

  9. Homosexuality in Cameroon: identity and persecution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.; Dubel, I.; Hielkema, A.

    2010-01-01

    What does it mean to come out of the closet in Cameroon? It is clear that it takes courage, particularly lately, as the law has always expressly prohibited homosexuality. (1) The police, generally feared because of their brutal extortion of money from people, are eager to react to accusations of

  10. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revue de L'academie des Sciences du Cameroun The Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences is a multi-disciplinary publication devoted to all aspects of fundamental and applied research. It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture.

  11. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  12. Writing in Cameroon, the first hundred years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... in Bulu territory, the American pastor Adolphus Good, it won the London African .... same year, Le Vieux Nègre et la médaille is a critique of the vieux nègre (old black man), .... Cameroon, cautious editorial choices and writers' self-censorship, a limited range of ... many also used film and other media.

  13. Marketing of Accommodation services : Case-Hotel Azam Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Youkam, Germaine

    2012-01-01

    Cameroon is Africa in miniature with a lot of tourist attractions owing to its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. Accommodation services have been a grand phenomenon within the tourism industry in Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed tremendously within the past decades. The objective of this research work was to find about out the marketing of accommodation services in Cameroon with Hotel Azam as...

  14. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  15. Functioning and disability in recent research from Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: People living with disabilities in Cameroon face many barriers to daily functioning and social participation. However, there is limited research on disabilities and their impact. We sought to examine the research related to disability from Cameroon. Methods: We conducted a systematic review, bibliometric ...

  16. Canine and Human Rabies in Cameroon | Awah | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a retrospective review of recorded rabies and antirabies activities in Cameroon from 1990 to 1999 to determine the current state of rabies in both dogs and humans. Rabies and antirabies activities were recorded every year in Cameroon through out the 10-year study period with the highest values observed in ...

  17. The role of women's secret societies in cameroon's contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are many secret societies, most of which belong to the male folk in the North West Province of Cameroon, little was and/or is known about their activities. However, Takumbeng, a women's secret society from the North West Province of Cameroon came to prominence in the 1990's during the political upheaval ...

  18. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences: About this journal. Journal Home > Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  19. Determinants of Inequality in Cameroon: A Regression-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper applies the regression-based inequality decomposition approach to explore determinants of income inequality in Cameroon using the 2007 Cameroon household consumption survey. The contribution of each source to measured income inequality is the sum of its weighted marginal contributions in all possible ...

  20. Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon. D. K. Njualem, P. Demo, H. A. Mendoza, J. T. Koi, S. F. Nana. Abstract. Field experiments were conducted in Cameroon in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate reactions of different potato genotypes to late blight. There were significant differences among genotypes for ...

  1. Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... However, different predictions of monetary theories have assigned different degrees of .... Sources: World Bank, World Table, Cameroon Financial Bill 2007, and African Development Indicators. ..... of Accounting and Statistics.

  2. Evaluating the fate of organic compounds in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    A level III fugacity model was developed to evaluate the fate of chemicals in the Cameroon ... environment, quantify intermedia transfer processes and the major loss ... perform baseline exposure and risk assessment of chemicals used in ...

  3. Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A Time Series ... the impacts of money and interest rate on economic growth and development. ... Money Supply, Interest Rates, Economic growth, Co-integration and Inflation.

  4. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  5. Pesticides use in cocoa sector in Cameroon: characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 5 (2014) > ... The chemical control is the widely control method applied in Cameroon for pests and diseases by all the cocoa producers without technical ...

  6. The role of the Association of Cameroon Accountants as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONECCA); as a regulatory body for the accounting profession in Cameroon. The data collected have been used to carefully assess the effectiveness of the accounting institution, as a regulatory body. The data reveals the extent to which effective ...

  7. Dentofacial injuries in contact sports in Yaounde, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    M A Agbor; C C Azodo; N. E. F. Ngagoue

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of t...

  8. Approaches to mastering the uranium potential of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakam Tagheu, P.; Simo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium deposits are spread over the five continents. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) estimation in 2009, the global reserves of economically recoverable uranium are estimated at 4.5 million tonnes. In 2012, the world production of uranium was about 54,610 tonnes and the main producers were Kazakhstan (36%), Canada (15%) and Australia (12%). Brazil, Russia, China, India productions accounted for 9.4% of the overall world production. Significant deposits also exist in Africa including Cameroon; those currently in mining stage are in Namibia, Malawi, and Niger. Cameroon has significant mineral deposits such as gold, alluvial diamonds, iron, bauxite and uranium. All of them are still in the exploration stage. Although Cameroon has not launched a nuclear power programme, the mining of its uranium resources is considered as an important component of the national economy. Many uranium occurrences have so far been discovered in Cameroon. They include Kitongo, Salaki, Mayo Nielse and Teubang in the Northern region and Ngombas near Lolodorf in the Southern region. The Cameroon Government is engaged in (i) the assessment of the U-ore resource through drilling, and (ii) the airborne geophysical survey of mining potentials areas. The result of these studies may lead to a better estimation of the national uranium potential. This paper aims at pointing out constraints to assess the uranium potential of Cameroon and proposes measures that could improve on the leveraging of exploitation of this mineral. (author)

  9. CTBTO international monitoring system: Status of work in Cameroon and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyobe, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation outlines Cameroon's participation in CTBTO programme and its seismic activities. Areas of inter-regional and international cooperation are described. Suggestions are made on ways in which Cameroon can contribute to the work of the commission

  10. Crustal structure beneath Cameroon from EGM2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatchou Heutchi Evariste

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We used the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008 data sets to analyze the regional gravity anomalies and to study the underground structures in Cameroon. We first created a high-resolution Free-Air anomaly database, then corrected the gravity field of the topographic effect by using ETOPOl DEM with a resolution of 0.01° to obtain the Bouguer anomaly, then applied a multi-scale wavelet-analysis technique to separate the gravity-field components into different parts of shallow-to-deep origins, and finally used the logarithmic power spectrum technique to obtain detailed images and corresponding source depths as well as certain lateral inhomogeneity of structure density. The anomalies of shallow origin show successive elongated gravity “highs” and “lows” attributable to subsurface Tertiary and lower Cretaceous undulations. Our results are in good agreement with previous investigations.

  11. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  12. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  13. [The burden of disability in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Calogero; Albensi, Caterina; Giordani, Laura; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation services for disabled persons are lacking in countries with limited economic resources. Reliable and objective data are needed to plan for their implementation and to determine the burden of disability in these countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in June 2013 among people living in Dschang Health District, in the West region of Cameroon, to collect information about socio-demographic aspects of physically disabled subjects and health determinants of disabilities. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire in French. In total, 159 physically disabled subjects were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 36 years [± SD 17.26], 55.9% of subjects were female, and 33.8% had a low educational-level. The most frequently reported disabilities were orthopaedic problems (mainly fractures) [45.8%], infectious diseases [29.1%]), and neurological disabilities (mainly hemiplegia [33.3%], hemiparesis [23.8%], and monoplegia [23.8%]). The main causes of disability were trauma due to traffic accidents (17.8%) and inappropriate medical interventions (14.5%). Disability was related to age and 50% of participants experienced social discrimination. Disabled subjects with low-incomes (from 50.000 to 200.000 XAF) were required to pay for rehabilitative care (XAF 10.000 to 100.000), and up to 83% had appealed for improved quality of Rehabilitation Medicine. Although Law n. 83/013 for the protection of persons with disabilities in Cameroon dates back to 1983, the results of this study show that disabled people, and children in particular, are still marginalized, vulnerable and have little chance of recovery. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the quality and availability of rehabilitative care services , with programmatic interventions that ensure implementation of existing laws, improve access to rehabilitative services, provide disabled persons with the necessary specialty medical products, and eliminate barriers to their social

  14. Under five malnutrition crises in the Boko Haram Area of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boko-Haram has increased their attacks along the Cameroon boarder in the Far North region of Cameroon since 2013. The prevalence of malnutrition in the north of Cameroon is high. Regions like the Adamawa, North and Far North regions have a prevalence of malnutrition of 5.2%, 6.7%, 9.0%, respectively; and, ...

  15. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a potential new Dengue vector in southern Cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Fontenille, D.; Toto, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of Dengue virus, has been recorded for the first time in Cameroon. Entomologic surveys in 2000 demonstrated that it is widespread in southern Cameroon, colonizing a wide variety of breeding sites and biting humans in every district surveyed. The presence of this vector increases the risk for emergence of dengue in Cameroon.

  16. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  17. [Health and drug consumption profile in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeyras, Christophe; Ndo, Jean Rolin; Merabet, Omar; Kone, Hamidou; Rakotondrabe, Faraniaina Patricia

    2006-01-01

    To begin a renewal of national health policy in Cameroon, a steering committee from the Cameroon Ministry of Health and its partners sought to analyze health demand through a national population survey and supply capacity through a national survey of retail drug stores. A survey of healthcare consumers was also conducted. The present publication describes the results of the consumer survey. Their socioeconomic profile of these consumers was much higher than that of the general population. This indicates that the poorest do not use health facilities or even self-medication. Within the population of healthcare consumers, women and children used private for-profit (60 %) and nonprofit (65 %) private health facilities most often, while men used mainly private pharmacies (60 %) and street drug (medication) sellers (62 %). In all, 85 % of the users of formal drug retailers had had a consultation with a healthcare provider. The average consultation cost was 1,440 CFA Francs, but the 7 % who paid the provider directly had an average cost of 1,794 CFA Francs. In all, 22 % did not pay at all, because of free consultations in some health facilities (40 %), personal relationships with prescribers, or other reasons. Hospitalization costs averaged 4,800 CFA Francs, and medical examinations 4,534 CFA Francs. These two categories had the highest percentage of insured patients (12 % and 5 %). Drug costs were 5,067 CFA Francs from pharmacies and 1,308 CFA Francs in the street. Total healthcare costs per person averaged 14,990 CFA Francs. Weighted, drugs accounted for the largest share, followed by hospitalisation, medical examinations, consultations, and transportation. In the formal sector, less than 10 % reported paying fees directly to the healthcare providers rather than to the HF cashier. Except for consultation in the public sector, paying providers was associated with a lower bill. However, 24 % purchased drugs from the healthcare workers, which indicates that drug sales are

  18. Mapping for Health in Cameroon: Polio Legacy and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencrans, Louie C; Sume, Gerald E; Kouontchou, Jean-Christian; Voorman, Arend; Anokwa, Yaw; Fezeu, Maurice; Seaman, Vincent Y

    2017-07-01

    During the poliovirus outbreak in Cameroon from October 2013 to April 2015, the Ministry of Public Health's Expanded Program on Immunization requested technical support to improve mapping of health district boundaries and health facility locations for more effective planning and analysis of polio program data. In December 2015, teams collected data on settlements, health facilities, and other features using smartphones. These data, combined with high-resolution satellite imagery, were used to create new health area and health district boundaries, providing the most accurate health sector administrative boundaries to date for Cameroon. The new maps are useful to and used by the polio program as well as other public health programs within Cameroon such as the District Health Information System and the Emergency Operations Center, demonstrating the value of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's legacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. The Anglophone Cameroon-Nigeria boundary: Opportunities and conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, Piet

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies of African boundaries have tended to focus either on the growing number of border disputes between states or on frontier regions that are said to offer local inhabitants a wide range of economic opportunities. This article attempts to combine both approaches and to demonstrate the ambiguous nature of the Anglophone Cameroon-Nigeria border. On the one hand, the border has been subject to regular skirmishes between Cameroon and Nigeria, culminating in a protracted war over the sovereignty of the Bakassi peninsula - an area rich in oil reserves. On the other hand, it has for historical and economic reasons never constituted a real barrier to cross-border movements of labour and goods. The large Nigerian migrant community in Anglophone Cameroon, in particular, has been able to benefit from formal and informal cross-border trade for a long time. Unsurprisingly, its dominant position in the host community's commercial sector has been a continuous source of conflict. (Author)

  20. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  1. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  2. New attitudes key to progress in Malawi, Cameroon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-08

    Nov 8, 2011 ... New attitudes key to progress in Malawi, Cameroon ... in Malawi — good laws protecting women's rights — but they are not working. Why? ... Colonial rule — first by the Germans and later the French and British — brought in a ...

  3. Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the pattern of dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents among riders and passengers in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based study conducted in 6 out of 10 regional capitals in the months of December 2011 to September 2012. Analyzed information included age, ...

  4. Floodplain rehabilitation in North Cameroon: impact on vegetation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Kirda, P.; Adam, S.; Kadiri, B.

    2000-01-01

    Since the construction in 1979 of a dam in the Logone floodplain in the Sahelo-Sudanian zone of Cameroon, annual inundations have decreased, reducing perennial vegetation as important grazing source for nomadic herds and wildlife during the dry season. Presently, possibilities exist to release

  5. Analysis of Cameroon newspaper coverage of cross border conflicts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nexus of conflict reporting: Analysis of Cameroon newspaper coverage of cross ... The conflicts taking place in the Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria and Gabon have raised ... Consequently, it is in the interest of the public .... of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA, 2014), ... As what concerns the case of Nigeria, UNHCR.

  6. Household-level Social Capital in Cameroon and Children's Schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines household-level social capital as a determinant of children's schooling using a cross-sectional data of the 2001 Cameroon Household Survey. Reduced form demand equations of schooling for the entire sample, male and female children are estimated separately. Results indicate that parent's ...

  7. The contractual and legal framework for petroleum exploration in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndi, George

    1992-01-01

    Cameroon has been a producer and net exporter of oil now for almost 15 years, although the country remains a minor player in the international oil industry. However, with its privileged location on the West African coast and an offshore oil industry which is centred on the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon has been, and remains, a regional oil producer of some importance. This article sets out to analyse the legal aspects of the commercial exploitation of oil in Cameroon by examining the applicable law, exploration/production contracts, and the fiscal regime. Its purpose is to try to provide a setting which facilitates a proper understanding of the legal frame-work in which the petroleum industry operates in Cameroon, as well as an indication of the direction of government policy towards the further development and expansion of the industry. But first, it will be useful to begin the discussion with an examination of the role of petroleum production in the national economy. (author)

  8. Occupation of public space : anglophone nationalism in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jua, N.; Konings, P.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the historical process leading to the emergence of Anglophone nationalism in public space during the liberalisation process in the 1990s in Cameroon. Anglophone nationalism poses a severe threat to the post-colonial State's nation-building project that has been driven by the

  9. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide

  10. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as `Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ∼20 million population, is commonly regarded as 'Africa in miniature' due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and ...

  11. Causality analysis of diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Jean Gaston; Njomo, Donatien; Limanond, Thirayoot; Ntsafack, Borel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon by using a three-step modern time-series technique. Tests for unit roots, cointegration, and Granger-causality based on error correction model are employed on annual data covering the period 1975–2008. Empirical results of the study confirm the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth. The error correction model shows that an estimated 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30% in the long-run. The overall results show that there exists bidirectional causality in the long-run relationship and no causality in the short-run relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth at the 5% level of significance. Thus, the energy policies in Cameroon should place priority on the discovery of new oil field and building capacity additions of the refinery to increase production of petroleum products, as this would propel the economic growth of the country. - Highlights: ► We examine the causal relationship between diesel consumption and GDP in Cameroon. ► we analyze the petroleum products sector in Cameroon. ► 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30%. ► The policy aimed at improving diesel supply have a positive impact on economics.

  12. Implications of the Bakassi conflict resolution for Cameroon | Baye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sketches a conceptual framework of international conflict dynamics and resolution, examines the geopolitics of the Bakassi dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon, and outlines socio-economic implications of its peaceful settlement. Neglect and subsequent discovery of oil deposits subjected the Bakassi ...

  13. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Yaounde, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population growth and rapid urbanization in Cameroon have led to major demographic changes in the urban centres, potentially resulting in serious environmental problems in the most populated cities such as Yaounde. In order to better understand the impacts on the hygiene conditions in certain quarters of this political ...

  14. Cameroon's main marketing board : history and scope of the ONCPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The creation of the ONCPB (Office national de commercialisation des produits de base) in 1976 was a turning point in the history of government regulation of agricultural marketing in Cameroon. It went a long way in unifying and harmonizing the marketing arrangements in francophone and anglophone

  15. Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon. Existing data indicate a tobacco epidemic of the first order in Africa, but the rapid increase in tobacco consumption continues. This situation justifies the current project by Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC), an initiative of IDRC and the Bill and Melinda ...

  16. Primarity and biometric indices of native goats in western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats are well integrally part of communities' livelihoods in both rural and urban regions in Cameroon. Our study intended to contribute to genetic characterization of native goats populations found in one of the highest populated region based on morphometric indices as developed by Lauvergne and COGNOSAG ...

  17. The socio-cultural implications of climate change in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impact has remained a serious threat to man and more particularly in the water-stressed environment of north Cameroon where in most cases, man struggles for bare survival by eking out a living from a harsh or hostile climatic environment. In this region, the socio-cultural impacts can be devastating as has ...

  18. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases ...

  19. JOURNAL, OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OFSCII:NCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Agronomic Research for development (IRAD) Box 33 Maroua, Cameroon;. E-maîl: rckenga(Gºyahoo. ... genetic transformation (Arriola, 1995). The continued ..... Grenier, C., Bramel-Cox, P.J., and P. Hamon. 2001. Core collection of ...

  20. Production performance and exploitation of heterosis in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A crossbreeding experiment using Cameroon indigenous (CF) and German Dahlem Red (GR) chickens was undertaken to determine production performance and heterosis estimates of body weight of cockerels and laying hens at various ages and and egg production traits in layers. Four genetic groups were involved, ...

  1. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This paper deals with the accurate determination of mount Cameroon orthometric height, by combining ground gravity data, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations and global geopotential models. The elevation of the highest point (Fako) is computed above the WGS84 reference ellipsoid.

  2. Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van L.; Vaate, bij de M.D.; Boer, de W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and/or goats) caused by lions

  3. Comparison of bacterial communities of tilapia fish from Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of bacterial communities of tilapia fish from Cameroon and Vietnam using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) ... The different PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA banding profiles obtained were analysed and results showed that there were specific bands for each geographical ...

  4. Financing Of Small And Medium-Size Enterprises In Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financing Of Small And Medium-Size Enterprises In Cameroon. ... Available data from the banking sector shows that as much as 78.7% of all ... SMEs and large companies pay back their loans better than the other ... Even the SME loan repayment rate of 62.9% is still low by World Bank ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Geochemistry of the Bayonplutonic Complex – Western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BayonNeoproterozoic plutonic complex located in Western Cameroon intrudes gneisses of Paleo to Neo Proterozoic age. The complex is composed of gabbro, monzogabbro and monzonites frequently crosscut by trachytic and granitic veins. The primary mineral assemblages of the gabbro and monzogabbro is ...

  6. Determining the Optimum Level of Working Capital in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of working capital is very important to the operations of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) Net working capital (i.e. the excess of liquid current assets over current liabilities) is an indispensable component of any business organization's capital structure. For any company to make profit in order to ...

  7. ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICITS IN CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard T. Djeutem

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches are used to analyze the sustainability of the current account deficits of Cameroon in order to find out whether current economic policies are sound enough to guarantee the country’ s financial solvency. The first uses a structural procedure to compare current account deficits relative to an optimal benchmark using the Campbell-Shiller’s methodology. The second uses a reduced form approach to test for intertemporal budget constraint through cointegration tests between imports and exports plus net transfer payments on foreign obligations. Our results suggest that the current account imbalances for Cameroon based on data from the period 1970-2002 are “excessive” and the deficits are currently unsustainable.

  8. Stable Isotopic Composition of Rainfall in Western Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, B.; Ngo Boum, S.; Ebonji Seth, C. R.; Nkoue Ndong, G. R.; Wonkam, C. [Universite de Douala, Douala (Cameroon); Huneau, F. [Universite de Bordeaux, EA Georessources and Environnement, Talence (France); Celle-Jeanton, H. [Clermont Universite, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2013-07-15

    Monthly rainfall collected at the douala station (Western cameroon) from 2006 to 2008 was analysed for oxygen-18 and deuterium content. The dataset, which is now integrated into the GNIP database, was compared to the local groundwater record in order to define the input function of regional hydrosystems. The isotope data displays a wide range of values from -0.59 to -6.14 per mille for oxygen-18 and from -7.75 to -38.8 per mille for deuterium, closely following the GMWL (global Meteoric Water line), suggesting that rain formation processes occurred under isotopic equilibrium conditions between the condensate and the corresponding vapour. No significant evaporation tendency was found. The comparison with the previous studies in the area provides a realistic pattern of isotope concentrations in both surface and groundwater throughout Cameroon. (author)

  9. Marketing Cameroon as a Cultural Tourism Destination to Finnish Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Akuri, Lucien; Landa Celestin, Ndingi

    2013-01-01

    Cultural tourism is already a global phenomenon and has been increasingly promoted in the forms such as heritage, arts, creative, rural and urban cultural tourism, amongst others, and their sub-sections. The marketing of these cultural tourism forms and their attractions by various tourism destinations to target markets is still complex and thus, a major challenge. The study investigates the ways in which Cameroon with very rich and diverse cultural products and attractions can be markete...

  10. A multi-perspective view of genetic variation in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, V; Brisighelli, F; Donati, F; Pascali, V; Boschi, I; Luiselli, D; Battaggia, C; Batini, C; Taglioli, L; Cruciani, F; Paoli, G; Capelli, C; Spedini, G; Destro-Bisol, G

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we report the genetic variation of autosomal and Y-chromosomal microsatellites in a large Cameroon population dataset (a total of 11 populations) and jointly analyze novel and previous genetic data (mitochondrial DNA and protein coding loci) taking geographic and cultural factors into consideration. The complex pattern of genetic variation of Cameroon can in part be described by contrasting two geographic areas (corresponding to the northern and southern part of the country), which differ substantially in environmental, biological, and cultural aspects. Northern Cameroon populations show a greater within- and among-group diversity, a finding that reflects the complex migratory patterns and the linguistic heterogeneity of this area. A striking reduction of Y-chromosomal genetic diversity was observed in some populations of the northern part of the country (Podokwo and Uldeme), a result that seems to be related to their demographic history rather than to sampling issues. By exploring patterns of genetic, geographic, and linguistic variation, we detect a preferential correlation between genetics and geography for mtDNA. This finding could reflect a female matrimonial mobility that is less constrained by linguistic factors than in males. Finally, we apply the island model to mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data and obtain a female-to-male migration Nnu ratio that was more than double in the northern part of the country. The combined effect of the propensity to inter-populational admixture of females, favored by cultural contacts, and of genetic drift acting on Y-chromosomal diversity could account for the peculiar genetic pattern observed in northern Cameroon.

  11. Chieftaincy, labour control and capitalist development in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Contrary to the studies of ethnic authorities in the Zambian and Ghanaian mines by A.L. Epstein (1958), J. Crisp (1984), and C. Lentz and V. Erlmann (1989), the present study demonstrates that chieftaincy has continued to play an important mediating role between capital and labour in estate tea production at Ndu, a small Wimbum town in the northeastern part of the Bamenda Grassfields in Cameroon, where the author conducted fieldwork in 1991. Capitalism has not yet penetrated deeply in this ar...

  12. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwang N Gildas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  13. Dinosaur trackways from the early Late Cretaceous of western Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Menkem, Elie Fosso; Djomeni, Adrien; Fowe, Paul Gustave; Ntamak-Nida, Marie-Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways have rarely been reported in Cretaceous strata across the African continent. To the exception of ichnological occurrences in Morocco, Tunisia, Niger and Cameroon, our knowledge on the composition of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas mostly relies on skeletal evidence. For the first time, we document several dinosaur trackways from the Cretaceous of the Mamfe Basin in western Cameroon. Small and medium-size tridactyl footprints as well as numerous large circular footprints are present on a single horizon showing mudcracks and ripple marks. The age of the locality is considered Cenomanian-Turonian and if confirmed, this ichnological assemblage could be younger than the dinosaur footprints reported from northern Cameroon, and coeval with or younger than skeletal remains reported from the Saharan region. These trackways were left in an adjacent subsiding basin along the southern shore of the Benue Trough during a time of high-sea stand when the Trans-Saharan Seaway was already disconnecting West Africa from the rest of the continent. We predict that other similar track sites may be occurring along the margin of the Benue Trough and may eventually permit to test hypotheses related to provincialism among African dinosaur faunas.

  14. A new tectonic model for the Cameroon Line, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, C.; Regnoult, J.-M.; Déruelle, B.; Robineau, B.

    1987-10-01

    The Cameroon Line, a major geological feature in Central Africa, has been considered successively as a series of horsts and grabens, a continental rift and a mega-shear zone. It is marked out by about 60 anorogenic complexes and a dozen volcanic centres, all of which have alkaline affinity. Remote sensing allows us recognition of the main lineament trends: N70°, N-S, N135° and E-W, while autocorrelation analysis reveals a major fault zone striking N30° in western Cameroon and N15° in the northern region. A mega left-lateral shear zone is the model that best accounts for the fracture pattern and associated features such as linear and circular structures alignment of subvolcanic complexes, syntectonic leucogranites marking out older shear zones and vein dykes. The N70° Adamawa fault zone, a Pan-African fracture reworked during Albian-Aptian times, is the only shear zone of continental scale that could have initiated "en echelon" mega-tension gashes within the Cameroon Line during a Cainozoic left-lateral transcurrent movement.

  15. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Anselme Kamga; Charles Olufisayo Olatubara; Moses Monday Atteh; Serge Nzali; Adeola Adenikinju; Théodore Yimgnia Mbiatso; Ralain Bryan Ngatcha

    2018-01-01

    Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey re...

  16. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and…

  18. Economic management in neo-colonial states : a case study of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jua, N.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the economic management strategies adopted by the Government of Cameroon. Economic planning in Cameroon has been anchored to the principles of planned liberalism, self-reliant development, balanced development and social justice. These concepts are elaborated and it is shown that

  19. TROPFOMS, a decision support model for sustainabele management of south Cameroon's rainforests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eba'a Atyi, R.

    2000-01-01

    Natural forests play an important role in the economy of Cameroon, at both the national and local levels. Unfortunately, there is still a general sense that in Cameroon, like in most tropical countries, forests are not managed in a sustainable way. The poor forest management practices,

  20. The Dilemma of Civil Society in Cameroon Since 1990: Which Way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... of civil society when it has an impact on the society; if not it should be left out. .... campaign and the post-October 1992 election results. As a matter of ... from the General Agreement on Tariffs (GATT) text on Cameroon. ..... Nyamnjoh, F. B., 1997, 'Media, Tribalism and Democracy in Cameroon, in Gerddes,.

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Cameroon. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Cameroon estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be in the order of 10 000 tonnes uranium for syenite-associated U-deposits in southern Cameroon, and in the order of 5 000 tonnes uranium for uranium deposits associated with albitized and desilicified late tectonic Panafrican granites (episyenite) and Paleozoic volcanics in northern Cameroon. No specific tonnage is given for Francevillian equivalents (DJA-Series) and for Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, which are thought to hold limited potential for sandstone hosted uranium. However the Douala basin, consisting of mixed marine and continental sequences merits some attention. No specific budget and programme for uranium exploration are proposed for Cameroon. Instead specific recommendations concerning specific potential environments and general recommendation concerning the methodology of exploration are made. (author)

  2. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  3. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folefack, DP.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  4. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  5. RITUAL USE OF CURRENCY IN LAIMBWE HISTORY, CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kam Kah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The advent of Europeans in Cameroon in the 15th century and the introduction of a western currency as a standard of exchange and a measurement of value to replace other indigenous currencies had an impact on initiation into regulatory and entertainment societies in Cameroonian communities including the Laimbwe of the North West Region. Male and female institutions eventually began using these currencies during initiation rites. These included nwerong, ngiri, ngumba, takembeng, ndofoumgbui, kwifoyn (also kwifo’o, kwifeu, kuiifuai kefa’a, tschong, libah and ikuum in the grasslands and Liengu, male, ahon, muankum, nganya, monekim, ekpe and obasinjom in the forest region of Cameroon. Prior to the introduction of standard money, some local currencies like cowrie shells were used together with the provision of material things like goats, pigs, fowls and bush meat. Money is effectively a measure of value, status and a store of wealth within the Laimbwe traditional milieu. This paper examines how and why the introduction of money in initiation and other ritual activities led to the emergence of new social classes and the re-enforcement of the socio-political order of the Laimbwe people. The study essentially relies on discussions with members of societies, observation and written material.

  6. [Entomologic study of loaiasis transmission in the Lekie area (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanou, M; Pion, S D; Boussinesq, M

    2001-11-01

    A number of cases of Loa encephalopathy have been recorded after ivermectin treatment in the Lekie Division, an area of degraded forest located in central Cameroon. An entomological study was carried out in a village of this region between May 1999 and April 2000 to determine whether the high microfilarial loads of Loa found in the population, which can exceed 10,000 microfilariae per ml of blood, were related to high densities of vector populations. The Chrysops collected at 10 catching stations, using hand nets, by persons standing by a wood fire, were dissected to evaluate their level of infection with Loa. The vectorial densities were three-fold higher in the forest stations than in those located near the habitations (2307 and 725 bites per man per year, respectively). These values are lower than those reported from similar studies in Cameroon, Congo and Gabon. Measurement of Chrysops densities does not seem to be an appropriate tool to evaluate the level of endemicity of loiasis, and to delineate the areas where there is a risk of post-ivermectin Loa encephalopathies.

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondja Wandji, Yris D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the nature of the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Cameroon through a three-step approach: (i) Study the stationarity of the chronic, (ii) test of causality between variables and (iii) estimate the appropriate model. The study concludes in a non-stationarity of the series. Using the data in first difference, the Granger causality test yields a strong evidence for unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. Cointegration tests also show that these two series are co-integrated and the Error Correction Model (ECM) reveals that every percentage increase in Oil products consumption increases economic growth by around 1.1%. This result confirms the intuition that an economic policy aimed at improving energy supply will necessarily have a positive impact on economic growth. On the other side, a lack of energy is a major bottleneck for further economic development in Cameroon. - Highlights: • The series of GDP, ELECTRICITY, OIL and BIOFUELS are integrated of order 1. • The Granger causality test yields a unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. • No causal link between GDP and ELECTRICITY, and no more between GDP and BIOFUELS. • Cointegration tests also show that only OIL and GDP are co-integrated. • Every percentage increase in OIL increases GDP by around 1.1%

  8. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  9. [Ocular traumatism in children at Laquintinie Hospital, Douala (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella-Hiag, A L; Mvogo, C E

    2000-01-01

    Pediatric ophthalmology is poorly developed in Cameroon. However, efforts are being made to collect data essential for the development of national strategies to combat blindness. We relate our experience, within this framework, at a large public hospital in Cameroon. We carried out a retrospective study covering the period from June 1993 to May 1998, studying the medical files of children under the age of 15 years with ocular traumatism. Data were collected from 144 files. The frequency of ocular/orbital injury was 7.8% and was the third most common condition, after ametropia and kerato-conjunctivitis, in this population. The mean age of the children was 7 years and 3 months and more boys (64%) than girls were affected. Ocular lesions were due to contusion in 83.3% of cases. The principal causes of the trauma were children's games (40.2%), and punishment by parents or teachers (23.7%). The ocular lesions were similar to those described in previous studies. Infection was rare, because the interval from trauma to consultation was very short. The functional prognosis was severe, with 24.3% of patients having final vision less than 1/10. We recommend that children should be informed about the dangers of violent games and that parents and teachers should be made aware of the dangers associated with brutality towards children. Finally, ophthalmologists should ensure that the injured eye is treated rapidly and carefully so as to minimize functional sequelae.

  10. Upper Triassic mafic dykes of Lake Nyos, Cameroon (West Africa) I: K-Ar age evidence within the context of Cameroon Line magmatism, and the tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Festus Tongwa; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nche, Linus Anye; Asaah, Asobo Nkengmatia Elvis; Mimba, Mumbfu Ernestine; Teitchou, Isidore; Ngwa, Caroline; Miyabuchi, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kankeu, Boniface; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Joseph Victor; Kusakabe, Minoru

    2018-05-01

    The hydrodynamic fragmentation that formed Lake Nyos in northwest Cameroon did not only make it the most unpopular lake in the world from a gas disaster perspective, it also opened a rare and formidable window through which much of the geology of Cameroon can be studied in a single locality. The Cambrian quartz monzonite cliff excavated by the maar-forming explosion and exposed in its northeastern shore is intruded by mafic dykes, two of which we dated. Even though close to one another, the dykes are different in composition. The alkaline dyke yields a slightly older (Carnian) K-Ar fedspar age of 231.1 ± 4.8 Ma, while the sub alkaline dyke yields an age of 224.8 ± 4.7 Ma (Norian). Based on radioisotopic age data available over the last 48 years (347 data) for the Cameroon Line magmatism comprising eruptives and volcano-plutonic complexes, the Nyos dykes are way older than the Cameroon Line, and even pre-date the Lower Cretaceous initiation of west Gondwana fragmentation in Equatorial Atlantic domain. They would therefore not have been directly linked to the formation of the Cameroon Line. Alternatively, they might be associated with the development of intra-continental rift systems in West Central Africa that pre-dated west Gondwana breakup to form the Atlantic Ocean.

  11. Rivers and ports in transport history of Cameroon, 1916-1961 | Nkwi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rivers and ports in transport history of Cameroon, 1916-1961. ... rivers and ports for their physical mobility, transportation of bulky goods, mails migration and above all European consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. HIV/AIDS and older adults in Cameroon: Emerging issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perpetua Lum Tanyi

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... ... social policy are discussed. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, older adults, African family, caregiving, Cameroon ...... and treatment that may be spread out over the full period of illness. ..... anxiety, relationships, grief, loss and addictions.

  13. The Impact Of Dental Auxiliaries In Oral Health Delivery In Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treat 6-10 patients per day while 13 (29.5%) of respondents work without any direct supervision. Out of ... the training and job description of dental auxiliaries in Cameroon. Introduction .... A Textbook for Preventive and. Community Dentistry.

  14. Savannah Forest Beekeepers in Cameroon: Actions to Reduce Vulnerability. Chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2016-01-01

    The savannah forests in Adamaoua, Cameroon, are home to traditional, forest-based beekeepers, subsistence farmers and pastoralists. This sparsely populated region is economically marginal and little developed, with lower than national average incomes. Forest apiculture is important here: honey,

  15. Bridging the gap: how traditional healers interact with their patients. A comparative study in Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhardt, N.D.; Aboa, S.M.; Manga, E.; Bensing, J.M.; Langewitz, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare traditional healers (TH) and Cameroonian representatives of Western medicine (Western providers (WP)) in terms of patient characteristics and communication patterns during the consultation in rural Cameroon. Methods: A facility-based comparative study was conducted. Seven TH

  16. Ritual use of currency in Laimbwe history, Cameroon | Kah | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritual use of currency in Laimbwe history, Cameroon. ... exchange and a measurement of value to replace other indigenous currencies, had an impact ... social classes and the re-enforcement of the socio-political order of the Laimbwe people.

  17. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon)

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala

  18. Addressing urban sprawl in Douala, Cameroon: Lessons from Xiamen integrated coastal management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suinyuy Derrick Ngoran

    2015-06-01

    The conclusions of this effort portray that sprawl in Cameroon is caused by inadequate policy implementation, outdated master plan, insufficient information, disparity in resources distribution among the different regions of the State and the gaps expounded by the traditional management. Grounded in the knowledge drawn from Xiamen ICM, the paper recommends the creation of an autonomous coastal interagency in Douala to address the gaps disrupted by sectoral management, and thus, improve coastal management in Cameroon.

  19. Seroprevalence of Human Herpesvirus-8 in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Individuals in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Wood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in 516 plasma samples collected from HIV positive and negative patients from blood banks and urban areas of Cameroon. Among HIV-1 positive samples, HHV-8 seropositivity rate was 61% based on combined reactivity using both ELISA and IFA techniques. HIV negative samples showed 62% seropositivity rate for HHV-8 antibodies. Our results indicate a high HHV-8 prevalence rate in both HIV infected and uninfected individuals in Cameroon.

  20. Nutrition Transition and Biocultural Determinants of Obesity among Cameroonian Migrants in Urban Cameroon and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Amougou, Norbert; Ponty, Amandine; Loinger-Beck, Juliette; Nkuintchua, Téodyl; Monteillet, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Holdsworth, Michelle; Pasquet, Patrick

    2017-06-29

    Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews ( n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey ( n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50). The Bamiléké valued overweight and traditional energy-dense diets in rural and urban Cameroon. Physical activity levels were lower, consumption of processed energy-dense food was frequent and obesity levels higher in new migrants living in urban Cameroon and France. Female sex, age, duration of residence in urban areas, lower physical activity and valorisation of overweight were independently associated with obesity status. This work argues in favour of local and global health policies that account for the origin and the migration trajectories to prevent obesity in migrants.

  1. Alcohol use and extramarital sex among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiysonge Charles

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13

  2. Energy, water and climate nexus: A case study of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    potential to offset the reliance on crude oil. This study investigated the biomass resource availability from agricultural residues for liquid biofuel (as transportation fuel) and bioelectricity. Our findings indicate that sustainably extracted agricultural re sidues could yield 1.11 million bone dry tons...... per year. Using current bioconversion efficiency rates, the residues could potentially yield 0.12-0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually that is enough to offset 18-48% of the national consumption of gasoline. For bioelectricity generation, the same residues could provide 0.76-2.02 TW h, or 15...... of agricultural residues. The study provides policy recommendations to help encourage modern bioenergy applications from residues in Cameroon....

  3. Timing of Premarital Intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the effects of family environment on the risks of premarital intercourse for male and female youth. Previous research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA on the linkages between family structures and sexual debut mainly utilized cross-sectional data. In a sample drawn from Cameroon Family and Health Survey (N = 2,166, descriptive and multivariate results showed that youth who resided in nuclear two-parent families, those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring and higher quality of parent–child relationships during childhood and/or adolescence, had significantly lower rates of premarital intercourse. Polygynous families, parent–child communication, orphanhood, and change in family structure were significantly associated with higher rates of premarital intercourse. Programmatic implications for reproductive health interventions in SSA are discussed.

  4. Electricity Self-Generation Costs for Industrial Companies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diboma Benjamin Salomon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production in developing countries (DC is frequently perturbed by electric energy supply difficulties. To overcome this problem, generators are used in self-generation of energy, but this leads to an increase of electricity-related expenses. This article assesses the impact of electricity self-generation on Cameroonian industrial companies. The model described in this article is based on data collected through a survey of a representative sample of industrial companies and from numerous previous thematic and statistical studies. The results of our analyses show that expenses related to electricity in industrial companies in Cameroon have increased five times due to electricity rationing and untimely power cuts. The article also suggests some solutions to improve the electricity self-generation capacity of industrial companies.

  5. Determination of multiple mycotoxins levels in poultry feeds from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred Angie; Simo, Grace Nella; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2013-02-01

    For the first time in Cameroon, this paper reports on multiple mycotoxins occurrences in poultry feeds. Twenty feed samples collected from different poultry farms were analyzed for 320 fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed feeds contamination by 68 metabolites including 18 mycotoxins/metabolites currently regulated in the European Union such as fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2, and B3; deoxynevalenol (DON); and beta-zearalenol recovered in all samples. FB1 reported highest FB mean level of 468 (range 16-1930) microg kg(-1). Levels of DON and ZEN were mostly concentrated in feeds from western-highlands conversely for FBs and aflatoxins concentrations in Yaounde. Aflatoxin B1 mean level of 40 microg kg(-1) exceeded the worldwide permitted limit for aflatoxins in feed and generally inversely proportional to weight gain in chicken.

  6. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services

  7. Mechanisms for Quality Assurance of Universities in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a perspective look at the evolution of universities in Cameroon and the recent orientation of deregulation as it affects quality assurance in Cameroonian universities. The paper having identified these flaws attempted to elucidate the meaning of mechanism for Quality assurance in the face of deregulation. The regulatory mechanisms identified by this paper include inter- alia, appropriate scrutiny of new programmes, relying on impartial advise of examiners. Using the state law NO.98/004 of 1998 to compliment the efforts of internal school administration and above all opening linkages between universities and relating universities education in the World of science and technology. This paper does not only enhance quality assurance but also builds the idea of economic growth and development.

  8. Geochemistry of Selected Kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukalo Nenita N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical characteristics of selected kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria are presented, with an attempt to elucidate on their possible industrial applications by comparing them to world-known kaolin deposits. Major oxides concentrations were subjected to factor analyses in interpreting their relationships. Geochemical indices, including chemical index of alteration (CIA, chemical index of weathering (CIW and the index of compositional variability (ICV were computed and plotted on binary and ternary diagrams to determine the intensity of weathering of the kaolins and discriminate their different source rock types. Kaolinite was the major phase, followed by quartz, illite and goethite as minor phases. Minerals in trace phases included smectite, anatase, muscovite, gibbsite, microcline, palygorskite and calcite. Mean abundances of major oxides in wt% were: SiO2 (56.96>Al2O3 (24.09>Fe2O3 (3.78>TiO2 (1.53> K2O (1.26> MgO (0.27>CaO (0.20>Na2O (0.17>P2O5 (0.05>MnO (0.04. The CIW versus CIA and ICV versus CIA plots showed that most of the kaolins clearly depicted extreme silicate weathering. The current applications of kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria include ceramics and manufacturing of bricks and tiles. Low MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and TiO2 further position the kaolins for pharmaceutics, cosmetics, rubber and plastic applications. Thus, the studied kaolins have the potential to contribute to improved economic development of these countries.

  9. Geochemistry of Selected Kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukalo, Nenita N.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.; Odiyo, John O.; Ogola, Jason S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of selected kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria are presented, with an attempt to elucidate on their possible industrial applications by comparing them to world-known kaolin deposits. Major oxides concentrations were subjected to factor analyses in interpreting their relationships. Geochemical indices, including chemical index of alteration (CIA), chemical index of weathering (CIW) and the index of compositional variability (ICV) were computed and plotted on binary and ternary diagrams to determine the intensity of weathering of the kaolins and discriminate their different source rock types. Kaolinite was the major phase, followed by quartz, illite and goethite as minor phases. Minerals in trace phases included smectite, anatase, muscovite, gibbsite, microcline, palygorskite and calcite. Mean abundances of major oxides in wt% were: SiO2 (56.96)>Al2O3 (24.09)>Fe2O3 (3.78)>TiO2 (1.53)> K2O (1.26)> MgO (0.27)>CaO (0.20)>Na2O (0.17)>P2O5 (0.05)>MnO (0.04). The CIW versus CIA and ICV versus CIA plots showed that most of the kaolins clearly depicted extreme silicate weathering. The current applications of kaolins from Cameroon and Nigeria include ceramics and manufacturing of bricks and tiles. Low MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and TiO2 further position the kaolins for pharmaceutics, cosmetics, rubber and plastic applications. Thus, the studied kaolins have the potential to contribute to improved economic development of these countries.

  10. The Fallacy of Promoting Non Native Varieties of English in Postcolonial Multilingual Settings: The Case of Cameroon English (CamE) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essossomo, Serges Moïse

    2015-01-01

    This research endeavour is a major contribution to the current debate on the integration of non-native varieties into the school curriculum in non-native settings. Taking the specific case of Cameroon, this work rests on the solid assumption that the promotion of CamE to the detriment of Standard British English accent is definitely a fallacy. The…

  11. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  12. The protection of juveniles under Cameroon criminal law and procedures through the lens of international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ojong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the legislative framework on the adminitration of juvenile justice in Cameroon may currently be adequate and in compliance with the international conventions ratified by the State, the implementation of the national law should be the primary mechanism through which human rights are realized. Cameroon is usually said to be a State with good laws but poor implementation. With recourse to the normative and empirical methods, this article explores the provisions on the protection of juveniles in Cameroon criminal law and procedures through the lens of internationally recognized principles. It looks at the provisions as they are interpreted and applied by the Courts. The prospect being to invite the Government and all the stakeholders to embark on establishing the structures provided for and ensure effectiveness in the enforcement of juvenile justice in the country so as to overcome the current weaknesses that the system is experiencing.

  13. Achieving high uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine in Cameroon: lessons learned in overcoming challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Manga, Simon; Nulah, Kathleen; Foglabenchi, Lily H; Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Tih, Pius

    2014-07-31

    Cameroon has the highest age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer (30/100,000 women) in Central Africa. In 2010-2011, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) received donated human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Gardasil, from Merck & Co. Inc. through Axios Healthcare Development to immunize 6400 girls aged 9-13 years. The aim was to inform the Cameroon Ministry of Health (MOH) of the acceptability, feasibility, and optimal delivery strategies for HPV vaccine. Following approval by the MOH, CBCHS nurses educated girls, parents, and communities about HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine through multimedia coverage, brochures, posters, and presentations. Because educators were initially reluctant to allow immunization in schools, due to fear of adverse events, the nurses performed 40.7% of vaccinations in the clinics, 34.5% in community venues, and only 24.7% in schools. When no adverse events were reported, more schools and communities permitted HPV vaccine immunization on their premises. To recover administrative costs, CBCHS charged a fee of US$8 per 3-dose series only to those who were able to pay. Despite the fee, 84.6% of the 6,851 girls who received the first dose received all three doses. With adequate education of all stakeholders, HPV vaccination is acceptable and feasible in Cameroon. Following this demonstration project, in 2014 the Global Access to Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) Alliance awarded the Cameroon MOH HPV vaccine at a price of US$4.50 per dose to immunize sixth grade girls and girls aged 10 years who are not in school in two districts of Cameroon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S

    2011-10-01

    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions.

  15. Modeling Fuel Choice among Households in Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugues Nlom

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore economic and socio-demographic factors that influence a household’s probability to switch from firewood to cleaner fuels (kerosene and LPG in northern Cameroon. The paper employs an ordered probit model to construct cooking patterns and fuel choices. Three main cooking sources are considered: firewood, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Utilized data are derived from a national survey conducted in 2004 by the Cameroonian National Institute of Statistics. The study analyzes the data related to the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone, which is one of the most affected by land degradation and decertification. While results indicate that there is a potential for a transition from traditional to cleaner fuels in the studied region, this transition is still in its earlier stage. The research demonstrates that firewood and kerosene prices, age of household heads, educational level of household heads and willingness to have a gas cylinder, as well as type of dwelling have a statistically significant impact on fuel-switching decisions.

  16. [High school student and skin bleaching in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoughouo Mouliom, Adeline; Wamba, André

    2017-04-27

    Introduction: Skin bleaching is a common practice in Africa, particularly in Cameroon. Studies show that it represents a danger for health, in terms of a demonstrated increased risk of dermatological diseases. However, increasing numbers of people are using skin bleaching in African cities, despite the fact that they are sometimes aware of the risk. This study proposed to transform the knowledge and perceptions of skin bleaching practices into educational strategies that can be used both by health professionals and educators. These strategies can also be used as preventive measures against skin bleaching among young schoolgirls. Methods: Data collection was based on a qualitative approach, in the form of a focus group discussion attended by 40 girls aged between 14 and 20 years, selected by convenient random sampling. Results: The results indicated that girls have an approximate knowledge about the consequences of skin bleaching on their health. On the contrary, they have a good knowledge about prevention, which can be used to develop a prevention strategy in order to reduce or eradicate skin bleaching, by educational awareness campaigns Conclusion: These elements can be used as a basis for better prevention and health promotion in schools; so that students adopt healthy behaviours and to prevent those students at risk.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  18. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T F; Lazuick, J S; Ngah, R W; Mafiamba, P C; Quincke, G; Monath, T P

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low.

  19. Local Rulers in North Cameroon. The Interplay of Politics and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Schilder

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the conversion to Islam of indigenous chiefs in North Cameroon. The chiefs studied belong to the Mundang ethnic group. Their islamisation is interpreted as the outcome of the ambivalence brought about by their intermediary role between local society and the wider society. This approach offers insights in (a the connection between conversion and political careers; (b the relation between Islam and ethnic identities; and (c the popular legitimacy of conversion. KEY WORDS: Cameroon, Mundang, chiefs, Islam, ethnicity, cosmology

  20. Interpreting gravity anomalies in south Cameroon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadjou Jean Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The area involved in this study is the northern part of the Congo craton, located in south Cameroon, (2.5°N - 4.5°N, 11°E - 13°E. The study involved analysing gravity data to delineate major structures and faults in south Cameroon. The region’s Bouguer gravity is

  1. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  2. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3889, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-57 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Cameroon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  3. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  4. Violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: accounts of violence, harm reduction, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sahnah; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Cange, Charles; Papworth, Erin; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Kamla, Aristide; Billong, Serge; Fokam, Pamella; Njindam, Iliassou; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Baral, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Cameroon, and West Africa generally, suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV. Although violence against FSWs has been documented extensively in other parts of the world, data on violence from West African countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to qualitatively document violence and harm reduction strategies from the perspective of FSWs in Cameroon as well as to understand how experiences of violence may increase FSWs' HIV risk. FSWs from 7 major cities in Cameroon (Douala, Yaounde, Bamenda, Bertoua, Nagoundere, Kribi, and Bafoussam) were purposively recruited. Data from 31 in-depth interviews and 7 focus groups (n = 70; with some overlapping participants from in-depth interviews) conducted with these FSWs in 6 of these 7 cities (excluding Kribi) were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Transcripts revealed 3 primary themes related to violence: (1) sources and types of violence, including sexual, physical, and financial violence perpetrated by clients and police, (2) harm reduction strategies, including screening clients and safe work locations, receipt of payment before sexual act, and formation of an informal security network, and (3) recommendations on structural changes to reduce violence that emphasized sex work decriminalization and increased police accountability. As in other parts of the world, violence against FSWs is pervasive in Cameroon. Interventions targeting violence and HIV must address the forms of violence cited locally by FSWs and can build on FSWs' existing strengths and harm reduction strategies. Structural changes are needed to ensure access to justice for this population.

  5. Under Five Malnutrition Crises in the Boko Haram Area of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDiscipline of Public Health Medicine, Department of Nursing & Public ... bUnder Privilege Children and Women Assistance (UPCAWA-SWEDEN), ... In most cases, malnutrition in its mild stage can present with no ... Other studies by the National Institute of Statistics in Cameroon .... Inpatient management of children with.

  6. Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by

  7. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 4, No 2 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging and pollination behaviour of the African Honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) on Callistemon rigidus flowers in Ngaoundere (Cameroon) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. F-N Tchuenguem Fohouo, J Messi, D Brüchner, B Bouba, G Mbofung, ...

  8. Wind Power Potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has seen a tremendous growth for electricity generation worldwide and reached 456 GW by the end of June 2016. According to the World Wind Energy Association, global wind power will reach 500 GW by the end of 2016. Africa is a continent that possesses huge under-utilized wind potentials. Some African countries, e.g., Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and South Africa, have already adopted wind as an alternative power generation source in their energy mix. Among these countries, South Africa has invested heavily in wind energy with operational wind farms supplying up to 26,000 GWh annually to the national grid. However, two African countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, have vast potentials, but currently are lagging behind in wind energy development. For Nigeria, there is slow implementation of renewable energy policy, with no visible operational wind farms; while Cameroon does not have any policy plan for wind power. These issues are severely hindering both direct foreign and local investments into the electricity sector. Cameroon and Nigeria have huge wind energy potentials with similar climatic conditions and can benefit greatly from the huge success recorded in South Africa in terms of policy implementation, research, development and technical considerations. Therefore, this paper reviews the wind energy potentials, policies and future renewable energy road-maps in Cameroon and Nigeria and identifies their strength and weakness, as well as providing necessary actions for future improvement that South Africa has already adopted.

  9. The amphibians of Mount Oku, Cameroon: an updated species inventory and conservation review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doherty-Bone, T. M.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 643 (2017), s. 109-139 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biodiversity * caecilians * Cameroon Volcanic Line * Central Africa * frogs * Lake Oku * montane forests and grasslands Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016

  10. Privatisation of agro-industrial parastatals and anglophone opposition in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the regional anglophone opposition in Cameroon which arose after 15 July 1994, when the government was forced by international donors to announce the privatization of 15 public enterprises, notably in the transport and agroindustrial sectors. The most prominent among them was

  11. Local blacksmiths's activity in the west region of Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the nature of pollutant and exhaustible of fossils energies, developed countries have made use of renewable energy sources to make effective their energy systems. To stow on that vision in Cameroon, the promotion of micro-hydroelectric powers plants (MHPP) is a priority and any contribution to its ease is ...

  12. ‘The vagina does not talk’: conception concealed or deliberately disclosed in Eastern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of

  13. Information circulation in rice production: the case of UNVDA and Ndop rice farmers, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chindong, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    The study revealed that the dominant Agricultural extension approaches used in the rice sector in Cameroon is ToT and T&V. The methods of information circulation using these approaches are individual and group methods. The extension approaches has been criticized for its ineffectiveness especially

  14. Fathers, Families, & Child Well-Being in Cameroon: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsamenang, A. Bame

    This review discusses fatherhood in Cameroon in the context of anthropological, sociological, and psychological literature. With a focus on the family, the review examines the image and role of the father, the division of labor by gender, and the changing value of the Cameroonian father. The review notes that Cameroonian culture assigns the bulk…

  15. Gender and plantation labour in Africa : the story of tea pluckers' struggles in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the relationship between plantation labour and gender in Africa, particularly Cameroon. It demonstrates that the introduction of plantation labour during colonial rule has had significant consequences for gender roles and relations within and beyond the capitalist labour process.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among physicians in Cameroon: a research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feteh, Vitalis Fambombi; Njim, Tsi; Nji, Miriam A M; Ayeah, Chia Mark; Sama, Carlson-Babila; Tianyi, Frank Leonel

    2017-10-25

    Burnout syndrome is a common psychological state, that may affect human healthcare providers due to their prolonged exposure to job stressors. Burnout can hinder optimal healthcare delivery. Hence this study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout syndrome amongst physicians in Cameroon. Specifically: (1) to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome amongst Cameroonian doctors. (2) To identify potential determinants of burnout among Cameroonian doctors. (3) To compare the prevalence and determinants of burnout among specialist physicians and general practitioners in Cameroon. This cross-sectional study will include a minimum of 335 doctors working in five regions of Cameroon. Consenting physicians will be consecutively recruited and data on sociodemographic and work characteristics will be collected via a printed self-administered questionnaire and burnout will be assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data will be analysed using Epi Info version 7 and a p value health is largely neglected in developing countries like Cameroon. Data from this research will help inform practitioners on the magnitude of the problem and favour the development of policies that improve the mental health of care-providers.

  17. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest Njih Tabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.

  18. The State of Dubbing in Cameroon: A Review of research on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the various studies that have been carried out in the domain of dubbing as an audiovisual translation (AVT) mode in Cameroon by Cameroonian researchers. It identifies what has been done so far, critically examines the frameworks, methods and procedures used, determines and appraises what is ...

  19. "Ask and you shall be given" : Pentecostalism and the economic crisis in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoko, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cameroon's economic crisis has led to widespread unemployment and poverty since the 1980s. Civil society organizations, including the churches, believe that bad governance is at the heart of the country's economic problems and are calling for the introduction of democratic institutions. However, a

  20. The emotional world of kinship: Children’s experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through

  1. The Emotional World of Kinship: Children's Experiences of Fosterage in East Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, Catrien

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through sharing food and intimacy, children directly…

  2. Phylogenic analysis of human bocavirus detected in children with acute respiratory infection in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoe, Sebastien; Vernet, Marie-Astrid; Njankouo-Ripa, Mohamadou; Penlap, Véronique Beng; Vabret, Astrid; Njouom, Richard

    2017-07-17

    Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was first identified in 2005 and has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. In a recent study, we found that 10.7% of children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) were infected by HBoV. Genetic characterization of this virus remains unknown in Central Africa, particularly in Cameroon Leeding us to evaluate the molecular characteristics of HBoV strains in Cameroonian children with ARI. Phylogenetic analysis of partial HBoV VP1/2 sequences showed a low level of nucleotide variation and the circulation of HBoV genotype 1 (HBoV-1) only. Three clades were obtained, two clustering with each of the reference strains ST1 and ST2, and a third group consisting of only Cameroon strains. By comparing with the Swedish reference sequences, ST1 and ST2, Cameroon sequences showed nucleotide and amino acid similarities of respectively 97.36-100% and 98.35-100%. These results could help improve strategies for monitoring and control of respiratory infections in Cameroon.

  3. Nuclear-derived techniques improve cattle productivity and milk quality in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Increasing agricultural production and improving the quality of milk and meat are key to combating poverty and increasing food security in Africa. Countries such as Cameroon are increasingly turning to innovative, nuclear and nuclear-derived techniques to control and prevent diseases among livestock, and boost cattle and milk production.

  4. Teachers' Use of Information and Communications Technology in Education: Cameroon Secondary Schools Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shaibou Abdoulai; Moluayonge, Gracemary Eloheneke; Park, Innwoo

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) offers innovative tools for restructuring teaching and learning processes in preparing students for the 21st Century skills. However, there is no sufficient and reliable data concerning how the use of ICT fit in different school cultures in Cameroon, and how teachers with varying pedagogical and…

  5. Farmer's perception of the effects of eartworms on soil fertility and crop performance in southern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madong à Birang,; Hauser, S.; Amougou, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge and perception of the effects of earthworms on soil fertility and crop growth was surveyed in a humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. A total of 215 farmers were interviewed in seven villages: two villages were near the capital Yaounde, severely deforested with a high land-use

  6. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  7. Trend in mortality from a recent measles outbreak in Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: measles is a highly contagious viral infection with high mortality in poorly vaccinated regions. We sought to establish the trend in mortality and the factors that favoured the recent measles outbreak that occurred in Benakuma, in the North west region of Cameroon from the 21/06/2015 to 26/09/2015. Methods: we ...

  8. Higher Education Strategic Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwana, Terfot Augustine

    This paper argues that a framework for strategic planning in universities in Sub-Saharan Africa can be developed with the background of global, regional, and institutional realities. Using the specific case of the University of Buea in Cameroon, the paper attempts to expose the global trends of polarization in knowledge production capacity as an…

  9. Audiovisual translation in Cameroon: An Analysis of Voice-over in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cameroon is a multilingual country with people from different backgrounds with English and French as the official languages. The need to render information broadcast on television channels across the country to the population is accordingly of paramount importance. This can be achieved through subtitling and dubbing ...

  10. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS ... the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women. However ...... (Assessed 10 March 2006). 2. .... Prevention. Washington DC 1999: pp 1-7. 45.

  11. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their

  12. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 3, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of capture and trade in African grey parrot populations (Psittacus erithacus) in Lobeke National Park, south east Cameroon, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Ngenyi, Z Nzooh, L Usongo, 11-16 ...

  13. Stress Management and Teachers' Productivity in Cameroon: Lessons from Momo Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyi Einstein Moses E.

    2016-01-01

    A teacher who is stressed out, stresses out his student who in turn, behave differently (usually worse) and consequently produce more stress for the teacher. This study on Stress management and teachers' productivity was carried out in Momo Division North West Region of Cameroon. The aim was to find out the extent to which the teachers' acceptance…

  14. Neonatal mortality in a referral hospital in Cameroon over a seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The fourth Millennium Development Goals targets reduction of the mortality rate of under-fives by 2/3 by the year 2015. This reduction starts with that of neonatal mortality representing 40% of childhood mortality. In Cameroon neonatal mortality was 31% in 2011. Objectives: We assessed the trends, associated ...

  15. Vulnerability, forest-related sectors and climate change adaptation : the case of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonwa, D.J.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Bele, M.Y.; Nkem, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced

  16. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players

  17. Changes in lion (Panthera leo) home range size in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumenta, P.N.; Van't Zelfde, M.; Croes, B.M.; Buij, R.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; longh, De H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial ecology of Africa lions (Panthera leo) was studied from 2007 to 2009 in Waza National Park, Cameroon, by equipping individual lions with GPS/VHF radio-collars. Mean home range estimates using 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP) and 95% kernel-density estimation (KDE) were respectively

  18. Language Models and the Teaching of English Language to Secondary School Students in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntongieh, Njwe Amah Eyovi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Language models with an emphasis on an appraisal of the Competence Based Language Teaching Model (CBLT) employed in the teaching and learning of English language in Cameroon. Research endeavours at various levels combined with cumulative deficiencies experienced over the years have propelled educational policy makers to…

  19. Poverty and health among CDC plantation labourers in Cameroon: Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Maat, Harro; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond

  20. Local blacksmiths's activity in the west region of Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    As a result of the nature of pollutant and exhaustible of fossils energies, developed countries have made use of renewable energy sources to make effective their energy systems. To stow on that vision in. Cameroon, the promotion of micro-hydroelectric powers plants (MHPP) is a priority and any contribution to its ease is ...

  1. HIV/AIDS and older adults in Cameroon: Emerging issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the elderly population in three divisions within the Northwest Region of Cameroon was examined. Data for this paper were extracted from a larger study which had been conducted concerning the burden of ...

  2. Human Capital Accumulation of Children in Cameroon: Does Disability Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo Fotso, Arlette; Solaz, Anne; Diene, Mbaye; Tsafack Nanfosso, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Although most of the world's disabled people live in developing countries, little is known about the consequences of disability in this part of the world. Using the DHS-MICS 2011 data of Cameroon, this paper contributes to the literature by providing new robust estimates of the effect of child disability on education in a developing country…

  3. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  4. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

  5. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  6. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2007-02-01

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg -1 , 22 - 36 Bq kg -1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  7. Spatial and Inter-temporal Sources of Poverty, Inequality and Gender Disparities in Cameroon: a Regression-Based Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface Ngah Epo; Francis Menjo Baye; Nadine Teme Angele Manga

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the regression-based inequality decomposition technique to explain poverty and inequality trends in Cameroon. We also identify gender related factors which explain income disparities and discrimination based on the 2001 and 2007 Cameroon household consumption surveys. The results show that education, health, employment in the formal sector, age cohorts, household size, gender, ownership of farmland and urban versus rural residence explain household economic wellbeing; dispa...

  8. New evidence for the asthenospheric origin of the Cameroon Volcanic Line from 1D shear wave velocities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tokam, AP

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the mantle composition beneath Ethiopia and southern Brazil (Keranen et al., 2009; Julia et al., 2008). Many petrological studies of ultramafic orogenic massifs and ultramafic xenoliths along the CVL (mainly around Mount Cameroon and the Adamawa....N. and Oya, M. 2010. Petrological and chemical variability of peridotite xenoliths from the Cameroon Volcanic Line, West Africa: an evidence from Plume emplacement. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 107, 57-69. McKenzie, D...

  9. Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily, weekly, or monthly bases and there after allocate in a tentative fashion the most appropriate times for dealing with such activities. Some profile recommendations are: strict adhering to schedules to avoid overlapping or prolongation to other programs; the schedules should be pasted or placed at a convenient point in the office for reference to avoid forgetfulness: as an administrator, time should be allocated for meeting or consulting with visitors and subordinates; he should delegate functions to his accredited subordinates to crave chance or time for essential duty; he should review the school or organization programs on daily, weekly or monthly bases the degree to which his administration goals have been attained and he (i.e. administrator should crave time for rest i.e. holidays, relaxation and various forms of physical exercises to revitalizes the body for subsequent activities. The paper recommends planning which is vital in management to avoid time waste

  10. Initiatives supporting evidence informed health system policymaking in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative historical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2014-11-29

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on institutions devoted to knowledge brokerage and their influence in Africa. Our objective was to describe two pioneering Knowledge Translation Platforms (KTPs) supporting evidence informed health system policymaking (EIHSP) in Cameroon and Uganda since 2006. This comparative historical case study of Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda using multiple methods comprised (i) a descriptive documentary analysis for a narrative historical account, (ii) an interpretive documentary analysis of the context, profiles, activities and outputs inventories and (iii) an evaluative survey of stakeholders exposed to evidence briefs produced and policy dialogues organized by the KTPs. Both initiatives benefited from the technical and scientific support from the global EVIPNet resource group. EVIPNet Cameroon secretariat operates with a multidisciplinary group of part-time researchers in a teaching hospital closely linked to the ministry of health. REACH-PI Uganda secretariat operates with a smaller team of full time staff in a public university. Financial resources were mobilized from external donors to scale up capacity building, knowledge management, and linkage and exchange activities. Between 2008 and 2012, twelve evidence briefs were produced in Cameroon and three in Uganda. In 2012, six rapid evidence syntheses in response to stakeholders' urgent needs were produced in Cameroon against 73 in Uganda between 2010 and 2012. Ten policy dialogues (seven in Cameroon and three in Uganda) informed by pre-circulated evidence briefs were well received. Both KTPs contributed to developing and testing new resources and tools for EIHSP. A network of local and global experts has created new spaces for evidence informed deliberations on priority health policy issues related to MDGs. This descriptive historical account of two KTPs housed in government

  11. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Anselme Kamga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil, dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey research design through the use of primary data while a purposive sampling technique was utilized. A total of 440 questionnaires were administered to selected households across the localities in the study area. Frequencies, percentages, chart, cross tabulations and chi-square tests were used for the data analysis. In other to achieve the aim of this study, a comparison between the nearby and far away residents were done. The study revealed that mining exploitations have brought about changes in the colour and taste of water in the active mining sites (41.7%. Malaria is the number one type of disease that has caused more damage in the localities (81.6%. Mining activities have successfully enabled children in the active mining sites to abandoned school for mining (75.0%. Inhabitants of unit 1 directly linked the problems facing their economic activities to inadequate arable land for agriculture (33.8% and inhabitants across the study area correlated the problems facing livestock farming to diseases as a result of mining activities (64.6%. The perceived negative effects of gold mining on different socio-economic variables (such as culture, health, education, economy and livestock vary significantly depending on the proximity from the mining areas (p<0.05. The study concludes that residents living within and far away from the active mining sites were affected by gold mining activities. However, the most worrisome situation concern people working and living within the

  12. Origin and evolution of primitive melts from the Debunscha Maar, Cameroon: Consequences for mantle source heterogeneity within the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Caroline N.; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Suh, Cheo E.

    2017-09-01

    Debunscha Maar is a monogenetic volcano forming part of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic field, located within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). Partly glassy cauliflower bombs have primitive basanite-picrobasalt compositions and contain abundant normally and reversely zoned olivine (Fo 77-87) and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Naturally quenched melt inclusions in the most primitive olivine phenocrysts show compositions which, when corrected for post-entrapment modification, cover a wide range from basanite to alkali basalt (MgO 6.9-11.7 wt%), and are generally more primitive than the matrix glasses (MgO 5.0-5.5 wt%) and only partly fall on a common liquid line of descent with the bulk rock samples and matrix glasses. Melt inclusion trace element compositions lie on two distinct geochemical trends: one (towards high Ba/Nb) is thought to represent the effect of various proportions of anhydrous lherzolite and amphibole-bearing peridotite in the source, while the other (for example, high La/Y) reflects variable degrees of partial melting. Comparatively low fractionation-corrected CaO in the melt inclusions with the highest La/Y suggests minor involvement of a pyroxenite source component that is only visible at low degrees of melting. Most of the samples show elevated Gd/Yb, indicating up to 8% garnet in the source. The range of major and trace elements represented by the melt inclusions covers the complete geochemical range given by basalts from different volcanoes of the Cameroon volcanic line, indicating that geochemical signatures that were previously thought to be volcano-specific in fact are probably present under all volcanoes. Clinopyroxene-melt barometry strongly indicates repeated mixing of compositionally diverse melts within the upper mantle at 830 ± 170 MPa prior to eruption. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for the primitive melt inclusions suggest that the thermal influence of a mantle plume is not required to explain the magma petrogenesis.

  13. New species of Auritella (Inocybaceae) from Cameroon, with a worldwide key to the known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, P Brandon; Henkel, Terry W; Séné, Olivier; Korotkin, Hailee B; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Aime, M Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Two new species in the genus Auritella ( Inocybaceae ) are described as new from tropical rainforest in Cameroon. Descriptions, photographs, line drawings, and a worldwide taxonomic key to the described species of Auritella are presented. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA and rpb2 nucleotide sequence data suggests at least five phylogenetic species that can be ascribed to Auritella occur in the region comprising Cameroon and Gabon and constitute a strongly supported monophyletic subgroup within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data supports the conspecificity of numerous collections attributed to the two new species as well as the monophyly of Australian species of Auritella . This work raises the known number of described species of Auritella to thirteen worldwide, four of which occur in tropical Africa, one in tropical India, and eight in temperate and tropical regions of Australia. This is the first study to confirm an ectomycorrhizal status of Auritella using molecular data.

  14. Marine pollution in Cameroon (Gulf of Guinea): State and remedies for successful control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folack, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the various research results obtained over several years in Cameroon on coastal and marine pollution, especially pollution by solid wastes, industrial and domestic effluents, hydrocarbons (tar balls), heavy metals and pesticides. Values in the order of 175,531 and 194,685 tons have been estimated for annual pollution loads in terms of BOD and suspended matter respectively. With respect to BOD, the most polluting industries are petroleum refineries, food processing and chemical industries which respectively represent 38, 36 and 10% of the total annual BOD. Measurement of tar balls on various Cameroonian beaches shows values as high as 42.40 g/m 2 of beach, while the concentration of heavy metals encountered in shrimps and fish consumed in Cameroon shows a very wide range of values. Most of these values are similar to those obtained within the region, and some are alarming in their magnitude

  15. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (peducation toward universal coverage of malaria vector control in Cameroon.

  16. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Gitz, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  17. Survey of Minerai Status of Cattle in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and liver samples were collected from Zebu Gudali and Zebu Banyo cattle freshly slaughtered in abattoirs at eight different locations in each of the five administrative divisions of the Adamaoua region of Cameroon during the wet season (September to October, 1983 and the dry season (February to March, 1984. Liver samples were analysed for iron, copper and manganese while serum samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium and copper. Most of the animals were adequate in calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Copper was deficient in liver and sera of most of the animals. There is a need to intensif/research on the mineral status of cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. Copper sulphate is recommended in sait licks for cattle in this region.

  18. Availability and conversion to energy potentials of wood-based industry residues in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Siyam Siew, S.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of biomass as the most accessible primary energy source in Cameroon is presented. The valorization of wood wastes and residues is seen as a way of implementing the sustainable use of biomass resources. A recent survey of wood-based industries in Cameroon reveals that large volumes of industrial wood residues are generated in the rain forest areas and are inefficiently used. Important quantities are lost in the form of burning in the four main forestry provinces, while other parts of the country suffer from fuelwood shortage. With the exception of the plywood factories, the wood industry is essentially dependent on commercial energy. An analysis made to show the economic and environmental benefits of converting wood residues to energy for industrial and domestic use is presented. (author)

  19. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Nomo, Emmanuel; Mawo, Jeanne; Ofal, James; Mimbouga, Julienne; Ticha, Johnson; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods ...

  20. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  1. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackom, Emmanuel K.; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.; Minang, Peter A.; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional biomass (woodfuel and charcoal). Policy recommendations that promote the wider uptake of modern bioenergy applications from residues are provided. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11×10 6 bone dry tonnes per annum. • 0.12–0.32 billion litres of bio ethanol annually to displace 18–48% national gasoline use. • 0.08–0.22 billion litres of biomass to BTL diesel per year to offset 17–45% of diesel use. • 0.76–2.02 TW h of electricity, representing 15–38% of Cameroon's consumption. • Residues could offset only 3% of national consumption of traditional biomass

  2. The use of indigenous techniques of communication for language learning: The case of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ebong, Balbina

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the use of indigenous techniques of communication can have a positive impact on the motivation of the learner of English as a foreign language in Cameroon. By indigenous techniques of communication we mean techniques like role-play, songs, the telling of folktales, riddles and proverbs. This work is intended as a contribution to the search for improvement of student motivation and enthusiasm, whereby they can be more responsive as they participate spont...

  3. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine ...

  4. Deprivation profile in Cameroon: A combined analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Miamo Wendji, Clovis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the privations welfare in Cameroon considering poverty and social exclusion. The framework provided by the capability approach and construction of indicators of poverty and social exclusion by the fuzzy method from ECAM III survey data shows that the overall level of poverty and social exclusion (respectively 0.4008 and 0.2291), are still very high. The definition of two-dimensional profile of welfare deprivation reveals that the determinants of deprivation are diffe...

  5. Genetic diversity and structure of domestic cavy (Cavia porcellus populations from smallholder farms in southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basengere Ayagirwe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cavies are widely used in sub-Saharan Africa as a source of meat and income, there are only a few studies of their population structure and genetic relatedness. This seminal study was designed with the main objective to assess the genetic diversity and determine the population structure of cavy populations from Cameroon to guide the development of a cavy improvement program. Sixteen microsatellite markers were used to genotype 109 individuals from five cavy populations (Wouri, Moungo and Nkongsamba in the Littoral region, and Mémé and Fako in the Southwest region of Cameroon. Twelve markers worked in the five populations with a total of 17 alleles identified, with a range of 2.9 to 4.0 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (from 0.022 to 0.277 among populations was lower than expected heterozygosity (from 0.42 to 0.54. Inbreeding rates between individuals of the populations and between individuals in each population were 59.3% and 57.2%, respectively, against a moderate differentiation rate of 4.9%. All the tested loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for locus 3. Genetic distances between populations were small (from 0.008 to 0.277, with a high rate of variability among individuals within each population (54.4%. Three distinct genetic groups were structured. This study has shown that microsatellites are useful for the genetic characterization of cavy populations in Cameroon and that the populations investigated have sufficient genetic diversity that can be used to be deployed as a basis for weight, prolificacy and disease resistance improvement. The genetic of diversity in Southern Cameroon is wide and constitute an opportunity for cavy breeding program.

  6. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin.Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups.The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  7. Investigating Gender Wage Gap in Employment: A Microeconometric Type-Analysis for Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mbratana, Taoufiki; Kenne Fotié, Andrée

    2017-01-01

    Using the 2007 Cameroon Household Consumption Survey, we study gender wage disparity in pay-employment and self-employment. The main question considered in this paper is to know why women pay-employment and self-employment wages are relatively low. More generally, what is the underlying factors generating and explained wage gap between men and women householder in employment? To answer to our question, firstly, we use the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) Decomposition to explain wage gap. Afterward, we pe...

  8. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.

  9. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Konvička, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2010), s. 428-437 ISSN 0141-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Grant - others:Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Republic of Cameroon(CM) 014125; AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410709 Program:IA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : afromontane landscape * conservation * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2010

  10. The Burden of Leprosy in Cameroon: Fifteen Years into the Post-elimination Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kanyi; Bratschi, Martin W; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Plushke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-10-01

    Cameroon achieved the elimination target of leprosy in 2000, and has maintained this status ever since. However, a number of health districts in the country continue to report significant numbers of leprosy cases. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of leprosy in Cameroon from 2000 to 2014. We obtained and analysed using the new leprosy burden concept of analysis, leprosy surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2014 from the National Leprosy Control Programme. Cameroon achieved leprosy elimination in 2000, registering a prevalence rate of 0.94/10,000 population. The prevalence rate dropped further to reach 0.20/10,000 population (78% reduction) in 2014. Similarly, the new case detection rate dropped from 4.88/100,000 population in 2000 to 1.46/100,000 population (85.3% reduction) in 2014. All 10 regions of the country achieved leprosy elimination between 2000 and 2014; however, 10 health districts were still to do so by 2014. The number of high-leprosy-burden regions decreased from 8 in 2000 to 1 in 2014. Seven and two regions were respectively medium and low-burdened at the end of 2014. At the health districts level, 18 remained at the high-leprosy-burdened level in 2014. The leprosy prevalence and detection rates as well as the overall leprosy burden in Cameroon have dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. However, a good number of health districts remain high-leprosy-burdened. The National Leprosy Control Programme should focus efforts on these health districts in the next coming years in order to further reduce the burden of leprosy in the country.

  11. THE PLIGHT OF GERMAN MISSIONS IN MANDATE CAMEROON: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Michael Kpughe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The First World War and its resultant Mandate and Trusteeship systems greatly affected the German mission enterprise in Cameroon. Apart from causing the forceful ousting of German missionaries from Cameroon, the British and the French whom the League of Nations and United Nations successively chose as administering powers within the Mandate and Trusteeship frameworks adopted hostile policies towards German missions. From the beginning of the war to the post-Second World War era, the foundation of German missions was seriously threatened. This paper critically examines the treatment of German missions in both British and French Cameroons during the Mandate and Trusteeship periods, focusing especially on the opposing attitudes of both administering powers towards the missions in their spheres of influence. The paper establishes that the administering powers’ treatment of German missions, which was underpinned by imperial and nationalist exigencies, roiled the attainment of the triple missionization agenda of planting self-supporting, self-governing and self-evangelizing churches. It thus argues that the First World War triggered the mistreatment of German missions, with some missions forced to terminate their activities while others were allowed to continue their mission work under difficult conditions.

  12. Rethinking and Reconfiguring English Language Education: Averting Linguistic Genocide in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The over 285 indigenous languages of Cameroon may be crushed by the English language. To ensure a sustainable linguistic ecological balance whose peace is undoubtedly threatened by the global imperialistic terrors of English colonialism, an overhaul of ELT practitioners is needed. The English language is taught and learned in Cameroon against a conflictual linguistic platform of French (the other official language of questionable equal status as English, Pidgin English and over 285 indigenous languages. Of these local languages, just about 40 are currently being used (taught in education at the different levels of education in the country. The aim of this paper was to examine the English language politics, practices and teaching. It thereafter evaluated English language teachers’ perception of the so called English Language Teaching Tenets. It also aimed at assessing the functional load of English and it ascertained the extent to which it was threatening the development of local languages as well as effective access to education in Cameroon.

  13. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon.

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonisation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebold, D; Enoh, D O; Kinge, T N; Akam, W; Bumah, M K; Russow, K; Klammt, S; Loebermann, M; Fritzsche, C; Eyong, J E; Eppel, G; Kundt, G; Hemmer, C J; Reisinger, E C

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in Europe and the USA, in Cameroon. Induced sputum samples from 237 patients without pulmonary symptoms (126 HIV-positive and 111 HIV-negative outpatients) treated at a regional hospital in Cameroon were examined for the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii by specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and staining methods. CD 4 counts and the history of antiretroviral therapy of the subjects were obtained through the ESOPE database system. Seventy-five of 237 study participants (31.6%) were colonised with Pneumocystis, but none showed active PCP. The Pneumocystis colonisation rate in HIV-positive subjects was more than double that of HIV-negative subjects (42.9% vs. 18.9%, P 500 cells/μl were colonised at a rate of 20.0%, subjects with CD 4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/μl of 42.5%, and subjects with CD 4 counts <200 cells/μl of 57.1%. Colonisation with Pneumocystis in Cameroon seems to be comparable to rates found in Western Europe. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against Pneumocystis should be taken into account in HIV care in western Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  16. Conservation Concern for the Deteriorating Geographical Range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Littoral to 1,351,275 parrots in the East Regions. The extent of the contemporary range as a percentage of the whole country was 25.4% and as a percentage of the regions with rainforest was 44.5%. The historic range of the bird has been reduced by over 55.5%. Estimated percentage of forest lost per region ranged from 20.4% in the Centre to 57.1% in the East and South Regions. At a global level, Cameroon contributed 9% to the total extent of the range of the Grey Parrot in Africa. The range is increasingly fragmented, contracted, and lost through land-based socioeconomic activities. These degradation pressures on the range called for urgent conservation considerations for long-term survival of the parrot species and its associated biodiversity in Cameroon.

  17. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K; Troll, Valentin R

    2016-10-07

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano's underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon's magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano's two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  18. A predominance of hypertensive heart disease among patients with cardiac disease in buea, a semi-urban setting, South west region of cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkoke, Clovis; Makoge, Christelle; Dzudie, Anastase; Mfeukeu, Liliane Kuate; Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Menanga, Alain; Kingue, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The pattern of heart disease is diverse within and among world regions. The little data on the spectrum of heart disease in Cameroon has been so far limited to major cities. We sought to describe the pattern of heart disease in Buea, the South West Region of Cameroon, a semi-urban

  19. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  20. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-04-29

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P poultry in Cameroon.

  1. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Jordi Julia; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relatedness of dog-derived Rabies Viruses circulating in Cameroon between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Momo, Jean Blaise; Besong, Laura; Loul, Sévérin; Njouom, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases. The 71 studied Africa-1 isolates displayed 93.5-100% nucleotide (nt) and 98.3-100% amino-acid (aa) identities to each other while, the 5 studied Africa-2 isolates shared 99.4-99.7% sequence similarities at nt and aa levels. Maximum Likelihood based phylogenies inferred from nucleotide sequences confirmed all studied RABV isolates as members of the dog-related species 1 of the Lyssavirus genus. Individual isolates could be unambiguously assigned as either the Africa-1 subclade of the Cosmopolitan clade or the Africa 2 clade. The Africa-1 subclade appeared to be more prevalent and diversified. Indeed, 70 studied isolates segregated into 3 distinct circulating variants within Africa-1a lineage while a unique isolate was strikingly related to the Africa-1b lineage known to be prevalent in the neighboring Central African Republic and eastern Africa. Interestingly, all five Africa-2 isolates fell into the group-E lineage even though they appeared to be loosely related to databases available reference RABV; including those previously documented in Cameroon. This study uncovered the co-circulation of several Africa-1 and Africa-2 lineages in the southern regions of Cameroon. Striking phylogenetic outcasts to the geographic differentiation of RABV variants indicated that importation from close regions or neighboring countries apparently contributes to the sustainment of the enzootic

  4. [Plants and their use by the people of Northern Cameroon: selection and use in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormo, Jean; Nizesete, Bienvenu Denis

    2013-06-01

    The functional versatility of plants can be seen in their numerous uses by the people of Northern Cameroon. They have implemented local know-how which has allowed them to effectively exploit their botanical environment. The disappearance of valuable species has forced them to develop other strategies, with a new era marked by the consumption of manufactured products. This article summarizes the principal uses of plants by the people of Northern Cameroon, evaluates their strategies for extracting value from grasses and woods, and questions the validity of the measures currently in place to preserve the botanical heritage at risk due to the actions of man and nature.

  5. Impact of Refugees on Local Health Systems: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatah, Lambed; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Hosting refugees may represent a drain on local resources, particularly since external aid is frequently insufficient. Between 2004 and 2011, over 100,000 refugees settled in the eastern border of Cameroon. With little known on how refugee influx affects health services of the hosting community, we investigated the impact of refugees on mother and child health (MCH) services in the host community in Cameroon. We used Cameroon's 2004 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys to evaluate changes in MCH indicators in the refugee hosting community. Our outcome variables were antenatal care (ANC) coverage, caesarean delivery rate, place of delivery and child vaccination coverage; whereas the exposure variable was residence in the refugee hosting community. We used a difference-in-differences analysis to compare indicators of the refugee hosting community to a control group selected through propensity score matching from the rest of the country. A total of 10,656 women were included in our 2004 analysis and 7.6% (n = 826) of them resided in the refugee hosting community. For 2011, 15,426 women were included and 5.8% (n = 902) of them resided in the hosting community. Between 2004 and 2011, both the proportion of women delivering outside health facilities and children not completing DPT3 vaccination in the refugee hosting community decreased by 9.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.9-14.1%) and 9.6% (95% CI: 7.9-11.3%) respectively. However, ANC attendance and caesarean delivery did not show any significant change. Our findings demonstrate that none of the evaluated MCH service indicators deteriorated (in fact, two of them improved: delivery in health facilities and completing DPT3 vaccine) with the presence of refugees. This suggests evidence disproving the common belief that refugees always have a negative impact on their hosting community.

  6. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Handel, Ian G.; Rydevik, Gustaf; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent N.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017) recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p livestock market and the price of the traded live cattle (p < 0.01). Although our analysis did not account for factors informing on specific phenotypic traits nor breed characteristics of cattle traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households. PMID:29387687

  7. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  8. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  9. Cure or control: complying with biomedical regime of diabetes in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unwin Nigel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to explore the cultural aspect of compliance, its underlying principles and how these cultural aspects can be used to improve patient centred care for diabetes in Cameroon. Methods We used participant observation to collect data from a rural and an urban health district of Cameroon from June 2001 to June 2003. Patients were studied in their natural settings through daily interactions with them. The analysis was inductive and a continuous process from the early stages of fieldwork. Results The ethnography revealed a lack of basic knowledge about diabetes and diabetes risk factors amongst people with diabetes. The issue of compliance was identified as one of the main themes in the process of treating diabetes. Compliance emerged as part of the discourse of healthcare providers in clinics and filtered into the daily discourses of people with diabetes. The clinical encounters offered treatment packages that were socially inappropriate therefore rejected or modified for most of the time by people with diabetes. Compliance to biomedical therapy suffered a setback for four main reasons: dealing with competing regimes of treatment; coming to terms with biomedical treatment of diabetes; the cost of biomedical therapy; and the impact of AIDS on accepting weight loss as a lifestyle measure in prescription packages. People with diabetes had fears about and negative opinions of accepting certain prescriptions that they thought could interfere with their accustomed social image especially that which had to do with bridging their relationship with ancestors and losing weight in the era of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The cultural pressures on patients are responsible for patients' partial acceptance of and adherence to prescriptions. Understanding the self-image of patients and their background cultures are vital ingredients to improve diabetes care in low-income countries of Sub-Sahara Africa like Cameroon.

  10. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge C; Fokam, Joseph; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Tsomo, Zephirin; Dion, Grace Ngute; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Mpoudi, Eitel N; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat Nfetam, Jean B

    2012-01-01

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  11. Simulation of off-grid generation options for remote villages in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfah, E.M.; Ngundam, J.M.; Vandenbergh, M.; Schmid, J.

    2008-01-01

    Off-grid generation options have been simulated for remote villages in Cameroon using a load of 110 kWh/day and 12 kWp. The energy costs of proposed options were simulated using HOMER, a typical village load profile, the solar resource of Garoua and the flow of river Mungo. For a 40% increase in the cost of imported power system components, the cost of energy was found to be 0.296 EUR/kWh for a micro-hydro hybrid system comprising a 14 kW micro-hydro generator, a 15 kW LPG generator and 36 kWh of battery storage. The cost of energy for photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems made up of an 18 kWp PV generator, a 15 kW LPG generator and 72 kWh of battery storage was also found to be 0.576 EUR/kWh for remote petrol price of 1 EUR/l and LPG price of 0.70 EUR/m 3 . The micro-hydro hybrid system proved to be the cheapest option for villages located in the southern parts of Cameroon with a flow rate of at least 200l/s, while the PV hybrid system was the cheapest option for villages in the northern parts of Cameroon with an insolation level of at least 5.55 kWh/m 2 /day. For a single-wire grid extension cost of 5000 EUR/km, operation and maintenance costs of 125 EUR/yr/km and a local grid power price of 0.1 EUR/kWh, the breakeven grid extension distances were found to be 15.4 km for micro-hydro/LPG generator systems and 37.4 km for PV/LPG generator systems respectively. These results could be used in Cameroon's National Energy Action Plan for the provision of energy services in the key sectors involved in the fight against poverty. (author)

  12. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  13. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngachin, M. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)], E-mail: mngachin@yahoo.com; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Kwato Njock, M.G. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)

    2008-07-15

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg{sup -1}, 22-36 Bq kg{sup -1} and 43-201 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The radioisotope {sup 137}Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m{sup -3} and 5.5-8.7 kBq m{sup -3} in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with {gamma}-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south

  14. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Nourreddine, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg -1 , 22-36 Bq kg -1 and 43-201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5-8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal

  15. Research evidence and policy: qualitative study in selected provinces in South Africa and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Zani, Babalwa; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Wiysonge, Charles S; Dudley, Lillian; Kredo, Tamara; Garner, Paul; Young, Taryn

    2015-09-03

    The translation of research into policy and practice is enhanced by policymakers who can recognise and articulate their information needs and researchers that understand the policymakers' environment. As researchers, we sought to understand the policymaking process and how research evidence may contribute in South Africa and Cameroon. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews in South Africa and focus group discussions in Cameroon with purposively sampled subnational (provincial and regional) government health programme managers. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analysed. Participants in both countries described the complex, often lengthy nature of policymaking processes, which often include back-and-forth consultations with many diverse stakeholder groups. These processes may be influenced by political structures, relationships between national and subnational levels, funding and international stakeholder agendas. Research is not a main driver of policy, but rather current contextual realities, costs, logistics and people (clinicians, NGOs, funders) influence the policy, and research plays a part. Research evidence is frequently perceived as unavailable, inaccessible, ill-timed or not applicable. The reliability of research on the internet was questioned. Evidence-informed health decision-making (EIDM) is regarded as necessary in South Africa but is less well understood in Cameroon. Insufficient time and capacity were hindrances to EIDM in both countries. Good relationships between researchers and policymakers may facilitate EIDM. Researchers should have a good understanding of the policymaking environment if they want to influence it. Greater interaction between policymakers and researchers is perceived as beneficial when formulating research and policy questions as it raises researchers' awareness of implementation challenges and enables the design of tailored and focused strategies to respond to policymakers' needs

  16. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-09-07

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  17. Preliminary studies of pest constraints to cotton seedlings in a direct seeding mulch-based system in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevault, T.; Guibert, H.; Naudin, K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pest constraints of an innovative crop management system in Cameroon involving conservation tillage and direct seeding mulch-based strategies. We hypothesized that the presence of mulch (i) would support a higher density of phytophagous arthropods particularly

  18. Soil macrofauna community structure along a gradient of land use intensification in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madong à Birang,

    2004-01-01

    The impact of land use systems on soil macrofauna community structures is described as well as their relationships with the vegetation and soil parameters in the humid forest zone of southernCameroon

  19. Global References, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna Process Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu

    2016-01-01

    This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna Process degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…

  20. Common challenges in gum arabic production and commercialization in West Africa: a comparative study of Cameroon, Niger and Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Madi, O.P.; Zoubeirou, A.M.; Sene, A.; Maisharou, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    As gum arabic is widely used in food and non-food industries, demand is high all over the world. Still, smaller production countries in West Africa such as Cameroon, Niger and Senegal seem to have so many difficulties producing and commercializing gum arabic that their market shares have declined

  1. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two

  2. Diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma'an rain forest, Cameroon: do tree species tell it all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchouto, M.G.P.; Boer, de W.F.; Wilde, de J.J.F.E.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma¿an rain forest, in south Cameroon. In this area, the structure and composition of the forests change progressively from the coastal forest on sandy shorelines through the lowland evergreen forest rich in Caesalpinioideae with

  3. From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Recommends integrating different applications to serve the need for students to know the relevancy of the course of their future. Uses different and unrelated phenomena to teach equilibria. Introduces six phenomena; (1) Killer Lakes of Cameroon, (2) Chicken Breath, (3) The Permian Ocean, (4) Snow Line, (5) Hard-Water Boiler Scale, and (6)…

  4. Diversity and dynamics of mycorrhizal associations in tropical rain forests with different disturbance regimes in South Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study documents the occurrence of mycorrhizal associations in the rain forests of south Cameroon. All species investigated are mycorrhizal. Most timber species form arbuscular mycorrhiza, but some timber species, which usually occur in clumps, form ectomycorrhiza. Species

  5. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women attending a hospital in the Moungo district, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van dan Meeberg, P. C.; Kooiman, R. C.; Buisman, N. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; Bannenberg, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey conducted from January to May 1986 among 650 pregnant women from mixed rural/urban origin in the Moungo district, Cameroon, revealed a very low prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). One subject appeared to be infected with HIV 2. This is

  6. Bio-indicator species and Central African rain forest refuges in the Campo-Ma'an area, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchouto, M.G.P.; de Wilde, J.J.F.E.; de Boer, W.F.; van der Maesen, L.J.G.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to examine the geographical position of late Pleistocene forest refuges in the tropical lowland rain forest in southern Cameroon by analysing the distribution of 178 selected bio-indicator species. We studied the distribution patterns of these species, such as strict and narrow

  7. HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) - Reflections on a new test for sexuality-based asylum claims in Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The case HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] UKSC 31 was celebrated as a 'fundamental shift in asylum law'. In this decision, the UK Supreme Court rejects the 'reasonably tolerable test' that had been applied in the case of the gay men HJ, a 40-year-old

  8. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaire NKENGFACK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  9. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  10. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  11. [Epidemiologic and clinical study of paragonimosis in Cameroon. Results of niclofolan treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripert, C; Carrie, J; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Baecher, R; Kum, N P; Same-Ekobo, A

    1981-01-01

    Paragonimiasis does not occur only in the South West Province of Cameroon. Four foci exist in the country. They are the well known focus in the Mount Kupe area, the Mbam focus, the Nyong focus and the Ntem focus. All of them are located in the rainforest within the distribution area of Potadoma. This disease, characterized by the presence of eggs in sputum and feces, has often been confused with tuberculosis. In the villages where paragonimiasis is diagnosed by means of parasitological techniques circulating antibodies, revealed with a P. westermani antigen (ELISA), are often found in blood specimens taken from inhabitants. Teen agers suffer the most from the disease and females more often than males. Women and children are traditionally concerned with crabs fishing and they eat them after partly raw. Crabs of the genus Sudanautes contain the infective metacercariae. Paragonimiasis is enzootic and the civet cat V. civetta seems to be the main natural definitive host in Cameroon. Niclofolan given orally in a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight showed a 100% cure rate. Side reactions are mild and transient.

  12. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  13. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cockburn

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon. Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context. Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects. Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  14. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  15. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  16. Farmer's Perception and Adoption of New Aquaculture Technologies in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njankoua Wandji, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other African countries, Cameroon is struggling to meet the food needs of its population. There are several possible solutions to this problem, such as the import of agricultural produce and increasing national production. In terms of fishery products (fish, shrimps, etc., it would not be easy to increase national production, due to the various constraints inherent in the sector and national industry, as well as low availability of farming areas. Fish farming is one of the solutions recommended as a sustainable method of producing an adequate supply of fish (farming fish in ponds. The main objective of this study is to highlight and analyse the socio-economic obstacles that are holding back the development of fish farming in the West Cameroon. Using the univariate dichotomous LOGIT model, this study has made it possible to identify the key determinants affecting the adoption of fish farming. The results indicate that its strong commercial orientation, coupled with the positive perception of its profitability, frequent contact, extension and level of education are the main determinants for the adoption of fish farming.

  17. Self-disclosure of HIV status, disclosure counseling, and retention in HIV care in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, Tiffany L; Newman, Jamie E; Mfangam Molu, Brigitte; Akam, Wilfred; Balimba, Ashu; Atibu, Joseph; Kiumbu, Modeste; Azinyue, Innocent; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Pence, Brian W

    2017-07-01

    Poor retention in care is common among HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa settings and remains a key barrier to HIV management. We quantify the associations of disclosure of HIV status and referral to disclosure counseling with successful retention in care using data from three Cameroon clinics participating in the Phase 1 International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa cohort. Of 1646 patients newly initiating antiretroviral therapy between January 2008 and January 2011, 43% were retained in care following treatment initiation. Self-disclosure of HIV status to at least one person prior to treatment initiation was associated with a minimal increase in the likelihood of being retained in care (risk ratio [RR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 1.38). However, referral to disclosure counseling was associated with a moderate increase in retention (RR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.55) and was not significantly modified by prior disclosure status (p = .3). Our results suggest that while self-disclosure may not significantly improve retention among patients receiving care at these Cameroon sites, counseling services may play an important role regardless of prior disclosure status.

  18. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, Pimpact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  19. Livelihood opportunities amongst adults with and without disabilities in Cameroon and India: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Banks, Lena Morgon; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Sagar, Jayanthi; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Proven links between disability and poverty suggest that development programmes and policies that are not disability-inclusive will leave persons with disabilities behind. Despite this, there is limited quantitative evidence on livelihood opportunities amongst adults with disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries. This study adds to the limited evidence base, contributing data from one African and one Asian Setting. We undertook a population-based case-control study of adults (18+) with and without disabilities in North-West Cameroon and in Telangana State, India. We found that adults with disabilities were five times less likely to be working compared to age-sex matched controls in both settings. Amongst adults with disabilities, current age, marital status and disability type were key predictors of working. Inclusive programmes are therefore needed to provide adequate opportunities to participate in livelihood prospects for adults with disabilities in Cameroon and India, on an equal basis as others. These findings are of crucial importance at this stage of the Sustainable Development Agenda, to ensure that the mandate of inclusive development is achieved.

  20. Do the factors associated with female HIV infection vary by socioeconomic status in Cameroon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumah, Joyce N; Jackson-Smith, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    One of the most consistent findings in social epidemiology is an inverse relationship between indicators of SES and most types of illness. However, a growing body of research on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suggests an intriguing reversal of this pattern, particularly with respect to HIV among women. In Cameroon, specifically, high-SES women have higher rates of HIV infection compared with low-SES women. Using data from the 2004 Cameroon DHS, this study explored the relationships between SES and HIV and tested a multivariate model designed to highlight the distinctive factors associated with increased risk of HIV among women in different SES classes. The results revealed that high-SES women who reported engaging in riskier sexual behaviour had the highest levels of HIV infection. Surprisingly, among this group increased knowledge of HIV, more domestic decision-making authority and access to health care did not reduce vulnerability. Meanwhile, among low-SES women relative gender inequality was significantly related to HIV risk. Specifically, among this group of women, having a partner with higher education was strongly associated with greater HIV risk. The results suggest that different approaches targeting each sub-group are needed to effectively combat the disease.

  1. Molecular assessment of the bacterial community associated with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Begoude, Aime Didier Boyogueno; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Araki, Shigeru; Nawata, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial communities play an important role in nutrient cycles and plant development. Their distribution and activity may depend on location and environmental heterogeneity. This study characterized soil bacterial communities in cassava fields of Eastern (Andom) and Southern (Bityili) Cameroon using molecular tools. In both sites, two improved varieties (TMS-96/1414; TMS-92/0326) and a local variety (Local) were grown in a randomized block design. Composite bulk soils were collected at 10months after planting from cassava plots. The 16S rDNA region was amplified, MiSeq was performed and sequence data analyzed. The same 17 bacterial phyla were present in both Andom and Bityili, while Chlorobi and Deinococcus-Thermus were only specific to Andom. The phyla Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant. Although both sites shared similar phyla, the principal coordinate analysis revealed significant variations in their composition, suggesting that the functions of the bacteria in nutrients cycling are likely to differ between Andom and Bityili. Cassava yields were generally higher in Andom which also displayed a higher diversity of bacterial communities. This study provides useful information on the composition of bacterial communities in cassava fields in two agro-ecologies of Cameroon. It constitutes to our knowledge the first report describing soil bacterial communities in association with cassava growth in the country, using molecular tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Volcanic risk perception in rural communities along the slopes of mount Cameroon, West-Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Chuyong, George; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2010-11-01

    A study of volcanic risk perception was carried out in rural communities around the Mount Cameroon volcano between August and December 2008. The results indicate that risk perception reflects the levels of threat to which a resident population has been exposed to previously. Results of 70 responses to questionnaires show that local knowledge of hazards is high. Most respondents correctly indicated that earthquake and lava flow activities would affect resident population most in the future. By contrast, respondent's ability to adapt and protect themselves from the effects of future eruptions is poor, and inhabitants would likely shift responsibility for their protection to the requisite experts. This study confirms that there is little knowledge of any existing emergency plan, little or no educational outreach activities, but a high perceived need for information about and implementation of such actions. Knowledge about natural threats is found to be directly related to past exposure to volcanic hazard, and is significantly higher for people living along the southern than those along the northern slopes of Mt. Cameroon. The data also show that the media remains the most accessible channel for hazard communication, and that the internet is a growing information source that should be used to reach out to the younger generation. It is clear from the results of this study that major education and information efforts are required to improve the public's knowledge, confidence in the government, and growing self-reliance, in order to improve both collective and individual capacity to face future volcanic emergencies.

  3. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Millard, James D; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Psychosocial stressors of sickle cell disease on adult patients in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Mba, Caryl Zameyo; Mbanya, Dora; Ngogang, Jeanne; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-12-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects quality of life. Studies of the psychosocial burden of SCD on patients have been rarely reported in Africa. We used a quantitative method, with face-to-face administered questionnaires, to study indices of psychosocial stressors on adult SCD patients in Cameroon. The questionnaire included a 36-item stress factors scale evaluating general perceptions of stress and five main stressors' domain: disease factors, hospital factors, financial factors, family factors and quality of personal-life factors. Items pertaining to psychosocial stressors involved four response options with increasing severity: 0, 1, 2 or 3. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. The majority of the 83 participants were urban dwellers, female, 20-30 years old, single, unemployed, with at least a secondary or tertiary education. Median age at diagnosis was 100 months; 47.8% had >3 painful vaso-oclusive crises annually. Only 4.8% had been treated with hydroxyurea. The majority reported moderate to severe difficulty coping with SCD. The "degree of clinical severity" category displayed the highest median score (2.0), while familial stressors showed the lowest (0.8). Being female, married, with low education level, an additional affected sibling and low direct income were significantly associated with specific stressors' categories. In Cameroon, there is an urgent need to implement policies that ensure affordable access to health-care and practices to reduce SCD morbidity and improve patients' quality of life.

  5. A Crispy Delicacy: Augosoma Beetle as Alternative Source of Protein in East Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Muafor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65% of consumers prefer consuming the adults, while 35% prefer consuming the larvae. About 24% of consumers derive the same satisfaction from the consumption of Augosoma or other edible insects. Close to 39% of consumers prefer other edible insects to Augosoma, while 37% prefer the consumption of Augosoma to other edible insects. This beetle usually occurs at a period when other edible insects are not available, therefore constituting a good source of alternative protein in this region where poverty, poaching, and biodiversity erosion are still a major problem. Furthermore, the gathering of this beetle for food is equally a means of biological pest control of raffia plants and a tool to enhance community-based conservation of the areas global biodiversity.

  6. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07Cameroon.

  7. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  8. Wild Food, Prices, Diets and Development: Sustainability and Food Security in Urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Q. Sneyd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditional foods are physically available in Cameroonian cities most of the time, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and insects. Cameroonians spend considerable sums of their food budget on wild foods. However, low wages and the high cost of city living constrain the social and economic access most people have to these foods. The data also suggest that imports of non-traditional staple foods, such as low cost rice, have increasingly priced potentially more nutritious or safe traditional local foods out of markets after the 2008 food price crisis. As a result, diets are changing in Cameroon as the resource-constrained population continues to resort to the coping strategy of eating cheaper imported foods such as refined rice or to eating less frequently. Cameroon’s nutrition transition continues to be driven by need and not necessarily by the preferences of Cameroonian consumers. The implications of this reality for sustainability are troubling.

  9. Barriers to counselling support for HIV/AIDS patients in south-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonchingong, Charles C; Mbuagbo, Timothy O; Abong, Jennifer T

    2004-11-01

    The potential synergy between counselling and HIV/AIDS prevention is gaining recognition in Cameroon as counselling sessions are more often organised at health centres. In order to evaluate the actual achievements of these efforts, a qualitative ethnographic survey (based on interviews and focus group discussions) was conducted in two public and two private hospitals in the South-West Province. Churches and public health officials in Cameroon are struggling with the psycho-social, philosophical, psychological, theological, social, moral, ethical and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS, as they seek out viable prevention strategies. Health centres are also struggling to embrace the full meaning of counselling and to make psychological and spiritual support to AIDS patients available through the centres. Patients using these health centres may receive HIV testing against a backdrop of cultural standards that allow unsafe sex and bar open discussion on sex and sexuality. We propose that reversing the trend of the epidemic requires the intervention of the State, organisations in civil society and the family. Equally crucial is the role played by the churches - especially in confronting issues of stigmatisation and abandonment that often accompany patient disclosure, and in providing spiritual, emotional and psychological support to patients undergoing treatment.

  10. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  11. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and non-existent at the levels

  12. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    The Ngaoundéré granite pluton, in Central-North Cameroon, located near the Central Cameroon Shear zone (CCSZ), and previously studied for its petrography and geochemistry, is characterized by the absence of macroscopic markers of deformation. In this study, we report microstructures and magnetic fabrics (AMS) of this pluton and discuss the relationship with the Pan-African evolution of the CCSZ. The pluton consists of a porphyritic Hbl-Bt-monzogranite at its rim and a porphyritic biotite-granite at its core, a petrographic distribution denoting a normal zoning pattern, i.e. more silicic toward the centre. As expected, magnetic susceptibilities values also exhibit a zoning pattern in agreement with petrographic zonation. Thermomagnetic data indicate that this pluton is dominantly ferromagnetic in behaviour. As indicated by its microstructures, the pluton has suffered a continuum of deformation from the magmatic state to the high temperature solid-state during magma crystallization and solidification. The magnetic foliations dominantly strike NE-SW and dip moderately to steeply and the lineations mostly plunge shallowly to the NE or SW, roughly parallel to NE-to ENE-trending Central Cameroun Shear Zone (CCSZ). The foliation poles define a girdle pattern with a zone axis (52°/11°) rather close to the best line of the lineations (44°/21°). These fabrics correlate with the structures of the country rocks ascribed by several workers to a regional transpression. Toward the margins of the pluton, particularly the northern one, the lineations tend to rotate from NE to N in azimuth. This change is interpreted as due to strain partitioning, simple shearing with NE-SW extension being relayed by compression toward the northern pluton border. This new magnetic fabric study suggests that the Ngaoundéré pluton (poorly dated at c. 575 Ma) was emplaced during the late stages of the CCSZ dextral transpressive movement. It also provides some more constraints on the correlation

  13. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  14. The influence of rural-urban migration on migrant's fertility behavior in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B S

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of Cameroon fertility data suggests that rural stayers do not have a significantly higher fertility than rural-urban migrants in contrast to hypotheses suggested in the literature. Bongaarts and Caldwell both suggest that modernization plays a role in African fertility and migration patterns by increasing exposure to childbearing. Supply constraints are changed by higher levels of education, short duration of postpartum abstinence, less prevalence of polygamy, and more stable marriages. The influence of relatives may be weaker and the fear of losing a husband greater, which influence earlier returns to sexual relations. Because the levels of fertility of stayers and movers may be equal does not suggest that movers do not adapt fertility to urban norms. Analysis was conducted with d ata from the 1978 Cameroon World Fertility Survey on 8219 women aged 15-54 years for rural nonmigrants, rural-rural migrants, and rural-urban migrants. Rural-urban migrants were found to be better educated, have fewer cases of infertility, and have more stable first marriages. Descriptive statistics are provided for migrants and nonmigrants. Cross classification analysis shows that fertility is not lower for women with higher education, even when migration status is controlled for. Multivariate regression results in an autoregressive model in a first difference form indicated that the fertility rate of rural-urban migrant women was significantly higher than that of rural staryers during the period of 5-9 years after migration. The urban effect acts to reduce migrants' fertility by about .13 births. Comparisons are made with Mexican and Korean migration behavior, which reflect decreased fertility after migration of 1.5 births and 2.6 births, respectively. The suggestion is that the fertility-increasing effect of supply conditions in Cameroon is significantly offset by the fertility-depressing adaptation effect of migration to urban areas. It is expected that

  15. Are students kidding with health research ethics? The case of HIV/AIDS research in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munung Nchangwi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universities in Cameroon are playing an active part in HIV/AIDS research and much of this research is carried out by students, usually for the purpose of a dissertation/thesis. Student theses/dissertations present research findings in a much more comprehensive manner and have been described as the stepping-stone of a budding scientist’s potential in becoming an independent researcher. It is therefore important to verify how students handle issues of research ethics. Method Theses/dissertations on HIV/AIDS that described research studies involving the use of human research participants were screened to verify if research ethics approval and informed consent were obtained and documented. The contents of the consent forms were also qualitatively analyzed. Results Of 174 theses/dissertations on HIV, ethics approval was documented in 17 (9.77% and informed consent in 77 (47.83%. Research ethics approval was first mentioned at all in 2002 and highly reported in the year 2007. Evidence of ethics approval was found for the first time in 2005 and informed consent first observed and evidenced in 1997. Ethics approval was mostly reported by students studying for an MD (14.01% and was not reported in any Bachelors’ degree dissertation. Informed consent was also highly reported in MD theses (64.58% followed by undergraduate theses (31.58%. Voluntary participation and potential benefits of the study were some of the common aspects dealt with in most of the consent forms. The right to discontinue participation in the study and management of residual samples were scarcely ever mentioned. Conclusions Overall, and given the current state of the art of research ethics around the world, student-scientists in Cameroon would seem to be merely kidding with research ethics. It is thus essential that training in health research ethics (HRE be incorporated in the curriculum of universities in Cameroon in order that the next generation of

  16. Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsobou, Roger; Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Van Damme, Patrick

    Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa. Approximately 80% of the African population uses traditional plants to deal with health problems, basically because of their easy accessibility and affordability. This study was carried out to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and elders in the treatment of reproductive health care in the Bamboutos Division of the West Region in Cameroon, Central Africa. The research methods used included semi-structured interviews and participative field observations. For the interviews, 70 knowledgeable respondents (40 traditional healers and 30 elders) were selected via purposive sampling. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of respondents, processed into the Cameroon National Herbarium in Yaoundé following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted to Department of Botany at the University of Dschang. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize ethnobotanical information obtained. Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to elucidate the agreement among informants on the species to be used in the treatment within a category of illness. The results showed that a total of 70 plant species from 37 families (mostly of the Asteraceae [8 species], Euphorbiaceae [7], and Acanthaceae and Bignoniaceae [4 each]) are used in the treatment of 27 reproductive ailments, with the highest number of species (37) being used against venereal diseases, followed by female (29) and male infertility (21), respectively. Leaves (47.3%) were the most commonly harvested plant parts and the most common growth forms harvested were the herbs (45.7%), followed by shrubs (30%). Sixty percent of plant material was obtained from the wild ecosystems. Herbal remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction (66.2%) and were taken mainly orally. Informant consensus about usages of

  17. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwane, Philippe; Etang, Josiane; Chouaїbou, Mouhamadou; Toto, Jean Claude; Koffi, Alphonsine; Mimpfoundi, Rémy; Simard, Frédéric

    2013-02-22

    Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates>98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in heterogeneous resistance profiles, whereas in

  18. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7-7.4) and 7.5% (5.9-9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5-9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4-11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting participation restrictions. Tools to

  19. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon)

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-07-07

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p\\'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p\\'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg-1 in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Child labour in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Some lessons drawn from a survey on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Song Ntamack

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although child labour is a phenomenon widely studied around the world, there are few papers that tackle the problem in Cameroon. The objective of this paper is to fill the gap by questioning the subject in Yaoundé, the capital city. But child labour phenomenon is analysed here from a questionnaire that has two distinctive features: (i the questionnaire is exclusively devoted to child labour, and (ii all the participants in the survey are exclusively children themselves. No adult (parent, guardian, elder, employer, etc. was consulted and given a chance to answer on behalf of a child. This process is extremely rare in child labour, since in general individuals other than children are requested to testify and answer inslead of children. While some results obtained from a standard Logit model on the determinant of child labour are well known, the others are either not known or insignificant. We suspect that the reason is the data collection.

  1. Investigation of Natural Radioactivity in the Tap and Spring Water in Yaounde Town, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.; Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radionuclide concentrations in the tap and springs water in Yaounde town, capital of Cameroon with a population of 3.5 million inhabitants were estimated by gamma spectrometry, using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems. Tap water samples were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, respectively in December 2002 and July 2003 and spring water samples were collected in August 2010. The radionuclides observed with regularity belonged to the series decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238 U and 232 Th as well as the non-series nuclide 40 K. Assuming an individual daily consumption of 1 litre of water, the average annual intake for these populations is 3821 Bq/y for tap water and 1161 Bq/y for spring water.

  2. Gravity Data Interpretation in the Northern Edge of the Congo Craton, South-Cameroon

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    James Derek Fairhead

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in the southern Cameroon are interpreted to better understand the organization of underlying structuresthroughout the northern edge of the Congo craton. The Bouguer anomaly maps of the region are characterized by an elongated trending trending negative gravity anomaly which correspond to a collapsed structure associated with a granitic intrusion beneath the cente center of the region r of the region of the region and limited by fault systems. �e applied 3�D gravity modelling and inversion in order to obtain the 3D density structure of the area. Our result demonstrated that observed gravity anomalies in the region are associated to tectonic structures in the subsurface. The resulting model agrees with the hypothesis of the existence of a major continental collision zone between the Congo Craton and the Pan�African belt. The presence of deep granulites structures in the northern part of the region expresses a continental collision.

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cameroon, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $1.3 million of Agency support received, Cameroon ranks 68th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (24%) and training (15%). The best part of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (90%); the remaining ten per cent were made available through extrabudgetary contributions (8%) and assistance in kind (2%). With regard to project disbursements by sector, the four major areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (38%), agriculture (23%), nuclear medicine (14%) and hydrology (13%)

  4. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

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    Félicité M. Tchouanguep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%, cow raw milk (15.9%, breast milk (4.8%, urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%, and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%; HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  5. Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon

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    Menze-Djantio Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information on the social perception of malaria and the use of prevention methods in Cameroon. This study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and management of malaria in households living in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé. Results Over 82% of people interviewed associated malaria transmission to mosquito bites. Methods used for malaria prevention were: environmental sanitation 1645 (76.1%, use of bed nets 1491 (69%, insecticide spray/coils 265 (12.3% and netting of doors or windows 42 (1.9%. Bed net ownership was significantly high in Yaoundé (73.8% (P Conclusion The study revealed a high awareness of populations on malaria and ITNs. However some attitudes hindering the use of ITN or related to the management of clinical cases need further attention.

  6. TOURISTY POLICIES AND THE HOTEL PARK DEVELOPEMENT OF CAMEROON (1950 - 2003

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    Catherine Lytrice AKAMBA MANI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hotelier component represents an important side of the touristy activity success. In countries that have an emergent economy, as Cameroon, the tourism and the hotel business have shaped activation as a lever to the whole economy, since the second half of the 20th century. The present paperwork proposes an analytic overview of the evolution of the hotelier park in two of the main cities of the country, Douala and Yaoundé. The evolutional aspects are historically staged, correlated within the political framework and emphasize the tourist phenomenon overall. The goals of our research emphasize qualitative and quantitative upheaval recorded by the urban hotelier park for the identification of the causal terms between the phenomenon type relations/context and the possible substantiation policy in the future.

  7. Domestic saving mobilisation and small business creation: The case of Cameroon

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    LC Forje

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting savings and providing a basis for lending to the poor is a growing concern in many developing countries. Cameroon has a culture of savings mobilisation known as njangi/tontine. The njangi is contributions given to members in a rotating form at the end of every sitting, and tontine is voluntary savings held by the group. This study reveals that njangi/tontine groups only lend money to group members and suggests that a micro village bank known as MC2 could be used as guarantor to ensure that group monies lent to non-group members are repaid. Encouragement and improvement in the function of such voluntary savings could promote the creation of small businesses in the country.  The Cameroonian government needs to improve fighting corruption and a functional justice system to ensure security.

  8. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

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    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  9. Manyu youths, belonging and the antinomies of patrimonial elite politics in contemporary Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2013-01-01

    and better chances for upward social mobility. With a critical attention to their discourses and practices, the article examines the disjuncture between the promise of Cameroon’s patrimonial state as an inclusive structure of political action and the sense of exclusion, anxiety, and uncertainty felt by many......This article explores the social and political connections between youths and political elites from Manyu Division in South-Western Cameroon. Unlike several recent studies on youths in Africa, it focuses on educated youths from Manyu, exploring their strategies to secure greater political inclusion......, these do not always guarantee inclusion and success in social mobility for the youthful actors. For these youths, they felt their exclusion to be more a result of the obstructive character of middle-aged elites who were reticent to acknowledge the values of kinship, ethnicity, and patronage as valid basis...

  10. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  11. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotchoko Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  12. Survey of the mineral status of pastures and small ruminants in the West Region of Cameroon

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    Njwe, RM.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Four dominant grass species (Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum and Sporobolus africanus of natural pastures of the West Region of Cameroon were sampled at 60 sites between September and November of 1985. The grass samples were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, mangenese, copper and zinc. Serum was also collected from goats and sheep at the same locations where forages were sampled and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper. Results showed that P, Mg, A/a, Zn and Cu in forages were generally below the critical level stipulated to satisfy the requirements of grazing livestock in the tropics. Calcium was inadequate in the sera of goats and sheep where as P, Mg, Zn and Cu were adequate. Use of salt licks to supplement intake of mineral elements from grasses by goats and sheep is necessary in the region.

  13. Challenges to implementing a National Health Information System in Cameroon: perspectives of stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ngwakongnwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early 90s, the Cameroon Ministry of Health implemented a National Health Information System (NHIS based on a bottom- up approach of manually collecting and reporting health data. Little is known about the implementation and functioning of the NHIS. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of the NHIS by documenting experiences of individual stakeholders, and to suggest recommendations for improvement. We reviewed relevant documents and conducted face-to-face interviews (N=4 with individuals directly involved with data gathering, reporting and storage. Content analysis was used to analyze textual data. We found a stalled and inefficient NHIS characterized by general lack of personnel, a labor-intensive process, delay in reporting data, much reliance on field staff, and lack of incentives. A move to an electronic health information system without involving all stakeholders and adequately addressing the issues plaguing the current system is premature.

  14. Implications Of Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development And Real Exchange Rate For Economic Growth In Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang Achamoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI, financial development and real exchange rate (RER on economic growth in Cameroon using Cameroon’s annual time series data spanning the period 1977 - 2010. To address these objectives, residual based Engle-Granger test, the OLS based Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL bound testing and maximum likelihood based Johansen cointegration techniques are employed. Results of Unit roots tests show that all the series possessed unit roots at level or first difference form. The ARDL model and VECM results reveal that the RER has a significant negative effect on economic growth, while FDI and Financial Development relate positively to economic growth. These findings have implications for stimulating economic growth by increasing efficiency of the financial sector in allocating credit to the private sector and preventing real exchange rate appreciation in the shortrun.

  15. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  16. Heavy metals in soils along unpaved roads in south west Cameroon: Contamination levels and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M

    2016-04-01

    Soils enriched with heavy metals from vehicular emission present a significant exposure route of heavy metals to individuals using unpaved roads. This study assessed the extent of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination of soils along unpaved roads in Cameroon, and the health risks presented by incidental ingestion and dermal contact with the soils using metal contamination factor (CF) pollution load index, hazard quotients (HQ) and chronic hazard index (CHI). CF values obtained (0.9-12.2) indicate moderate to high contamination levels. HQ values for Cr, Cd and Pb exceeded the reference doses. Moderate health hazard exists for road users in the areas with intense anthropogenic activities and high average daily traffic (ADT) volume according to CHI values (1-4) obtained. The economy and quality of life in cities with unpaved roads could be threatened by health challenges resulting from long-term exposure to heavy metal derived from high ADT volumes.

  17. The oil industry along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon: assessing impacts and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieudonne Alemagi

    2007-01-01

    While the oil industry along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon has made important contributions to the national economy, this has been accompanied with adverse environmental impacts. There has been significant pollution from oil drilling, refinery waste, oil spillage, gas and flaring. After discussing these impacts, this paper argues that prevailing regulations are inadequate and need overhauling. It proposes that cleaner production requires: (i) specific laws to protect dwellers in the neighbourhood of oil refineries, filling stations, service stations and pipelines; (ii) adoption of national standards for levels of industrial effluents, and allocation of sufficient resources for monitoring these standards; (iii) formation of industry-government research partnerships; (iv) the divorcing of gas flaring; and (v) a more comprehensive legislation enabling a robust public participation in environmental impact assessment and nomination of indicators to evaluate corporate environmental management plans. (author)

  18. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  20. Motorcycle injury among secondary school students in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagwui, Asonganyi Edwin; Fredinah, Namatovu; Che, Longho Bernard; Yulia, Blomstedt

    2016-01-01

    Injury from motorcycle is a considerable cause of disability and death in the world and especially in low and middle-income countries; it is one of the most serious public health problems. In Cameroon, motorcycle is commonly used for transportation particularly among students. The aim of this paper is to study the risk-factors of the motorcycle-related accidents and injuries among secondary school students' in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon. A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2012 on 391 students age 16-24 from public and private schools in the Tiko Municipality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between risk factors and injuries. A closed-ended and few open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. The study showed that over 70% of students used motorcycles always or often. Few had undergone any formal training for driving a motorcycle. The vast majority reported not wearing protective gear while driving or riding a motorcycle. Usage of protective gear was particularly low among girls. Over 16% reported using a motorbike always or occasionally under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Over 58% of respondents reported having an accident and over 35% were injured when driving or riding a motorcycle. Those who lived at the Tiko-Douala road have three times higher probability to sustain accidents and injuries than students residing elsewhere (OR 3.19 (1.20-8.46). It is deeply alarming that every second respondent in the study reported having been in an accident and every third motorcycle user was somehow injured. We therefore call for an immediate attention and a deeper investigation into the highlighted situation, particularly at Tiko-Douala road.

  1. Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

    2014-03-01

    Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

  2. Cattle productivity on smallholder farms in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njoya, A.; Mbanya, N.J.; Nguemdjom, A.; Kamga, P.; Ndi, C.; Kameni, A.; Nfi, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the traditional cattle production systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon was carried out between August 1994 and September 1997. Fifty two cows selected from 14 farms in 4 locations were monitored monthly. Data were collected on calf and dam weight, dam's body condition, milk offtake and forage quality. Reproductive performance was monitored by measuring progesterone levels in milk sampled weekly. Crude protein content of grazed pastures rose from 12.5% in July to 14.5% in October and declined steadily to reach 4.5% in February. With such a decline in forage quality during the dry season, cows are unable to obtain their nutrient needs, thus productivity was low. Body condition score declined from medium (5.6) at calving to upper low (4.5) 4 months after the initiation of milk offtake. Body weight of cows decreased by nearly 14% during the same period. The interval between calving to first progesterone rise, calving to conception, and inter-calving intervals were 172 ± 116, 185 ± 106 and 448 ± 86 days, respectively. Milk offtake averaged 1.29 ± 0.44 kg/cow/day for a lactation length of 10.5 months. A significant effect of season was detected in milk offtake (P <0.001), body condition score (P <0.05), body weight of cows (P <0.05), intervals from calving to first progesterone rise (P <0.05), calving to conception (P <0.05) and inter-calving interval (P <0.01). Supplementary feeding during the dry season and early lactation to cover the nutrient requirements of the cows in the traditional production system of Western Highlands of Cameroon is recommended and forms the purpose of the second part of this study which is now underway. (author)

  3. Nuclear medicine and the management of prostate cancer in Yaounde - Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong a Zok, F.; Mbodj, M.; Assiga Ahanda, Y.M.; Angwafor, F.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting males above 50 years old in developed countries. Previous studies carried out in Cameroon have shown that, this condition is not infrequent. Late diagnosis is equally common. The advent of nuclear medicine technology in the year 2000 has enabled the possibility of prostate specific antigen (P.S.A.) assay and imaging by bone scintigraphy. In this study, we aimed at assessing the contributions of P.S.A. assay and bone scintigraphy in the management of prostate cancer in Cameroon. Within a 5 years period (January 2003 - December 2007) 360 patients had biopsy proven (Gleason score) prostate adenocarcinoma. The age ranged from 50 to 85 years with a mean of 67 years. Those aged between 60 to 69 years were more affected. The patients were divided into 2 groups: a first one accruing of 250 patients with a previous bone scintigraphy carried out before treatment and a second group of patients who underwent a bone scintigraphy during treatment. Clinical features digital rectal examination, endorectal echography were noted. P.S.A. levels and bone scintigraphy results were also noted. Most of these patients (80.56%) presented with advanced lesions with metastases. Orchiectomy and hormonotherapy were the most used methods of treatment due to late diagnosis. Bone scintigraphy-evidenced lesions were mainly located (92.25%) at the dorso-lumbar region of the spine. There is a correlation between the following variables: clinical features, namely, digital rectal examinations, P.S.A. blood levels, ultrasound, histology and bone scintigraphy. Therefore, we can conclude that, P.S.A. is an important marker of prostate cancer. Its association with bone scintigraphy is appropriate for the detection of bone metastases. (authors)

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Naturals Hazards in the Caldera of Mount Bambouto (West Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangmo Tefogoum, G.; Kagou Dongmo, A.; Nkouathio, D. G.; Wandji, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Bambouto is polygenic stratovolcano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, build between 21 Ma and 4,5Ma (Nkouathio et al., 2008). It is situated at about 200 km NE of mount Cameroon, at 09°55' and 10°15' East and, 05°25' and 05°50' Nord. This volcano covers an area of 500 Km2 and culminates at 2740 m at Meletan hill and bears a collapse caldera (13 x 8 km). Fissural, extrusive and explosive dynamism are responsible of the construction in three main stages this volcano including the edification of a sommital large rim caldera. Mount Bambouto structure gives rise to different natural hazards, of volcanological origin and meteorological origin. In the past time, landslides, floodings, firebush, blocks collapse took place in this area with catastrophic impact on the population. New research program had been carried out in the caldera concerning qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural risks and catastrophes. The main factors of instability are rain, structure of the basement, slopes, lithology and anthropic activities; particularly, the occurrence of exceptional rainfall due to global change are relevant; this gives opportunity to draw landslides hazards zonation map of the Bambouto caldera which is the main risk in this area. We evaluate the financial potential of the caldera base on the average income of breeding, farming, school fees and the cost of houses and equipments for each family. The method of calculation revealed that, the yearly economy of the mounts Bambouto caldera represents about 2 billions FCFA. Some recommendations have been made in order to prevent and reduced the potential losses and the number of victims in particular by better land use planning. These help us to estimate the importance of destruction of the environment and biodiversity in case of catastrophes. We conclude that in the Bambouto caldera there is moderate to high probability that destructive phenomena due to landslides occurs within the upcoming years with enormous

  5. Malaria prevalence and treatment of febrile patients at health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangham, Lindsay J; Cundill, Bonnie; Achonduh, Olivia A; Ambebila, Joel N; Lele, Albertine K; Metoh, Theresia N; Ndive, Sarah N; Ndong, Ignatius C; Nguela, Rachel L; Nji, Akindeh M; Orang-Ojong, Barnabas; Wiseman, Virginia; Pamen-Ngako, Joelle; Mbacham, Wilfred F

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the quality of malaria case management in Cameroon 5 years after the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Treatment patterns were examined in different types of facility, and the factors associated with being prescribed or receiving an ACT were investigated. A cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted among individuals of all ages who left public and private health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon and who reported seeking treatment for a fever. Prevalence of malaria was determined by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in consenting patients attending the facilities and medicine retailers. Among the patients, 73% were prescribed or received an antimalarial, and 51% were prescribed or received an ACT. Treatment provided to patients significantly differed by type of facility: 65% of patients at public facilities, 55% of patients at private facilities and 45% of patients at medicine retailers were prescribed or received an ACT (P = 0.023). The odds of a febrile patient being prescribed or receiving an ACT were significantly higher for patients who asked for an ACT (OR = 24.1, P < 0.001), were examined by the health worker (OR = 1.88, P = 0.021), had not previously sought an antimalarial for the illness (OR = 2.29, P = 0.001) and sought treatment at a public (OR = 3.55) or private facility (OR = 1.99, P = 0.003). Malaria was confirmed in 29% of patients and 70% of patients with a negative result were prescribed or received an antimalarial. Malaria case management could be improved. Symptomatic diagnosis is inefficient because two-thirds of febrile patients do not have malaria. Government plans to extend malaria testing should promote rational use of ACT; though, the introduction of rapid diagnostic testing needs to be accompanied by updated clinical guidelines that provide clear guidance for the treatment of patients with negative test results. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  7. Poverty and health among CDC plantation labourers in Cameroon: Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoge, Valerie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Maat, Harro; Koelen, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond to diseases that adversely affect their health and wellbeing. Living in plantation camps is associated with poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation and the rapid spread of diseases. In a survey of 237 CDC camp dwellers in Cameroon, we used the health belief model to understand the drivers (perceived threats, benefits and cues for treatment seeking) of reported responses. Using logistic regression analysis, we looked for trends in people's response to malaria. We calculated the odds ratio of factors shown to have an influence on people's health, such as food, water, sanitation challenges and seeking formal healthcare for malaria. Malaria (40.3%), cholera (20.8%) and diarrhoea (17.7%) were the major PRDs perceived by camp dwellers. We found a strong link between what respondents perceived as PRDS and hygiene conditions. Poverty for our respondents was more about living in poor hygiene conditions than lack of money. Respondents perceived health challenges as stemming from their immediate living environment. Moreover, people employed self-medication and other informal health practices to seek healthcare. Interestingly, even though respondents reported using formal healthcare services as a general response to illness (84%), almost 90% stated that, in the case of malaria, they would use informal healthcare services. Our study recommends that efforts to curb the devastating effects of PRDs should have a strong focus on perceptions (i.e. include diseases that people living in conditions of poverty perceive as PRDs) and on hygiene practices, emphasising how they can be improved. By providing insights into the inter-linkages between poverty and disease, our study offers relevant

  8. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  10. Poverty and health among CDC plantation labourers in Cameroon: Perceptions, challenges and coping strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Makoge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs, by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC camp dwellers respond to diseases that adversely affect their health and wellbeing. Living in plantation camps is associated with poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation and the rapid spread of diseases. In a survey of 237 CDC camp dwellers in Cameroon, we used the health belief model to understand the drivers (perceived threats, benefits and cues for treatment seeking of reported responses. Using logistic regression analysis, we looked for trends in people's response to malaria. We calculated the odds ratio of factors shown to have an influence on people's health, such as food, water, sanitation challenges and seeking formal healthcare for malaria. Malaria (40.3%, cholera (20.8% and diarrhoea (17.7% were the major PRDs perceived by camp dwellers. We found a strong link between what respondents perceived as PRDS and hygiene conditions. Poverty for our respondents was more about living in poor hygiene conditions than lack of money. Respondents perceived health challenges as stemming from their immediate living environment. Moreover, people employed self-medication and other informal health practices to seek healthcare. Interestingly, even though respondents reported using formal healthcare services as a general response to illness (84%, almost 90% stated that, in the case of malaria, they would use informal healthcare services. Our study recommends that efforts to curb the devastating effects of PRDs should have a strong focus on perceptions (i.e. include diseases that people living in conditions of poverty perceive as PRDs and on hygiene practices, emphasising how they can be improved. By providing insights into the inter-linkages between poverty and disease, our study

  11. Setting performance-based financing in the health sector agenda: a case study in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieleunou, Isidore; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Fotso, Jean-Claude Taptué; Tamga, Denise Magne; Yumo, Habakkuk Azinyui; Kouokam, Estelle; Ridde, Valery

    2017-08-01

    More than 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced performance-based financing (PBF) in their healthcare systems. Yet, there has been little research on the process by which PBF was put on the national policy agenda in Africa. This study examines the policy process behind the introduction of PBF program in Cameroon. The research is an explanatory case study using the Kingdon multiple streams framework. We conducted a document review and 25 interviews with various types of actors involved in the policy process. We conducted thematic analysis using a hybrid deductive-inductive approach for data analysis. By 2004, several reports and events had provided evidence on the state of the poor health outcomes and health financing in the country, thereby raising awareness of the situation. As a result, decision-makers identified the lack of a suitable health financing policy as an important issue that needed to be addressed. The change in the political discourse toward more accountability made room to test new mechanisms. A group of policy entrepreneurs from the World Bank, through numerous forms of influence (financial, ideational, network and knowledge-based) and building on several ongoing reforms, collaborated with senior government officials to place the PBF program on the agenda. The policy changes occurred as the result of two open policy windows (i.e. national and international), and in both instances, policy entrepreneurs were able to couple the policy streams to effect change. The policy agenda of PBF in Cameroon underlined the importance of a perceived crisis in the policy reform process and the advantage of building a team to carry forward the policy process. It also highlighted the role of other sources of information alongside scientific evidence (eg.: workshop and study tour), as well as the role of previous policies and experiences, in shaping or influencing respectively the way issues are framed and reformers' actions and choices.

  12. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of emergency contraception among university students in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouam Luc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700. General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664. However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664 believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000. Forty-nine students (7.4% had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which

  13. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

  14. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection......Due to the infectious nature of some clinical waste, poor disposal practices have sparked concern regarding the impact on public health and the environment. Lack of sufficient knowledge of the associated risks may be a strong factor contributing to inadequate disposal practices. We conducted......, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy--national or international--on safe clinical waste...

  15. Fiscal Sustainability, Public Investment, and Growth in Natural Resource-Rich, Low-Income Countries; The Case of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Issouf Samaké; Priscilla S Muthoora; Bruno Versailles

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of the use of oil revenue for public investment on growth and fiscal sustainability in Cameroon. We develop a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to analyze the effects of such investment on growth and on the path of key fiscal indicators, such as the non-oil primary deficit and public debt. Policy scenarios show that Cameroon’s large infrastructural needs and relatively low current debt levels could justify a temporary deviation from traditional ...

  16. The Disposition of Water Supply and Demand in Cameroon: What Potential for what Standard of Living Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Saidou Baba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - This paper attempts to appraise the potential of water resources for Cameroon and the standard of living conditions confronting people in the country. Design/methodology/approach - A simple descriptive method of data analysis is adopted using analytical tools such as percentages, tables, and means to achieve the objectives of the inquiry. Data for the study were generated from personal observations in one hand and collected from water resources literature, on the other hand. Findings - With the help of the data gathered, the paper establishes that despite the existence of abundant water resources in Cameroon the standard of living conditions of people with respect to basic needs of survival such as drinking water, improved sanitation services, and electricity supply is far below expectation. Research implications/limitations - The main implication of the study is that in spite of the surplus volume of water resources (325.96 km3 or 95.12% of annual total water resources endowment in Cameroon, the population benefits marginally from it due to the mismanagement of resources and misplacement of priorities as obtained in most sub-Saharan African countries. One limitation of this study is that the use of limited primary data in the investigation offers no room toward establishing the extent of water resources allocation to the various users of water in the country. Originality/value/contribution - The paper suggests that the government of Cameroon should encourage the population to run community basic social services projects and subsidize the activities of such ventures in kind through technical assistance or in cash.

  17. Review of the evolution of insecticide resistance in main malaria vectors in Cameroon from 1990 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Sonhafouo-Chiana, N; Ngadjeu, C S; Doumbe-Belisse, P; Talipouo, A; Djamouko-Djonkam, L; Kopya, E; Bamou, R; Awono-Ambene, P; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-10-10

    Malaria remains a major public health threat in Cameroon and disease prevention is facing strong challenges due to the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance in vector populations. The present review presents an overview of published data on insecticide resistance in the main malaria vectors in Cameroon to assist in the elaboration of future and sustainable resistance management strategies. A systematic search on mosquito susceptibility to insecticides and insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Cameroon was conducted using online bibliographic databases including PubMed, Google and Google Scholar. From each peer-reviewed paper, information on the year of the study, mosquito species, susceptibility levels, location, insecticides, data source and resistance mechanisms were extracted and inserted in a Microsoft Excel datasheet. The data collected were then analysed for assessing insecticide resistance evolution. Thirty-three scientific publications were selected for the analysis. The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance across the country was reported from 2000 onward. Insecticide resistance was highly prevalent in both An. gambiae (s.l.) and An. funestus. DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb appeared as the most affected compounds by resistance. From 2000 to 2017 a steady increase in the prevalence of kdr allele frequency was noted in almost all sites in An. gambiae (s.l.), with the L1014F kdr allele being the most prevalent. Several detoxification genes (particularly P450 monooxygenase) were associated with DDT, pyrethroids and bendiocarb resistance. In An. funestus, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was mainly attributed to the 119F-GSTe2 metabolic resistance marker and over-expression of P450 genes whereas the 296S-RDL mutation was detected in dieldrin-resistant An. funestus. The review provides an update of insecticide resistance status in malaria vector populations in Cameroon and stresses the need for further actions to reinforce malaria

  18. HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon from 2006 to 2013: Prevalence, genetic diversity, evolution and public health challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Domyeum, Jenny; Mouacha, Fatima; Butel, Christelle; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is characterized by a tremendously high genetic diversity, leading to the currently known circulating HIV types, groups, subtypes, and recombinant forms. HIV-1 group O is one of the most diverse forms of HIV-1 and has been so far related to Cameroon or individuals originating from Cameroon. In this study, we investigated in Cameroon, the evolution of this viral group from 2006 to 2013, in terms of prevalence, genetic diversity and public health implications. Our results confirmed the predominance of HIV-1 group M (98.5%), a very low prevalence (O was found at around 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.4–0.8%), indicating that the frequency of this virus in Cameroon has remained stable over the last decades. However, we found an extensive high genetic diversity within this HIV-1 group, that resulted from previous steady increase on the effective number of HIV-1 group O infections through time, and the current distribution of the circulating viral strains still does not allow classification as subtypes. The frequency of dual infections with HIV-1 group M and group O was 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.6–1.0%), but we found no recombinant forms in co-infected patients. Natural resistance to integrase inhibitors was not identified, although we found several mutations considered as natural polymorphisms. Our study shows that infections with HIV-1 group O can be adequately managed in countries where the virus circulates, but this complex virus still represents a challenge for diagnostics and monitoring strategies. PMID:26371064

  19. Challenges to implementing Gavi's health system strengthening support in Chad and Cameroon: results from a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Emily; Miangotar, Yodé; Squires, Ellen; Mimche, Honoré; El Bcheraoui, Charbel

    2017-11-16

    Since 2005, Gavi has provided health system strengthening (HSS) grants to address bottlenecks affecting immunization services. This study is the first to evaluate the Gavi HSS implementation process in either Cameroon or Chad, two countries with significant health system challenges and poor achievement on the child and maternal health Millennium Development Goals. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative data including financial records, document review, field visit questionnaires, and key informant interviews (KII) with representatives from the Ministries of Health, Gavi, and other partners. We conducted a Root Cause Analysis of key implementation challenges, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We conducted 124 field visits and 43 KIIs in Cameroon, and 57 field visits and 39 KIIs in Chad. Cameroon's and Chad's HSS programs were characterized by delayed disbursements, significant deviations from approved expenditures, and reprogramming of funds. Nearly a year after the programs were intended to be complete, many district and facility-level activities were only partially implemented and significant funds remained unabsorbed. Root causes of these challenges included unpredictable Gavi processes and disbursements, poor communication between the countries and Gavi, insufficient country planning without adequate technical assistance, lack of country staff and leadership, and weak country systems to manage finances and promote institutional memory. Though Chad and Cameroon both critically needed support to strengthen their weak health systems, serious challenges drastically limited implementation of their Gavi HSS programs. Implementation of future HSS programs in these and similar settings can be improved by transparent and reliable procedures and communication from Gavi, proposals that account for countries' programmatic capacity and the potential for delayed disbursements, implementation practices that foster learning and adaptation

  20. Investigating Strategies for Sustainable Vegetable Food Crop System in Three Agro Ecological Zones of the Humid Tropics Area of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    TATA NGOME, Precillia Ijang; AFARI-SEFA, Victor; NTSOMBOH-NTSEFONG, Godswill; OKOLLE, Justin; BILLA, Samuel Fru; MOMA, Crescence; ATEMKENG FONJI, Maureen; NGOME, Ajebesone Francis

    2018-01-01

    Vegetable cultivation remains an essential component of local people’s livelihoods. However, marked trend shifts in the varieties of vegetables due to large-scale commercial vegetable farming of exotic varieties in the broader market economy have resulted in the gradual disappearance of biodiversity involving vital species. The present study examined the situation of vegetable crop farming in three agro-ecological zones of Cameroon. Data were collected from a random sample of 235 respondents ...

  1. Shift of Enterovirus species among children in Cameroon--identification of a new enterovirus, EV-A119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayukekbong, James; Kabayiza, Jean-Claude; Lindh, Magnus; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresia; Tah, Ferdinand; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Helene

    2013-09-01

    Infections caused by human enteroviruses (EVs) are often asymptomatic or mild, although they may cause more severe illnesses as meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. EVs have globally posed a threat to children, and outbreaks of aseptic meningitis and hand, foot and mouth disease are frequently reported. To identify EV strains circulating among healthy children in a small community in Limbe, Cameroon two years apart. Species and EV types were obtained by partial 5'UTR-VP4 and VP1 sequencing of RNA from stool samples collected in October 2009 and September 2011 from 150 children in Cameroon. In all, 74 children (49%) were infected with 28 different types of EV. There were 29 (54%) infected children in 2009, and 45 (47%) in 2011. There was a significant difference between detected species of EV, with 15 (47%) children infected with EV-A in 2009, and 22 (71%) with EV-B in 2011 (p=0.0001). In 2009, one child was infected by a divergent EV, which was most similar to EV-A90. Based on the complete VP1 sequence, it was shown to be a new EV designated EV-A119. The current study shows a high heterogeneity of circulating EV types among children in Limbe, Cameroon, and a previously not described shift in predominating EV species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors associated with perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2014-01-01

    Since learners in secondary schools fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is obvious that these learners might be at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. However, little has been explored on the perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the perception of risk of contracting HIV among secondary school learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as framework. A quantitative, correlational design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 210 female learners selected through disproportional, stratified, simple random sampling technique, from three participating senior secondary schools. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Only 39.4% of the respondents perceived themselves to be at high risk of contracting HIV, though the majority, 54.0% were sexually active. Multinomial logistic regression analyses show that sexual risk behaviours (p=0.000) and the Integrated Value Mapping (IVM) of the perception components of the HBM are the most significant factors associated with perception of risk of contracting HIV at the level p<0.05. The findings of this study can play an instrumental role in the development of effective preventive and interventional messages for adolescents in Cameroon.

  3. Public health implications of contamination of Franc CFA (XAF) circulating in Buea (Cameroon) with drug resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Gaelle, Nana; Dilonga, Henry Meriki; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa K

    2014-01-08

    Studies in different parts of the world have implicated money as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens. Such information which is necessary to facilitate infection control strategies is lacking in many sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon. This study analyzed the Franc de la Communauté Financiere d'Afrique (Franc CFA), the currency used in Cameroon and other countries in the Central African sub-region, as a potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, particularly drug-resistant strains, to generate findings which could create awareness on currency contamination and serve as a guide when formulating health policies on currency. Two hundred and thirteen currency samples representing various denominations of notes and coins randomly collected from diverse sources in Buea, Cameroon were analyzed for bacteria and fungi. The sensitivity of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested using the disc diffusion method. The relationship between contamination and physical state, source or denomination of currency was assessed using the χ2 test. All statistics were discussed at 0.05 significance level. Two hundred (93.9%) samples were contaminated with notes (96.6%) showing higher contamination than coins (88.2%). Uncirculated (mint) samples showed no contamination. There was a significant difference (PCFA franc circulating in Buea could serve as a vehicle for transmission of drug resistant pathogenic or potential organisms and contamination could be due to currency usage and handling as mint notes were not contaminated. Hygiene practices during or after handling currency is greatly encouraged to prevent infection.

  4. Aquaculture in Cameroon and potential of lactic acid bacteria to be used as diseases controlling agents. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaktchan, Pierre Marie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production sector and can be a great solution to the massive demand for protein of animal due to increase in the Cameroonian population. This review summarizes the past and present status of fish aquaculture in Cameroon, the new challenges for intensifying fish production and evaluates the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria as disease control agents in order to overcome these challenges. Fish farming started in Cameroon in the late 1940s, and has seen little progress since the last ten years, but the production is still insufficient to meet the demand of the population estimated at 400 000 tons in 2015. In order to reduce massive fish imports, Cameroon plans to produce 100 000 tons of fish by commercial aquaculture. Achieving this task needs quality and quantity of fingerlings, and probiotic lactic acid bacteria instead of antibiotics could be used as disease control agents in young fish hatching and ponds in order to boost and ensure quality and quantity production.

  5. The substitution of mineral fertilizers by compost from household waste in Cameroon: economic analysis with a partial equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaza Folefack, Achille Jean

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of substitution between compost and mineral fertilizer in order to assess the impact on the foreign exchange savings in Cameroon of increasing the use of compost. In this regard, a partial equilibrium model was built up and used as a tool for policy simulations. The review of existing literature already suggests that, the compost commercial value i.e. value of substitution (33,740 FCFA tonne(-1)) is higher compared to the compost real price (30,000 FCFA tonne(-1)), proving that it could be profitable to substitute the mineral fertilizer by compost. Further results from the scenarios used in the modelling exercise show that, increasing the compost availability is the most favourable policy for the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost. This policy helps to save about 18.55% of the annual imported mineral fertilizer quantity and thus to avoid approximately 8.47% of the yearly total import expenditure in Cameroon. The policy of decreasing the transport rate of compost in regions that are far from the city is also favourable to the substitution. Therefore, in order to encourage the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost, programmes of popularization of compost should be highlighted and be among the top priorities in the agricultural policy of the Cameroon government.

  6. Atmospheric dust contribution to budget of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles. The Mount Cameroon volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, E.; Chabaux, F. J.; Innocent, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles is developed today for constraining time scale of soil and weathering profile formation (e.g., Chabaux et al., 2008). These studies require the understanding of U-series nuclides sources and fractionation in weathering systems. For most of these studies the impact of aeolian inputs on U-series nuclides in soils is usually neglected. Here, we propose to discuss such an assumption, i.e., to evaluate the impact of dust deposition on U-series nuclides in soils, by working on present and paleo-soils collected on the Mount Cameroon volcano. Recent Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic analyses performed on these samples have indeed documented significant inputs of Saharan dusts in these soils (Dia et al., 2006). We have therefore analyzed 238U-234U-230Th nuclides in the same samples. Comparison of U-Th isotopic data with Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data indicates a significant impact of the dust input on the U and Th budget of the soils, around 10% for both U and Th. Using Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of Saharan dusts given by Dia et al. (2006) we estimate U-Th concentrations and U-Th isotope ratios of dusts compatible with U-Th data obtained on Saharan dusts collected in Barbados (Rydell H.S. and Prospero J.M., 1972). However, the variations of U/Th ratios along the weathering profiles cannot be explained by a simple mixing scenario between material from basalt and from the defined atmospheric dust pool. A secondary uranium migration associated with chemical weathering has affected the weathering profiles. Mass balance calculation suggests that U in soils from Mount Cameroon is affected at the same order of magnitude by both chemical migration and dust accretion. Nevertheless, the Mount Cameroon is a limit case were large dust inputs from continental crust of Sahara contaminate basaltic terrain from Mount Cameroon volcano. Therefore, this study suggests that in other contexts were dust inputs are lower, or the bedrocks more concentrated in U and Th

  7. Implementing a Fee-for-Service Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Program in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Geneva; Manga, Simon; Kiyang, Edith; Manjuh, Florence; Bradford, Leslie; Cholli, Preetam; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening is one of the most effective cancer prevention strategies, but most women in Africa have never been screened. In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, a large faith-based health care system in Cameroon, initiated the Women's Health Program (WHP) to address this disparity. The WHP provides fee-for-service cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC), prioritizing care for women living with HIV/AIDS. They also provide clinical breast examination, family planning (FP) services, and treatment for reproductive tract infection (RTI). Here, we document the strengths and challenges of the WHP screening program and the unique aspects of the WHP model, including a fee-for-service payment system and the provision of other women's health services. We retrospectively reviewed WHP medical records from women who presented for cervical cancer screening from 2007-2014. In 8 years, WHP nurses screened 44,979 women for cervical cancer. The number of women screened increased nearly every year. The WHP is sustained primarily on fees-for-service, with external funding totaling about $20,000 annually. In 2014, of 12,191 women screened for cervical cancer, 99% received clinical breast exams, 19% received FP services, and 4.7% received treatment for RTIs. We document successes, challenges, solutions implemented, and recommendations for optimizing this screening model. The WHP's experience using a fee-for-service model for cervical cancer screening demonstrates that in Cameroon VIA-DC is acceptable, feasible, and scalable and can be nearly self-sustaining. Integrating other women's health services enabled women to address additional health care needs. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Women's Health Program successfully implemented a nurse-led, fee-for-service cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid-enhanced by digital cervicography in

  8. Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis.We used a multi-stage sampling design with stratification of the country by environmental risk of podoconiosis. We sampled 76 villages from 40 health districts from the ten Regions of Cameroon. All individuals of 15-years old or older in the village were surveyed house-to-house and screened for lymphedema. A clinical algorithm was used to reliably diagnose podoconiosis, excluding filarial-associated lymphedema. Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere Filariasis Test Strips (FTS test and the Standard Diagnostics (SD BIOLINE lymphatic filariasis IgG4 test (Wb123 respectively, in addition to thick blood films. Presence of DNA specific to W. bancrofti was checked on night blood using a qPCR technique.Overall, 10,178 individuals from 4,603 households participated in the study. In total, 83 individuals with lymphedema were identified. Of the 83 individuals with lymphedema, two were found to be FTS positive and all were negative using the Wb123 test. No microfilaria of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with clinical lymphedema. None were found to be positive for W. bancrofti using qPCR. Of the two FTS positive cases, one was positive for Mansonella perstans DNA, while the other harbored Loa loa microfilaria. Overall, 52 people with podoconiosis were identified after applying the clinical algorithm. The overall prevalence of podoconiosis was

  9. [Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngambi Kunga

    1990-01-01

    Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more

  10. Hydrocarbon potential, palynology and palynofacies of four sedimentary basins in the Benue Trough, northern Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessong, Moïse; Hell, Joseph Victor; Samankassou, Elias; Feist-Burkhardt, Susanne; Eyong, John Takem; Ngos, Simon, III; Nolla, Junior Désiré; Mbesse, Cecile Olive; Adatte, Thierry; Mfoumbeng, Marie Paule; Dissombo, Edimo André Noel; Ntsama, Atangana Jacqueline; Mouloud, Bennami; Ndjeng, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Organic geochemical, palynological and palynofacies analyses were carried out on 79 selected samples from four sedimentary basins (Mayo-Rey, Mayo-Oulo-Lere, Hamakoussou and Benue) in northern Cameroon. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and Total Organic Carbon results indicate that most of the samples of the studied basins are thermally immature to mature. The organic matter consists of terrestrial components (peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite) associated with organic matter of marine origin. Based on the appraisal of multiple parameters: Total Organic Carbon (TOC), maximum Temperature (T-max), Hydrogen Index (HI), Oxygen Index (OI) and Production Index (PI), some samples are organically rich both in oil and/or gas-prone kerogen Type-II, II/III and III. The source rock quality ranges from poor to very good. The source material is composed of both algae and higher plants. Samples from these basins yielded palynological residue composed of translucent and opaque phytoclasts, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM), fungal remains, algal cysts pollen and pteridophyte spores. Abundance and diversity of the palynomorphs overall low and include Monoporopollenites annulatus (= Monoporites annulatus), indeterminate periporate pollen, indeterminate tetracolporate pollen, indeterminate tricolporate pollen, indeterminate triporate pollen, indeterminate trilete spores, Polypodiaceoisporites spp., Biporipsilonites sp., Rhizophagites sp., Striadiporites sp., Botryococcus sp. (colonial, freshwater green algae), and Chomotriletes minor (cyst of zygnematalean freshwater green algae). Age assigned confidently for all these basins the palynological data except for one sample of Hamakoussou that can be dated as Early to Mid-Cretaceous in age. Callialasporites dampieri, Classopollis spp., Eucommiidites spp. and Araucariacites australis indicate, an Aptian to Cenomanian age. The other pollen and spores recovered may indicate a Tertiary or younger age (especially Monoporopollenites annulatus), or

  11. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  12. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

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    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  13. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

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    Fotsing Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of

  14. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  15. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

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    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  16. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  17. An evaluation of a palliative care outreach programme for children with Burkitt lymphoma in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamannai, Mona; Kaah, Joel; Mbah, Glenn; Ndimba, Joseph; D'Souza, Catherine; Wharin, Paul; Hesseling, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care (PC) is the most appropriate treatment for patients with life-limiting, incurable diseases, but it is a relatively new concept in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A lack of curative treatment options for some conditions creates a great need for PC, but such services are rarely provided in SSA. More research into PC in SSA is urgently needed to create an evidence base to confirm the importance of appropriate PC services. To gain a better understanding of the needs of patients and their families visited by a children's PC nurse in Cameroon and to identify aspects of the service that can be improved. A qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews was used. Tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed. Twelve interviews were conducted with patients, carers and nurses. Financial aid, general disease improvement and prayers were the directly expressed needs of service recipients. Specialist training in children's PC was the main need expressed by the nurses. Open communication about clinical status and treatment failure, more detailed counselling, more distraction for patients and respite for carers were identified as underlying needs. It is possible to provide an effective children's PC service that meets the most urgent needs of recipients in a rural setting in SSA. Recommendations include improved counselling, specialist education for staff, expansion of local support networks and more frequent home visits. More studies are needed to help define the need for PC in children with life-limiting diseases.

  18. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from Southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herder S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi. Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat : QBC. Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation : KIVI. Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans, in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola, in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus. 13 species (54 % were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  19. Mapping Oil Palm Plantations in Cameroon Using PALSAR 50-m Orthorectified Mosaic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly. Estimating either positive effects on the economy, or negative effects on the environment, requires accurate maps. In this paper, three classification algorithms (Support Vector Machine (SVM, Decision Tree and K-Means were explored to map oil palm plantations in Cameroon, using PALSAR 50 m Orthorectified Mosaic images and differently sized training samples. SVM had the ideal performance with overall accuracy ranging from 86% to 92% and a Kappa coefficient from 0.76 to 0.85, depending upon the training sample size (ranging from 20 to 500 pixels per class. The advantage of SVM was more obvious when the training sample size was smaller. K-Means required the user’s intervention, and thus, the accuracy depended on the level of his/her expertise and experience. For large-scale mapping of oil palm plantations, the Decision Tree algorithm outperformed both SVM and K-Means in terms of speed and performance. In addition, the decision threshold values of Decision Tree for a large training sample size agrees with the results from previous studies, which implies the possible universality of the decision threshold. If it can be verified, the Decision Tree algorithm will be an easy and robust methodology for mapping oil palm plantations.

  20. Reduce pests, enhance production: benefits of intercropping at high densities for okra farmers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Hanna, Rachid; Houmgny, Raissa; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2017-10-01

    Intercropping can help reduce insect pest populations. However, the results of intercropping can be pest- and crop-species specific, with varying effects on crop yield, and pest suppression success. In Cameroon, okra vegetable is often grown in intercropped fields and sown with large distances between planting rows (∼ 2 m). Dominant okra pests include cotton aphids, leaf beetles and whiteflies. In a field experiment, we intercropped okra with maize and bean in different combinations (okra monoculture, okra-bean, okra-maize and okra-bean-maize) and altered plant densities (high and low) to test for the effects of diversity, crop identity and planting distances on okra pests, their predators and yield. We found crop identity and plant density, but not crop diversity to influence okra pests, their predators and okra yield. Only leaf beetles decreased okra yield and their abundance reduced at high plant density. Overall, okra grown with bean at high density was the most economically profitable combination. We suggest that when okra is grown at higher densities, legumes (e.g. beans) should be included as an additional crop. Intercropping with a leguminous crop can enhance nitrogen in the soil, benefiting other crops, while also being harvested and sold at market for additional profit. Manipulating planting distances and selecting plants based on their beneficial traits may thus help to eliminate yield gaps in sustainable agriculture. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Urban malaria in Yaounde (Cameroon). 2. Entomologic study in 2 suburban districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondjo, E; Robert, V; Le Goff, G; Toto, J C; Carnevale, P

    1992-01-01

    A one year entomological survey was carried out to precise the malaria vectors and the malaria transmission in Yaounde, the Cameroon capital (800,000 inhabitants). The study was done in two districts not yet fully urbanized: Nkol Bikok and Nkol Bisson. The latter is located at the periphery and has a pool. Anopheles gambiae was the only human malaria vector. Its agressivity for man depended on the urbanization of the district. Annual man biting rate was 284 in Nkol Bikok and 1,813 in Nkol Bisson. The densities were maximum in May-June and in October-November, corresponding to the end of the short and long rainy seasons. The presence of A. gambiae was permanent except in August-September in Nkol Bikok. In Nkol Bisson the density was higher in the houses near the pool. The yearly inoculation rate (h) was 14 in Nkol Bikok and 30 in Nkol Bisson. The vectorial transmission was observed in may in Nkol Bikok and during four months (June, August, January, February) in Nkol Bisson. These entomological data showed clearly that malaria transmission actually occurred in Yaounde and that the probability to receive at least one infected anopheline bite per year was very near to 1 for inhabitants unprotected against mosquito bites.

  2. [Entomologic study on the transmission of onchocerciasis in a forest-savanna transition area of Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbazan, P; Escaffre, H; Mbentengam, R; Boussinesq, M

    1998-01-01

    An entomological study was conducted in the basin area of middle Sanaga (Cameroon) in order to document the pattern of onchocerciasis transmission in a region where a high prevalence of infection had been recorded in villages located 30 km from the main rivers. The main vector of O. volvulus was found to be S. squamosum s.s. No breeding site was found in the small tributaries of the Sanaga and Mbam Rivers, and the dispersal of S. damnosum s.l. in the area thus appeared to be particularly high. The highest blackfly population densities were recorded during the long rainy season, and a second peak of density occurred along the Mbam River during the short rainy season. A seasonal variation in dispersal patterns was found at three of the four transects studied. The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the area occurred principally between January and May (i.e. at the end of the long dry season and the beginning of the short rainy season). Vector control operations might well reinforce the effect of ivermectin distributions in this onchocerciasis focus.

  3. Shortcomings in snake bite management in rural Cameroon: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianyi, Frank-Leonel; Dimala, Christian Akem; Feteh, Vitalis Fambombi

    2017-06-08

    Snake bites are an important public health problem in developing countries with most bites occurring in rural areas. Severe envenomation often occurs in children and following bites to the face. Prompt administration of potent anti-venom remains the mainstay of management. However in Cameroon, the use of anti-venoms is limited by non-availability, high cost (where available) and poor mastery of treatment guidelines. We present a 10-year-old muslim Cameroonian child from an enclaved rural area, brought to the hospital 12 h after a snake bite to the face, with signs of severe envenomation. Despite the suboptimal anti-venom dose administered to this patient due to a stock out of this medication, supportive therapy was beneficial in ensuring a positive outcome and satisfactory recovery. This highlights snake bites as a public health problem due to the lack of snake anti-venoms in peripheral health facilities, rendering them unable to appropriately manage these cases. National health policies should encourage constant peripheral availability of anti-venoms and the institution of an intervention package for snake bite management, comprising: treatment protocol, staff training, monitoring of compliance and community education to help reduce the mortality and morbidity from snake bites.

  4. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  5. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-03-21

    The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood). Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  6. Adolescent deliveries in semi-urban Cameroon: prevalence and adverse neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Agbor, Valirie Ndip

    2017-06-26

    Adolescent pregnancies are high risk due to the increased probability of adverse outcomes; as adolescents are usually considered to be ill-equipped to deal with the burden of pregnancy. We sought to determine the prevalence of adolescent deliveries in a secondary-level care hospital in semi-urban Cameroon-Bamenda, the adverse neonatal outcomes and to assess if previous obstetric history could preclude adolescents from having adverse outcomes in their present pregnancy. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 8.7% (95% CI 7.01-10.73%). The neonates of adolescent mothers were more likely to have severe asphyxia (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2-12.9; p = 0.03) and low birth weight (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4; p adolescents were just as likely to have complications as multipara adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent deliveries (8.7%) in the Regional Hospital Bamenda is high. Their babies are at a high risk of adverse neonatal outcomes irrespective of their previous obstetric history (previous delivery) emphasising that adolescents are generally ill-prepared to deal with pregnancy. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of adolescent deliveries should be investigated and implemented in view of attaining the sustainable development goals.

  7. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoué-Piéboji, J; Pegnyemb, D E; Niyitegeka, D; Nsangou, A; Eze, N; Minyem, C; Mbing, J Ngo; Ngassam, P; Tih, R Ghogomu; Sodengam, B L; Bodo, B

    2006-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 plant species (Voacanga africana, Crepis cameroonica, Plagiostyles africana, Crotalaria retusa, Mammea africana, Lophira lanceolata, Ochna afzelii, Ouratea elongata, Ou. flava and Ou. sulcata), each of which is currently used in the traditional medicine of Cameroon, were investigated in vitro. The activities of a methanol extract of each plant were tested, in disc-diffusion assays, against 37 reference or laboratory strains of seven species of microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each extract were then estimated, against each of the more susceptible microorganisms (i.e. those giving an inhibition zone measuring at least 9 mm in diameter in the disc-diffusion assays), by agar dilution. Although, in the disc-diffusion assays, each of the 10 methanol extracts investigated displayed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one species of microorganism, no activity against the Gram-negative bacteria (Es. coli, K. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa) was observed. The extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of Pl. africana (Euphorbiaceae).

  8. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Healy Profitós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries, leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality.

  9. From grass to grace: How SLMTA revolutionised the Bamenda Regional Hospital Laboratory in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyem C. Nkwawir

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the results of SLMTA implementation at BRHL and discuss lessons learned. Method: In 2010, the SLMTA programme was rolled out in Cameroon to improve laboratory quality management systems in five laboratories, including BRHL. Three workshops were conducted (the first centralised, the remaining two on-site at each laboratory and improvement projects were implemented after each workshop with the assistance of mentors. Audits were used in order to evaluate performance and to identify areas for further improvement. Results: BRHL had the lowest score (18% amongst the cohort at the baseline audit and the highest (81% at the official Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA audit conducted in August 2013 by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Improvements were observed in each of the 12 Quality System Essentials; improvement was especially noteworthy in the areas of facilities and safety, and purchasing and inventory. Staff investment and pride in the quality of laboratory services increased. Conclusion: BRHL’s remarkable improvement was achieved with a combination of SLMTA training activities, intensive on-site mentorship and the collective focus of all laboratory staff. The experience at Bamenda Hospital illustrates what can be achieved when a laboratory successfully harnesses the energy of its staff and implements changes to improve the quality of services in a transformation taking them from grass to grace.

  10. Evaluation of the Genetic Variation of Cowpea Landraces (Vigna unguiculata from Western Cameroon Using Qualitative Traits

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    Toscani NGOMPE-DEFFO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genetic diversity and analysis of the genetic relationship between accessions of a crop species is a key step in breeding superior cultivars. The main objective of the hereby study was to determine the genetic variation between 30 cowpea accessions collected throughout the eight divisions of the Western Region of Cameroon using qualitative traits. Phenotypic variation of these accessions was evaluated using diversity indices and cluster analyses. A total of twenty qualitative traits were used for the study. Fifteen of them (75% were polymorphic, displaying each at least two phenotypic classes. The monomorphic characters were growth pattern, leaf color, leaf hairiness, plant hairiness and pod hairiness, each with only one phenotypic class. Results showed a relatively significant level of genetic diversity among the studied cowpea accessions. Overall, the average of the observed and effective number of phenotypic classes per qualitative trait were Na = 2.350 and Ne = 1.828 respectively. The Nei’s genetic diversity and the Shannon weaver diversity index were He = 0.369, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.655 (growth habit and H’ = 0.609, ranging from zero (monomorphic trait to 0.996 (seed crowding, respectively. The dendrogram constructed from the twenty qualitative traits revealed 05 accessions clusters with the number of accessions in each cluster varying from one to eleven. Information obtained from this study is likely be useful for future cowpea breeding program.

  11. Local genetic diversity of sorghum in a village in northern Cameroon: structure and dynamics of landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaud, Adeline; Deu, Monique; Garine, Eric; McKey, Doyle; Joly, Hélène I

    2007-01-01

    We present the first study of patterns of genetic diversity of sorghum landraces at the local scale. Understanding landrace diversity aids in deciphering evolutionary forces under domestication, and has applications in the conservation of genetic resources and their use in breeding programs. Duupa farmers in a village in Northern Cameroon distinguished 59 named sorghum taxa, representing 46 landraces. In each field, seeds are sown as a mixture of landraces (mean of 12 landraces per field), giving the potential for extensive gene flow. What level of genetic diversity underlies the great morphological diversity observed among landraces? Given the potential for gene flow, how well defined genetically is each landrace? To answer these questions, we recorded spatial patterns of planting and farmers' perceptions of landraces, and characterized 21 landraces using SSR markers. Analysis using distance and clustering methods grouped the 21 landraces studied into four clusters. These clusters correspond to functionally and ecologically distinct groups of landraces. Within-landrace genetic variation accounted for 30% of total variation. The average F(is) over landraces was 0.68, suggesting high inbreeding within landraces. Differentiation among landraces was substantial and significant (F(st) = 0.36). Historical factors, variation in breeding systems, and farmers' practices all affected patterns of genetic variation. Farmers' practices are key to the maintenance, despite gene flow, of landraces with different combinations of agronomically and ecologically pertinent traits. They must be taken into account in strategies of conservation and use of genetic resources.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in surface soils of the Bassa Industrial Zone 1, Douala, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaah, Victor A.; Abimbola, Akinlolu F.; Suh, Cheo E.

    2006-01-01

    Partial extraction was carried out on 33 soil samples collected from the Bassa Industrial Zone 1, Douala, Cameroon. From the samples analyzed the following metal concentrations (range) were obtained (in ppm): Ag (0-1.3), As (0-64), Cd(0-7.3), Co(0-31), Cr(34-423), Cu(12-909), Mn(55-3282), Mo(0-81.6), Ni(9-284), Pb (0-3320), Sb (0-30), Sc (0.6-7.5), V (26-110), Zn (30-3782) and Fe (in wt%) (1.50-47.31). Results obtained reveal background and anomalous populations for most of the metals except Sc and V, which have only background populations. Multi-element geochemical anomalies occur within the vicinity of industries, waste dump sites, metal workshops and mechanical workshops. R-mode factor analysis reveals three element associations and two singular elements (As, Cd) accounting for 94% of the total data variance. The three associations are: Ag-Cu-Cr-Fe-Mn-Mo-Ni-Sb; Co-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn and Sc-V. The geoaccumulation indices show that soils in the Bassa Industrial Zone are moderately to very highly pollute. These metal-laden soils constitute a major health risk to the local population and a cause for concern. This study successfully relates the concentration and distribution of toxic metals in the soils of Bassa Industrial Zone to urban effluents generated mainly from industrial activities. (author)

  13. Stylistics Analysis in Advertising Discourse: A Case of the Dangote Cement Advertisement in Bamenda- Cameroon

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    Seino Evangeline Agwa Fomukong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many purposes for using language which determine how the writer or speaker   chooses words, syntactic expressions and figurative language. This is as a result of the fact that language has a very powerful effect over people, their actions and thoughts. This is seen in the use of language in various discourse types which include advertisements. The powerful influence language has on people therefore makes encoders to be choosy in the use of language, especially in advertisement because they have to persuade the readers. Consequently they make the language of advertisements positive and emphasize on the superiority of their products. This study discusses the advertisement of Dangote Cement on billboards in Bamenda, North West Region, Cameroon, analysing what is communicated, how it is communicated and the interpretation.  The analysis used as tools the Textual Conceptual Functions as given by Jeffries (2016, uncovering ideologies and social meanings expressed in Dangote Cement advertisement using the following apparatus: prioritisation, implying and assumption, listing, naming and description. The study has emphasized the structural analysis and the role of context to reveal functions and underlying meanings of the text. It also concludes that the advertisers use different stylistic devices that carry positivity, and a common ground that makes the readers identify with the advertisements, urging them go for the Dangote Cement. Keywords: stylistics, language, context, advertisements, ideologies, Dangote

  14. Human resource development progress to sustain nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Nyobe, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cameroon as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made full use of the Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme in his effort to promote peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology at national level. This paper presents the progress made in the development of reliable human resources. Results obtained have been achieved through national and regional technical co-operation projects. Over the past twenty years, the development of human resources in nuclear science and technology has focused on the training of national scientists and engineers in various fields such as crop and animal production, human and animal nutrition, human health applications, medical physics, non-destructive testing in industry, groundwater management, maintenance of medical and scientific equipment, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Efforts made also involve the development of graduate teaching in nuclear sciences at the national universities. However, the lack of adequate training facilities remains a major concern. The development of new training/learning methods is being considered at national level through network linking of national training centres with existing international training institutions, and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) which offer great flexibility with regard to the number of trainees and the actual needs. (author)

  15. Human resource development progress to sustain nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Nyobe, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cameroon as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made full use of the Agency's Technical Co-operation Programme in his effort to promote peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology at national level. This paper presents the progress made in the development of reliable human resources. Results obtained have been achieved through national and regional technical co-operation projects. Over the past twenty years, the development of human resources in nuclear science and technology has focussed on the training of national scientists and engineers in various fields such as crop and animal production, human and animal nutrition, human health applications, medical physics, non destructive testing in industry, groundwater management, maintenance of medical and scientific equipment, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. Efforts made also involve the development of graduate teaching in nuclear sciences at the national universities. However, the lack of adequate training facilities remains a major concern. The development of new training/learning methods is being considered at national level through network linking of national training centres with existing international training institutions, and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) which offer great flexibility with regard to the number of trainees and the actual needs. (author)

  16. The Intellectuals in Cameroon under the Rule of Ahidjo (1958-1982

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    Maximin Emagna

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available A study concerning the intellectuals of the Third World in general, and African intellectuals in particular, should not exclude the political context in which intellectuals live and work. Indeed, democracy cannot truly emerge and remain durable without the existence of freedom of thought and criticism. In Cameroon, intellectuals and their ideas have always been considered seditious and subversive. For this reason, they have often been persecuted. Some have chosen freely or by the force of circumstances to become bureaucrats within the administrative and political structures of the country to ensure their survival (political and social immortality as also that of their family. Others, by principle, have combined their intellectual and cyclical factors which push intellectuals either to become civil servants or to choose exile. It also contradicts the idea of intellectual deficiency in Africa. Indeed, some categories of intellectuals such as writers, via their writings, ask questions and provide a critical review of the economic, political and social reality of the country. They even propose alternative ideas and proposals to such questions as management, government and governance in the coutry. Dictatorships may destroy individuals, but never ideas or the spirit of liberty.

  17. The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2016-01-01

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. - Highlights: • I investigate the transition between energy efficient/inefficient states. • On the average, energy inefficient state persists more than energy efficient state. • The duration of energy inefficient state is about twice as long as energy efficient state. • Price, income and trade openness have distinct energy saving effect irrespective of state. • A broad policy overhaul is needed to escape the energy inefficient state.

  18. Neighborhood diversity of potentially pathogenic bacteria in drinking water from the city of Maroua, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Lee, Seungjun; Mouhaman, Arabi; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the spatial variation of potential gastrointestinal pathogens within drinking water sources and home storage containers in four neighborhoods in Maroua, Cameroon. Samples were collected from source (n = 28) and home containers (n = 60) in each study neighborhood. Pathogen contamination was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting Campylobacter spp., Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (virulence genes, stx1 and stx2), and Salmonella spp. Microbial source tracking (MST) targeted three different host-specific markers: HF183 (human), Rum2Bac (ruminant) and GFD (poultry) to identify contamination sources. Staphylococcus aureus and the tetracycline-resistance gene (tetQ) were assessed to measure human hand contact and presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pathogen/MST levels were compared statistically and spatially, and neighborhood variation was compared with previously collected demographic information. All the test fecal markers and pathogens (except Arcobacter) were detected in home and source samples. Two neighborhoods tested positive for most pathogens/MST while the others only tested positive for one or two. Spatial variation of pathogens/MST existed between sources, storage containers, and neighborhoods. Differing population density and ethno-economic characteristics could potentially explain variation. Future research should explore the influence of demographic and ethno-economic factors on water quality during microbial risk assessments in urban Africa.

  19. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  20. In Cameroon, a female-centred organization works to conquer the poverty of rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkem, R N

    1999-01-01

    This is a discussion of the work of the Rural Women Development Council for poor rural women in Cameroon. The concept of absolute poverty involves the measurement of the quantity and quality of necessities required to maintain the average well-being of an individual or group of individuals. The standards are considered to be relative to a particular time and place. Subjective poverty is a state of acceptance by the person who is poor that he or she is poor; it is independent of the perspective of onlookers. Income levels vary resulting, and as a result, poverty exists. Under those premises, the Rural Women Development Council (RWDC) is helping to alleviate poverty in rural women through microcredit schemes. Over 200 women have engaged in farming and small trades. Increased equity, enhanced opportunity, peace and security, participation and sustainable future, in addition to increased income, help to defeat poverty. Strategies for eradicating poverty include enhancing the ability of local communities to adapt to stress, overcome emergencies and improve long-term productivity. The RWDC have observed that loanees are today economically above other rural women.

  1. Sustainable Forest Management in Cameroon Needs More than Approved Forest Management Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Omar. Cerutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of the 1994 Cameroonian forestry law is to improve the management of production forests by including minimum safeguards for sustainability into compulsory forest management plans. As of 2007, about 3.5 million hectares (60% of the productive forests are harvested following the prescriptions of 49 approved management plans. The development and implementation of these forest management plans has been interpreted by several international organizations as long awaited evidence that sustainable management is applied to production forests in Cameroon. Recent reviews of some plans have concluded, however, that their quality was inadequate. This paper aims at taking these few analyses further by assessing the actual impacts that approved management plans have had on sustainability and harvesting of commercial species. We carry out an assessment of the legal framework, highlighting a fundamental flaw, and a thorough comparison between data from approved management plans and timber production data. Contrary to the principles adhered to by the 1994 law, we find that the government has not yet succeeded in implementing effective minimum sustainability safeguards and that, in 2006, 68% of the timber production was still carried out as though no improved management rules were in place. The existence of a number of approved management plans cannot be used a proxy for proof of improved forest management.

  2. The impact of a community mobilization project on health-related knowledge and practices in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, S; Sakolsky, N; Vondrasek, C; Mounlom, D; Brown, J; Tchupo, J P

    2001-12-01

    The analyses presented in this paper document the impact of a community mobilization effort in Cameroon. Between 1997 and 1998, a local non-governmental organization worked with community associations, Njangi, in one urban and one rural location to promote knowledge and positive practices concerning family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, and treatment of common childhood diseases. Based on a multi-tiered structure, the project involved selecting and training two prominent and influential members of each community as "relais" or middlemen. The "relais" then trained mobilizers from participating Njangis to provide relevant information and help to mobilize their fellow members in favor of the positive attitudes and practices promoted by the project. The project was evaluated using baseline and follow-up measurement of pertinent indicators, and service statistics. Results suggest that the intervention had significant influence in the rural location with noticeable positive effects on knowledge and practices of family planning, knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS and STIs, and use of health services. In the urban location, for programmatic and extraneous factors, the intervention was not effective. The paper discusses the lessons learnt from the intervention and offers pertinent suggestions for replicating the intervention in rural settings.

  3. An Assessment of Institutional Capacity for Integrated Landscape Management in Eastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Carolyn Peach

    2018-07-01

    Landscape approaches have become prominent in efforts to address issues of conservation and development through bringing together different actors and sectors, to reconcile diverse land uses, and promote synergies. Some have suggested that integrated landscape management approaches are consistent with the goals of REDD+ and offer a strategy to address multiple goals of climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, maintenance of ecosystem services, and socio-economic development. Institutional or governance arrangements have been shown to be a critical component in influencing outcomes in landscapes. Using diverse methodologies, this study investigated the capacity of institutions to support the planning, implementation, and resource mobilization needed to integrate climate change mitigation, conservation, and livelihood goals in a forest mosaic landscape in East Cameroon. Results showed that diverse institutions are present in the landscape, including institutions of relevant government agencies, local government, local non-government, the private sector, and hybrid institutions of conservation, development and research institutions. However, the overall institutional capacity for integrated landscape planning and management in the study area is limited, although some institutions exhibit increased capacity in some areas over others. Multiple strategies can be employed to build the necessary human, financial, and leadership capacity, and facilitate the institutional planning and coordination that is foundational to multi-stakeholder landscape governance. Given the complexity of integrating climate change mitigation, conservation and livelihood goals in a landscape, building such institutional capacity is a long term endeavour that requires sustained effort and ongoing financial, technical and human resource support.

  4. Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Factors Associated With Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Two Regional Hospitals in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindong, Maxime; Palle, John N; Nebongo, Daniel; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Mboue-Djieka, Yannick; Mbarga, Nicole T Fouda; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Choukem, Siméon-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer and high risk for ulceration, describe the clinical presentation, and identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer in the Southwest regional hospitals of Cameroon. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to consecutive patients with diabetes. Findings from detailed foot examination were recorded. Diabetic foot ulcer was diagnosed according to the International Working Group on Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) definition. Data were analyzed with Stata IC version 12. Of the 203 participants included, 63.1% were females. Age ranged from 26 to 96 years. The median duration of diabetes was 4.0 years (interquartile range 1.0-8.0 years). The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer was 11.8% (24), of whom 29.2% (7) had high grade (grades 2 to 4), and most of the ulcers 58.3% (14) were located at the plantar region. The prevalence of high risk for ulceration was 21.8% (39). Loss of protective sensation (OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.43-9.71; P = .007), and peripheral arterial disease (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.14-10.56; P = .028) were independently associated with diabetic foot. Diabetic foot ulcer is a common complication among patients with diabetes attending these regional hospitals. Loss of protective sensation, and peripheral arterial disease increase the odds of having diabetic foot ulcer, and we suggest them as the main target of interest for prevention.

  5. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy Profitós, Jessica M.; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Seungjun; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Tien, Joe; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries), leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals) was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality. PMID:25464137

  6. Female sex workers' empowerment strategies amid HIV-related socioeconomic vulnerabilities in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cange, Charles W; LeBreton, Matthew; Saylors, Karen; Billong, Serge; Tamoufe, Ubald; Fokam, Pamella; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that female sex workers use a variety of empowerment strategies to protect one another and their families. This study examines the strategies Cameroonian sex workers employ to do so. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with 100 sex workers. Coded texts were analysed for recurring themes. Sex workers reported being concerned with physical violence and sexual assault and demands from authorities for bribes to avoid fines and/or imprisonment. Women described strategies such as 'looking out for' each other when faced with security threats. Many reported staying in sex work to provide for their children through education and other circumstances to allow them to lead a better life. Sex worker mothers reported not using condoms when clients offered higher pay, or with intimate partners, even when they understood the risk of HIV transmission to themselves. Concern for their children's quality of life took precedence over HIV-related risks, even when sex workers were the children's primary carers. A sex worker empowerment programme with a focus on family-oriented services could offer an effective and novel approach to increasing coverage of HIV prevention, treatment and care in Cameroon.

  7. Development of a new body image assessment scale in urban Cameroon: an anthropological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Develop and validate body image scales (BIS) presenting real human bodies adapted to the macroscopic phenotype of urban Cameroonian populations. Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Yaoundé, capital city of Cameroon. Four samples with balanced sex-ratio: the first (n=16) aged 18 to 65 years (qualitative study), the second (n=30) aged 25 to 40 years (photo database), the third (n=47) and fourth (n=181), > or =18 years (validation study). Construct validity, test retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity of BIS. Body image scales present six Cameroonians of each sex arranged according to main body mass index (BMI) categories: underweight ( or =40 kg/m2). Test-retest reliability correlations for current body size (CBS), desired body size and current desirable discrepancy (body self-satisfaction index) on BIS were never below .90. Plus, for the concurrent validity, we observed a significant correlation (r=0.67, Pbody size perceptions, is acceptable. Body image scales are adapted to the phenotypic characteristics of urban Cameroonian populations. They are reliable and valid to assess body size perceptions and culturally adapted to the Cameroonian context.

  8. Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Stroke in Douala, Cameroon

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    N. Y. Mapoure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study was to describe complications in hospitalized patients for stroke and to determine the predictive factors of intrahospital mortality from stroke at the Douala General Hospital (DGH in Cameroon. Patients and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012, at the DGH. All the patients who were aged more than 15 years with established diagnosis of stroke were included. A univariate analysis was done to look for factors associated with the risk of death, whilst the predictive factors of death were determined in a multivariate analysis following Cox regression model. Results. Of the 325 patients included patients, 68.1% were males and the mean age was 58.66 ± 13.6 years. Ischaemic stroke accounted for 52% of the cases. Sepsis was the leading complications present in 99 (30.12% cases. Independent predicting factors of in-hospital mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale lower than 8 (HR = 2.17 95% CI 4.86–36.8; P=0.0001, hyperglycaemia at admission (HR = 3.61 95% CI 1.38–9.44; P=0.009, and hemorrhagic stroke (HR = 5.65 95% CI 1.77–18; P=0.003. Conclusion. The clinician should systematically diagnose and treat infectious states and hyperglycaemia in stroke.

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Cameroon. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trey, Michel de; Leney, George W.

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of the International Uranium Resource Evaluation Project (IUREP) missions to host nations is to: R eview the present body of knowledge pertinent to the existence of uranium resources, to review and evaluate the potential for the discovery of additional resources, and to suggest new exploration efforts which might be carried out in promising areas in collaboration with the countries concerned. Guidance in the achievement of these goals is provided through a check list of desired relevant information on: general background, the potential role of nuclear energy, and organizations involved, information on the mining industry, technical manpower employed or available, available maps, aerial photographs, and publications, national geological survey and organizations involved in uranium, private organizations involved in uranium exploration and mining, results of previous exploration, known uranium occurrences, plans for further work, legal and administrative requirements for exploration and logistical information on facilities available. The economy of CAMEROON is sound and continues to expand with an annual growth rates of 5-6%. Emphasis is placed on private investment with government participation in major development projects. The overall investment climate is good. Minerals exploration is carried out under nonexclusive Prospecting License and exclusive Exploration License that may later be converted to a Mining Lease or Mining Concession. Many of the conditions must be negotiated. Uranium is classified as a strategic mineral, and may be subject to special review. There is no defined policy on uranium development. Two government organizations are concerned with geology and mining. The INSTITUT DE RECHERCHES GEOLOGIQUES ET MINIERES (IRGM) conducts programs of geologic mapping and research, mineralogy, hydrology, and alternate energy sources. The DEPARTMENT OF MINES AND GEOLOGY (DMG) is responsible for all minerals exploration and mining. It includes a

  10. The Cameroon line, West Africa, and its bearing on the origin of oceanic and continental alkali basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitton, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Cameroon line is a unique within-plate volcanic province which straddles a continental margin. It consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. It provides, therefore, an ideal area in which to compare the sub-oceanic and sub-continental mantle sources for alkali basalt. Basaltic rocks in the oceanic and continental sectors are geochemically and isotopically indistinguishable which suggests that they have identical mantle sources. This conclusion rules out substantial lithosphere involvement in the generation of alkali basalts and therefore weakens the case for mantle metasomatism as a necessary precursor to alkaline magmatism. The convecting upper mantle is a much more likely source as it will be well-stirred and unlikely to show any ocean-continent differences. The long history of Cameroon line magmatism (65 Ma) and lack of evidence for migration of volcanism with time makes a deeper mantle source unlikely. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) also originate within the convecting upper mantle and so must share a common source with the Cameroon line alkali basalts (and, by implication, ocean island and continental rift basalts). A grossly homogeneous mantle with a bulk composition depleted in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), but containing streaks of old, LILE-enriched material, provides a plausible common source. Large degree, near-surface melting of such a source would produce MORB. Smaller degree melts produced at deeper levels would percolate upwards along grain boundaries and become enriched in LILE by leaching LILE-rich grain boundary films. The mixing of these liquids with melts from the LILE-rich streaks will produce magmas with the geochemical and isotopic features of ocean island basalts. (orig.)

  11. An ethical approach to socio-economic information sources in ongoing vulnerability and resilience studies: the Mount Cameroon case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilaria Pannaccione Apa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vulnerability of facing natural and man-made hazards, with the related resilient answers belong to the complex and articulate field of social sciences called ‘Disaster Anthropology’. Vulnerability is generally defined as a weak point in facing an aggressive event that is difficult to manage. Resilience is the subsequent capacity for self-repair after a sustained natural or anthropogenic stress. Consequently, the theoretical model of economic resilience is the ability to restore an economic background that can support the gradual recovery of social benefits following a disaster. Moreover, the presence in the territory of different systems of production (natural eco-systems and/or technical systems should allow multi-resilient communities. The mathematical structure of these economic theorems makes their practical application difficult inside an ethno-anthropological context, as it conflicts with cultural variables of the socio-structural fabric. An example can be given by some urban and rural family structures that are settled around the Mount Cameroon volcano (southwest Cameroon, in which the general psychological pressure increases because of both the constant exposure to natural hazards and the vulnerability arising from its social environment (e.g. castes, forced housing allocation, cultural estrangement to local chiefdom. Therefore, the rational heuristic model to be adopted in this social vulnerability study is performed by several combined analyses that have many interpretive obstacles. In 2009, within FP7-MIA-VITA, the first fieldwork mission for the study of socio-economic development of communities living around Mount Cameroon was launched. This completed 108 interviews across several social groups of different ethnicities and religions. The resulting information is being re-tested and verified from the second fieldwork mission in 2011, for completion of the study area.

  12. The acceptability of volunteer, repeat blood donations in a hospital setting in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolseth, S; Stange, P; Adamou, D; Roald, B; Danki-Sillong, F; Jourdan, P

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of factors that may influence blood donation in Cameroon is limited. The objectives of this study are to assess the characteristics of previous and potential blood donors by exploring the religious beliefs, and knowledge and understanding of blood donations among individuals present at a district hospital. Forty-nine in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted among consenting, randomly selected 18 years or older community members present at a district hospital in the Adamaoua region during October and November 2011. Ninety-eight per cent (48/49) of the individuals present at this district hospital had heard of blood transfusions. Forty-seven per cent (23/49) had not previously been asked to donate blood; however, 94% (44/47) said that they would donate if given the opportunity. Thirty-three per cent (16/49) had previously donated blood to family members or for replacement, and 81% of these said they would repeat donations. The majority of both donors and non-donors were motivated to donate blood for altruistic reasons. The findings suggest that community members present at this district hospital in Cameroon may be recruited for repeat blood donations. Although the altruistic motivation to donate blood suggests that donors could be recruited from a district hospital population, targeted information about blood donations and accessible blood transfusion services need to be put in place. The study may add to the understanding of the preconditions for blood donations and the possibility to establish sustainable blood transfusion services in the Adamaoua region in Cameroon. © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

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    Jean Raphaël Kana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1% was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%. Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%, broiler (93.3% and layer feeds (83.0% were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

  14. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of southern Cameroon (Ntem group, Congo craton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rchameni, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the crustal evolution of the NW margin of the Congo craton using structural, petrography, isotopic, geochemical and geochronological studies of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of the Ntem group of southern Cameroon. The synthesis of these studies allows to propose a diapir-type gravity model linked with the genesis of granitoids to explain the geodynamical evolution of this part of the craton during the Archean. A convergence model with the collision of the Congo and Sao-Francisco cratons and with crust thickening followed by a relaxation phase is proposed for the palaeo-Proterozoic. (J.S.)

  15. An asset-based approach to vulnerability: the case of small-scale fishing areas in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaula, Levison S; Witt, Rudolf; Waibel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses vulnerability to poverty of rural small-scale fishing communities using cross-section data from 295 households in Cameroon and 267 in Nigeria. We propose a vulnerability measure that incorporates the idea of asset poverty into the concept of expected poverty, which allows decomposing expected poverty into expected structural-chronic, structural-transient, and stochastic-transient poverty. The findings show that most households in our study areas are expected to be structurally-chronic and structurally-transient poor. This underlines the importance of asset formation for long-term poverty reduction strategies. Further refinements are possible with longitudinal data and information about future states of nature.

  16. Epilepsy, culture, identity and well-being: a study of the social, cultural and environmental context of epilepsy in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    Epilepsy presents an identity of exclusion, which at multiple levels hinders the ability to engage with one's community. This article describes an exploratory, mixed methods study (N = 42) of the relationship between the social, cultural and environmental context and the experience of living with epilepsy in Cameroon. Participants were identified as 'epileptics', consequently restrictions placed on them reduced their ability to perform traditional roles, affected their social value and excluded them from their communities. Participants detail the effects of their reduced 'social value' and the challenges they face in attempts to be re-integrated as productive and functioning members of society.

  17. Siltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river tha...

  18. Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of and factors associated with condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecel Pilapil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Young women are more likely to be infected with HIV globally, in sub-Saharan Africa, and in Cameroon. Despite its clear clinical and public health benefits, condom use among HIV-infected women continues to be low. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected women in Cameroon and the factors associated with it. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected young women aged 17–26 years from three semi-urban HIV clinics in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. This study was a subgroup analysis of a previously reported study on inconsistent condom use in HIV-infected and -uninfected youth. Inconsistent condom use was defined as reporting “sometimes” or “never” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with inconsistent condom use. Results: A total of 84 participants were recruited and submitted completed questionnaires for analysis. Median age was 24 years (interquartile range = 22–25 and the median age at HIV diagnosis was 21 years (interquartile range = 20–23. Fifty percent of the participants reported no prior schooling or only primary school education. Overall, 61/84 (73% reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, education to the secondary school level was protective against inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval: 0.04–0.95, and having ≥2 pregnancies was associated with inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 7.52; confidence interval: 1.67–34.00. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of inconsistent condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon, which appears to be associated with lower levels of educational attainment and higher parity. Further larger studies assessing the factors associated with poor condom use in this population are warranted and may inform public health

  19. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: where are we now and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Nomo, Emmanuel; Mawo, Jeanne; Ofal, James; Mimbouga, Julienne; Ticha, Johnson; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2008-02-08

    Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. In January 2003, case-based surveillance of suspected yellow fever cases was instituted in the whole country. A year later, yellow fever immunisation at nine months of age (the same age as routine measles immunisation) was introduced. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs), both preventive and in response to outbreaks, also formed an integral part of the yellow fever control plan. Each level of the national health system makes a synthesis of its activities and sends this to the next higher level at defined regular intervals; monthly for routine data and daily for SIAs. From 2004 to 2006 the national routine yellow fever vaccination coverage rose from 58.7% to 72.2%. In addition, the country achieved parity between yellow fever and measles vaccination coverage in 2005 and has since maintained this performance level. The number of suspected yellow fever cases in the country increased from 156 in 2003 to 859 in 2006, and the proportion of districts that reported at least one suspected yellow fever case per year increased from 31.4% to 68.2%, respectively. Blood specimens were collected from all suspected cases (within 14 days of onset of symptoms) and tested at a central laboratory for yellow fever IgM antibodies; leading to confirmation of yellow fever outbreaks in the health districts of Bafia, Méri and Ntui in 2003, Ngaoundéré Rural in 2004, Yoko in 2005 and Messamena in 2006. Owing to constraints in rapidly mobilising the necessary resources, reactive SIAs were only conducted in Bafia and M

  20. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimbouga Julienne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods In January 2003, case-based surveillance of suspected yellow fever cases was instituted in the whole country. A year later, yellow fever immunisation at nine months of age (the same age as routine measles immunisation was introduced. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs, both preventive and in response to outbreaks, also formed an integral part of the yellow fever control plan. Each level of the national health system makes a synthesis of its activities and sends this to the next higher level at defined regular intervals; monthly for routine data and daily for SIAs. Results From 2004 to 2006 the national routine yellow fever vaccination coverage rose from 58.7% to 72.2%. In addition, the country achieved parity between yellow fever and measles vaccination coverage in 2005 and has since maintained this performance level. The number of suspected yellow fever cases in the country increased from 156 in 2003 to 859 in 2006, and the proportion of districts that reported at least one suspected yellow fever case per year increased from 31.4% to 68.2%, respectively. Blood specimens were collected from all suspected cases (within 14 days of onset of symptoms and tested at a central laboratory for yellow fever IgM antibodies; leading to confirmation of yellow fever outbreaks in the health districts of Bafia, Méri and Ntui in 2003, Ngaoundéré Rural in 2004, Yoko in 2005 and Messamena in 2006. Owing to constraints in rapidly mobilising the necessary resources

  1. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ames

    Full Text Available Understanding stakeholders' (parents', communities' and health workers' perspectives of communication about childhood vaccination, including their preferences for its format, delivery and content, is an important step towards designing better communication strategies and ensuring more informed parents. Our objectives were to explore stakeholders' views, experiences and preferences for childhood vaccination communication in Cameroon.In 2014, in the Central and North West Regions of Cameron, we gathered qualitative data for our case study using the following methods: semi structured interviews; observations and informal conversations during routine immunization clinics and three rounds of the National Polio Immunization Campaign; document analysis of reports and mass media communications about vaccination; and a survey of parents. We conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify themes relating to views, experiences and perceptions of vaccination information and its delivery. Survey data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics.All of the parents interviewed felt that vaccinating their child was important, and trusted the information provided by health workers. However, many parents wanted more information. Parents did not always feel that they could ask questions during vaccination appointments. All participants felt that health workers and vaccination clinics were important sources of information. Social mobilisation activities such as door-to-door visits and announcements during religious services were important and accepted ways of communicating information, especially during vaccination campaigns. Information communicated through mass media and text messages was also seen as important. In general, stakeholders believed that more consistent messaging about routine vaccination through community channels would be helpful to remind parents of the importance of routine vaccination during ongoing rounds of vaccination

  2. Stakeholder perceptions of communication about vaccination in two regions of Cameroon: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njang, Diangha Mabel; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Oku, Afiong; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Kum, Awah Paschal; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding stakeholders’ (parents’, communities’ and health workers’) perspectives of communication about childhood vaccination, including their preferences for its format, delivery and content, is an important step towards designing better communication strategies and ensuring more informed parents. Our objectives were to explore stakeholders’ views, experiences and preferences for childhood vaccination communication in Cameroon. Methods In 2014, in the Central and North West Regions of Cameron, we gathered qualitative data for our case study using the following methods: semi structured interviews; observations and informal conversations during routine immunization clinics and three rounds of the National Polio Immunization Campaign; document analysis of reports and mass media communications about vaccination; and a survey of parents. We conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify themes relating to views, experiences and perceptions of vaccination information and its delivery. Survey data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics. Results All of the parents interviewed felt that vaccinating their child was important, and trusted the information provided by health workers. However, many parents wanted more information. Parents did not always feel that they could ask questions during vaccination appointments. All participants felt that health workers and vaccination clinics were important sources of information. Social mobilisation activities such as door-to-door visits and announcements during religious services were important and accepted ways of communicating information, especially during vaccination campaigns. Information communicated through mass media and text messages was also seen as important. In general, stakeholders believed that more consistent messaging about routine vaccination through community channels would be helpful to remind parents of the importance of routine vaccination during ongoing

  3. Survey of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekue, F.N.; Pone, K.D.; Mafeni, M.J.; Nfi, A.N.; Njoya, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area in Cameroon was conducted using a baseline survey covering the rainy and dry seasons from December, 1999-June, 2000. This survey focused mainly on the characterization of the flock size and structure, housing system, feeding, marketing of chickens, health, flock breeding and ownership patterns. The results showed that among poultry species surveyed, chickens predominated in all households, followed by ducks (15.4%) and pigeons (7.7%). A cock had access to about 2-3 hens and one hen had a brood of 1-3 chicks at a time with an overall higher hen/cock and chicks/hen ratio for the dry season. Production and reproduction performance results showed that hens laid about 3 clutches of 12 eggs per year and this was similar for both seasons. The most predominant disease symptoms in descending order of importance included diarrhoea, coughing and ectoparasitism. Although the overall disease occurrence rate was high in growers, chicks suffered from many unclassified ailments. From the survey results, ethno-veterinary therapy featured as the most frequent method of treating diseases in rural poultry in the Bamenda area. With regard to flock ownership and management patterns, the survey results showed that women owned birds in the majority of the cases (38.5%) followed by men (23.1%) and children (15.3%). Although all gender categories were involved in village chicken management, the greatest participation came from women, followed by men, children and the family as a whole. Construction of shelters was mainly a job for the men with assistance from the children. Women were mostly involved in providing water to the birds, preparing supplementation rations and selling eggs. Finally, with regard to household decision making on issues related to poultry management, men played the leading role (66.7%), followed by women (28.4%) and then children (3.7%). (author)

  4. Characteristics of street children in Cameroon: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumber, Samuel N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. Aim To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. Objectives To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges. Materials and methods The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month), in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015. Results The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85), with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5%) regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive. Conclusion As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children. PMID:28155316

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, Laurent; Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance

  6. Characterizing the phylogenetic tree community structure of a protected tropical rain forest area in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manel, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world.

  7. Characterizing the Phylogenetic Tree Community Structure of a Protected Tropical Rain Forest Area in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J.; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world. PMID:24936786

  8. Traditional herbal remedies and dietary spices from Cameroon as novel sources of larvicides against filariasis mosquitoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Fogang, Hervet Paulin Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Barboni, Luciano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests. In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. daniellii, D. cinerea and E. giganteus essential oils and we evaluated their larvicidal potential against larvae of the filariasis and West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils were obtained from different plant parts by hydrodistillation and their composition was analysed by GC-MS. The three spices exhibited different volatile chemical profiles, being characterized by 1,8-cineole, sabinene and β-pinene (A. daniellii), geraniol and terpinen-4-ol (D. cinerea), and silphiperfol-6-ene and presilphiperfolan-8-ol (E. giganteus). Results showed that the highest larvicidal toxicity on Cx. quinquefasciatus was exerted by D. cinerea essential oil (LC 50  = 39.1 μL L -1 ), followed by A. daniellii (pericarp essential oil: LC 50  = 65.5 μL L -1 ; leaves: LC 50  = 65.5μL L -1 ; seeds: LC 50  = 106.5μL L -1 ) and E. giganteus (LC 50  = 227.4 μL L -1 ). Overall, the chance to use the D. cinerea essential oil against Cx. quinquefasciatus young instars seems promising, since it is effective at moderate doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer mosquito control tools.

  9. Introduction of high risk pregnancy care in rural Cameroon: health service research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, R J; Nasah, B T; Mtango, F D

    1988-05-01

    A 3-year study (1982-1985) in Cameroon showed that high-risk pregnancy identification and care could successfully be introduced in rural communities through inexpensive training and supervision of local nurses, particularly when motivation for use of antenatal clinics (ANCs) was provided by the local Community Women's Organization (CWO). 11 communities, all rural except Tsinga, were randomly allocated to Groups I (control) or II. A retrospective baseline survey of ANCs showed that high-risk pregnancy detection had been nonexistent. For both groups, nurses were given 2-week training courses on high-risk identification and family planning. The registers for recording prenatal consultations and deliveries were modified to include recording of risk factors. Special forms were created for reporting on each high-risk case thus identified. These forms proved more difficult for the nurses to complete than the registers. For Group II communities, CWO leaders were recruited to urge women to attend ANCs. 2548 cases of high-risk pregnancy (21.9% of pregnancies) were identified on the special forms, although the number of cases identified in clinic registers was consistently higher. Posttest attendance at ANCs was higher than pretest and significantly higher in areas where CWO motivation had been used. Major risk factors in the identified cases were grand multiparity, teenage pregnancy and previous complicated obstetrics history, although semiurban Tsinga had less grand multiparity and teenage pregnancy and more obesity, diabetes, hypertension and preclampsia. Only 23.4% of the identified cases delivered in the clinics, showing the need for more comprehensive maternal service programs. Since only 5% of the high-risk pregnancy population accepted modern contraceptives after delivery, research is needed on the determinants.

  10. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meekers Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1 identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2 establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003 of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24. Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths

  11. Contentious corporate social responsibility practices by British American tobacco in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsly Awang Ollong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, tobacco companies have intensified market expansion strategies in several African countries. They have used music to target youths and children. They organised fashion shows to entice women into smoking. They offered kids free cigarettes on the streets and for a very long time undermined efforts by governments to put in place effective tobacco legislation. They actively participated in the smuggling of tobacco products into the continent. Worse still, tobacco companies persuaded some African governments to promote tobacco cultivation as a major source of foreign earnings. And in recent years, the tobacco industry has resorted to using Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR to massage its image and cover its tracks. British American Tobacco (BAT, which is the focus of this paper, had a virtual monopoly in parts of Africa, both in terms of tobacco manufacturing and sales of cigarettes. In eleven African countries BAT had more than a 90% share of the cigarette market. This paper examines some of the health, social and economic impacts of BAT’s activities in Africa from 1985 to 2010 using Cameroon as a case study. The paper concludes that though the full effects of rising tobacco consumption (namely a steep rise in smoking-induced illness and premature death was at the dawn of the 21st century, Africa was already in the grip of a major tobacco epidemic. There is no doubt therefore that, BAT’s heavy footprint on the African continent wreaked havoc on the economy, health and welfare of the people, thus partially contributing to the non-realisation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs that were designed to help the world’s poorest people.

  12. ‘My "veil" does not go with my jeans’: veiling, fundamentalism, education and women’s agency in northern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the struggle over the Muslim ‘veil’ in public schools, which is related to tensions between the norms of secular democracy and principles of religious tolerance, has also become a topic of debate in Cameroon. I take the life of a young woman, Maimouna, whose life I

  13. Population trends of antelopes in Waza National Park (Cameroon) from 1960 to 2001: The interacting effects of rainfall, flooding and human interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Adam, S.; Serge, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Antelopes are prominent wildlife in Waza National Park, situated in Sahelo-Sudanian Cameroon, which has witnessed dramatic changes in rainfall and flooding. To assess their impacts, we reviewed 26 aerial and terrestrial surveys, comprising total, transect and localized counts. Estimated numbers of

  14. Traditional African Religions and Their Influences on the Worldviews of Bangwa People of Cameroon: Expanding the Cultural Horizons of Study Abroad Students and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemanu, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    This essay explores the traditional African religious beliefs and practices of the people of Bangwa in the Southwestern region of Cameroon in order to uncover how those beliefs influence their thought processes and worldviews. In the course of rethinking and re-examining their belief systems and their traditional religious practices, the following…

  15. A lion population under threat : understanding lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) ecology and human-lion interactions related to livestock predation in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumenta, Pricelia Nyaekon

    2012-01-01

    Lions in Waza National Park Cameroon were studied with focus on lion ecology and the human-lion conflicts due to livestock predation. The number of adult lions has declined from 40-60 in 2002 to 14-21 in 2008, which represents a reduction of about 65% in 6 years. The human-livestock pressure on the

  16. The interactions of human mobility and farming systems and impacts on biodiversity and soil quality in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and the drop in the returns from the major cash crop (coffee) for small farmers are the main drivers that have influenced the farming systems and mobility of farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon (WHC). The main objective of this research activity was to determine the

  17. Hepatitis B virus exposure during childhood in Cameroon, Central African Republic and Senegal after the integration of HBV vaccine in the expanded program on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Cuille, Marie-Anne; Njouom, Richard; Bekondi, Claudine; Seck, Abdoulaye; Gody, Chrysostome; Bata, Petulla; Garin, Benoit; Maylin, Sarah; Chartier, Loic; Simon, François; Vray, Muriel

    2013-10-01

    More than 2 billion people worldwide have been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV). To prevent these infections, Senegal and Cameroon integrated the HBV vaccine into their Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2005, as did the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2008. We evaluated the prevalence of HBV exposure and infection after the integration of the HBV vaccine in the EPI. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among the hospitalized children 3 months to 6 years of age in Cameroon, CAR and Senegal. Plasma was collected for the detection of anti-HBc, anti-HBs and hepatitis B surface antigen in children with anti-HBc and anti-HBs. Between April 2009 and May 2010, 1783 children were enrolled, 19.4% of whom were anti-HBc positive. The percentage of children with anti-HBc was 44.4% among the children younger than 6 months, decreasing after 6 months to reach 18.8% at 12 months. This decline was followed by a rapid increase in anti-HBc positivity rate in CAR observed as early as 12 months of age compared with Cameroon and Senegal, where the anti-HBc increased between 18 and 36 months of age, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children was significantly higher in CAR than that in Cameroon and Senegal (5.1% versus 0.7% and 0.2%; P Senegal suggests a positive impact of HBV vaccination.

  18. An Exploratory Multi-Method Analysis of Cybercrime Perpetrators' Perceptions to Combat Cyber Crime in Sub Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuta, Eric Agwe-Mbarika

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has projected much of Africa as a haven for cybercrime perpetration. This view was widely evidenced in Cameroon, a country regarded as a miniature Africa due to its diverse socio-cultural, economic and political characteristics. In spite of efforts by government to curb cybercrime, the perpetration rate has not declined due to a…

  19. An Investigation of the Attitudes Held by General Education Teachers toward Students with Disabilities in a Pilot Inclusive Education Program in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mngo, Agnes Y.

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: The literature from Cameroon depicts that the implementation of inclusive education is not only in its embryonic stage but faces resistance from educators who are still not accepting of the presence of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. This resistance has been attributed to several factors ranging from…

  20. Serotype Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus in Livestock without History of Vaccination in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, A; Ahmed, Z; Pomeroy, L W; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G R; Moritz, M; Dickmu, S; Abdoulkadiri, S; Arzt, J; Garabed, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2016-02-01

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic m...

  2. Insights into chameleons of the genus Trioceros (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) in Cameroon, with the resurrection of Chamaleon serratus Mertens, 1922

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barej, M. F.; Ineich, I.; Gvoždík, Václav; Lhermitte-Vallarino, N.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Le Breton, M.; Bott, U.; Schmitz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 211-229 ISSN 2190-7307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Chameleon serratus * Cameroon * insights Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B12 status increased among women and children in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon, one year after introducing fortified wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few data, to our knowledge, are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y ...

  4. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  5. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  6. Kinematic evolution of the Mbakop Pan-African granitoids (western Cameroon domain): An integrated AMS and EBSD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella Nké, B. E.; Njanko, T.; Mamtani, M. A.; Njonfang, E.; Rochette, P.

    2018-06-01

    This study integrates anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, microstructural and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) data from the Mbakop granitic pluton (MGP; Pan-African age) in order to decipher its kinematic evolution. The MGP lies close to NE-SW branch of Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ) and is emplaced in gneissic basement. High mean magnetic susceptibility and presence of multi-domain magnetite are recorded. Quartz CPO measured using Electron Backscatter diffraction reveals dominance of rhomb , prism and prism slip in different samples, which is consistent with microstructures developed under upper greenschist/amphibolite facies conditions. Quartz CPO along with other kinematic indicators (feldspar porphyroclasts/mineral fish) indicate non-coaxial deformation was important during tectonic evolution of the MGP. Contrasting sense of shear is recorded implying multi-stage mylonitization in the Western Cameroon Domain. Top-towards-south sense of shear is related to regional D2 deformation (613-585 Ma), while top-towards-north is related to D3 (585-540 Ma). The magnetic fabric in MGP records D3. The obliquity between mean orientation of magnetic foliation (N12°E) and the NE-SW CCSZ branch (N48°E) gives kinematic vorticity number of 0.95. This indicates dominantly simple shear with a minor pure shear component. It is concluded that regional transpression was important during MGP emplacement.

  7. New insights in insect prey choice by chimpanzees and gorillas in southeast Cameroon: the role of nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Janssens, Geert P J

    2008-01-01

    The insect diet of chimpanzees and gorillas living at the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve in southeast Cameroon and its nutritional contribution is described. We analyzed fecal samples and recorded additional evidence of insectivory. A detailed prey species list is presented for both apes. We carried out nutritional analyses (macronutrients, macro- and micro-minerals) on 11 important and eight nonimportant, but accessible, ant and termite prey species, and estimated the average nutrient intake/day through insects. Although gorillas ate insects more frequently, the average prey biomass intake/day by chimpanzees was twice that by gorillas. The lack of tool-use by gorillas cannot be the main reason for the small overlap of important prey species. Both apes did not seem to consume ant prey for one or more specific nutrients. Also other factors, such as medicinal use, should be considered. Termites, on the other hand, seemed to be selected for particular nutrients. Gorilla intake of the important termite prey, Cubitermes and Thoracotermes, met with estimated iron requirements. Their potential role as antidiarrheal treatment is as yet unclear. Chimpanzee intake of the important termite prey, Macrotermes spp., met with estimated manganese requirements and the protein intake/day (mean: 2 g/d) reached significant values (>20 g/d). To fully understand the importance of nutritional contributions of insects to ape diets in Cameroon, the chemical composition and nutrient intake of fruit and foliage in their diets should be investigated. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Cocoa Farmers' Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Cameroon.

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    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2018-02-13

    The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE). Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers' instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced ( p agrochemicals.

  9. Cocoa Farmers’ Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE). Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers’ instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced (p agrochemicals. PMID:29438333

  10. Validation of gravity data from the geopotential field model for subsurface investigation of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Western Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Jean; Abate Essi, Jean Marcel; Nouck, Philippe Njandjock; Sanda, Oumarou; Manguelle-Dicoum, Eliézer

    2018-03-01

    Belonging to the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), the western part of Cameroon is an active volcanic zone with volcanic eruptions and deadly gas emissions. The volcanic flows generally cover areas and bury structural features like faults. Terrestrial gravity surveys can hardly cover entirely this mountainous area due to difficult accessibility. The present work aims to evaluate gravity data derived from the geopotential field model, EGM2008 to investigate the subsurface of the CVL. The methodology involves upward continuation, horizontal gradient, maxima of horizontal gradient-upward continuation combination and Euler deconvolution techniques. The lineaments map inferred from this geopotential field model confirms several known lineaments and reveals new ones covered by lava flows. The known lineaments are interpreted as faults or geological contacts such as the Foumban fault and the Pan-African Belt-Congo craton contact. The lineaments highlighted coupled with the numerous maar lakes identified in this volcanic sector attest of the vulnerability of the CVL where special attention should be given for geohazard prevention.

  11. Diabetes Mellitus: Indigenous naming, indigenous diagnosis and self-management in an African setting: the example from Cameroon

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    Awah Paschal K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to examine how the indigenous naming, indigenous self-diagnosis and management of diabetes evolved with awareness in order to develop a socially oriented theoretical model for its care. Methods The data was collected through a one-year extended participant observation in Bafut, a rural health district of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 72 participants in a rural health district of Cameroon (men and women with type 2 diabetes. We used participant observation to collect data through focus group discussions, in depth interviews and fieldwork conversations. The method of analysis entailed a thick description, thematic analysis entailing constant comparison within and across FGD and across individual participants and content analysis. Results The core concepts identified were the evolution of names for diabetes and the indigenous diagnostic and self-management procedures. Participants fell into one of two naming typologies: (a Naming excluding any signs and symptoms of diabetes; (b naming including signs and symptoms of diabetes. Participants fell into two typologies of diagnostic procedures: (a those that use indigenous diagnostic procedures for monitoring and controlling diabetes outcomes and b those that had initially used it only for diagnosis and continued to use them for self management. These typologies varied according to how participants' awareness evolved and the impact on self-diagnosis and management. Conclusion The evolution of names for diabetes was an important factor that influenced the subsequent self-diagnosis and management of diabetes in both traditional and modern biomedical settings.

  12. Participatory Resource Mapping for Livelihood Values Derived from the Forest in Ekondo-Titi Subregion, Cameroon: A Gender Analysis

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    Daniel B. Etongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the multiplicity of products, services, and values, and the diversity of interests from different resource users and groups, is being acknowledged as vital for sustainable use. This calls for a shift from protection to sustainable use and to resource-user focus. The aim of this study is to identify the spatial occurrence of livelihood values through participatory resource mapping, their changes over time and alternatives for sustainable management. A participatory resource mapping study was conducted with local community, including important stakeholders in Ekondo-Titi subregion of Cameroon. The research technique which focused on gender revealed different patterns of forest resources and changes on the landscape. The study concludes that the importance of resources varies between men and women in Ekondo-Titi subregion of Cameroon, implying that resources may have multipurpose functions, but its exact role depends on the needs of the user groups that utilize them. The divergence of opinion on certain resources is a clear indication of preferences that are gender motivated. The study also revealed that the greatest impact of land use change is the conversion of forest land into agriculture.

  13. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  14. Phytotherapy of High Blood Pressure in Three Phytogeographic Regions of Cameroon.

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    Tsabang, Nole; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    High blood pressure is a public health challenge worldwide. According to World Health Organization, 30% of men and 50% of women 65 to 75 years old are suffering from high blood pressure. The number of hypertensive patients in the world will attain 1.56 billion of people, with 60% increase in prevalence. The incidence of high blood pressure increases with age, but nowadays, is being noticed an increasing incidence in young people. The socio-cultural medicine may provide new solutions in the management of this pathology. Therefore this study was carried out to record and document plants used against high blood pressure in socio-cultural medicine for future drugs discovery worldwide. An ethno botanical survey was realized between 2002 and 2016 to identify manifold plants used to fight against high blood pressure. This survey was carried out in three phytogeographic regions of Cameroon. Amongst people living in those regions, 1131 randomly screened interviewees distributed in 58 socio-cultural groups were involved in this study. This survey reveals that about 70% of interviewees don't know high blood pressure which is a symptomless disease. A total of 28 species of plants were recorded. These plants belong to 25 genera and 24 families. They were used to prepare 28 herbal remedies for the treatment of high blood pressure. In the morphological point of view about 10/28 (36%) plants are herbs; 9/28 (32%) plants are trees and 9/28 (32%) plants are shrubs. Only 3/28 plants (11%) used including Allium sativum, Aloe barteri and Aloe buttneri) are cultivated. This means that the plants used in this study don't usually have some form of protection through cultivation which is encouraging in terms of their conservation. The uncontrolled use of a hypotensive plants can provoke a fatal hypotension in hypertensive patients. Therefore the use of hypotensive plants needs to be controlled by physician or by a patient verification using a blood pressure monitor. Recorded species which

  15. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon

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    Dickson S. Nsagha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0. The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 74.4-81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1% respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7-86.5%. Four hundred and three (83.9% participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7-87.3%. A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9-88.4% participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%-75.5% participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1 and Boyo (4.8 divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing

  16. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon

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    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years. Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5 is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50. Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care

  17. High mosquito burden and malaria transmission in a district of the city of Douala, Cameroon

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    Antonio-Nkondjio Christophe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid demographic growth in Douala city, Cameroon, has resulted in profound ecological and environmental changes. Although demographic changes can affect anopheline mosquito breeding sites, there is a lack of understanding about the epidemiological impact that such changes might have on vector ecology and malaria transmission. Methods A 12-month entomological study was conducted in a highly populated district of Douala called Ndogpassi. Adult mosquitoes were collected using two methods: 1 human landing catches (HLC; and 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC light traps; these methods were used twice monthly from January to December 2011. Mosquito genus and species were identified with morphological and molecular diagnostic tools. The sampling efficiency of the CDC light trap and HLC were compared. Anopheles gambiae infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected using ELISA. Susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin insecticides were also determined. Results A total of 6923 mosquitoes were collected by HLC (5198 and CDC light traps (1725. There was no equivalence in the sampling efficiency between light traps and human landing catches (P > 0.01. With 51% of the total, Culex was the most common, followed by Anopheles (26.14%, Mansonia (22.7% and Aedes (0.1%. An. gambiae ss (M form comprised ~98% of the total anophelines collected. An. gambiae had a biting rate of 0.25 to 49.25 bites per human per night, and was the only species found to be infected with P. falciparum. A P. falciparum infection rate of 0.5% was calculated (based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using the circumsporozoite surface protein. The entomological inoculation rate was estimated at 31 infective bites per annum. Insecticide susceptibility tests on An. gambiae females revealed a mortality rate of 33%, 76% and 98% for DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. The West African kdr allele (L1014F was detected in 38 of

  18. Assessing the accessibility of HIV care packages among tuberculosis patients in the Northwest Region, Cameroon

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    Miguel San

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection is a major source of morbidity and mortality globally. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that HIV counselling and testing be offered routinely to TB patients in order to increase access to HIV care packages. We assessed the uptake of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC, antiretroviral (ART and co-trimoxazole preventive therapies (CPT among TB patients in the Northwest Region, Cameroon. Methods A retrospective cohort study using TB registers in 4 TB/HIV treatment centres (1 public and 3 faith-based for patients diagnosed with TB between January 2006 and December 2007 to identify predictors of the outcomes; HIV testing/serostatus, ART and CPT enrolment and factors that influenced their enrolment between public and faith-based hospitals. Results A total of 2270 TB patients were registered and offered pre-HIV test counselling; 2150 (94.7% accepted the offer of a test. The rate of acceptance was significantly higher among patients in the public hospital compared to those in the faith-based hospitals (crude OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.33 - 2.92 and (adjusted OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.24 - 2.97. HIV prevalence was 68.5% (1473/2150. Independent predictors of HIV-seropositivity emerged as: females, age groups 15-29, 30-44 and 45-59 years, rural residence, previously treated TB and smear-negative pulmonary TB. ART uptake was 50.3% (614/1220 with 17.2% (253/1473 of missing records. Independent predictors of ART uptake were: previously treated TB and extra pulmonary TB. Finally, CPT uptake was 47.0% (524/1114 with 24% (590/1114 of missing records. Independent predictors of CPT uptake were: faith-based hospitals and female sex. Conclusion PITC services are apparently well integrated into the TB programme as demonstrated by the high testing rate. The main challenges include improving access to ART and CPT among TB patients and proper reporting and monitoring of

  19. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson S.; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Z.K.; Nsagha, Sarah M.; Njunda, Anna L.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Tabah, Earnest N.; Bamgboye, Elijah A.; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O.O.; Nde, Peter F.; Njamnshi, Alfred K.

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0). The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 74.4–81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1%) respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7–86.5%). Four hundred and three (83.9%) participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7–87.3%). A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9–88.4%) participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%–75.5%) participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1) and Boyo (4.8) divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing

  20. Emission factors of greenhouse gases from layer and broiler barns in Cameroon

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    Ngwabie, N. Martin; Acobta, Ada N.; Manga, Veronica E.; VanderZaag, Andrew C.

    2018-03-01

    Limited information is available in the literature on greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification from livestock production systems in Africa. Therefore, this project was carried out to generate baseline emission factors of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from broiler and layer barns with building design typical of Cameroon. Emissions were measured from two broiler barns during the entire production cycles and a layer barn for a limited period using flux chambers. Methane emission factors from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 0.96 ± 1.04 and 0.36 ± 0.17 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 0.76 ± 0.56 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn with cement floor. Nitrous oxide emission from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 12.94 ± 10.11 and 1.68 ± 1.02 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 0.21 ± 0.28 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Carbon dioxide emission factors from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 9327 ± 3508 and 25526 ± 6904 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 8942 ± 36756 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. When scaled per livestock unit (LU), where 1 LU is 500 kg bird weight, CH4 emissions were 0.16 ± 0.17 and 0.06 ± 0.03 g LU-1 hr-1 from the broiler barns, and 0.19 ± 0.14 g LU-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Nitrous oxide emissions were 2.16 ± 1.69 and 0.28 ± 0.17 g LU-1 hr-1 from the broiler barns, and 0.05 ± 0.07 g LU-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Broilers reared in management systems with wood shavings on mud floor had relatively high CH4 and N2O emissions compared to broilers on wood shavings and cement floor, with the contrary observed for CO2. The emissions N2O were significantly higher from broiler barns compared to layer barns. Emissions were higher in the mornings compared to later periods of the day. Given the observed results, GHG emission mitigation strategies need to be customised for each building design and management system.

  1. Key findings from a prospective trauma registry at a regional hospital in Southwest Cameroon.

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    Alain Chichom-Mefire

    Full Text Available Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data characterizing the burden of trauma in Cameroon is limited. Regular, prospective injury surveillance can address the shortcomings of existing hospital administrative logs and medical records. This study aims to characterize trauma as seen at the emergency department (ED of Limbe Regional Hospital (LRH and assess the completeness of data obtained by a trauma registry.From January 2008 to October 2013, we prospectively captured data on injured patients using a strategically designed, context-relevant trauma registry instrument. Indicators around patient demographics, injury characteristics, delays in accessing care, and treatment outcomes were recorded. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted. About 5,617 patients, aged from 0.5-95years (median age of 26 years, visited the LRH ED with an injury; 67% were male. Students (27% were the most affected occupation category. Road traffic injuries (RTIs (56%, assault (22%, and domestic injuries (13% were the leading causes of injury. Two-thirds of RTIs were motorcycle-related. Working in transportation (AOR 4.42, p<0.001 and law enforcement (AOR 1.73, p = 0.004 were significant predictors of having a RTI. The trauma registry showed a significant improvement in completeness of all data (p<0.001 and it improved over time compared with previous administrative records. However, proportions of missing data still ranged from 0.5% to 8.2% and involved respiratory rate or Glasgow Coma scale.Implementation of a context-appropriate trauma registry in resource-constrained settings is feasible. Providing valuable, high-quality data, the trauma registry can inform trauma care quality improvement efforts and policy development. Study findings indicate the need for injury prevention interventions and policies that will prioritize high-risks groups, such as those aged 20-29 years, and those in occupations requiring

  2. Growth performance of goats supplemented with Mucuna pruriens in North Cameroon

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    E. Pamo Tendonkeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the level of supplementation with Mucuna pruriens on growth performances of West African Dwarf bucks and digestibility of the rations during the dry season in North Cameroon was studied at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development polyvalent station of Garoua between November 2004 and July 2005. A total of 24 West African Dwarf male goats were divided into three groups of eight bucks each, fed with a basal diet made up of Andropogon gayanus and Ficus sycomorus, and supplemented with 0, 100 and 150 g of M. pruriens. The evaluation of the live weight, average daily weight gain and body condition score was carried out every 14 days during 90 days. At the end of this phase, the evaluation of carcass weight and yield was carried out on two slaughtered bucks per group. Then, nine goats were divided into three groups of three animals, and each group was subjected to one of the three above treatments in order to study the influence of the level of supplementation of M. pruriens on the digestibility of the basal diet. The results showed that, in absence of M. pruriens in the ration, the live weight, the average daily weight gain and the body condition score were 10.44 kg, - 10 g and 1.87, respectively. With 100 g of M. pruriens in the ration, the live weight, the average daily weight gain and the body condition score were 12.16 kg, 9 g and 2.94, whereas it was 12.98 kg, 18 g and 3.56, respectively, with a ration containing 150 g of M. pruriens. The carcass weight and yield, and the weight at slaughter increased significantly (P < 0.05 with the increase of the level of M. pruriens in the ration. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter was 45.25, 62.34 and 70.97%, respectively, with the rations containing 0, 100 and 150 g of M. pruriens. The nitrogen digestibility was 38.46, 55.29 and 60.95%, respectively, with the same ration. It appears that the supplementation of the rations with M. pruriens during the dry season

  3. Gender disparities in pulmonary hypertension at a tertiary centre in Cameroon

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    L N Aminde

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a potent cause of heart failure and has been little investigated in the African setting. Objective. To investigate the effects of gender on the clinical presentation, echocardiographic features and outcomes of patients with PH in Douala, Cameroon. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted from March 2012 to December 2013 as part of the Pan African Pulmonary Hypertension Cohort study. PH was diagnosed by echocardiography and defined as a right ventricular systolic pressure >35 mmHg in the absence of acute right heart failure. Patients were followed up for a maximum of 12 months for primary endpoint mortality. Results. In total, 130 patients with PH were recruited; 71 (54.6% were women. The median age was 59.2 years for men and 58.3 years for women (p=0.76. Active smoking and alcohol use were more frequent in men than women (both p<0.001, but women had greater exposure to indoor cooking fumes than men (p<0.001. Previous tuberculosis infection (11.3% v. 1.7% and S3 gallop rhythm (30.9% v. 11.9% were more common in women (both p<0.03. Women had a significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (134 mmHg v. 125 mmHg; p=0.04 and pulse pressure (53.8 mmHg v. 44.9 mmHg; p=0.01 and a lower mean haemoglobin concentration (10.4 g/dL v. 12.4 g/dL; p<0.05 compared with men. Echocardiographic left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction was more frequent in men: mean LV ejection fraction 42.6% v. 51.5% (p=0.01 and mean fractional shortening 21.4% v. 28.6% (p=0.01. The overall mortality rate was 20.3%, and rates were similar in the two groups (Kaplan-Meier log rank 1.1; p=0.30. Conclusions. Despite differences in baseline characteristics including cardiovascular risk factors, mortality rates on follow-up were similar in men and women in this study. However, these different baseline characteristics probably suggest differences in the pathogenesis of PH in men and women in our setting that need further

  4. Social stigma as an epidemiological determinant for leprosy elimination in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Z K; Nsagha, Sarah M; Njunda, Anna L; Assob, Jules C N; Tabah, Earnest N; Bamgboye, Elijah A; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O O; Nde, Peter F; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2011-03-01

    Leprosy has been eliminated as a public health problem in most countries of the world according to the WHO, but the social stigma to the disease is still very high. The present study was performed to investigate the role of social stigma as a determinant for leprosy elimination in a leprosy endemic region of Cameroon. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to investigate leprosy social stigma among lepers, their contacts and a control group consisting of patients attending a health facility for reasons other than leprosy. Informed consent was sought and gained prior to starting the study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews identified three types of stigma: lack of self-esteem, tribal stigma and complete rejection by society. From the 480 structured questionnaires administered, there were overall positive attitudes to lepers among the study population and within the divisions (P=0.0). The proportion of participants that felt sympathetic with deformed lepers was 78.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 74.4-81.8%] from a total of 480. Three hundred and ninety nine (83.1%) respondents indicated that they could share a meal or drink at the same table with a deformed leper (95% CI: 79.7-86.5%). Four hundred and three (83.9%) participants indicated that they could have a handshake and embrace a deformed leper (95% CI: 80.7-87.3%). A total of 85.2% (95.0% CI: 81.9-88.4%) participants affirmed that they could move with a deformed leper to the market or church. A high proportion of 71.5% (95.0% CI: 67.5%-75.5%) participants stated that they could offer a job to a deformed leper. The results indicate that Menchum division had the lowest mean score of 3.3 on positive attitudes to leprosy compared with Mezam (4.1) and Boyo (4.8) divisions. The high proportion of positive attitudes among the participants and in different divisions is a positive indicator that the elimination of leprosy social stigma is progressing in the

  5. Children's daily activities and knowledge acquisition: A case study among the Baka from southeastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Sandrine; Duda, Romain; Hewlett, Barry; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-12-24

    The acquisition of local knowledge occurs through complex interactions between individual and contextual characteristics: as context changes, so it changes the acquisition of knowledge. Contemporary small-scale societies facing rapid social-ecological change provide a unique opportunity to study the relation between social-ecological changes and the process of acquisition of local knowledge. In this work, we study children's involvement in subsistence related activities (i.e., hunting and gathering) in a context of social-ecological change and discuss how such involvement might condition the acquisition of local knowledge during childhood. We interviewed 98 children from a hunter-gatherer society, the Baka, living in two different villages in southeastern Cameroon and assessed their involvement in daily activities. Using interviews, we collected self-reported data on the main activities performed during the previous 24 h. We describe the frequency of occurrence of daily activities during middle childhood and adolescence and explore the variation in occurrence according to the sex, the age group, and the village of residency of the child. We also explore variation according to the season in which the activity is conducted and to the predicted potential of the activity for the acquisition of local knowledge. Baka children and adolescents engage in subsistence-related activities (i.e., hunting and gathering) and playing more frequently than in other activities (i.e., traditional tales or schooling). Gender differences in children's subsistence activities emerge at an early age. Engagement in activities also varies with age, with adolescents spending more time in agricultural activities, modern leisure (i.e., going to bars), and socializing than younger children. When conducting similar activities, adolescents use more complex techniques than younger children. Subsistence activities, which present a high potential for transmission of local knowledge, continue to be

  6. Knowledge and practice of traditional healers in oral health in the Bui Division, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Ashu M; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2011-01-15

    The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral

  7. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste dumpsites in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwabie, N Martin; Wirlen, Yvette L; Yinda, Godwin S; VanderZaag, Andrew C

    2018-03-02

    Open dumpsites that receive municipal solid waste are potentially significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. There is little data available on emissions from these sources, especially in the unique climate and management of central Africa. This research aimed at quantifying CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from two open dumpsites in Cameroon, located in Mussaka-Buea, regional headquarters of the South West Region and in Mbellewa-Bamenda, regional headquarters of the North West Region. Emissions were measured during the wet season (May 2015 and August 2016) at the Mussaka and Mbellewa dumpsites respectively. Dumpsite surfaces were partitioned into several zones for emission measurements, based on the current activity and the age of the waste. Static flux chambers were used to quantify gas emission rates thrice a day (mornings, afternoons and evenings). Average emissions were 96.80 ± 144 mg CH 4 m -2  min -1 , 0.20 ± 0.43 mg N 2 O m -2  min -1 and 224.78 ± 312 mg CO 2 m -2  min -1 in the Mussaka dumpsite, and 213.44 ± 419 mg CH 4 m -2  min -1 , 0.15 ± 0.15 mg N 2 O m -2  min -1 and 1103.82 ± 1194 mg CO 2 m -2  min -1 at the Mbellewa dumpsite. Emissions as high as 1784 mg CH 4 m -2  min -1 , 2.3 mg N 2 O m -2  min -1 and 5448 mg CO 2 m -2  min -1 were measured from both dumpsites. Huge variations observed in emissions between the different zones on the waste surface were likely a result of the heterogeneous nature of the waste, different stages in waste decomposition and different environmental conditions within the waste. Management activities that disturb waste, such as spreading and compressing potentially increase gas emissions, while covering waste with a layer of soil potentially mitigate gas emissions. Recommendations were for dumpsites to be upgraded to sanitary landfills, and biogas production from such landfills should be exploited to reduce CH 4 emissions

  8. Cholera in Cameroon, 2000-2012: Spatial and Temporal Analysis at the Operational (Health District) and Sub Climate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Song; Kracalik, Ian T.; Morris, Lillian; Blackburn, Jason K.; Mbam, Leonard M.; Ba Pouth, Simon Franky Baonga; Teboh, Andrew; Yang, Yang; Arabi, Mouhaman; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent cholera outbreaks have been reported in Cameroon since 1971. However, case fatality ratios remain high, and we do not have an optimal understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, due in part to the diversity of Cameroon’s climate subzones and a lack of comprehensive data at the health district level. Methods/Findings A unique health district level dataset of reported cholera case numbers and related deaths from 2000–2012, obtained from the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon and World Health Organization (WHO) country office, served as the basis for the analysis. During this time period, 43,474 cholera cases were reported: 1748 were fatal (mean annual case fatality ratio of 7.9%), with an attack rate of 17.9 reported cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Outbreaks occurred in three waves during the 13-year time period, with the highest case fatality ratios at the beginning of each wave. Seasonal patterns of illness differed strikingly between climate subzones (Sudano-Sahelian, Tropical Humid, Guinea Equatorial, and Equatorial Monsoon). In the northern Sudano-Sahelian subzone, highest number of cases tended to occur during the rainy season (July-September). The southern Equatorial Monsoon subzone reported cases year-round, with the lowest numbers during peak rainfall (July-September). A spatial clustering analysis identified multiple clusters of high incidence health districts during 2010 and 2011, which were the 2 years with the highest annual attack rates. A spatiotemporal autoregressive Poisson regression model fit to the 2010–2011 data identified significant associations between the risk of transmission and several factors, including the presence of major waterbody or highway, as well as the average daily maximum temperature and the precipitation levels over the preceding two weeks. The direction and/or magnitude of these associations differed between climate subzones, which, in turn, differed from national estimates that

  9. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Regions of Centre, East and West Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Methodology Parasitological surveys were conducted in April–May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Principal Findings The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86–7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93–12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56–18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35–1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36–24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41–48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10–26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57–11.51%) regions. Conclusions/Significance In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  10. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. METHODOLOGY: Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72% and S. guineensis (0.14%. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%. The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%, Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90% and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%, with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85% across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75% in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17% and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51% regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  11. High rate of malnutrition in young children aged 0 to 59 months and lack of intervention in rural west Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana Sop, Marie Modestine; Nolla, Nicolas; Djeukeu Assongni, Williams; Gouado, Inocent; Mananga, Mananga Marlyne-Josephine; Tetanye, Ekoe

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Micronutrients deficiencies are public health problem in Cameroon and with physiological and economic consequences. National prevalences of stunting (69%) among Cameroonian children as reports in the last ESDC-MIC are very high. In rural area in real context, no strategies exist either at the health centers or the community. The aim: This work aimed at determining by anthropometric measurements (aged, weights and heights), the nutritional status of children aged 0 to 59 months in Bangang rural community in Cameroon, in order to prepare nutrition education and intervention mostly focused on food based approaches. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted in six health areas in Bangang rural community in western region of Cameroon. Four hundred and forty (440) children (214 boys, 226 f girls) aged 0 to 59 months were randomly selected for anthropometric measurements (heights and weights) NCHS/WHO international growth reference. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on food consumption, food frequency, socio-economic and demographic status of mothers. Statistical analyses of results were done using ENA Smart and SPSS software. Results: Using NCHS (1976), standard of reference and z-scores, stunting, wasting and underweight rates were respectively: 42.22% (114) (with 18.52% (28) moderate), 3.33% (09) (with 1.85% (05) moderate) and 6.67% (18) (with 5.18% (14) moderate) of children. From BMI classification of nutrition status done according to WHO criteria, 3.38 %, 55.40 %, and 41.22 % of the mothers were underweight, normal and overweight respectively. The most frequents consumed food were cereals and tubers (93.24 %) whose nutrients are poorly bioavailable. The daily intakes of food sources of proteins, minerals, vitamins, were generally poor. Only 3% and 2% of fruits and animal food were consumed in family respectively. No skill on nutrition was observed in families and in health and community centers. No anthropometric

  12. Perceived family support regarding condom use and condom use among secondary school female students in Limbe urban city of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis E

    2014-02-18

    HIV/AIDS prevention programs rooted in the social cognitive models are based on the theoretical assumptions that adoption of preventive behaviour (condom use) depends on the individual's perceptions of their susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and the benefits of condom use. However some studies contend that applying such models in the African setting may not be that simple considering that in many societies, people's capacity to initiate health enhancing behaviour are mediated by power relations (parents/guardians) and socialisation processes that are beyond the control of individuals. The relative influence of these family forces on condom use is however unknown in Cameroon. In this study it is hypothesized that adolescents' perceptions of family support for condom use, would encourage condom use among female students in Limbe urban city of Cameroon. A cross-sectional study of a probability sample of 210 female students selected from three participating secondary school was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Pearson Chi-square statistics was used to test association between perceived family support for condom use and condom use. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Of the respondents, 56.2% reported being sexually active. Of these, 27.4% reported using condoms consistently; 39.1% reported having used condoms during their first sexual intercourse, while 48.7% reported having used condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Majority of the female students exhibited positive perceptions regarding family support for condom use. Respondents who agreed that they feel themselves free to discuss condom use with their parents or any adult member of the family, reported more condom use during first sex than those who disagreed (X2 = 13.021; df = 6; p = 0.043). Likewise respondents who agreed that they feel themselves free to discuss condom use with their parents or any adult member of the family, reported

  13. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation

  14. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51%) regions. In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of praziquantel in identified moderate and high risk communities for

  15. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    People living in landscapes of high conservation value are trapped between their dependence on natural resources to meet their development aspirations and the international pressure to conserve those resources. Although it is increasingly recognized that the conservation of some natural resources...... cannot happen without providing alternative livelihood solutions for local communities dependent on them, global experiences illustrate that the successful integration of conservation and development continues to be elusive. We adapted the approach based on “participatory vulnerability assessments......” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  16. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.

  17. Algorithmic Optimal Management of a Potable Water Distribution System: Application to the Primary Network of Bonaberi (Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Simeu-Abazi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of a potable water distribution system requires the control of the reference (standard data, the control points, control of the drainage parameters (pressure, flow, etc. and maintenance parameters. The control of the mentioned data defines the network learning process [1]. Besides classic IT functions of acquisition, storage and data processing, a geographical information system (GIS can be used as the basis for an alarm system, allowing one to identify and to localize the presence of water leaks in the network [2]. In this article we propose an algorithm coupling the various drainage parameters for the management of the network. The algorithm leads to an optimal management of leaks. An application is in progress on the primary network in the region of Bonaberi in Douala, the largest city of Cameroon.

  18. Discourses of positionality and the challenges of democratization in the global south: The case of Nepal and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Thorsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that to conceptually and empirically grasp the dynamics and challenges of processes of civic participation, i.e., the deliberation and empowerment of disenfranchised and marginalized populations in the Global South, communication for social change scholars need to pay more attention to three issues: the quality of citizens’ self-perceptions in relation to their local milieu, inter-citizen perceptions and relations at the local level and lastly, the attendant consequences of these on citizens’ sense of efficacy. To grasp and comprehend the interplay of these three issues, we propose the adoption of Floya Anthias’ concept of narratives of location and positionality and demonstrate the heuristic vitality of this notion through a discussion of some local discourses of positionality in Nepal and Cameroon.

  19. Structure of the crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Julià, Jordi; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2010-11-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) consists of a linear chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline, volcanoes that do not exhibit an age progression. Here we study crustal structure beneath the CVL and adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broad-band seismic stations deployed between 2005 January and 2007 February. We find that (1) crustal thickness (35-39km) and velocity structure is similar beneath the CVL and the Pan African Oubanguides Belt to the south of the CVL, (2) crust is thicker (43-48km) under the northern margin of the Congo Craton and is characterized by shear wave velocities >=4.0kms-1 in its lower part and (3) crust is thinner (26-31km) under the Garoua rift and the coastal plain. In addition, a fast velocity layer (Vs of 3.6-3.8kms-1) in the upper crust is found beneath many of the seismic stations. Crustal structure beneath the CVL and the Oubanguides Belt is very similar to Pan African crustal structure in the Mozambique Belt, and therefore it appears not to have been modified significantly by the magmatic activity associated with the CVL. The crust beneath the coastal plain was probably thinned during the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean, while the crust beneath the Garoua rift was likely thinned during the formation of the Benue Trough in the early Cretaceous. We suggest that the thickened crust and the thick mafic lower crustal layer beneath the northern margin of the Congo Craton may be relict features from a continent-continent collision along this margin during the formation of Gondwana.

  20. Contaminants in Foods of Animal Origin in Cameroon: A One Health Vision for Risk Management "from Farm to Fork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Guy B; Foudjo, B U Saha; Samuel, Chi; Yamgai, Philomina Fankam; Silapeux, A Kamda; Sando, Joel Taguemkam; Atonde, G Fankam; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Foods of animal origin represent an important share in the diet of Cameroonian populations. Cameroon is known to be a food basket in the west and central Africa sub-region, and an important supplier of foods on the international markets. In the meantime, food importation is continuously increasing to meet the high demand of a more westernized segment of the population. Cereals, fish, sea products, eggs, honey, shrimps, chicken, and feed ingredients are important share in the international trade of agricultural products. Few controls are made on the quality and safety of these products. Certain safety standards do exist but are still yet to be enforced. Inspections done so far by regulatory authorities are partial and do not cover important hazards that require laboratory analysis. The increasing awareness of population, the burden of new types of disease, as well as the recurrence of food scandals have recently launched a scientific and population debate on the contribution of foods items, especially those of animal origin, to the toxic exposure of food producing animals and humans. This paper critically reviews the occurrence of toxicants in most consumed foods of animal origin in Cameroon. This study included the most consumed food of animal origin, identified during the national household budget survey and contributing to 8.1% of the total diet of an individual. Data evaluated suggest an important contamination by toxic metals, mycotoxins, veterinary drugs' residues, and pesticides. The current national legal framework is briefly analyzed to explore possible intervention measures in the frame of the One Health approach.

  1. An Economic Optimization Model for Improving the Efficiency of Vitamin A Interventions: An Application to Young Children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosti, Stephen A; Kagin, Justin; Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kennth H

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin A (VA) intervention programs in developing countries do not generally consider spatial differences in needs or in intervention costs. New data from Cameroon reveal nonuniform spatial distributions of VA deficiency among young children and of costs of some of the programs designed to address them. We develop a spatially explicit, intertemporal economic optimization tool that makes use of subnational dietary intake data and VA intervention program costs to identify more efficient sets of interventions to improve VA nutrition among young children aged 6 to 59 months in Cameroon. The model suggests substantial changes in the composition and geographic foci of VA intervention programs vis-à-vis a business-as-usual scenario. National VA-fortified edible oil and bouillon cube programs are cost-effective, even when start-up costs are considered. High-dosage VA supplementation delivered via Child Health Days is most cost-effective in the North macro-region, where needs are greatest and the cost per child effectively covered is lowest. Overall, the VA intervention programs suggested by the optimization model are approximately 44% less expensive, with no change in the total number of children effectively covered nationwide. The VA intervention programs should consider spatial and temporal differences in needs and in the expected benefits and costs of alternative VA interventions. Doing so will require spatially disaggregated strategies and the data and political will to support them, longer planning time horizons than are currently used in most developing countries, and long-term funding commitments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Circulating soluble endoglin levels in pregnant women in Cameroon and Malawi--associations with placental malaria and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Karlee L; Conroy, Andrea L; Leke, Rose G F; Leke, Robert J I; Gwanmesia, Philomina; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Diane Wallace; Wallace, Diane Taylor; Rogerson, Stephen J; Kain, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    Placental infections with Plasmodium falciparum are associated with fetal growth restriction resulting in low birth weight (LBW). The mechanisms that mediate these effects have yet to be completely described; however, they are likely to involve inflammatory processes and dysregulation of angiogenesis. Soluble endoglin (sEng), a soluble receptor of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β previously associated with preeclampsia in pregnant women and with severe malaria in children, regulates the immune system and influences angiogenesis. We hypothesized that sEng may play a role in development of LBW associated with placental malaria (PM). Plasma levels of sEng were measured in women (i) followed prospectively throughout pregnancy in Cameroon (n = 52), and (ii) in a case-control study at delivery in Malawi (n = 479). The relationships between sEng levels and gravidity, peripheral and placental parasitemia, gestational age, and adverse outcomes of PM including maternal anemia and LBW were determined. In the longitudinal cohort from Cameroon, 28 of 52 women (54%) experienced at least one malaria infection during pregnancy. In Malawi we enrolled two aparasitemic gravidity-matched controls for every case with PM. sEng levels varied over the course of gestation and were significantly higher in early and late gestation as compared to delivery (Pwomen and PM in Malawian women were each associated with elevated sEng levels following correction for gestational age and gravidity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.033, respectively). Increased sEng was also associated with the delivery of LBW infants in primigravid Malawian women (p = 0.017); the association was with fetal growth restriction (p = 0.003) but not pre-term delivery (p = 0.286). Increased circulating maternal sEng levels are associated with P. falciparum infection in pregnancy and with fetal growth restriction in primigravidae with PM.

  3. Chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and toxicity evaluation of the essential oil of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Gerald Ngo; Elisée, Kemadjou Nana; Roger, Kuiate Jules

    2013-06-13

    The leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. are used in the western highlands of Cameroon for their medicinal property. The leaves of this species were collected in the West Region of Cameroon in August 2010 and subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oil. The oil was fractionated using adsorption column chromatography. The chemical composition of this oil and its fractions was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial species and six species of Candida by the agar diffusion method. Macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal and/or fungicidal concentrations (MBCs and MFCs). The toxicity profile of the oil was studied using Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. Forty-nine compounds were identified in the essential oil. The main components were germacrene D (18.5%), epi-zonarene (8.2%), cis-calamenene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), linalool (6.0%) and umbellulone (6.0%). Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans were most susceptible to the oil (MICs of 1.25 and 0.16% for bacteria and fungi respectively). The estimated oral LD50 was 6.33 g/kg. There was an increase in sera ALT and AST activities while the blood cells and protein levels decreased in treated animals. The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of C. lusitanica leaf oil in the treatment of whooping cough and skin infections though it should be used with care. This plant oil could be useful in the standardisation of phytomedicine.

  4. Cocoa Farmers’ Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE. Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers’ instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced (p < 0.05 by region of residence of cocoa farmers, gender, possession of formal education and farming as primary occupation. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the log of number PPE worn was significantly influenced (p < 0.10 by region, marital status, attainment of formal education, good health, awareness of manufacturers’ instructions, land area and contact index. It was among others concluded that efforts to train farmers on the need to be familiar with manufacturers’ instructions and use PPE would enhance

  5. Awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines among nurses in Cameroon: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamai, Richard G; Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Onyango, Monica A; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2013-10-01

    While it is known that sub-Saharan African countries face multiple obstacles such as cost in adopting vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the crucial role nurses can play in implementing such programs has not been adequately examined. To investigate the knowledge and awareness of HPV, primary cause of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among nurses working at four Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services facilities, and to explore what factors influence nurses' willingness to inform and recommend HPV vaccine to adolescents and parents attending clinics. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of nursing staff working at the four health facilities. Of 192 eligible nurses 76 (39.6%) participated in the study. There were moderately low levels of knowledge about HPV infection and prevention of cervical cancer, but a moderately high level of knowledge about HPV vaccine. Although 90.8% acknowledged that cervical cancer is directly linked to HPV infection, nearly 32% failed to identify it as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), while 43.4% believed it is an uncommon infection. Willingness to recommend the HPV vaccine was moderate, with 69.7% intentionally initiating discussions with patients about the subject. The most important factors considered when deciding to recommend the vaccine included effectiveness (56.6%) and side effects/safety (11.8%). Cost was less of a concern (6.6%), likely due to the availability of donated vaccine. Despite high awareness about HPV, more education about the virus, cervical cancer and the vaccine are required to further increase nurses' willingness to recommend the vaccine and strengthen strategies for reaching adolescents through nurses in Cameroon. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Geographic information systems based demarcation of risk zones: the case of the Limbe Sub-Division – Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh Wung Gaston

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Limbe Subdivision of Cameroon, landslides and flooding are frequent threats. The worst recorded event occurred in June 2001, when floods and landslides took the lives of some 30 persons, left over 2000 people homeless, and destroyed property and social amenities including roads and telephone lines worth hundred of thousands of US Dollars. The objective of this project was to assist local administrative officers, other decision makers and planners to understand which areas to concentrate their efforts on in order to develop mitigation actions to protect the lives of the population in these zones that are affected by flooding and associated landslides. To meet this objective the project made extensive use of geospatial tools and existing digital spatial datasets. Series of field data collection exercises constituted an integral part of the project. The project focused on the Limbe subdivision in the south-western part of Cameroon. Areas with high (greater than 60% probability of sliding to occur, occupy 23% while areas with medium (greater than 40% and less than 60% probability of sliding to occur occupy 44% and areas with low (less than 40% probability of sliding occupy 33%. Settlements along the Atlantic coast all lie less than ~50m above sea level. These settlements (villages are susceptible to flooding. Again settlements in the town of Llimbe along the Djenguele river, i.e., Animal Farms, Cassava Farms, Lumpsum areas, Church Street, New Town and Down Beach, are more susceptible to inundation during raining periods and therefore have experienced persistent flooding over the years.

  7. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  8. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Penda, Calixte Ida; Amadou, Salmon; Kob, David Same; Billong, Edson-Joan; Colizzi, Vittorio; Ndjolo, Alexis; Bisseck, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kani; Elat, Jean-Bosco Nfetam

    2016-11-15

    Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites) of Cameroon, within the "reporting period" of October 2013-November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%), fair (85-75%), poor (sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  9. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf S Kaas

    Full Text Available The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains.

  10. The exploitation of "Exploitation" in the tenofovir prep trial in Cameroon: Lessons learned from media coverage of an HIV prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Natasha; Robinson, Elizabeth T; MacQueen, Kathleen M; Moffett, Jill; Johnson, Laura M

    2010-06-01

    media coverage influences how clinical trials are perceived internationally and in communities where trials occur, affecting recruitment, retention, and political support for research. We conducted a discourse analysis of news coverage from 2004-2005 of a trial in Cameroon on oral PrEP for HIV prevention, to identify messages, communication techniques, and sources of messages that were amplified via media. We identified two parallel discourses: one on ethical concerns about the Cameroon trial, and a second, more general "science exploitation" discourse concerned with the potential for trials with vulnerable participant populations to be conducted unethically, benefiting only wealthy populations. Researchers should overtly address exploitation as an integral, ongoing component of research, particularly where historical or cultural conditions set the stage for controversy to emerge.

  11. Treatment of snake envenomations by a new polyvalent antivenom composed of highly purified F(ab')2 : results of a clinical trial in northern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Lang, J.; Amadi-Eddine, S.; Fagot, P.; Le Mener, V.

    1999-01-01

    A clinical trail was conducted in 2 health centers in northern Cameroon to assess the safety and efficacy of a new polyvalent antivenom composed of higly purified and pasteurized F(ab')2 (FAV-Africa). Forty-six patients with objective signs of envenomation, including 67% with hemorrhage, were included in the study. Each patient received at least 20 ml of FAV-Africa by direct, slow intravenous injection ; 172 10-ml ampules were administered. All patients were clinically cured after treatment. ...

  12. Clinical safety of a polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom in 223 African snake envenomations : a field trial in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Lang, J.; Amadi Eddine, S; Fagot, P.; Rage, V.; Peyrieux, J.C.; Le Mener, V.

    1998-01-01

    A large-scale clinical trial was conducted, according to World Health Organization Good Clinical Practice guidelines, in 7 centres in North Cameroon to determine the safety and efficacy of a polyvalent antivenom composed of purified F(ab')2. This study included 223 patients presenting clinically with an obvious snake bite, predominantly due to #Echis ocellatus$ (viper), the most abundant species in this savannah region. Clinical surveillance was maintained for 5 d in all patients and until th...

  13. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-1 Block 2 in Sites of Contrasting Altitudes and Malaria Endemicities in the Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Wanji, Samuel; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud J.; Joan Eyong, Ebanga E.; Kimbi, Helen K.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ndamukong-Nyanga, Judith L.; Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Bourguinat, Catherine; Sofeu-Feugaing, David D.; Charvet, Claude L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the relationship between the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and parasitologic/entomologic indices in the Mount Cameroon region by using merozoite surface protein 1 as a genetic marker. Blood samples were collected from asymptomatic children from three altitude zones (high, intermediate, and low). Parasitologic and entomologic indices were determined by microscopy and landing catch mosquito collection/circumsporozoite protein–enzyme-linked immunosorbent a...

  14. The Chad-Cameroon petroleum project: loaded dices on the pipeline; Projet petrolier Tchad-Cameroun: des pipes sur le pipe-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project of a oil pipeline starting from Chad and passing threw Cameroon has raised several controversies. History has shown several times in the past that oil discovery in Africa is very often synonymous of the increase of corruption and dictatorship. Talking into account the political situation of both countries, this book explains how this project can be a source of anxiety, in particular concerning the populations' rights and the environment protection. (J.S.)

  15. The Chad-Cameroon petroleum project: loaded dices on the pipeline; Projet petrolier Tchad-Cameroun: des pipes sur le pipe-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project of a oil pipeline starting from Chad and passing threw Cameroon has raised several controversies. History has shown several times in the past that oil discovery in Africa is very often synonymous of the increase of corruption and dictatorship. Talking into account the political situation of both countries, this book explains how this project can be a source of anxiety, in particular concerning the populations' rights and the environment protection. (J.S.)

  16. Evidence for an edge effect on avian nest predation in fragmented afromontane forests in the Bamenda-Banso Highlands, NW Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, O.; Mikeš, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Reif, J.; Hořák, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2014), s. 720-732 ISSN 1940-0829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Artificial nest s * Zebra finch eggs * Montane forest * Endemic species * Cameroon Mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2014 http://tropicalconservationscience.mongabay.com/content/v7/TCS-2014-Vol7(4)_720-732_%20Ondrej.pdf

  17. The Impact of the Unofficial Cattle Business on the Household Welfare of Cattle Traders of the Border Towns of Cameroon and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Saidou Baba Oumar; Salihu Zummo Hayatudeen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the unofficial cattle business on the household welfare of cattle traders of the border towns of Cameroon and Nigeria and relates that impact to the household access to basic needs or services of life such as income, employment, food, shelter, education, potable water, electricity, and health care that have been extensively used in the literature as indicators for the attainment of well-being and freedom from the yoke of poverty in the society. It uses primar...

  18. Factors Associated with Fatal Outcomes Following Cholera-Like Syndrome in Far North Region of Cameroon: A Community-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouma, Fabrice N; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Ram, Malathi; Debes, Amanda K; Sack, David A

    2016-12-07

    This study demonstrates that most cholera deaths in this region of Cameroon occur out of hospital. This is a region which is prone to cholera, and interventions are needed to improve access to emergency medical care, especially during cholera outbreaks. Cameroon has experienced 14 cholera epidemics during the last 20 years, and these have had high case fatality rates. This study attempted to assess the effect of delays in seeking care and the locations of care as possible risk factors for cholera mortality. The study used data from a community-based survey regarding the circumstances of 97 fatal cases and 197 control (nonfatal) cases following a cholera-like syndrome in villages with cholera-like diseases during cholera outbreaks in Cameroon during 2009-2011. Deaths occurred in one of four environments: the community, in a temporary community treatment center (TCTC), in transit to a treatment center, or in a hospital (39%, 32%, 5%, and 24%, respectively). Using a case-control analysis, factors associated with deaths included the nonuse of a cholera treatment center, receiving health care in a TCTC instead of a hospital, and greater than 4 hours delay between the onset of symptoms and the decision to go to a treatment center (odds ratios of 17.1 [confidence interval (CI): 7.0-41.8], 2.5 [CI: 1.2-5.0], and 2.2 [CI: 1.0-4.6], respectively). During cholera epidemics, a higher proportion of deaths are still occurring in communities. The nonuse and delays in deciding to go a treatment center, and treatment at TCTC rather than a hospital were risk factors for death among patients with cholera-like syndrome in Cameroon. Informing people on community management of cholera-like syndrome and improving care in all health facilities are needed to reduce deaths during cholera epidemics. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Rationing hepatitis C treatment in the context of austerity policies in France and Cameroon: A transnational perspective on the pharmaceuticalization of healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Fanny; David, Pierre-Marie; Krikorian, Gaëlle

    2017-08-01

    New powerful drugs against hepatitis C can cure the disease, but they are not widely distributed because their exorbitant prices are destabilizing healthcare systems in both African and European countries. This article takes access to hepatitis C treatments since 2013 in France and in Cameroon as a lens to analyze the rationing of pharmaceutical treatments in relation to recent transformations of health systems. Access to these treatments is analyzed thanks to ethnographic observation and interviews lead in Paris and Yaoundé, with patients, associations, health professionals and public health experts. In Cameroon, rationing takes place through various layers of socio-economic restrictions, and no patient organization advocates for hepatitis treatment. In France, access to hepatitis C treatments has become politicized, and collective mobilizations have denounced rationing as a threat to the promise of universal social security. In this study, we examine Africa's long experience with rationing in the context of structural adjustment, and we bring together experiences in France and Cameroon. This article analyses the phenomenon of the pharmaceuticalization of healthcare systems, that is to say the growing use of pharmaceuticals in healthcare systems, by documenting the social and political construction of scarcity. Indeed, whereas pharmaceuticalization is a concept that has often been used in situations of drugs abundance, a parallel analysis of rationing highlights a political economy of pharmaceuticals that shapes public health debates and policies according to an economy of scarcity, especially in times of austerity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Not Seeing the Cattle for the Elephants: The Implications of Discursive Linkages between Boko Haram and Wildlife Poaching in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Kelly Pennaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline of wildlife in Central and West African border parks has been directly linked to Islamic terrorism in the region in media and government discourse. Using Waza National Park in the Far North Region of Cameroon as a case study, we show that wildlife declines in the park long preceded the appearance of Boko Haram, the extremist group best known for kidnapping over 200 girls in northern Nigeria. We also show that there is no evidence that Boko Haram are using wildlife products from the park to sustain their operations. Instead, the “poacher-as-terrorist” narrative obscures complex, historically embedded reasons for insecurity in northern Cameroon as well as massive losses of biodiversity in this region. The media and governments' focus on the “poacher-as-terrorist” narrative has important implications for the victims of Boko Haram, including mobile pastoralists. It is their cattle that are most likely a major source of sustenance and funding for the operations of Boko Haram. However, because these mobile pastoralist groups are “invisible” in the bush, their struggles remain ignored. We argue that the continued espousal of the “poacher-as-terrorist” narrative allows Boko Haram violence against mobile pastoralists to continue, and makes way for further environmental degradation in Cameroon's protected areas.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of major depression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, a semi-urban center in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N Gaynes

    Full Text Available Recent blue-ribbon panel reports have concluded that HIV treatment programs in less wealthy countries must integrate mental health identification and treatment into normal HIV clinical care and that research on mental health and HIV in these settings should be a high priority. We assessed the epidemiology of depression in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in a small urban setting in Cameroon by administering a structured interview for depression to 400 patients consecutively attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital AIDS Treatment Center. One in five participants met lifetime criteria for MDD, and 7% had MDD within the prior year. Only 33% had ever spoken with a health professional about depression, and 12% reported ever having received depression treatment that was helpful or effective. Over 2/3 with past-year MDD had severe or very severe episodes. The number of prior depressive episodes and the number of HIV symptoms were the strongest predictors of past-year MDD. The prevalence of MDD in Cameroon is as high as that of other HIV-associated conditions, such as tuberculosis and Hepatitis B virus, whose care is incorporated into World Health Organization guidelines. The management of depression needs to be incorporated in HIV-care guidelines in Cameroon and other similar settings.

  2. Use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to obtain termites (Macrotermes) in the periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Guislain, Patrick; Dupain, Jef; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-12-01

    At the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve (southeastern Cameroon) we recorded a new use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to prey on Macrotermes muelleri, M. renouxi, M. lilljeborgi, and M. nobilis. We recovered 79 puncturing sticks and 47 fishing probes at 17 termite nests between 2002 and 2005. The mean length of the puncturing sticks (n = 77) and fishing probes (n = 45) was 52 cm and 56 cm, respectively, and the mean diameter was 9 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Sixty-eight percent of 138 chimpanzee fecal samples contained major soldiers of four Macrotermes species. The chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon appeared to be selective in their choice of plant material to make their tools. The tools found at our study site resemble those from other sites in this region. However, in southeastern Cameroon only one tool-set type was found, whereas two tool-set types have been reported in Congo. Our study suggests that, along with the different vegetation types and the availability of plant material around termite nests, the nest and gallery structure and foraging behavior of the different Macrotermes spp. at all Central African sites must be investigated before we can attribute differences in tool-use behavior to culture. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Trends and determining factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in Cameroon: a systematic review and analysis of the CAMPS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART cannot be experienced if they are not taken as prescribed. Yet, not all causes of non-adherence are dependent on the patient. Having to pay for medication reduces adherence rates. Non- adherence has severe public health implications which must be addressed locally and globally. This paper seeks to describe the trends in adherence rates reported in Cameroon and to investigate the determinants of adherence to ART in the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS (CAMPS trial. Methods We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE and PSYCINFO for publications on adherence to ART in Cameroon (from January 1999 to May 2012 and described the trend in reported adherence rates and the factors associated with adherence. Data were extracted in duplicate. We used multivariable analyses on the baseline data for 200 participants in the CAMPS trial to determine the factors associated with adherence in four models using different measures of adherence (more than 90% or 95% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and a composite measure: 100% on the visual analogue scale, no missed doses and all pills taken on time. Results We identified nine studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Adherence to ART in Cameroon has risen steadily between 2000 and 2010, corresponding to reductions in the cost of medication. The factors associated with adherence to ART in Cameroon are grouped into patient, medication and disease related factors. We also identified factors related to the health system and the patient-provider relationship. In the CAMPS trial, education, side effects experienced and number of reminder methods were found to improve adherence, but only using multiple reminder methods was associated with better adherence in all the regression models (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 4.11, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.89, 8.93; p Conclusions Reducing the

  4. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Savanna R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could

  5. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  6. The expanded program on immunization service delivery in the Dschang health district, west region of Cameroon: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ebile Akoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is the most effective intervention strategy, and the provision of vaccination at fixed posts and outreach posts is a backbone of a sustainable vaccination system in developing countries. Access to immunization services is still limited in Cameroon. Several health districts in the west region have recorded new epidemic outbreaks, including the occurrence of a wild polio virus epidemic outbreak in 2013. The aim of this study was to assess immunization service delivery in one of the largest health districts in the west region of Cameroon; the Dschang Health district. Methods It was a cross sectional study conducted in 2013, in 42 health facilities covering 18 health areas in the Dschang Health District. Data were collected with questionnaires administered to health personnel face to face and an observation grid was used to assess resources and tools. Data were entered and analyzed in Epi Info. Results A total of 42 health facilities were assessed and 77 health personnel were interviewed. Overall, 29 (69.0 % health facilities organized one vaccination session monthly, 2 (4.8 % organized an outreach within the last 3 months prior to the study, 15 (35.7 % did not have a vaccination micro plan, 24 (32.9 % health personnel had not been supervised for at least the last 6 months prior to the study, 7 (16.7 % health facilities did not have a functional refrigerator, 1 (2.4 % did not have a vaccine carrier, 23 (54.8 % did not have a means of transport (vehicle or motorcycle and 12 (28.6 % did not have an EPI guideline. The knowledge of health personnel on vaccine and cold chain management, and on diseases of the EPI under epidemiological surveillance was found to be limited. Conclusion The frequency and strategic provision of immunization services in the Dschang Health district is inadequate. Resource availability for an adequate provision of immunization services is insufficient. The knowledge of health personnel

  7. Epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in the pediatric ward of a tertiary hospital in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Marie Patrice; Lapsap, Carine Tsou; Barla, Esther; Fouda, Hermine; Djantio, Hilaire; Moudze, Beatrice Kaptue; Akazong, Christophe Adjahoung; Priso, Eugene Belley

    2017-12-06

    Pediatric nephrology is challenging in developing countries and data on the burden of kidney disease in children is difficult to estimate due to absence of renal registries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of children with renal failure in Cameroon. We retrospectively reviewed 103 medical records of children from 0 to 17 years with renal failure admitted in the Pediatric ward of the Douala General Hospital from 2004 to 2013. Renal failure referred to either acute kidney injury (AKI) or Stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI was defined and graded using either the modified RIFLE criteria or the Pediatrics RIFLE criteria, while CKD was graded using the KDIGO criteria. Outcomes of interest were need and access to dialysis and in-hospital mortality. For patients with AKI renal recovery was evaluated at 3 months. Median age was 84 months (1QR:15-144) with 62.1% males. Frequent clinical symptoms were asthenia, anorexia, 68.8% of participants had anuria. AKI accounted for 84.5% (n = 87) and CKD for 15.5% (n = 16). Chronic glomerulonephritis (9/16) and urologic malformations (7/16) were the causes of CKD and 81.3% were at stage 5. In the AKI subgroup, 86.2% were in stage F, with acute tubular necrosis (n = 50) and pre-renal AKI (n = 31) being the most frequent mechanisms. Sepsis, severe malaria, hypovolemia and herbal concoction were the main etiologies. Eight of 14 (57%) patients with CKD, and 27 of 40 (67.5%) with AKI who required dialysis, accessed it. In-hospital mortality was 50.7% for AKI and 50% for CKD. Of the 25 patients in the AKI group with available data at 3 months, renal recovery was complete in 22, partial in one and 2 were dialysis dependent. Factors associated to mortality were young age (p = 0.001), presence of a coma (p = 0.021), use of herbal concoction (p = 0.024) and acute pulmonary edema (p = 0.011). Renal failure is severe and carries a high mortality in hospitalized children in Cameroon

  8. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

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    Kefie-Arrey Charles

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08. The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309. Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%, but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16. All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53% complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11% had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%, Trichuris trichiura (6.47%, Necator americanus (2.27%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%, and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%. No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus, 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus

  9. Feasibility of Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV in Resource-Limited Settings: The ANRS 12140-PEDIACAM Study in Cameroon

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    Tejiokem, Mathurin C.; Faye, Albert; Penda, Ida C.; Guemkam, Georgette; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Chewa, Gisèle; Rekacewicz, Claire; Rousset, Dominique; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Boisier, Pascal; Warszawski, Josiane

    2011-01-01

    Background Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV is a key-point for the implementation of early HAART, associated with lower mortality in HIV-infected infants. We evaluated the EID process of HIV according to national recommendations, in urban areas of Cameroon. Methods/Findings The ANRS12140-Pediacam study is a multisite cohort in which infants born to HIV-infected mothers were included before the 8th day of life and followed. Collection of samples for HIV DNA/RNA-PCR was planned at 6 weeks together with routine vaccination. The HIV test result was expected to be available at 10 weeks. A positive or indeterminate test result was confirmed by a second test on a different sample. Systematic HAART was offered to HIV-infected infants identified. The EID process was considered complete if infants were tested and HIV results provided to mothers/family before 7 months of age. During 2007–2009, 1587 mother-infant pairs were included in three referral hospitals; most infants (n = 1423, 89.7%) were tested for HIV, at a median age of 1.5 months (IQR, 1.4–1.6). Among them, 51 (3.6%) were HIV-infected. Overall, 1331 (83.9%) completed the process by returning for the result before 7 months (median age: 2.5 months (IQR, 2.4–3.0)). Incomplete process, that is test not performed, or result of test not provided or provided late to the family, was independently associated with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9, p = 0.01), absence of PMTCT prophylaxis (aOR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4 to 4.3, p = 0.002), and emergency caesarean section (aOR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.5 to 4.3, p = 0.001). Conclusions In urban areas of Cameroon, HIV-infected women diagnosed sufficiently early during pregnancy opt to benefit from EID whatever their socio-economic, marital or disclosure status. Reduction of non optimal diagnosis process should focus on women with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy especially if they did not receive any

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

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    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  11. Water Access, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions and Health Outcomes among Two Settlement Types in Rural Far North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Tyler J.; Yoo, Joshua; Garabed, Rebecca; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-01-01

    The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) parameters, microbial and antibiotic resistance (AR) contamination levels in drinking water, and health outcomes using health survey and molecular analysis during June and July of 2014 in two settlement types (agro-pastoralist villages and transhumant pastoralist camps). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine fecal contamination sources, enteric pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes. Ruminant-associated fecal contamination was widespread in both settlement types (81.2%), with human-associated contamination detected in 21.7% of the samples. Salmonella spp. (59.4%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 44.9% and stx2 31.9%) were detected across all samples. Tetracycline resistance was found only in village samples. A significant difference in diarrheal incidence within the past 28 days among young children was found between camps (31.3%) and villages (0.0%). Our findings suggest that water contamination may play an important role in contributing to gastrointestinal illness, supporting the need for future research and public health intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness in the area. PMID:28425935

  12. Geochemical and palaeoenvironmental characteristics of Missole I iron duricrusts of the Douala sub-basin (Western Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngon Ngon, Gilbert François; Etame, Jacques; Ntamak-Nida, Marie Joseph; Mbesse, Cécile Olive; Mbai, Joël Simon; Bayiga, Élie Constantin; Gerard, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Major and trace element composition of iron duricrusts including clayey material samples and biostratigraphy of the Missole I outcrop from the Paleocene-Eocene N'Kapa Formation in the Douala sub-basin of Cameroon were used to infer the palaeoenvironment and relative age of the iron duricrusts. Iron duricrusts and clayey materials are essentially kaolinitic and smectitic and are generally siliceous and ferruginous (iron duricrusts) or siliceous and aluminous (clayey materials). These materials have high Chemical Indices of Alteration (CIA = 86.6-99.33%). The negative Eu anomalies with high (La/Yb)N shown by iron duricrusts and clayey sediments are essentially derived from silicic or felsic parent rocks when fractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns also indicate felsic or silicic parent rocks. The Missole I iron duricrusts have a post-Thanetian age according to the relative age of claystones (Thanetian) and were formed after the deposition of sedimentary materials in an anoxic low-depth marine environment with eutrophication of surface water, and may have been exhumed and oxidized under arid climate.

  13. Impact of Research on Development in Cameroon: convergence between supply and research needs in the food sector

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    Minkoua, J.R.; Temple, L.

    2016-07-01

    The study analyse the convergence of research priorities to development issues especially from the agricultural and food sector in terms of environmental protection and improvement of the business climate, due to weak institutional interconnection devices. Two types of data are used: bibliometric data and a survey of enterprises. Altogether, 1214 and 1708 bibliographic references were generated from WoS and Scopus respectively (from a total of 9146 and 10 557 publications) in Agriculture, Food and Environment for the period 1991- 2015 subject to the condition that the author or at least one of the authors is affiliated to an institution based in Cameroon. A total of 317 agro-food companies were identified from the National Institute enterprise’s census. The overall message is a relative weak convergence between development priorities identified from perceptions over agricultural and food companies and research works expressed in the scientific literature. This reflects the weak link between research institutions (universities, research centers) and professional milieus that shape entrepreneurship (firms, policy makers) for guidance of scientific production. (Author)

  14. Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Plants in Lewoh-Lebang in the Lebialem Highlands of Southwestern Cameroon

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    B. A. Fonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted between October 2010 and June 2011 to determine the diversity, distribution, and abundance of plants in 4 sites of the Lebialem highlands and to relate species diversity and abundance to altitude and soil types. Twelve (12 plots, each of 1 ha (250 × 40 m, were surveyed at the submontane and montane altitudes of the sites. One hundred (100 species belonging to 82 genera were identified with the genera Cola and Psychotria being the most represented. Vulnerable species included Guarea thompsonii, Schefflera hierniana, Allanblackia gabonensis, Cyclomorpha solmsii, Vepris trifoliolata, and Xylopia africana. Species such as Xymalos monospora, Tricalysia atherura, and Piptostigma oyemense present in the study area were endemic to Cameroon. Diversity and distribution of plants were affected by parameters such as the altitude and the soil type. Soil analysis revealed that diversity in the study area was affected by the organic carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and the cation exchange capacity of the soil.

  15. Literature and TEFL: Towards the Reintroduction of Literatures in English in the Francophone Secondary School Curriculum in Cameroon

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    Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature was once regarded as being inappropriate for the teaching of the English language. Nowadays, the importance of applying  literature in the development of learners’ language skills is receiving a lot of attention by EFL/ESL practitioners worldwide (Lee 2009. In spite of such “remarkable revival of interest in literature" in the English language classroom (Duff & Maley 1990: 3, literature as a component of the English language teaching programme in secondary schools in Cameroon "remains the exception rather than the rule"  (Macalister 2008: 248. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the withdrawal of English Literature from the English as a foreign language curriculum of French-speaking Cameroonians. In the article, we statistically compare the performances of French-speaking and English-speaking Cameroonian  teacher trainees  of the department of Bilingual Studies of the Higher Teachers’ Training College of the University of Maroua in English Literature and in French Literature. We also discuss the importance and effectiveness of the different models and approaches in the development of the cultural competence and communicative skills of learners. The results obtained reveal that the studying of literatures in French by Anglophones at the Advanced Level positively influences their performances in French in Higher Education. The poor performances of Francophone Student-teachers in courses like LBL 11 (Introduction to English Literature are attributable to the fact that they do not study literatures in English at the secondary school level.

  16. Feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of measurement-based care depression treatment for HIV patients in Bamenda, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian W; Gaynes, Bradley N; Atashili, Julius; O'Donnell, Julie K; Kats, Dmitry; Whetten, Kathryn; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Mbu, Tabenyang; Kefie, Charles; Asanji, Shantal; Ndumbe, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Depression affects 18-30 % of HIV-infected patients in Africa and is associated with greater stigma, lower antiretroviral adherence, and faster disease progression. However, the region's health system capacity to effectively identify and treat depression is limited. Task-shifting models may help address this large mental health treatment gap. Measurement-Based Care (MBC) is a task-shifting model in which a Depression Care Manager guides a non-psychiatric (e.g., HIV) provider in prescribing and managing antidepressant treatment. We adapted MBC for depressed HIV-infected patients in Cameroon and completed a pilot study to assess feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. We enrolled 55 participants; all started amitriptyline 25-50 mg daily at baseline. By 12 weeks, most remained at 50 mg daily (range 25-125 mg). Median (interquartile range) PHQ-9 depressive severity scores declined from 13 (12-16) (baseline) to 2 (0-3) (week 12); 87 % achieved depression remission (PHQ-9 feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in this uncontrolled pilot study. Further research should assess whether MBC could improve adherence and HIV outcomes in this setting.

  17. Can commercialization of NTFPs alleviate poverty? A case study of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill. Pierre ex Pax. kernel marketing in Cameroon

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    Patrick Van Damme

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill. Pierre ex Pax. kernel (njansang commercialization has been promoted by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF in project villages in Cameroon with the aim to alleviate poverty for small-scale farmers. We evaluated to what extent development interventions improved the financial situation of households by comparing project and control households. The financial importance of njansang to household livelihoods between 2005 and 2010 was investigated through semi-structured questionnaires with retrospective questions, focus group discussions, interviews and wealth-ranking exercises. The importance of njansang increased strongly in the entire study region and the increase was significantly larger in project households. Moreover, absolute numbers of income from njansang commercialization as well as relative importance of njansang in total cash income, increased significantly more in project households (p < 0.05. Although the lower wealth class households could increase their income through njansang trade, the upper wealth class households benefited more from the projects' interventions. Group sales as conducted in project villages did not lead to significantly higher prices and should be reconsidered. Hence, promotion of njansang had a positive effect on total cash income and can still be improved. The corporative actors for njansang commercialization are encouraged to adapt their strategies to ensure that also the lower wealth class households benefit from the conducted project interventions. In this respect, frequent project monitoring and impact analysis are important tools to accomplish this adaptation.

  18. When nature frowns: A comprehensive impact assessment of the 2012 Babessi floods on people’s livelihoods in rural Cameroon

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    Roland A. Balgah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the most common natural disasters worldwide. Much of the growing literature on the impact of floods, especially in developed countries, and to a lesser extent in rural areas of developing countries, concentrates on economic rather than a comprehensive assessment of combined effects on people’s livelihoods. Holistic floods impact assessments are often done long after the shock, raising problems of data reliability following long recall periods, although post-disaster needs assessments when carried out earlier can facilitate appropriate disaster recovery, relief and reconstruction activities. We applied the sustainable livelihoods framework as a comprehensive approach to assess the impacts of the Babessi floods in 2012 on livelihoods in rural (north western region of Cameroon 6 weeks after the floods. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from victims before and after the floods, using recall methods. A matched sample of nonvictims randomly selected from the same village as the victims was used to assess vulnerability to the floods by household type. Floods were found to have serious economic, social, human and food security impacts on victims. Both government and nongovernmental support were jointly crucial for household recovery. Comparatively observed high levels of recovery were attributed to the low loss of human lives. The article concludes with the need for comprehensive approaches to floods impact assessments. The need for combining formal and informal instruments in post-disaster management in rural areas is also emphasised.

  19. Water Access, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions and Health Outcomes among Two Settlement Types in Rural Far North Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Tyler J; Yoo, Joshua; Garabed, Rebecca; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-04-20

    The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) parameters, microbial and antibiotic resistance (AR) contamination levels in drinking water, and health outcomes using health survey and molecular analysis during June and July of 2014 in two settlement types (agro-pastoralist villages and transhumant pastoralist camps). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine fecal contamination sources, enteric pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes. Ruminant-associated fecal contamination was widespread in both settlement types (81.2%), with human-associated contamination detected in 21.7% of the samples. Salmonella spp. (59.4%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ( stx 1 44.9% and stx 2 31.9%) were detected across all samples. Tetracycline resistance was found only in village samples. A significant difference in diarrheal incidence within the past 28 days among young children was found between camps (31.3%) and villages (0.0%). Our findings suggest that water contamination may play an important role in contributing to gastrointestinal illness, supporting the need for future research and public health intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness in the area.

  20. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health.

  1. An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon.

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    Van Rossem, R; Meekers, D

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the PSI/PMSC Horizon Jeunes youth-targeted social marketing program for improving adolescent reproductive health in urban Cameroon. The program targeted adolescents through peer education, youth clubs, mass media promotion, and behavior change communications. After about 13 months of intervention, knowledge of the program was nearly universal, and the majority of youths had direct contact with the program. Program effectiveness is examined using a quasi-experimental research design with a preintervention and postintervention survey in an intervention and comparison site. The intervention had a significant effect on several determinants of preventive behavior, including awareness of sexual risks, knowledge of birth control methods, and discussion of sexuality and contraceptives. The intervention increased the proportion of female youths who reported using oral contraceptives and condoms for birth control. However, condom use is not yet consistent. Although the proportion of young men who reported using condoms for birth control also increased, this change could not be attributed to the intervention. Although this short intervention successfully increased the reported use of various birth control methods, including condoms, there is no evidence that the intervention increased use of condoms for STD prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. Mapping the above and belowground biomass in three landscapes in Cameroon, Rwanda and DRC: pilot cases in REDD+ pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufo Kankeu, R.

    2017-12-01

    A number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches and despite their comparison there is still a gap. To fill this gap there is a need to provide accurate maps based on the field data on all types of land use and land cover. Based on the field data from plots established in three pilot projects around Virunga National park in Rwanda, Tri-national Sangha landscape in Cameroon and lac Télé-Lac Tumba landscape in DRC, this paper intend to analyse the relationship between land use change and biomass and present the variability through biomass/carbon maps. The above and belowground biomass was calculated from 95 nested plots of 20 meters radius. The value of biomass/carbon per plot were thus used to elaborate carbon maps of each study site. In the same the way the correlation between the land use and underground and above ground carbon stock were analysed using geographically weighted regression. These data have been joint with classified Spot 5 image and aggregated to come out will acceptable result. Results show that there is a strong relationship between land use in various project sites and the carbon stock related, the change of a forest cover directly impact on carbon stock/biomass.in the same way carbon map realized base on field data and IDW, Kriging or spline module show an idea on the carbon distribution but the maps are not accurate giving the distance between plots,

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in the south region of Cameroon: case of the town of Kribi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed.

  4. A Methodological Framework for Assessing Agents, Proximate Drivers and Underlying Causes of Deforestation: Field Test Results from Southern Cameroon

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    Sophia Carodenuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The international debates on REDD+ and the expectations to receive results-based payments through international climate finance have triggered considerable political efforts to address deforestation and forest degradation in many potential beneficiary countries. Whether a country will receive such REDD+ payments is largely contingent on its ability to effectively address the relevant drivers, and to govern the context-dependent agents and forces responsible for forest loss or degradation. Currently, many REDD+ countries are embarking on the necessary analytical steps for their national REDD+ strategies. In this context, a comprehensive understanding of drivers and their underlying causes is a fundamental prerequisite for developing effective policy responses. We developed a methodological framework for assessing the drivers and underlying causes of deforestation and use the Fako Division in Southern Cameroon as a case study to test this approach. The steps described in this paper can be adapted to other geographical contexts, and the results of such assessments can be used to inform policy makers and other stakeholders.

  5. The Ndop plain clayey materials (Bamenda area – NW Cameroon: Mineralogical, geochemical, physical characteristics and properties of their fired products

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    Rose Yongue-Fouateu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical, mineralogical and technological properties of clayey materials from the Ndop plain (NW Cameroon have been investigated, for their ceramic applications. The clayey materials have mixed facies with colour ranging from brown, grey, mottled and yellowish brown. The thickness of the exploitable clay layer is more than 5 m. Their mineralogical constituents are quartz, kaolinite, illite and feldspars, with kaolinite as major clay mineral. Based on the geochemistry, their source rocks might be felsic, with a mafic rock inference. These materials display high percentage in fine particles and high Atterberg limits. For all the firing temperatures, flexural strength (1.2–11 MPa, water absorption (8.03–24.27%, linear shrinkage (2.10%, weight loss (4.88–16.54% and bulk density (1.57–2.03 g/cm3 indicate good ceramic properties for firing samples between 900 and 1100 °C. Most of the fired test bricks show a brick red colour with good to very good cohesion. The studied clays were thus, suitable as raw materials for roof tiles, light weight blocks and hollow bricks; however, mixing of high clayey and highly silty materials could improve the quality of the products.

  6. Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon

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    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted in 15 office buildings in the humid and cold tropics during the working hours of the dry and rainy seasons in Cameroon. This was with the aim to study the effects that local and imported materials had on indoor air quality. To achieve this objective, the adaptive model approach has been selected. In accordance with the conditions of this model, all workers were kept in natural ventilation and, in accordance with the general procedure, a questionnaire was distributed to them, while variables, like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were sampled. The results showed a clear agreement between expected behaviour, in accordance with the characteristics of building construction, and its real indoor ambience once they were statistically analysed. On the other hand, old buildings showed a higher percentage of relative humidity and a lower degree of indoor air temperature. Despite this, local thermal comfort indices and questionnaires showed adequate indoor ambience in each group of buildings, except when marble was used for external tiling. The effect of marble as an external coating helps to improve indoor ambience during the dry season. This is due to more indoor air and relative humidity being accumulated. At the same time, these ambiences are degraded when relative humidity is higher. Finally, these results should be taken cognisance of by architects and building designers in order to improve indoor environment, and overcome thermal discomfort in the Saharan area.

  7. Characterization of some archaeological ceramics and clay samples from Zamala - Far-northern part of Cameroon (West Central Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntah, Z.L. Epossi; Sobott, R.; Bente, K., E-mail: zoilaepossi@yahoo.fr [Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, University of Leipzig (Germany); Fabbri, B. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Faenza (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    Seventeen ceramics samples (515±95 BP, about 580 years old) and two clay raw materials from Zamala (Far-northern, Cameroon) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The aim of the work was the deduction of the production technology and provenance of these ceramics. With the exception of one sample the analysed ceramics formed a homogeneous chemical and mineralogical group. The observed mineralogical phases were quartz, mica (biotite), potassium feldspar (microcline) and plagioclase (albite and oligoclase). The XRD study of two local clays yielded the presence of quartz, kaolinite, mica, feldspar and plagioclase. The presence of the broad endothermic peak in the DTA/TG curves of the clays and its absence in the curves of the ceramics indicated that the firing temperature of the ceramics was above 550-600 °C, which is the temperature of the kaolinite-metakaolinite transformation. The firing experiments of the clay between 400-1200 °C in oxidizing atmosphere showed that mica disappeared above 900 °C. Therefore, the firing temperature of the sherds should have been between 600-900 °C. The chemical correlation between ceramics and local clay materials pointed out to a local production of these ceramics. (author)

  8. The puzzle of Buruli ulcer transmission, ethno-ecological history and the end of "love" in the Akonolinga district, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Owona-Ntsama, Joseph; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara

    2015-03-01

    The "One World One Health Initiative" has attended little to the priorities, concepts and practices of resource-poor communities confronting disease and the implications of these concerns for its biomedical, ecological and institutional approach to disease surveillance and control. Using the example of Buruli ulcer (BU) and its bacterial etiology, Mycobacterium ulcerans, in south-central Cameroon, we build on debates about the contributions of "local knowledge" and "alternative models" to biomedical knowledge of disease transmission. BU's mode of transmission remains poorly understood. Our approach employs ethno-ecological histories - local understandings of the putative emergence and expansion of a locally important, neglected disease. We develop these histories from 52 individual and small group interviews, group discussions, and participant-observation of daily and seasonal activities, conducted in 2013-2013. These histories offer important clues about past environmental and social change that should guide further ecological, epidemiological research. They highlight a key historical moment (the late 1980s and 1990s); specific ecological transformations; new cultivation practices in unexploited zones that potentially increased exposure to M. ulcerans; and ecological degradation that may have lowered nutritional standards and heightened susceptibility to BU. They also recast transmission, broadening insight into BU and its local analog, atom, by emphasizing the role of social change and economic crisis in its emergence and expansion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  10. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CAMEROON FORESTS RESOURCES: PROVIDING TIMBER WASTE TO THE POOR POPULATIONS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  11. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  12. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  13. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  14. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  15. Ecological transition from natural forest to tea plantations: effect on the dynamics of malaria vectors in the highlands of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, M C; Ngundu, W I

    2010-10-01

    From October 2002 to September 2003, an entomological survey was carried out in a rural forested fringed village in the highlands of Mount Cameroon region to determine the temporal dynamics of the anopheline population and the intensity of malaria transmission. A total of 2387 Anopheles spp. were collected, with A. funestus predominating (59.9%), followed by A. hancocki (24.4%) and A. gambiae s.l. (15.7%). Considerable differences were observed in the nocturnal biting cycles of parous mosquitoes, with peak activity in the latter part of the night. PCR revealed that all specimens of the A. funestus group were A. funestus s.s. and all specimens from the A. gambiae complex were A. gambiae s.s. of the S molecular form. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of 17.3% and 8.5% were recorded for A. funestus and A. hancocki, respectively, with an anthropophilic rate of 96.3%. A strong positive correlation (r=0.996) was found between the human-biting rate and the entomological inoculation rate (EIR). Malaria transmission was very high and perennial, with an estimated annual EIR of 460.1 infective bites per person per year. These results confirm that in high agricultural activity areas, A. funestus can be by far the major malaria vector responsible for malaria transmission. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Health dynamics in camps and on campuses: stressors and coping strategies for wellbeing among labourers and students in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: For many people living in low-income countries, poverty implies an increased exposure to conditions that threaten health and wellbeing as well as reduced capacity to maintain health. Despite the challenging conditions caused by poverty, people may consider themselves healthy because they have learned to cope with their situation probably as a result of life experiences which expose people to both challenges and potential solutions. In this paper we present results from studying health and wellbeing challenges and mechanisms to cope with challenges among two different groups of people who are living under conditions of poverty: workers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and students of the university of Buea and the university of Yaoundé. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study, interviewing 21 CDC workers and 21 students. Results Our study reveals context-specific stressors emerging from poor work conditions and study pressure as well as non-context-specific stressors perceived by respondents as living conditions, poor healthcare and financial uncertainty. Respondents devised coping mechanisms to overcome exactly those stressors such as searching for additional money sources, preventive action towards hazardous living conditions and alternative medical support. Conclusion: We conclude that supporting and promoting such avenues is essential for enhanced and continuous coping with stressors. PMID:29436294

  17. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E.; Tendonkeng, F.; Kadjio, J.T.T.; Kwami, H.N.; Taboum, R.K.; Kana, J.R.; Tegodjeu, A.

    2002-01-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  18. Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J.-J.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Boeglin, J. L.; Descloitres, M.; Deschamps, P.; Maréchal, J. C.; Viers, J.; Ndam, J.-R.; Sekhar, M.

    2009-04-01

    Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India J.-J. BRAUN1,2*, J. RIOTTE1,2, S. AUDRY2, J. L. BOEGLIN2, M. DESCLOITRES3, P. DESCHAMPS4, J. C. MARÉCHAL1,2, J. VIERS2, J.-R. NDAM5, M. SEKHAR6, B. DUPRÉ2 1IFCWS, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India. (*Correspondence: braun@civil.iisc.ernet.in) 2LMTG, Univ. Toulouse, CNRS IRD OMP, 14, avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France 3LTHE, Univ. Grenoble, CNRS, IRD, INPG, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France 4CEREGE, Univ. Aix-Marseille, CNRS, IRD, Europôle Méditerranéen de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence, France. 5Université de Yaoundé I, Faculté des Sciences, Département des Sciences de la Terre, BP80, 13545 Yaoundé, Cameroun. 6Deprtment of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India Understanding the relative controls of forcing factors on the silicate chemical weathering rates and the associated atmospheric CO2 consumption is usually assessed through investigations based on small to medium granito-gneissic watersheds from 1 to100 km2 located in different climatic and tectonic settings. In addition to climate, the importance of the thickness and nature of the blanket of loose and transportable weathered material, namely regolith, which overlies the intact bedrocks, was also recently invoked, especially in tropical environment. We have conducted an integrated approach of the Critical Zone in two pristine forested small watersheds located in Cameroon and India. Both watersheds have developed on granito-gneissic bedrocks of stable Precambrian shields. Our approach is directed at (i) understanding the bio-geochemical, hydro-geological and hydrological processes and (ii) assessing the long-term and contemporary chemical weathering rates. The Nsimi watershed, South Cameroon, has been the first to be monitored since 1994. It belongs to the Nyong River basin and has a humid tropical climate. It is

  19. An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: Case study of Mango’o village, Center province, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Ioannis; Che, Franklin; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Bakirtzoglou, Vagios; Azangue, Willy; Bienvenue, Donatien; Ndipen, Frankline Mulluh

    It is an undeniable fact that isolated areas lack sufficient energy resources and that energy supply is central in order to achieve sustainable development goals. On the other hand, agricultural materials, whose trade profit fluctuates in low levels, are produced locally in wide range. As a result, the implementation of an alternative, more effective approach, which ensures the sustainability in social, economical and environmental dimension, is a crucial issue for developing countries. In this particular study, in order to cover the local energy needs, the possibility of installing a small biodiesel plant in a rural area of Cameroon, has been analyzed. The final biodiesel product can also be disposed directly to the market leading to an additional local income. In this paper, both the monthly potential of palm oil in Mango’o region and the recommended biodiesel production process are presented. Some significant benefits that can be achieved are independence from fossil fuels, mechanization of palm oil production process and additional prevention of local depopulation.

  20. Challenging Patriarchy: Trade, outward migration and the internationalization of Commercial sex among Bayang and Ejagham women in Southwest Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the specific local and global socio-economic forces that led to the outward migration of Bayang and Ejagham women to work as commercial sex workers on the Cameroon-Nigeria border regions in the 1980s and 1990s. It demonstrates that these women’s personal accumulation strategies are adaptative- drawing on time and space specific modes of capitalist accumulation and kinship systems of power. The intertwined nature of these forms of accumulation demonstrate that patriarchal forms of power and capitalist forms of accumulation in this region were not competitive, but rather complementary systems. This conjuncture also gave women the latitude to claim some form of sexual and economic agency, suggesting that at least in Africa, patriarchy as a power field is dynamic and relational, simultaneously opening up spaces for both resistance and agency.The impact of sex work is disproportionate since most women of our study were involved in subsistence sex, with the risk of exposure to violence and HIV/AIDS. These women nevertheless sought to reconfigure gender relations.