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Sample records for cameroon west africa

  1. Crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Cameroon, West Africa, revealed by 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Chen, Haopeng; Xie, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To understand the depth variation of deformation beneath Cameroon, West Africa, we developed a new 3D model of S-wave isotropic velocity and azimuthal anisotropy from joint analysis of ambient seismic noise and earthquake surface wave dispersion. We found that the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is well delineated by slow phase velocities in contrast with the neighboring Congo Craton, in agreement with previous studies. Apart from the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt, the uppermost mantle revealed a relatively slow velocity indicating a thinned or thermally altered lithosphere. The direction of fast axis in the upper crust is mostly NE-SW, but trending approximately N-S around Mt. Oku and the southern CVL. The observed crustal azimuthal anisotropy is attributed to alignment of cracks and crustal deformation related to magmatic activities. A widespread zone of weak-to-zero azimuthal anisotropy in the mid-lower crust shows evidence for vertical mantle flow or isotropic mid-lower crust. In the uppermost mantle, the fast axis direction changed from NE-SW to NW-SE around Mt. Oku and northern Cameroon. This suggests a layered mechanism of deformation and revealed that the mantle lithosphere has been deformed. NE-SW fast azimuths are observed beneath the Congo Craton and are consistent with the absolute motion of the African plate, suggesting a mantle origin for the observed azimuthal anisotropy. Our tomographically derived fast directions are consistent with the local SKS splitting results in some locations and depths, enabling us to constrain the origin of the observed splitting. The different feature of azimuthal anisotropy in the upper crust and the uppermost mantle implies decoupling between deformation of crust and mantle in Cameroon.

  2. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  3. Volcanic risk perception in rural communities along the slopes of mount Cameroon, West-Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Chuyong, George; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2010-11-01

    A study of volcanic risk perception was carried out in rural communities around the Mount Cameroon volcano between August and December 2008. The results indicate that risk perception reflects the levels of threat to which a resident population has been exposed to previously. Results of 70 responses to questionnaires show that local knowledge of hazards is high. Most respondents correctly indicated that earthquake and lava flow activities would affect resident population most in the future. By contrast, respondent's ability to adapt and protect themselves from the effects of future eruptions is poor, and inhabitants would likely shift responsibility for their protection to the requisite experts. This study confirms that there is little knowledge of any existing emergency plan, little or no educational outreach activities, but a high perceived need for information about and implementation of such actions. Knowledge about natural threats is found to be directly related to past exposure to volcanic hazard, and is significantly higher for people living along the southern than those along the northern slopes of Mt. Cameroon. The data also show that the media remains the most accessible channel for hazard communication, and that the internet is a growing information source that should be used to reach out to the younger generation. It is clear from the results of this study that major education and information efforts are required to improve the public's knowledge, confidence in the government, and growing self-reliance, in order to improve both collective and individual capacity to face future volcanic emergencies.

  4. The feasibility of using rural health workers to determine cause of death in remote regions of Cameroon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M H; Ellison, R C; Moore, L L

    2001-01-01

    The validity of the recent Global Burden of Disease Study (GBDS) was compromised by the lack of adult mortality data in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Verbal autopsies, in which health workers (HW), using questionnaires and algorithms, interview surviving family members to determine the cause of death, have proven useful in establishing priorities for the allocation of limited health care resources. Most reports, however, have come from large population centers. The feasibility of using health workers trained in verbal autopsy methodology to operate in remote rural areas of Africa has had limited testing. The records of 40 villagers who died in a Mission Hospital of the Northwest Province of Cameroon were reviewed, and the hospital discharge diagnosis, made by the attending physician, compared with that obtained by HW who administered a verbal autopsy to the family. In 70% of the cases the physician and HW were in exact agreement. Such a method, if confirmed in other studies among rural populations, may be an important approach to determining cause of death in many developing countries.

  5. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  6. Africa, Sociocultural Overviews: West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an overview of social worlds, values, and material and nonmaterial cultures of the region south of the Sahara from Mauritania to Cameroon. Attention is paid, in particular, to modes of social solidarity and the cultural dynamics of community formation in West African settings.

  7. Characterization of some archaeological ceramics and clay samples from Zamala - Far-northern part of Cameroon (West Central Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntah, Z.L. Epossi; Sobott, R.; Bente, K., E-mail: zoilaepossi@yahoo.fr [Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, University of Leipzig (Germany); Fabbri, B. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Faenza (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    Seventeen ceramics samples (515±95 BP, about 580 years old) and two clay raw materials from Zamala (Far-northern, Cameroon) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The aim of the work was the deduction of the production technology and provenance of these ceramics. With the exception of one sample the analysed ceramics formed a homogeneous chemical and mineralogical group. The observed mineralogical phases were quartz, mica (biotite), potassium feldspar (microcline) and plagioclase (albite and oligoclase). The XRD study of two local clays yielded the presence of quartz, kaolinite, mica, feldspar and plagioclase. The presence of the broad endothermic peak in the DTA/TG curves of the clays and its absence in the curves of the ceramics indicated that the firing temperature of the ceramics was above 550-600 °C, which is the temperature of the kaolinite-metakaolinite transformation. The firing experiments of the clay between 400-1200 °C in oxidizing atmosphere showed that mica disappeared above 900 °C. Therefore, the firing temperature of the sherds should have been between 600-900 °C. The chemical correlation between ceramics and local clay materials pointed out to a local production of these ceramics. (author)

  8. Customary courts' system in West Cameroon: reforms and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further held that it continued without any interference from the Federal Government in West Cameroon until 1966, when the former favoured reforms that could reduce their authority (Customary Courts). It called for the reduction of their powers and a transfer of the control of these institutions from West Cameroon Ministry of ...

  9. Geophysical evidence of Cretaceous volcanics in Logone Birni Basin (Northern Cameroon), Central Africa, and consequences for the West and Central African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loule, Jean-Pierre; Pospisil, Lubomil

    2013-01-01

    Detailed analyses and interpretation realized by combining existing 2D reflection seismic and Gravity/Magnetic data of the Logone Birni Basin (LBB) in the West and Central African Rift System (WCAS) have revealed the distribution of the main buried volcanic bodies as well as their relationships with the structural and tectonic evolution of this basin. The volcanic activity in the LBB is restricted to the Cretaceous period. Three main volcanic episodes are identified and are associated to the Neocomian, Late Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian rifting phases respectively. The volcanic bodies within the Lower Cretaceous are either lying directly on basement or are mainly interbedded with the contemporaneous sediments whereas the Upper Cretaceous bodies are morphologically expressed in the forms of dykes and sills. The volcanic activity was more intense in the western region of the central LBB (Zina sub-basin) along the Cameroon-Nigeria border whereas it was scanty and scattered in the other parts of the basin. The main volcanic dykes are found on the flanks of the major faults bounding basement horsts or in crestal positions in association with syndepositional faults. Although WCAS is associated with large amount of crustal extension and minor volcanism, the intense volcanic activity observed in LBB during the Cretaceous suggests that the intrusive zone during this period was confined to the basement beneath the study area flanked respectively to the north, south and southwest by the Lake Chad, Poli and Chum triple junctions. Tensional stresses generated by this localized domal uplift accounts for most of the observed tectonic structures where major faults transected the entire lithosphere, thus providing conduits for magma migration.

  10. δ18O and δD variations in some volcanic lakes on the Cameroon Volcanic Line (West-Africa: generating isotopic baseline data for volcano monitoring and surveillance in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Issa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on geo-anthropological and geochemical studies, catastrophes similar to the unprecedented gas explosions in the mid-1980s from the Cameroonian killer lakes Nyos and Monoun, might occur in any of the 37 other lakes located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL. Because people could suffer loss and desolation from predictable catastrophes in the future, monitoring/surveillance policies must be established. Due to their location, crater lakes integrate the geochemical processes that develop in the Earth’s crust due to magmatic activities. Therefore, monitoring the surface manifestations of those deep seated and/or hydrothermal processes might reveal increases/decreases in magmatic activities. The anomalous changes in a volcanic lake induced by mixing with exogenous fluids that have a specific δ18O and δD compositional fingerprint (magmatic, metamorphic, etc. could be utilized to predict volcanic hazards. If the steady state of a lake environment and the external and intrinsic parameters that control its hydrodynamics are clearly identified and reasonably understood, the anomalous evolutionary processes that compromise its stability can be identified. This study attempts to collect the δ18O and δD data from 17 Cameroonian lakes to help establish a volcano-related monitoring/surveillance network. This work identifies the processes that control the isotopic composition of the lakes and assesses the intra-/inter- and spatial δ18O/δD variations. Almost all of the lakes contain meteoric water. These lakes are mostly isotopically stratified; epilimnia is generally more positive than the hypolimnia. However, although the rainfall is gradually depleted in heavy isotopes when moving from the South to the North due to the latitude effect, the lakes become more enriched (0.6‰/100 km due to evaporation. The evaluated impact of several parameters on the isotopic variation suggests that the hydrological setting may play an important, albeit not

  11. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. Objectives: This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-meth- ods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses ...

  12. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  13. Timing of Premarital Intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the effects of family environment on the risks of premarital intercourse for male and female youth. Previous research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA on the linkages between family structures and sexual debut mainly utilized cross-sectional data. In a sample drawn from Cameroon Family and Health Survey (N = 2,166, descriptive and multivariate results showed that youth who resided in nuclear two-parent families, those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring and higher quality of parent–child relationships during childhood and/or adolescence, had significantly lower rates of premarital intercourse. Polygynous families, parent–child communication, orphanhood, and change in family structure were significantly associated with higher rates of premarital intercourse. Programmatic implications for reproductive health interventions in SSA are discussed.

  14. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI ...

  16. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as 'Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... which can be explained by poverty, lack of employment and economic crisis, to name a few (Fleisher 2007). Traditionally, the principal income-generating activities in Cameroon are trade and agriculture. In the migration from Cameroon to. Germany, for example, Cameroonian migrants constitute the.

  17. Wind Power Potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has seen a tremendous growth for electricity generation worldwide and reached 456 GW by the end of June 2016. According to the World Wind Energy Association, global wind power will reach 500 GW by the end of 2016. Africa is a continent that possesses huge under-utilized wind potentials. Some African countries, e.g., Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and South Africa, have already adopted wind as an alternative power generation source in their energy mix. Among these countries, South Africa has invested heavily in wind energy with operational wind farms supplying up to 26,000 GWh annually to the national grid. However, two African countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, have vast potentials, but currently are lagging behind in wind energy development. For Nigeria, there is slow implementation of renewable energy policy, with no visible operational wind farms; while Cameroon does not have any policy plan for wind power. These issues are severely hindering both direct foreign and local investments into the electricity sector. Cameroon and Nigeria have huge wind energy potentials with similar climatic conditions and can benefit greatly from the huge success recorded in South Africa in terms of policy implementation, research, development and technical considerations. Therefore, this paper reviews the wind energy potentials, policies and future renewable energy road-maps in Cameroon and Nigeria and identifies their strength and weakness, as well as providing necessary actions for future improvement that South Africa has already adopted.

  18. Cooperia pectinata and C. punctata, parasites of the abomasum of cattle in northern Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, J Y; Jacquiet, P; Cardinale, E; Ndamkou-Ndamkou, C; Diop, C; Thiam, A; Dorchies, P

    2000-02-29

    Cooperia pectinata Ransom, 1907 and C. punctata von Linstow, 1907 are common trichostrongyles of zebu cattle in Africa. Their intestinal localization within the digestive tract is considered by many authors to be exclusive. Nevertheless, some limited surveys in Malagasy, Mauritania, The Gambia and Cameroon reported the presence of both Cooperia species in the abomasum. The present survey was carried out in a slaughterhouse of northern Cameroon on 17 zebu cattle and confirms the infection of the small intestine and the abomasum by the two species within the total number of cattle examined. Abomasal infections especially with Cooperia punctata were heavier than those in the intestine. Due to the movements of herdbreeders in Central Africa, and to the preliminary results obtained in Mauritania, The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Malagasy, abomasal localization of C. pectinata and C. punctata may be encountered in very large areas of Africa, and that cooperiosis may contribute together with Haemonchus species to the digestive disorders involving the abomasum.

  19. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  20. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity

  1. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST)  = 0.068, P albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  2. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  3. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  4. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques...... that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights from...... Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa....

  5. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boynton Petra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of

  6. Family environment and premarital intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2012-04-01

    Family environment is one of the most influential factors on youth sexual behavior but has received little investigation in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of family influences could improve the efficiency of reproductive health (RH) interventions. Using retrospective data from a population-based survey, life-table analysis was utilized to compute the median age at premarital intercourse among 1,182 youth aged 12-24 years. Discrete-time hazard models were used in multivariate analysis to estimate the effects of family structures and parent-child interactions on premarital intercourse. Overall, 42% of participants had a premarital intercourse, and the median age at first sex was 16.9 years. Participants in nuclear two-parent families had the highest median (17.7) compared with those in nuclear one-(16.7), extended one-(16.5), extended two-parent families (16.9) or other relatives (16.8). Youth from monogamous families had the highest median (16.9) compared to those from polygamous (16.3) and other families (16.0). Orphans and youth reporting family transitions were more likely to initiate first sex at an earlier age compared with non-orphans and non-movers, with a median of 16.1 and 16.9 years, respectively. Multivariate results showed that living in extended families, being orphaned, and family transitions significantly increased the risk of premarital intercourse. Polygamy showed marginal effects. Stronger parent-child relationships and higher levels of parental control decreased the risk of premarital intercourse. Unexpectedly, parent-child communication was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual debut. Programmatically, family environment is an important resource that needs to be promoted when designing RH interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. CONCLUSION: The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  8. Interpreting gravity anomalies in south Cameroon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadjou Jean Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The area involved in this study is the northern part of the Congo craton, located in south Cameroon, (2.5°N - 4.5°N, 11°E - 13°E. The study involved analysing gravity data to delineate major structures and faults in south Cameroon. The region’s Bouguer gravity is

  9. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  10. Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consequence is that, globalization exacerbates inequality between the developed and the developing nations. This paper demonstrates the various ways by which globalization impacts on migration and in the process engenders underdevelopment in West Africa. In the first place, the unencumbered movement of ...

  11. LEISHMANIASIS IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA: PRELIMINARY NOTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-13

    Mar 13, 1971 ... Leishmaniasis was first reported from South West. Africa in 1970.' All 4 cases had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis, and all 4 occurred in White women. These cases appeared over a period of 3 years. Before this the nearest recorded case of leishmaniasis was from south- western Angola.' Cahill' has ...

  12. West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: The Africa Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe acute viral illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, myalgia, malaise, and severe headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea and, in some instances, bleeding. The 2014 West Africa outbreak is the largest in history, affecting ...

  13. Diversity of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Used in the Noun Division of the West Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njouonkou, André Ledoux; De Crop, Eske; Mbenmoun, Abdoulayi Mbouombouo; Kinge, Tonjock Rosemary; Biyé, Elvire Hortense; Verbeken, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents discussions of mushrooms as a source of food, income, as well as medicine among the Bamoun people of the highlands of West Cameroon, where the vegetation is mainly savannah mixed with forest galleries. Like most tribes in tropical Africa, the Bamoun people use a wide range of natural products as mushrooms. This study attempts to identify the various mushrooms exploited by the Bamoun. Ethnomycological surveys and field trips were conducted over 4 years in several villages in the Noun Division. Samples of wild mushrooms were collected from both the savannah and the forest galleries. These were described, preserved, and identified. The study shows that the Bamoun people use at least 40 species of mushrooms for either food or medicine. These species belong to 8 genera: Auricularia, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces. Species of genera Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces are most often used for food, whereas Ganoderma spp. and Pleurotus tuber-regium are mainly exploited for medicinal purposes. This survey provides an overview of the diversity of mushrooms and their importance to the local people of this area. Since some of the species mentioned by the local population were not fruiting at the time of our field trips, additional investigations are needed to further clarify the diversity and the usage of mushrooms in this region.

  14. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  15. Produce marketing co-operatives in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntjewerff, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sum.: In the West African countries of the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon, cooperative societies are involved in buying coffee and cocoa from farmers. These cooperatives do not always pay exactly the producers' price as it is set by the respective governments. These deviations from the

  16. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  17. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotat Michele Lolita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4% males, and 100 (54,6% females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%; 86 (47.3% and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4% had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6% had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1% had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3% had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6% had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4% have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7% were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6% at the mandible, 2 (1.1% were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6% at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%, financial difficulties 124 (67.8%, and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%. Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor.

  18. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Lolita, Yotat; Ashu Michael, Agbor; Hubert, Ntumba; Florence, Djachechi; Jacques, Bolenge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4%) males, and 100 (54,6%) females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%); 86 (47.3%) and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4%) had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6%) had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1%) had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3%) had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6%) had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4%) have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7%) were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6%) at the mandible, 2 (1.1%) were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6%) at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%), financial difficulties 124 (67.8%), and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%). Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor. PMID:26633972

  19. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals......Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...

  20. Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Book cover Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Directeur(s) : R. Lavergne. Maison(s) d'édition : Africa World Press, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 350 pages. e-ISBN :.

  1. Simulation of Rainfall Variability Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J.; Latif, M.

    The impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and vegetation on precipitation over West Africa is investigated with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4.x/T42. Ensemble experiments -driven with observed SST- show that At- lantic SST has a significant influence on JJA precipitation over West Africa. Four- teen experiments were performed in which the climatological SST was enhanced or decreased by one Kelvin in certain ocean areas. Changing SST in the eastern tropi- cal Atlantic only caused significant changes along the Guinea Coast, with a positive SSTA increasing rainfall and a negative reducing it. The response was nearly linear. Changing SST in other ocean areas caused significant changes over West Africa, es- pecially in the Sahel area. The response is found to be non linear, with only negative SSTA leading to significant reduction in Sahel rainfall. Also, the impact of the SSTAs from the different ocean regions was not additive with respect to the rainfall. Four simulations with a coupled model (the simple dynamic vegetation model (SVege) and the ECHAM4-AGCM were coupled) were also performed, driven with observed SST from 1945 to 1998. The standard ECHAM-AGCM -forced by the same observed SST- was able to reproduce the drying trend from the fifties to the mid-eighties in the Sahel, but failed to mirror the magnitude of the rainfall anomalies. The coupled model was not only able to reproduce this drying trend, but was also able to better reproduce the amplitudes of the rainfall anomalies. The dynamic vegetation acted like an amplifier, increasing the SST induced rainfall anomalies.

  2. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  3. Building sustainable peace agreements in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building sustainable peace agreements in West Africa. In West Africa, peace agreements have generally proven fragile and volatile (on average, they do not last more than five years). This cycle of ever-changing conflict and violence hinders development significantly. Research is underway to understand conflict, its source, ...

  4. Future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This points to a non - linear effect of intensified greenhouse forcing on precipitation over West Africa; suggesting that after a particular level of greenhouse gas concentrations further increase may have little or no effect on the regions precipitation. Keywords : West Africa, Precipitation, Climate Change Projections, NorESM 1 ...

  5. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa. Evariste Mutabaruka, Mamadou Sawadogo, Zekiba Tarnagda, Lauren Ouédraogo, Lassana Sangare, Badolo Ousmane, Yassa Ndjakani, Olivia Namusisi, David Mukanga, ...

  6. The development of exilic poetry in Anglophone West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, this study shows that there is a wide range of forms emerging from exilic literary experience in Anglophone West Africa in the explication of personal feelings, nostalgia, alienation, political and socio-cultural disruptions. Keywords: alienation, Anglophone West Africa, exile, exilic poetry, migration.

  7. future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over west africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This points to a non-linear effect of intensified greenhouse forcing on precipitation over West. Africa; suggesting that after a particular level of greenhouse gas concentrations further increase may have little or no effect on the regions precipitation. Keywords: West Africa, Precipitation, Climate Change Projections, NorESM1-M ...

  8. Economics of oil discovery in west Africa: the Nigerian experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of oil discovery in west Africa: the Nigerian experience. ... Regional Maritime University Journal ... Despite the endowment of West Africa with oil reserves, socio-economic development, especially in oil producing countries, is unsatisfactory in delivering its citizenry from extreme poverty and improve social ...

  9. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa. As agriculture becomes more strategically important in the world, large-scale land acquisition - or "land grabbing" - is a growing concern for West Africa. Recent increases in commodity prices have led some governments and private investors to purchase or lease ...

  10. Serving in Africa: US Peace Corps in Cameroon Dienst in Afrika: Das US Peace Corps in Kamerun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius A. Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a variety of primary sources including recently declassified documents, interviews in Cameroon, letters, and Peace Corps Volunteers’ personal correspondence, this study examines the service of the US Peace Corps in “Agroforestry” and “Small Enterprise Development” in Cameroon. The study argues that Volunteers were ill trained, ill prepared, and ill equipped for service in Cameroon, and as a result did not achieve Goal 1 of the Peace Corps Act, which calls on the agency to assist developing nations in gaining “trained manpower”. The study has broader implications, as it raises questions about the relevance of Peace Corps-like organizations in Cameroon, and in African nations as a whole. It focuses on Cameroon for a variety of reasons, among which is that Cameroon is one of only three nations in Africa in which Volunteers have served uninterruptedly since 1962.Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Entwicklungshilfepraxis des US Peace Corps in Kamerun in den Bereichen Agroforstwirtschaft und Kleinunternehmen. Er basiert auf Primärquellen, wie erst kürzlich freigegebenen Dokumenten, privaten Korrespondenzen der Entwicklungshelfer („Volunteers“ und Interviews in Kamerun. Der Autor kommt zu dem Schluss, dass die fachliche Qualifikation der Peace-Corps-Entwicklungshelfer nicht angemessen war und dass sie auf ihre Aufgaben in Kamerun schlecht vorbereitet und nur unzureichend ausgerüstet wurden. Aus diesem Grund sei das vorrangige Ziel des Peace Corps – Entwicklungsländer bei der Ausbildung von Arbeitskräften zu unterstützen – gar nicht zu erreichen gewesen. Er stellt darüber hinaus die Frage nach der Relevanz entsprechender Organisationen in Kamerun und in Afrika generell. Der Beitrag konzentriert sich unter anderem deshalb auf Kamerun, weil dies eines der drei Länder Afrikas ist, in denen seit 1962 ununterbrochen Entwicklungshelfer des Peace Corps gearbeitet haben.

  11. China's Interests in Africa and Afro-West Relations | Adesanya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the present thrust of China's interests in Africa. It provides a theoretical basis for the analysis of the consequences that the intensification of such interest in Africa holds for Afro-West relations. A careful examination reveals that China's strategies geared towards entrenching its interests in Africa would ...

  12. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  13. Perceptions of consent, permission structures and approaches to the community: a rapid ethical assessment performed in North West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2014-10-02

    Understanding local contextual factors is important when conducting international collaborative studies in low-income country settings. Rapid ethical assessment (a brief qualitative intervention designed to map the ethical terrain of a research setting prior to recruitment of participants), has been used in a range of research-naïve settings. We used rapid ethical assessment to explore ethical issues and challenges associated with approaching communities and gaining informed consent in North West Cameroon. This qualitative study was carried out in two health districts in the North West Region of Cameroon between February and April 2012. Eleven focus group discussions (with a total of 107 participants) were carried out among adult community members, while 72 in-depth interviews included health workers, non-government organisation staff and local community leaders. Data were collected in English and pidgin, translated where necessary into English, transcribed and coded following themes. Many community members had some understanding of informed consent, probably through exposure to agricultural research in the past. Participants described a centralised permission-giving structure in their communities, though there was evidence of some subversion of these structures by the educated young and by women. Several acceptable routes for approaching the communities were outlined, all including the health centre and the Fon (traditional leader). The importance of time spent in sensitizing the community and explaining information was stressed. Respondents held relatively sophisticated understanding of consent and were able to outline the structures of permission-giving in the community. Although the structures are unique to these communities, the role of certain trusted groups is common to several other communities in Kenya and Ethiopia explored using similar techniques. The information gained through Rapid Ethical Assessment will form an important guide for future studies in

  14. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Landry Suffo Kamela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked, milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet, DI (egg white as reference protein, DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus, DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus, DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus, and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus. The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes.

  15. Lianas and logging in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parren, M.P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in

  16. Shared decision making in West Africa: The forgotten area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ndeye Thiab; Ben Charif, Ali; Adisso, Lionel; Adekpedjou, Rhéda; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Agbadjé, Titilayo Tatiana; Dogba, Mama Joyce; Garvelink, Mirjam Marjolein

    2017-06-01

    Up to now, little attention has been paid to West Africa when it comes to shared decision making (SDM). West African countries seem to lag behind with regard to SDM initiatives compared to many other countries in the world. There is some interest in informed decision making or informed consent, but little in a full SDM process. Few decision-making tools are available for healthcare professionals and the majority are not designed to support decision-making with patients. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there are no training programs for implementing SDM in healthcare teams. Many barriers exist to implementing SDM in West Africa, including lack of options, few or poor health resources and low levels of education. However, African countries present many opportunities for SDM as well. Existing SDM innovations developed for other populations with low literacy could be explored and adapted to the West African context, and research on implementation and outcomes in West Africa could contribute to SDM worldwide. West African countries are in an excellent position to both learn from other countries and contribute to SDM development in other parts of the world. In this paper we reflect on SDM challenges and opportunities, and propose a research agenda for West Africa. We hope to awaken interest in SDM in West Africa and encourage future collaborations on SDM with various West African stakeholders, including patients, healthcare professionals, policymakers, non-government organisations (NGOs) and academic institutions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. The implications of wood exploitation for fish smoking on mangrove ecosystem conservation in the South West Province, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mario, G.M.; Njisuh, Z. F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the use of mangrove wood for fish smoking by local people in some localities of the South West (SW) Province of Cameroon may be in conflict with the conservation and sustainability of mangrove ecosystems. With the use of socio-economic surveys, from February to July 2006, we established that the amount of the annual fuel-wood harvest for five study sites was about 102,650 m3 (i.e., an amount equivalent to clearing about 205.3 ha of mangrove forests annually)....

  18. An Exploratory Multi-Method Analysis of Cybercrime Perpetrators' Perceptions to Combat Cyber Crime in Sub Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuta, Eric Agwe-Mbarika

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has projected much of Africa as a haven for cybercrime perpetration. This view was widely evidenced in Cameroon, a country regarded as a miniature Africa due to its diverse socio-cultural, economic and political characteristics. In spite of efforts by government to curb cybercrime, the perpetration rate has not declined due to a…

  19. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... Abstract. Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from. 11/03/2015 to ...

  20. Nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis in urban sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Marie Patrice; Zebaze, Paul Narcisse; Mbofung, Carl M; Kaze, Francois; Mbiatat, Hilaire; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Malnutrition is an important predictive factor for morbidity and mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis. The evidence on the magnitude of the problem in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. We assessed the nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis in the renal unit of the Douala General Hospital (Cameroon). Patients on maintenance hemodialysis for ≥3 months were enrolled between March and June 2012. Nutritional status was assessed via dietary recalls, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements including body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. A total of 113 patients (75 men) were included. They were aged 49.4 years, and had been on dialysis for a median of 25 months. The mean BMI, MAMC and serum albumin was 22.4 kg/m(2), 23.7 cm and 42.4 g/l respectively. We observed that 28.3 % of patients were underweight (BMI ≤20 kg/m(2)), 23.9 % had muscle wasting (MAMC nutrition were 26.3 % (low plasma cholesterol), 28 % (positive CRP) and 82.7 % (anemia). Female gender, younger age, less meals/day and frequent vegetable intake were associated with malnutrition risk. Patients on maintenance hemodialysis in this setting have rates of malnutrition similar to those reported elsewhere. However, the high prevalence of malnutrition among women and young patients deserves further consideration.

  1. Socioeconomic and gender differences in adolescents' nutritional status in urban Cameroon, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapi, Léonie N; Janlert, Urban; Nouedoui, Christophe; Stenlund, Hans; Håglin, Lena

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adolescents' nutritional status according to socioeconomic status (SES) and sex using anthropometry in urban Cameroon, Africa. Adolescent boys (n = 248) and girls (n = 333) 12 to 16 years old were recruited from randomly selected schools in a cross sectional study in Yaoundé city and grouped according to SES. Weight, height, skinfold thickness, and circumferences were measured, and body mass index, waist/hip ratio, arm muscle, and arm fat areas were calculated. Stunting, underweight, and overweight were determined using international cutoff points. Adolescents with medium and high SES were less likely to be stunted than adolescents with low SES (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; P underweight (3%, 4%, and 1%) were higher among the adolescents with low and medium SES than those with high SES. Overweight prevalence was high among the adolescents with low (8%), medium (11%), and high (9%) SES. The OR for overweight was higher among girls than boys (OR, 4.13; P underweight than boys (OR, 0.29 [P underweight (5% and 2%) were higher among boys than girls. Pubescent adolescents were less likely to be stunted than nonpubescent (OR, 0.53; P underweight and stunted than adolescents with high SES. Girls were more overweight, less stunted, and underweight than boys.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for pregnant women׳s health conditions in Menoua division-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemele, M D; Telefo, P B; Lienou, L L; Tagne, S R; Fodouop, C S P; Goka, C S; Lemfack, M C; Moundipa, F P

    2015-02-03

    In Cameroon, most women use traditional medicine for the treatment of pregnancy and childbirth complaints. In order to identify some of the medicinal plants locally used to alleviate these complaints, an ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in five villages of Menoua Division (West-Cameroon). Interviews were conducted through structured questionnaires among 24 traditional healers and 179 women living either in the town of Dschang or in 4 neighboring villages. After having recorded the interviewee personal information on issues related to medicinal plants utilization, a literature investigation on their therapeutic or pharmacological effects and phytochemical composition was conducted. A total of 88 medicinal plants species used to treat 24 conditions occurring during or after pregnancy and belonging to 70 genera or 34 families were recorded. Maximum medicinal uses of plants are reported for the treatment of the following ailments: swelling of legs and ankles (23%), facilitation of delivery (22%), cleaning of the baby (12%). Most herbal remedies are prepared with the leaves (30%), leaves+stems (28%) and whole plant (23%) as maceration (76%). The majority of women who used medicinal plants were very satisfied (75 %) and it is reported that most of these plants are used in the treatment of women health conditions. Many herbal remedies used for the treatment of pregnant women׳s health conditions in Menoua division-West Cameroon have been revealed. It would therefore be judicious for our government and research institution to evaluate the therapeutic and toxicological potentials of these plants in order to valorize their use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas. Copyright © 2016

  4. Vocational Education Processes of Yoruba Women in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawubya, Maria

    1988-01-01

    Describes traditional training methods for the occupations of Yoruba women of West Africa, such as weaving, dyeing, and pottery-making. Suggests that these vocational training methodologies could be applied to contemporary African economic problems. (SK)

  5. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  6. Burden of human scabies in sub-Saharan African prisons: Evidence from the west region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Sangare, Abdoulaye; Moguieu Bogne, Léonnelle-Lynda; Sieleunou, Isidore; Adegbidi, Hugues; Tameyi Tatsa, Joël; Moyou Somo, Roger

    2018-02-01

    There is little data on the profile and magnitude of scabies in sub-Saharan African prisons. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of scabies in prisons of the west region of Cameroon. We conducted a cross-sectional study from March to August 2014, and consecutively recruited volunteer detainees of three randomly selected prisons in the West Region of Cameroon. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings after assessment by two experienced and well-trained dermatologists. We enrolled 755 prisoners, 17 (2%) of whom were women. Their mean age was 32 ± 12 years. There were 242 cases (32%) of scabies, with significantly more cases in the most crowded prison (P 10 (aOR 1.89; P = 0.002), but not age, duration of incarceration, number of baths/week and washing/week, were independent drivers of scabies occurrence. Almost one-third of prisoners suffered from scabies in our prisons. A low educational level, the sharing of clothes/bedding and number of detainees/cell > 10 were independent determinants of the disease. Urgent measures must be undertaken to reduce the burden of scabies in our prisons. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Hepatitis B: The view from West Africa | Lepore | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa (PROLIFICA) study began in 2011 in The Gambia, Sénégal and Nigeria. The study aims to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in West Africa through the suppression of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biological samples collected allow for the detection of ...

  8. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  9. Strengthening resilient livelihoods to reduce poverty in West Africa's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Strengthening resilient livelihoods to reduce poverty in West Africa's semi-arid areas. April 28, 2016. Despite the success of research and development activities in integrating crop and livestock production, few West African communities are adopting these technologies. The challenge in promoting a mixed dairy and market ...

  10. Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help West African nations develop policies based on a better understanding of why youth leave rural areas, and what economic activities they pursue in cities. In rural parts of West Africa prone to drought, many young men and women move away because they lack decent job opportunities.

  11. The West Africa Initiative to Strengthen Capacities through Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West Africa has many of the lowest development indicators in the world - 10 of the 15 member states of the West African Community number among the world's 35 low-income countries. The World Health Organization reports that 14 of the member states have a high maternal mortality ratio, defined as 300 or more maternal ...

  12. Settlement Studies and Associated Problems in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines settlement studies in the West African sub-tropics. It discusses the various traditions of settlement studies in West Africa with particular reference to Nigeria .The traditions are: socio-cultural and ecological traditions. The position of the paper is that though these traditions have been introduced and used ...

  13. Forest gradients in West Africa : a spatial gradient analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variability in Giraffa camelopardalis: consequences for taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of giraffes in West and central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Ropiquet, Anne; Gourmand, Anne-Laure; Chardonnet, Bertrand; Rigoulet, Jacques

    2007-03-01

    The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) still survives in four countries of West and central Africa. The populations of Niger and Cameroon are generally assigned to the subspecies peralta, but those of Chad and the Central African Republic are taxonomically problematic, as they are referred to as either peralta, or antiquorum, or congoensis. In this study, a mitochondrial fragment of 1765 nucleotide sites, covering the complete cytochrome b gene, three transfer RNAs and a large part of the control region, was sequenced to assess the relationships between several populations of giraffe. The phylogenetic analyses performed on the 12 identified haplotypes indicate that northern giraffes constitute a natural group, distinct from that of southern giraffes. Surprisingly, the giraffes of Niger are found to be more closely related to the giraffes of East Africa (subspecies rothschildi and reticulata) than to those of central Africa. We conclude therefore that the subspecies peralta contains only the Niger giraffes, whereas the subspecies antiquorum includes all populations living in Cameroon, Chad, the Central African Republic, and southwestern Sudan. We suggest that the ancestor of the Nigerian giraffe dispersed from East to North Africa during the Quaternary period and thereafter migrated to its current Sahelian distribution in West Africa, in response to the development of the Sahara desert. This hypothesis implies that Lake Mega-Chad acted as a strong geographical barrier during the Holocene, preventing any contact between the subspecies peralta and antiquorum. Our study has direct implications for conservation management, as we show that no subspecies peralta is represented in any European zoos, only in Niger, with a small population of less than 200 individuals.

  15. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria in the North West Region of Cameroon: analysis of limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndofor, Eric; van Gool, Tom; Gillis, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is still rife and perennial in Cameroon despite remarkable progress in controlling the disease. About 95% of the country is malaria endemic. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria may lead to improved patient care and reduced morbidity. This paper analyses limitations in malaria diagnosis

  16. Local blacksmiths's activity in the west region of Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the nature of pollutant and exhaustible of fossils energies, developed countries have made use of renewable energy sources to make effective their energy systems. To stow on that vision in Cameroon, the promotion of micro-hydroelectric powers plants (MHPP) is a priority and any contribution to its ease is ...

  17. Reaching migrants across borders in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J

    1998-01-01

    CARE-Niger's AIDS and Migration project was launched in 1993 with primary funding from the European Union and is based in Tahoua, Niger. The project's overall goal is to reduce the rate of STD/HIV infection among the more than 1 million Nigerian migrants who leave their villages annually in search of work in the large coastal cities of West Africa, especially Abidjan. Most migrants are separated from their families for at least 9 months of the year, returning to Niger in May or June to help with Niger's only planting season. Upon completion of the millet harvest, the men return to Abidjan in search of additional work. CARE has trained more than 100 peer educators to provide STD/HIV prevention information to migrants before, during, and after their voyages to Abidjan. In the villages of Tahoua, CARE staff train and supervise volunteer peer educators, including the male migrants, their wives, the prostitutes they encounter along the 2500 km migration route, and the Muslim religious leaders who preach weekly in mosques scattered throughout Tahoua. During the 4-day bus trip back to Abidjan, the bus driver has a range of educational cassettes which he can play, while Abidjan-based migrant peer educators await the men at their ultimate destination. AIDS and Migration project staff traveled by bus from Abidjan to Tahoua to better understand some of the obstacles Nigerian migrants face along the route. If funds can be secured, CARE will help provide STD care in Abidjan, install video and cassette-radio equipment on the Nigerian buses which make the trek between Tahoua and Abidjan, and buy and equip a bus to attract younger migrants.

  18. A new species of Trachylepis (Squamata: Scincidae) from Central Africa and a key to the Trachylepis of West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kaitlin E; N, Walter P Tapondjou; Welton, Luke J; Bauer, Aaron M

    2017-05-16

    A new species of skink, Trachylepis gonwouoi sp. nov. is described from Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo. It differs from all other species of Trachylepis in Central-West Africa by a combination of number of keels on dorsal scales (3-5); moderate SVL (maximum size of 80 mm); number of scale rows at midbody (28-34); number of supracilliaries (6-10); a well defined lateral white stripe, bordered by black, extending from under the eye to the insertion of the hind limb; and a ventral color in life of bright blue-green. Trachylepis gonwouoi sp. nov. was found in association with disturbed forest at elevations from 50 to 1050m. This species is syntopic with T. affinis and T. maculilabris. In order to aid in the identification of Trachylepis in West and Central Africa with the addition of T. gonwouoi sp. nov., we provide an updated key to the Trachylepis found from Mauritania through the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This key combines previous literature that treated Western and Central African taxa separately and represents the most comprehensive key for Trachylepis in West-Central Africa to date.

  19. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  20. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  1. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  2. Regionalization in West Africa : the process of developing a common West African currency

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Heidi Walbye

    2004-01-01

    Monetary integration has been on the West African political agenda for a long time. It has been regarded as an important development strategy by for instance the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) where 15 states are organized. Eight ECOWAS countries have a monetary co-operation through the Franc Zone, which is a unique post-colonial relation between France and former French colonies. In West Africa the Zone is organized in Union Économic et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA). ...

  3. West Africa 2013 Ebola: From Virus Outbreak to Humanitarian Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G

    2017-10-26

    The 2013 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa constituted a major humanitarian crisis. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region. The unprecedented scale of West Africa 2013 took the world by surprise and laid bare deficiencies in our response capacity to complex humanitarian disasters of highly infectious and lethal pathogens. However, the magnitude of West Africa 2013 also provided a unique opportunity and obligation to better understand not only the biology and epidemiology of EVD, but also the many scientific, economic, social, political, ethical, and logistical challenges in confronting emerging infectious diseases in the modern era.

  4. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It

  5. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Henschel

    Full Text Available The African lion has declined to 500 km² PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605 lions remain in West Africa, representing <250 mature individuals. Confirmed lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii for populations with <250 mature individuals. Finally, considering the relative poverty of lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  6. West Africa’s War on Terrorism: Time and Patience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-25

    government in each of the countries should have sound governance. Dele Olowu writes in “Governance and Policy Management in Africa,” that, “Good...predatory political leadership . Poor leadership further impoverishes the states of West Africa and keeps them locked in the periphery.68 Linkage between...Studies, 44, no.3 (2006): 358-359. 5 Annette Hubschle, “The T-Word: Conceptualising terrorism,” African Security Review 15, no.3 (2006). 22 6 B Hoffman

  7. Narco-Pipeline to West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    70% of all cocaine, averaging 1679 kg per year, almost half of all heroin, 150 kg per year, and 31% of all cannabis over 400 tons seizures in Africa...Africa. “ Chinese back Africa’s Farms but want Greater Support” http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE51A0KJ20090211, (accessed 13 Feb 09...109-469-Dec 29, 2006. Reuters Africa. “ Chinese back Africa’s Farms but want Greater Support” http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews

  8. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players

  9. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Long seen as artificial barriers inherited from decolonisation, West African borders now lie at the heart of policies designed to encourage regional trade and combat political instability. This rediscovery of the peripheries of the nation state has fostered a proliferation of institutional...... largely unknown across West Africa. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap, with an analysis of both the social structure and the geography of West African governance networks. On the basis of this structural and geographic analysis, policy recommendations are formulated aimed at implementing...

  10. Initiation of a medical genetics service in sub-Saharan Africa: experience of prenatal diagnosis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Tekendo, Cedrik Ngongang; Sama, Dohbit Julius; Zambo, Huguette; Dahoun, Sophie; Béna, Frédérique; Morris, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis (PND) has laid the foundation of the first medical genetic service in Cameroon. Cross-sectional descriptive study, illustrating some aspects of the genetic service using a small 24-months PND experience. The service began with a medical geneticist who had to follow-up the building and equipments supplies of the diagnosis laboratory; and to personally perform genetic consultations, molecular experiments and post-results counseling. PND was indicated for sickle cell disease (SCD) in 33 cases (55%) and chromosomal anomalies in 27 cases (45%). With international collaboration, DNA analysis revealed 6 SCD-affected foetuses (20.7%); QF-PCR (N=25) and full karyotype (N=8) analysis revealed cases of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Following PND success, national effort granted more human and material resources to improve the service. The preliminary experience was made possible by three factors: 1) the availability of a trained Cameroonian medical geneticist 2) the availability of obstetricians trained in fetal medicine and 3) advocacy initiatives at national and international levels, which have proven invaluable for advice, training, sourcing of materials, and back-up reference diagnostic laboratory. The practice of medical genetics, involving prenatal genetic diagnosis of sickle cell disease and chromosomal anomalies, is possible in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Promotion of an inclusive approach to security in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sexual abuse and access to justice for rural women in West Africa. This research takes place within the context of several major overlapping factors in West Africa: View moreSexual abuse and access to justice for rural women in West Africa ...

  12. Cloud Computing: Key to IT Development in West Africa | Nwabuonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been established that Information Technology (IT) Development in West Africa has faced lots of challenges ranging from Cyber Threat to inadequate IT Infrastructure. Cloud Computing is a Revolution. It is creating a fundamental change in Computer Architecture, Software and Tools Development iIn the way we Store, ...

  13. West and Central Africa — Addressing new challenges | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From his office in Dakar, Senegal, IDRC West and Central Africa Regional Director Gilles Forget has seen some aspects of life — particularly relating to trade ... Forget says that beyond its personal benefit to farmers, the project has a major positive environmental impact: “It's instrumental in helping local people protect their ...

  14. Combatting early marriages by empowering girls in West Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In additional to its illegal nature, early marriage results in a chain of negative consequences for girls who are its victims and represents a major barrier to the economic and social development process. However, West Africa, one of the world's poorest regions, is home to half of the world's 10 countries with the highest ...

  15. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tactical deployment of ground forces in conjunction with aircraft was an innovation that transformed future operations in SWA between the suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article discusses the utilisation of the Union Defence Force (UDF) and South West Africa Forces against ...

  16. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koreissi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: Towards improving nutrient quality Abstract Hidden hunger affects a far greater percentage of the world’s population with iron and zinc deficiencies being the most common, particularly affecting women of reproductive

  17. Continuities and discontinuities in colonial West Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuities and discontinuities in colonial West Africa: economic activity in Dikwa division, 1922-1960. R Anthony Goodridge. Abstract. No Abstract. African Studies Monographs Serial No VII, 2006: 1-62. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Piracy around Africa's west and east coasts: a comparative political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories and practical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namely the significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global ...

  19. Buruli ulcer in West Africa: Strategies for early detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buruli ulcer in West Africa: Strategies for early detection and treatment in the antibiotic era. ... delay and disease progression. Community-based surveillance and health education modeled after the village health worker programs used in the eradication of Guinea worm may be successfully applied in BU endemic areas.

  20. West Africa: a testing ground for regional solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Blocher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available West Africa has a very mobile population and high vulnerability to natural hazards. It also, however, has a number of regional cooperation agreements and may therefore be a useful testing ground for addressing cross-border disaster displacement.

  1. Sensory diversity of fonio landraces from West Africa | Fliedel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to establish if there is some sensory variability among fonio landraces. Fonio, the oldest indigenous and very tasty cereal growing in West Africa, is usually consumed as a couscous. Group interviews of consumers were conducted in Bamako, Mali to identify the main quality criteria of a cooked grain.

  2. Sensory diversity of fonio landraces from West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliedel, G.; Koreissi, Y.; Boré, F.; Dramé, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to establish if there is some sensory variability among fonio landraces. Fonio, the oldest indigenous and very tasty cereal growing in West Africa, is usually consumed as a couscous. Group interviews of consumers were conducted in Bamako, Mali to identify the main quality criteria of

  3. EDITORIAL Ebola in West Africa: a forgotten epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-23

    oct/08/world-bank-warns-ebola-econom- ic-impact-west-africa. 3. World Health Organization. Ebola response: what needs to happen in 2015. WHO. [homepage on the Internet]. c2015. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/dis-.

  4. Initial Experience With Neuroendoscopic Surgery In West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initial Experience With Neuroendoscopic Surgery In West Africa. ... African Journal of Neurological Sciences ... Introduction Neuroendoscopic surgery is commonly utilized for the management of intracranial cystic lesions, hydrocephalus, tumor resections and biopsies and for all types of microsurgical procedures that can ...

  5. Linking research to policy: West Africa workshop highlights use of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mars 2016 ... Eighty people—researchers, policymakers, donors, and experts—attended a workshop to discuss the current situation and emerging evidence on maternal and child health in West Africa. Held in Dakar, Senegal from February 18-20, 2016, the workshop provided a unique platform for researchers working ...

  6. Linking research to policy: West Africa workshop highlights use of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-03-17

    Mar 17, 2016 ... The areas included: inclusion of gender and equity in maternal, newborn, and child health services; conducive and limiting health system factors to improving mother, newborn, and child health; and situational analysis of knowledge transfer for mother, newborn, and child health. The West Africa Health ...

  7. Leishmaniasis in South West Africa: preliminary notes on host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were undertaken to determine the sandfly fauna of South West Africa with the view to finding possible vectors of leishmaniasis, and to locate a host reservoir. A possible vector species belonging to the Synphlebotomus group of sandflies, which have been incriminated as leishmania vectors in Kenya, has been found ...

  8. Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will assist the Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA) by providing funding for succession planning, recruiting a regional coordinator (to be based in Mali) and strengthening the Network's ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth solutions.

  9. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, Kodjovi Senam

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in

  10. West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  11. Migration and Economic Challenges in West Africa | Ndubisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper burdened itself with the examination of the economic challenges of migration in West Africa. The movement of people from one place to another is what is basically known as migration. It is that aspect of life which human beings share with other animals. Migration is a common phenomenon in human history.

  12. Medical services in German South West Africa | Bouch | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Medical services in German South West Africa.

  13. Understanding land acquisitions in West Africa: A community-based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Media reports usually blame foreign actors for this, yet an IDRC-supported research project in West Africa, carried out by Inter Pares, has found that ... AMINE BOULHIAN Large-scale land acquisitions of traditional rice paddies such as this one in Bafatá, Guinea-Bissau, have negative impacts on local ...

  14. Climate change impacts on fisheries in West Africa: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West Africa was identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in previous global analyses. Adverse changes in marine resources under climate change may pose significant threats to the livelihoods and well-being of the communities and countries that depend on fisheries for food and income. However ...

  15. Environmental reform of West and Central Africa ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes-Dabban, Harry; Koppen, Van Kris; Mol, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    West and Central Africa ports have historically not paid much attention to environmental issues. In the past decade, however, environmental concerns are beginning to emerge with pockets of innovative responses to environmental risks as the ports undergo institutional and infrastructural reform –

  16. Transforming agriculture in Central and West Africa through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... Agricultural productivity in Central and West Africa remains low, but there is strong potential for research to improve food security and nutrition in the region. Developing sustainable agricultural production is key to effective strategies for sustainable and inclusive economic growth to improve livelihoods for ...

  17. Primary care physicians' practice regarding diabetes mellitus diagnosis, evaluation and management in the West region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingi, Ahmadou M; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2015-04-04

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) are the main providers of diabetes care especially in resource-limited countries which experience extreme shortage of specialists. The present study aimed to evaluate PCPs' approach towards diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis, evaluation and management in Cameroon. We carried-out a cross-sectional survey in February 2012 in the West Region of Cameroon. Using a structured pretested questionnaire, we interviewed all PCPs working in the region who were present at their working place when the investigators visited, and volunteered to be enrolled in the study. Sixty-six PCPs were interviewed. Their ages ranged from 24 to 56 years (mean 38.3, standard deviation 9.2 years). The levels of knowledge of PCPs regarding DM diagnosis were: 72.7%, 37.9%, 19.7% and 32.8% respectively obtained when using fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial glycemia, random glycemia and glycated hemoglobin as diagnostic tools. Only 6 PCPs (9.9%) prescribed the correct minimal work-up to evaluate diabetes patients at diagnosis. PCPs advised lifestyle modifications in 92.4% of cases, and thirty nine (53.1%) PCP's used to prescribe both generic and specialty oral anti-diabetic drugs in case of uncomplicated type 2 DM management. The two main classes of anti-diabetic drugs prescribed were biguanides (77.3%) and sulfonamides (60.6%). Nearly all PCPs (97%) used to give frequent follow-up appointments to their patients. Ninety eight point five percent of participants were willing to receive any further continuous training on DM management. PCPs knowledge and practices towards diabetes mellitus diagnosis, evaluation and management were not optimal, stressing the need to improve their capacities regarding diabetes care. As such, more educational initiatives should be taken on, alongside regular upgrade and dissemination of clinical guidelines.

  18. Prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Fundong District, North-West Cameroon: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Sieyen, Nana Christopher; Lavy, Christopher; Polack, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological data on musculoskeletal conditions such as degenerative joint diseases and bone fractures are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. Fifty-one clusters of 80 people (all ages) were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected by compact segment sampling. Six screening questions were asked to identify participants likely to have a musculoskeletal impairment (MSI). Participants screening positive to any screening question underwent a standardised examination by a physiotherapist to assess presence, cause, diagnosis and severity of impairment. In total, 3567 of 4080 individuals enumerated for the survey were screened (87%). The all-age prevalence of MSI was 11.6% (95% CI: 10.1-13.3). Prevalence increased with age, from 2.9% in children to 41.2% in adults 50 years and above. The majority of MSI cases (70.4%) were classified as mild, 27.2% as moderate and 2.4% as severe. Acquired non-trauma comprised 67% of the diagnoses. The remainder included trauma (14%), neurological (11%), infection (5%) and congenital (3%). The most common individual diagnosis was degenerative joint disease (43%). Over one-third (38%) of individuals with MSI had never received medical care or rehabilitation for their condition. This survey contributes to the epidemiological data on MSI in low- and middle-income countries. Nearly half of adults aged over 50 years had an MSI. There is a need to address the treatment and rehabilitative service gap for people with MSI in Cameroon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Namibia : South-West Africa 1923 onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 118 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Südwestafrika", written by Ton Dietz.

  20. REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND COOPERATION IN WEST AFRICA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, regional unity is seen as a possible solution to the continent's deep and prolonged economic and social crisis, at a time when private energies are being ...... This difference is reflected in the reaction of African institutions to the notion of variable geometry, which all the donors espouse in one form or another.

  1. West Africa land use land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappan, G. Gray; Cushing, W. Matthew; Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.; Hutchinson, John A.; Dalsted, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project provides AGRHYMET and its 17 participating countries a comprehensive two-kilometer (2-km) resolution land use land cover (LULC) dataset of the region for three time periods; 1975, 2000, and 2013. Hundreds of Landsat images were visually interpreted to develop a 2-km LULC dataset for each of the three time periods. To assist in validating the interpretations, thousands of aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images were used. From the initial datasets produced by national teams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an independent, detailed review of the interpretations. In concurrence with the respective country teams, the data have been revised to produce an accurate and consistent LULC assessment from within the countries and respective transboundary areas. This West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project represents an effort to document and quantify the impacts of change in both time and space, of the environmental and land resource trends across West Africa. The project was carried out through the AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, in partners from 17 participating countries, the Sahel Institute (INSAH), the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and with major support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Africa Regional Program. The overarching goal of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project is to promote the awareness of the trends and use of spatial information about natural resource trends among national and regional decision-makers. For a complete description of project visit https://eros.usgs.gov/westafrica

  2. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  3. Protected Area managers' Perceptions of Community Conservation Training in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.; Groot, de W.T.; Mayna, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Training needs assessments have revealed the need for people-oriented training to increase the job performance of African protected area (PA) managers. The Garoua regional wildlife college for francophone Africa (Cameroon) developed the first long (diploma and certificate) and refresher courses in

  4. The expanded program on immunization service delivery in the Dschang health district, west region of Cameroon: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ebile Akoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is the most effective intervention strategy, and the provision of vaccination at fixed posts and outreach posts is a backbone of a sustainable vaccination system in developing countries. Access to immunization services is still limited in Cameroon. Several health districts in the west region have recorded new epidemic outbreaks, including the occurrence of a wild polio virus epidemic outbreak in 2013. The aim of this study was to assess immunization service delivery in one of the largest health districts in the west region of Cameroon; the Dschang Health district. Methods It was a cross sectional study conducted in 2013, in 42 health facilities covering 18 health areas in the Dschang Health District. Data were collected with questionnaires administered to health personnel face to face and an observation grid was used to assess resources and tools. Data were entered and analyzed in Epi Info. Results A total of 42 health facilities were assessed and 77 health personnel were interviewed. Overall, 29 (69.0 % health facilities organized one vaccination session monthly, 2 (4.8 % organized an outreach within the last 3 months prior to the study, 15 (35.7 % did not have a vaccination micro plan, 24 (32.9 % health personnel had not been supervised for at least the last 6 months prior to the study, 7 (16.7 % health facilities did not have a functional refrigerator, 1 (2.4 % did not have a vaccine carrier, 23 (54.8 % did not have a means of transport (vehicle or motorcycle and 12 (28.6 % did not have an EPI guideline. The knowledge of health personnel on vaccine and cold chain management, and on diseases of the EPI under epidemiological surveillance was found to be limited. Conclusion The frequency and strategic provision of immunization services in the Dschang Health district is inadequate. Resource availability for an adequate provision of immunization services is insufficient. The knowledge of health personnel

  5. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem C.; Kádár, Zsófia; Mensah, Moses Y.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 degrees C, 10 min) biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber .......26 g/100 g TS). All other local biomass types studied exhibited sugar and ethanol yields below 33% and 35% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. Thus, elephant grass is a highly promising biomass source for ethanol production in Africa.......Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 degrees C, 10 min) biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber...... wood, elephant grass, Siam weed, and coconut husk, benchmarked against those of wheat straw. The elephant grass exhibited the highest glucose and ethanol yields at 57.8% and 65.1% of the theoretical maximums, respectively. The results show that the glucose yield of pretreated elephant grass was 3...

  6. The incidence of feco-oral parasites in street-food vendors in Buea, south-west region Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assob, J C N; Nde, P F; Nsagha, D S; Njimoh, D L; Nfor, O; Njunda, A L; Kamga, H L F

    2012-09-01

    The street-food industry lacks legal recognition, it operates in unstable and precarious conditions, involving women and men with minimal or no knowledge of hygienic food handling practices. Infective eggs, bacteria, toxins and cysts of faecal orally transmissible parasites are common agents responsible for food contamination in developing countries. To determine the incidence of digestive faecal-oral parasites among street-food vendors in Buea, South-west region of Cameroon, From March to May 2009, physical and laboratory analysis of stool samples of 150 randomly selected street-food vendors, residing in four different zones in the municipality were carried out. Information on environmental and personal hygiene was also collected. Results revealed that 56.7% of the sampled population was infected with faecal-oral parasites. The major faecal-oral parasites detected in stool samples were: Entamoeba coli (14.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (12.67%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.33%), Ankylostoma duodenalis (10.67%). Childcare activities, lack of deworming, poor personal hygiene, poor sanitary and toilet facilities, were factors promoting the spread of faecal-oral infections. Food vendors should be educated on personal hygiene and safe food handling measures. Regulatory procedures on environmental hygiene and regular medical and paramedical follow up of food vendors should be enforced.

  7. Investigative Journalism and Human Trafficking in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Gyuracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigative journalism that aims to prise out information that the state or certain businesses want to keep undisclosed has been unthinkable under many postcolonial African regimes. However, since the promulgation of democratic constitutions, a generation of ambitious investigative journalists has grown up in Africa. In order to show how journalism has changed, the paper brings Anas Aremeyaw Anas’s activities into focus. Anas’s single-minded mission to bring justice has targeted organisations involved in human trafficking, smuggling, and forced labour in West African countries since 2010. Although his team’s way of gathering information raises moral concerns about undercover journalism, their efforts illustrate that human trafficking is widespread among the countries of West and Central Africa. Therefore, the author suggests that both the AU and ECOWAS must create a more stable legal environment for investigative journalists, as their reports can help these institutions and national governments protect human rights.

  8. The DACCIWA 2016 radiosonde campaign in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas H.; Maranan, Marlon; Knippertz, Peter; Ngamini, Jean-Blaise; Francis, Sabastine

    2017-04-01

    Operational upper-air stations are very sparsely distributed over West Africa, resulting in the necessity to enhance radiosonde observations for the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) experimental period during June-July 2016. Building on the AMMA (African Monsoon - Multidisciplinary Analyses) experience, existing infrastructures, as well as human networks, the upper air network was successfully augmented to a spatial density that is unprecedented for southern West Africa. Altogether, more than 750 experimental radiosondes were launched at seven stations in three countries along the Guinea Coast. From its outset, the DACCIWA radiosonde campaign had three pillars: (a) enhancing soundings at operational or quiescent AMMA radiosonde stations; (b) launching sondes at DACCIWA supersites and two additional DACCIWA field sites; and (c) collecting standard and - if possible - high-resolution data from other operational RS stations. In terms of (a), it was found during preparing recce visits to West Africa, that the AMMA-activated stations of Cotonou (Benin) and Abuja (Nigeria) were operational though almost "invisible" on the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Teleconnection System (GTS). These and other AMMA legacies facilitated the implementation of enhanced, four-times daily soundings at Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou and Parakou (both Benin). Two well-instrumented DACCIWA ground sites at Kumasi (Ghana) and Savé (Benin) performed 06 UTC soundings, being enhanced to four-times daily ascents during fifteen Intensive Observing Periods (IOPs). In addition, research staff and students from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and African partners conducted up to five-times daily soundings at Lamto (Ivory Coast) and Accra (Ghana). Almost all of the experimental DACCIWA ascents were submitted to the GTS in real time and assimilated at least at three European numerical weather prediction centres that helped to improve their

  9. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one substance or a combination of substances. These substances include organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and a vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights.

  10. Vaccination against pneumococcus in West Africa: perspectives and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkor ES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric S Donkor,1 Nicholas TKD Dayie,1,2 Ebenezer V Badoe3 1Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana Background: Pneumococcal vaccination has become obligatory due to the enormous burden of pneumococcal diseases. Quite recently, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been developed, and have been shown to be superior to the previous polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine of the organism. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are being introduced in many West African countries and it is important to understand the expected performance, relevance, and limitations of these vaccines in the subregion. Aim: The objective of the study presented here was to provide epidemiological insights into PCVs in West Africa based on the prevailing pneumococcal serotypes in the subregion. Methods: A systematic review was carried out on pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive and noninvasive diseases in West Africa. Studies included in the review were those that reported at least 20 serotyped pneumococcal isolates and which were conducted prior to the introduction of PCVs in the region in 2009. The proportion of pneumococcal disease associated with each serotype as well as the serotype coverage of various PCVs (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were calculated. Results: The data covered 718 serotyped pneumococcal isolates from six West African countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and The Gambia. The 718 isolates covered more than 20 serotypes. Serotype 1 was the most prevalent serotype (32%, followed by serotype 5 (15%, serotype 6 (7%, serotype 2 (6%, serotype 3 (6%, and serotype 12 (5%. The estimated serotype coverage of PCVs among the West African countries was 2%–36% for PCV7, 39%–80% for PCV10, and 65%–87% for PCV13

  11. Energy Reform for West Africa in Climate Change Crisis Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C.; Kasei, R.

    2009-04-01

    UNFCCC reports indicate that those who are least responsible for climate change are also the most vulnerable to its projected impacts. In no place is this more evident than in Sub-Saharan Africa, where greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are negligible from a global scale. In Africa, energy demands could be the major factor that may lead to the increase of its emissions in the very near future. Forests are being lost for domestic energy, Oil produced energy increases carbon foot prints and Hydropower is unreliable due to uncertainties in rainfall patterns. By 2004, the energy consumption mix of West Africa was dominated by oil (58%) followed by natural gas (38%) and hydroelectric (8%) with coal and other energy forms not part of the mix. (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Rainfall and Global radiation using the Armstrong method was analyzed for sites in Nigeria and Ghana. A cost-benefit of the energy productions is presented.

  12. Mapping malaria transmission in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemperli, Armin; Sogoba, Nafomon; Fondjo, Etienne; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Bagayoko, Magaran; Briët, Olivier J T; Anderegg, Dan; Liebe, Jens; Smith, Tom; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2006-07-01

    We have produced maps of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in West and Central Africa using the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) database comprising all malaria prevalence surveys in these regions that could be geolocated. The 1846 malaria surveys analysed were carried out during different seasons, and were reported using different age groupings of the human population. To allow comparison between these, we used the Garki malaria transmission model to convert the malaria prevalence data at each of the 976 locations sampled to a single estimate of transmission intensity E, making use of a seasonality model based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperature and rainfall data. We fitted a Bayesian geostatistical model to E using further environmental covariates and applied Bayesian kriging to obtain smooth maps of E and hence of age-specific prevalence. The product is the first detailed empirical map of variations in malaria transmission intensity that includes Central Africa. It has been validated by expert opinion and in general confirms known patterns of malaria transmission, providing a baseline against which interventions such as insecticide-treated nets programmes and trends in drug resistance can be evaluated. There is considerable geographical variation in the precision of the model estimates and, in some parts of West Africa, the predictions differ substantially from those of other risk maps. The consequent uncertainties indicate zones where further survey data are needed most urgently. Malaria risk maps based on compilations of heterogeneous survey data are highly sensitive to the analytical methodology.

  13. Special report: West Africa. Migration factor makes regional approach essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Although only several countries in West Africa have credible estimates of the prevalence of HIV, and no reliable data is available for the large population of Nigeria, HIV is known to be widespread in a few countries and foci in the region. It also seems that HIV infection rates in West Africa are lower than those recorded in southern, eastern, and central Africa, probably because HIV arrived late to the region. There is much international migration in West Africa among fishermen, traders, farmers, other migrant workers, and refugees. An estimated 3% of the region's population therefore lives in camps and temporary accommodations while they are away from their families and communities. These migrants, mainly men, have sex with female prostitutes while traveling and in their temporary places of residence. Those men who contract HIV then transmit the virus to other short- and long-term sex partners at their temporary places of residence and in their places of origin. The profile of the AIDS epidemic in West Africa is therefore shaped by international migration. Cote d'Ivoire, the main country of immigration, has by far the highest HIV prevalence. Infection is widespread throughout the country, with distinct foci at Abidjan and the agro-industrial centers of Daloa and Bouake, the most attractive destinations for migrants. The male:female ratio of reported AIDS cases is 2:1 even though HIV is spread almost exclusively through heterosexual contact. Despite the lack of reliable HIV or AIDS statistics for rural Burkina Faso, AIDS appears to be widespread among the families of seasonal migrants in domestic rural areas. Many village women in Ghana have worked as prostitutes in Cote d'Ivoire, so unusually high levels of HIV and AIDS may also be found in the rural areas of Ghana. The author stresses the need for a regional approach to meet the needs of migrants before, during, and after migration in the interest of curbing the spread of HIV. Politicians must avoid the

  14. WRF/ARPEGE-CLIMAT simulated climate trends over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigaud, N.; Roucou, P.; Fontaine, B.; Sijikumar, S.; Tyteca, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Weather Regional Forecast (WRF) model is used in this study to downscale low-resolution data over West Africa. First, the performance of the regional model is estimated through contemporary period experiments (1981-1990) forced by ARPEGE-CLIMAT GCM output (ARPEGE) and ERA-40 re-analyses. Key features of the West African monsoon circulation are reasonably well represented. WRF atmospheric dynamics and summer rainfall compare better to observations than ARPEGE forcing data. WRF simulated moisture transport over West Africa is also consistent in both structure and variability with re-analyses, emphasizing the substantial role played by the West African Monsoon (WAM) and African Easterly Jet (AEJ) flows. The statistical significance of potential climate changes for the A2 scenario between 2032 and 2041 is enhanced in the downscaling from ARPEGE by the regional experiments, with substantial rainfall increases over the Guinea Gulf and eastern Sahel. Future scenario WRF simulations are characterized by higher temperatures over the eastern Tropical Atlantic suggesting more evaporation available locally. This leads to increased moisture advection towards eastern regions of the Guinea Gulf where rainfall is enhanced through a strengthened WAM flow, supporting surface moisture convergence over West Africa. Warmer conditions over both the Mediterranean region and northeastern Sahel could also participate in enhancing moisture transport within the AEJ. The strengthening of the thermal gradient between the Sahara and Guinean regions, particularly pronounced north of 10°N, would support an intensification of the AEJ northwards, given the dependance of the jet to the position/intensity of the meridional gradient. In turn, mid-tropospheric moisture divergence tends to be favored within the AEJ region supporting southwards deflection of moist air and contributing to deep moist convection over the Sahel where late summer rainfall regimes are sustained in the context of the A2

  15. The spectrum of skin diseases in a rural setting in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissek Anne-Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin disorders are generally considered to be more prevalent in the rural areas of Cameroon. This study was carried out to verify this assumption by describing the spectrum of skin disorders in a rural setting of Cameroon. Methods We carried out a community-based clinical skin examination of 400 consenting subjects from 4 villages of Cameroon: Nyamanga (27%, Yebekolo (24%, Mbangassina (23% and Bilomo (26%. Results The overall prevalence of skin diseases in our sample was 62% {95% CI: 57.2%, 66.8%} (248/400. The commonest skin disorders were: fungal infections (25.4%, parasitic infestations (21.4%, atrophic skin disorders (11.7%, hypertrophic skin disorders (9.7%, disorders of skin appendages {acne} (8.9%, benign neoplasm (6.5%, bacterial skin infections (5.2%, pigmentation disorders (4.8%, and dermatitis/eczema (4.0%. Skin infections and infestations constituted 52.82% of all skin disorders. The overall prevalence of infectious and parasitic infestation was 32.75% {95%CI: 28.17%, 37.59%} (131/400 as against 29.25% {95%CI: 24.83%, 33.98%} (117/400 for non-infectious disorders. Among people with skin infections/parasitic infestations, those with fungal infections and onchocercal skin lesions were the most prevalent, accounting for 48.1% (63/131 and 35.1% (46/131; and an overall prevalence of 15.75% {95%CI: 12.3%, 19.7%} (63/400 and 11.5% {95%CI: 8.5%, 15.0%} (46/400 respectively. There was secondary bacterial infection in 12.1% {95%CI: 8.31%, 16.82%} (30/248 of subjects with skin diseases. Hypertrophic and atrophic disorders of the skin were mainly keloids (9.68%, scarification marks (6.05% and burn scars (5.65%. Skin diseases like dermatitis and eczema (4.03%, malignant tumours and pigmentation disorders were rare in our sample. The proportion of subjects diagnosed with skin disorders after examination (62.8% was significantly higher than the proportion of 40.8% that declared having skin diseases (p  Conclusion The

  16. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  17. Microbiological water quality monitoring in a resource-limited urban area: a study in Cameroon, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Nelson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In resource-limited developing nations, such as Cameroon, the expense of modern water-quality monitoring techniques is prohibitive to frequent water testing, as is done in the developed world. Inexpensive, shelf-stable 3M™ Petrifilm™ Escherichia coli/Coliform Count Plates potentially can provide significant opportunity for routine water-quality monitoring in the absence of infrastructure for state-of-the-art testing. We used shelf-stable E. coli/coliform culture plates to assess the water quality at twenty sampling sites in Kumbo, Cameroon. Culture results from treated and untreated sources were compared to modern bacterial DNA pyrosequencing methods using established bioinformatics and statistical tools. Petrifilms were reproducible between replicates and sampling dates. Additionally, cultivation on Petrifilms suggests that treatment by the Kumbo Water Authority (KWA greatly improves water quality as compared with untreated river and rainwater. The majority of sequences detected were representative of common water and soil microbes, with a minority of sequences (<40% identified as belonging to genera common in fecal matter and/or causes of human disease. Water sources had variable DNA sequence counts that correlated significantly with the culture count data and may therefore be a proxy for bacterial load. Although the KWA does not meet Western standards for water quality (less than one coliform per 100 mL, KWA piped water is safer than locally available alternative water sources such as river and rainwater. The culture-based technology described is easily transferrable to resource-limited areas and provides local water authorities with valuable microbiological safety information with potential to protect public health in developing nations.

  18. Medicine sellers' perspectives on their role in providing health care in North-West Cameroon: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R; Chandler, C R; Mangham-Jefferies, L J; Mbacham, W

    2013-09-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of medicine sellers in low-resource settings has emerged alongside assumptions that their motives and capacities primarily relate to profit maximization. This article suggests a need to reframe thinking about the role of medicine sellers in developing country health systems. We used in-depth interviews to explore perceptions of medicine seller roles among a restricted random sample of 20 medicine sellers in North-West Cameroon. Interviews and analysis explored self-perception of their work/role, community perceptions, skills and knowledge, regulation, future plans, links with the formal health system and diversity among medicine sellers. Medicine sellers in our study were a varied, yet distinct group. They saw themselves as closely integrated in the social and medical landscapes of clients. Although some client interactions were described as simple sales, many respondents presented themselves as gatekeepers of medicines and knowledge, reflecting a conceptualization of the distinctness of medicines over other commodities. Acknowledgement of limits in knowledge and resources led to recognition of the need for formal healthcare providers and justified a restricted scope of practice and the need for referral. Motivation was derived from a desire for both financial and social capital combined with a proximity to medicines and repeated exposure to ill health. Legitimacy was perceived to be derived from: a historical mandate; informal and formal training and effective 'community regulation'. The distinct role that medicine sellers describe themselves as occupying in this study area can be characterized as provision of 'first aid', urgent, reactive and sometimes providing intermediate care prior to referral. Medicine sellers suggest that they do not aspire to be doctors and emphasize the complementary, rather than competitive, nature of their relationship with formal providers. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of

  19. "I eat to be happy, to be strong, and to live." perceptions of rural and urban adolescents in Cameroon, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapi, Léonie N; Omoloko, Cécile; Janlert, Urban; Dahlgren, Lars; Håglin, Lena

    2007-01-01

    To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa. Qualitative in-depth interviews. Yaoundé urban and Bandja rural areas. Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural areas. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Grounded Theory method. Factors influencing adolescents' food perceptions from the rural area were "to live" "health" and "poverty." Among adolescents from the urban poor area, "health," "beauty," and "not enough money" were factors. Among adolescents from the urban rich area, "pleasure" and "beauty" were factors. Rural girls liked "to be fat," whereas girls from the urban poor wanted "to be a little bit fat," and girls from the urban rich wanted "to be normal." Food behavior is changing from a diet composed of traditional food in rural areas to a more westernized diet in urban areas. The relationship between socioeconomic factors and nutrition needs to be examined with a sufficiently large number of adolescents to investigate these factors in a quantitative survey. Healthful local food should be available at home and from vendors. Nutrition education about food and diet-related diseases is needed in school.

  20. Laboratory Response to Ebola - West Africa and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Tara K; Erickson, Bobbie R; Taboy, Céline H; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Andrews, Sharon E; Rose, Laura E; Weirich, Elizabeth; Lowe, Luis; Klena, John D; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Rayfield, Mark A; Bird, Brian H

    2016-07-08

    The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa highlighted the need to maintain organized laboratory systems or networks that can be effectively reorganized to implement new diagnostic strategies and laboratory services in response to large-scale events. Although previous Ebola outbreaks enabled establishment of critical laboratory practice safeguards and diagnostic procedures, this Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for planning and preparedness activities that are better adapted to emerging pathogens or to pathogens that have attracted little commercial interest. The crisis underscored the need for better mechanisms to streamline development and evaluation of new diagnostic assays, transfer of material and specimens between countries and organizations, and improved processes for rapidly deploying health workers with specific laboratory expertise. The challenges and events of the outbreak forced laboratorians to examine not only the comprehensive capacities of existing national laboratory systems to recognize and respond to events, but also their sustainability over time and the mechanisms that need to be pre-established to ensure effective response. Critical to this assessment was the recognition of how response activities (i.e., infrastructure support, logistics, and workforce supplementation) can be used or repurposed to support the strengthening of national laboratory systems during the postevent transition to capacity building and recovery. This report compares CDC's domestic and international laboratory response engagements and lessons learned that can improve future responses in support of the International Health Regulations and Global Health Security Agenda initiatives.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  1. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  2. Telecommunications companies and health in West Africa: the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankri, R; Maroune, M-H

    2017-11-01

    West Africa still faces important public health issues today: improving the health infrastructure, compensating for the lack of medical personnel, and bringing the rural "lost-to-follow-up" population into an inclusive healthcare system. At the same time, the boom in the mobile telephone market is providing important business opportunities for telecommunications companies in this field, leading to the rapid propagation of eHealth solutions. Thus, the telecom companies' technical innovations enable the creation of digital health solutions adapted to the specific needs of the West African market. The companies can thus increase their business through eHealth and simultaneously generate positive externalities (a healthier population), meeting the goals of their corporate social responsibility policies. We will see how these companies, aware of this opportunity, build these solutions and they meet the challenges they will confront.

  3. US foreign policy towards West Africa after September 11 attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Akinwande, FO

    2014-01-01

    The United States foreign policy towards West Africa experienced a significant shift after the terrorist attacks of US strategic institutions in September 11, 2001. This was marked by the securitization of US foreign policy beyond the military-security context of security into other aspects of US security strategy after the Cold War. In that context, political, economic and environmental sectors became part of US security agenda, as reflected in the post-9/11 US\\ud War on Terror in global reg...

  4. Vulnerability to Climate Change of Mangroves: Assessment from Cameroon, Central Africa

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    Isabella Zouh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal mangrove ecosystems are sensitive to climate change impacts, particularly to associated relative sea level rise. Human stressors and low tidal range add to vulnerability, both characteristics of the Doula Estuary, Cameroon. To investigate vulnerability, spatial techniques were combined with ground surveys to map distributions of mangrove zones, and compare with historical spatial records to quantify change over the last few decades. Low technology techniques were used to establish the tidal range and relative elevation of the mapped mangrove area. Stratigraphic coring and palaeobiological reconstruction were used to show the longer term biological history of mangroves and net sedimentation rate, and oral history surveys of local communities were used to provide evidence of recent change and identify possible causes. Results showed that the seaward edge of mangroves had over two thirds of the shoreline experienced dieback at up to 3 m per year over the last three decades, and an offshore mangrove island had suffered 89% loss. Results also showed low net sedimentation rates under seaward edge mangroves, and restricted intertidal elevation habitats of all mangroves, and Avicennia and Laguncularia in particular. To reduce vulnerability, adaptation planning can be improved by reducing the non-climate stressors on the mangrove area, particularly those resulting from human impacts. Other priorities for adaptation planning in mangrove areas that are located in such low tidal range regions are to plan inland migration areas and strategic protected areas for mangroves, and to undertake management activities that enhance accretion within the mangroves.

  5. Effects of the Boko Haram Insurgency Group in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Point Value TOTAL 2000 2008 2010 2014 TOTAL XX XXX TOTAL AGG XXX Source: Created by author. Table 2...Nigeria-regains- border-town-after-Chadian-military-assault- video ; Bate Felix, “Cameroon says Chad to send large military contingent to fight Boko...http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2015/0130/Boko-Haram-Nigeria- regains-border-town-after-Chadian-military-assault- video . Seiff, Kevin. “The

  6. An oceanography summer school in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Johnson, W.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Nyarko, E.

    2016-02-01

    Because oceanography is a global science, it clearly benefits from the existence of a world-wide network of oceanographers. As with most STEM disciplines, sub-Saharan Africa is not as well represented in the field of oceanography as it should be, given its large population. The need for oceanographers in sub-Saharan Africa is great, due to a long list of ocean-related issues affecting African development, including but not limited to fishing, oil drilling, sea level rise, coastal erosion, shipping, and piracy. We view this as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Many of the world's fastest growing economies are in sub-Saharan Africa, and STEM capacity building could further fuel this growth. With support from the US National Science Foundation, we ran an oceanography summer school from August 24-27, 2015, at the Regional Maritime University (RMU) in Ghana, West Africa. This first summer school was lecture-based, with a focus on basic chemical oceanography, basic physical oceanography, ocean modeling, and satellite oceanography. About 35 participants came to almost every lecture, and about 20 other participants came to some of the lectures as their time permitted. The participants included RMU faculty, 12 students from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, one Associate Oceanographer from the University of Ghana, and some participants from private sector companies and Ghanaian governmental agencies. There were long and lively discussions at the end of each lecture, and there was a lengthy discussion at the conclusion of the school on how to improve future summer schools. In 2016 and 2017, we plan to divide into smaller groups so that participants can pursue their particular interests in greater depth, and to allow time for student presentations. We also plan to begin exploring the potential for research partnerships, and to utilize distance learning to involve more faculty and students from locations throughout Ghana and perhaps from even other

  7. Climate change impacts on runoff in West Africa: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, P.; Ducharne, A.; Feyen, L.

    2014-07-01

    This review summarizes the impacts of climate change on runoff in West Africa, assesses the uncertainty in the projections and describes future research needs for the region. To do so, we constitute a meta-database made of 19 studies and 301 future runoff change values. The future tendency in streamflow developments is overall very uncertain (median of the 301 points is 0% and mean +5.2%), except for (i) the Gambia River, which exhibits a significant negative change (median = -4.5%), and (ii) the Sassandra and the Niger rivers, where the change is positive (+14.4% and +6.1%). A correlation analysis revealed that runoff changes are tightly linked to changes in rainfall (R = 0.49), and to a smaller extent also to changes in potential evapotranspiration. Other parameters than climate - such as the carbon effect on plant water efficiency, land use dynamics or water withdrawals - could also significantly impact on runoff, but they generally do not offset the effects of climate change. In view of the potential changes, the large uncertainty therein and the high vulnerability of the region to such changes, there is an urgent need for integrated studies that quantify the potential effects of these processes on water resources in West Africa and for more accuracy in climate models rainfall projections. We especially underline the lack of information concerning projections of future floods and droughts, and of interannual fluctuations in streamflow.

  8. Climatology of radar anomalous propagation over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Tchawoua, Clément; Lopez, Philippe; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive examination of 5 years of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data from T511 L60 version of the ECMWF model to determine ducting conditions over West Africa and the computation of statistical distributions of the vertical gradient of refractivity determined from 2 years of radiosonde data over Dakar (14.41°N, 17.26°W), Douala (4°N, 9.7°E) and Niamey (13.35°N, 2.03°E) were carried out. It is found that diurnal and seasonal variations of the refractivity of the atmosphere are influenced by air temperature and water vapor pressure fluctuation. Refractivity gradients lower than -157 km-1 often results in spurious returned echoes and misinterpretation of radar images such as erroneous precipitation detection. The results obtained show that the local climate has an appreciable influence on the vertical profile of refractivity, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Discontinuity which is associated with the alternance of wet and dry seasons over the region. It is found that most of ducts occur in the night, morning (0000, 0600 UTC) and late afternoon (1800 UTC). The occurrence probability of abnormal propagation events, such as ducts, can provide some valuable information about the propagation of electromagnetic waves over West Africa.

  9. Economics of malaria prevention in US travelers to West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R; LaRocque, Regina C; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T; Meltzer, Martin I

    2014-01-01

    Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectives: the healthcare payer's and the traveler's. We used data from the Global TravEpiNet network of US travel clinics that collect de-identified pretravel data for international travelers. Disease risk and chemoprophylaxis effectiveness were estimated from published medical reports. Direct medical costs were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and published literature. We analyzed 1029 records from January 2009 to January 2011. Assuming full adherence to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country. Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations and prophylactic regimens in West Africa. This is a potential incentive to healthcare payers to offer consistent pretravel preventive care to travelers. This financial benefit complements the medical benefit of reducing the risk of malaria.

  10. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  11. Monkeypox and whitepox viruses in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, I; Henderson, D A

    1976-01-01

    Prospects for the eradication of smallpox are now highly encouraging. With the cessation of man-to-man transmission, the question of possible animal reservoirs of smallpox becomes increasingly important. During the period 1970-1975, 20 cases of a smallpox-like disease were detected in smallpox-free areas of tropical rain forest in West and Central Africa. Epidemiological and virological investigations revealed that the disease was caused by an animal poxvirus termed monkeypox virus, a member of the orthopox virus group. The disease spread with difficulty even among susceptible close contacts and does not appear to be sufficiently transmissible to permit continuing infection to become established in man. During the investigations, four orthopox viruses termed whitepox viruses were isolated from rodents and monkeys. The isolates were not distinguishable from variola virus with currently available laboratory techniques, but there is no evidence so far that viruses of this group have infected man. Although there is now substantial and accumulating evidence that there is no animal reservoir for smallpox, continued surveillance and studies in West and Central Africa are warranted.

  12. Depths to major density contrats beneath the West African rift system in Nigeria and Cameroon based on the spectral analysis of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhead, J. D.; Okereke, C. S.

    Estimates of depth to major density contrats within the lithosphere have been made, over the West African Rift System and adjacent basement areas in Nigeria and Cameroon, based on the spectral analysis of the Bouguer gravity field. The study reveals that three main density discontinuities occur in the depth ranges 7 to 12 km, 19 to 30 km and 80 to 93 km. The shallow crustal density discontinuities reflect a range of geological structures associated with the rift zones, shear zones and cratonic margins. The 19 to 30 km depth range is in good agreement with the Moho' depths determined by seismic refraction studies beneath and to the south of the Yola Rift in Cameroon and by East-West gravity modelling profiles across the Benue Trough in Nigeria. The deepest density discontinuities observed at 80 to 93 km depth are compatible with the presence of an anomalous low velocity upper mantle structure at these depths deduced from the inversion of teleseismic travel time residuals. The spectral analysis of gravity data can thus provide reliable first order estimates of depth to density discontinuities within the lithosphere beneath a rifted continental plate where such density variations would be expected.

  13. Vegetation structure, carbon sequestration potential and species conservation in four agroforestry systems in Cameroon (Tropical Africa

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    Valery Noiha Noumi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As the rate of forest degradation continues to rise, agroforestry may serve as a way of conserving species and carbon sinks. The aim of this study was to assess agrobiodiversity and carbon sequestration potential in agrosystems in Cameroon. Three age groups of agrosystems were studied. Data were collected in 100x50 m2 quadrates. Density ranged from 53.17±0.08 to 1463±50.11; basal area from 2.07±0.00 to 988.39±16.13 m2/ha; Shannon diversity from 3.3±0.71 to 3.68±0.72; Carbon storage from 12.1±0.27 to 54.65±1.38 t C/ha for 1-10-year-old agrosystems with lowest values in neem; 34.78±0.87 to 71.34±1.6 t C/ha for 10-20-year-old stands with lowest values in cashew; 28.24±0.04 to 108.51±2.46 t C/ha for +20-year-old stands with highest values in eucalyptus; Carbon sequestration potential from 296.7±1.98 to 859.33±10.01 t CO2eq/ha. The highest carbon stocks were found in eucalyptus stands (p<0.05. Several endogenous species, especially Afzelia bipindensis (EN, Leptoderris ledermannii (EN, Mansonia altissima (EN, Entandrophragma cylindricum (VU, Nesogordonia papaverifera (VU, Quassia sanguinea (VU, Vitellaria paradoxa (VU, Afzelia africana (VU, Erythrina senegalensis (LC, Detarium microcarpum (LC, senna spectabilis (LC, were assessed. Other overexploited species, especially Carissa edulis, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Adansonia digitata, Securidaca longepedonculata, were assessed as well. The studied systems are significant CO2eq sinks and refuge centre for agrobiodiversity.

  14. Reference, Coherence and Complexity in Students' Academic Writing: Examples from Cameroon and East-Africa Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Josef; Nkemleke, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This contribution discusses problems of students' academic writing in Africa. It sketches the wide field of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and argues that reference, coherence and complexity are key concepts for evaluating student writing at university level. It uses material from African corpora to substantiate this claim and to illustrate…

  15. The statistical distribution of aerosol properties in sourthern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Bower, Keith; Dorsey, James; Crawford, Ian; Brito, Joel; Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Borrmann, Stephan; Sauer, Daniel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Lee, James; Vaughan, Adam; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The population and economy in southern West Africa have been growing at an exceptional rate in recent years and this trend is expected to continue, with the population projected to more than double to 800 million by 2050. This will result in a dramatic increase in anthropogenic pollutants, already estimated to have tripled between 1950 and 2000 (Lamarque et al., 2010). It is known that aerosols can modify the radiative properties of clouds. As such, the entrainment of anthropogenic aerosol into the large banks of clouds forming during the onset of the West African Monsoon could have a substantial impact on the region's response to climate change. Such projections, however, are greatly limited by the scarcity of observations in this part of the world. As part of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, three research aircraft were deployed, each carrying equipment capable of measuring aerosol properties in-situ. Instrumentation included Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS), Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2), Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS). Throughout the intensive aircraft campaign, 155 hours of scientific flights covered an area including large parts of Benin, Togo, Ghana and parts of Côte D'Ivoire. Approximately 70 hours were dedicated to the measurement of cloud-aerosol interactions, with many other flights producing data contributing towards this objective. Using datasets collected during this campaign period, it is possible to build a robust statistical understanding of aerosol properties in this region for the first time, including size distributions and optical and chemical properties. Here, we describe preliminary results from aerosol measurements on board the three aircraft. These have been used to describe aerosol properties throughout the region and time period encompassed by the DACCIWA aircraft campaign. Such statistics will be invaluable for improving future

  16. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  17. Childhood Diarrhea Determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross Sectional Study of Tiko-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuk Betrand Tambe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death among children under five years globally. Nearly one in five child deaths, about 1.5 million each year, are due to diarrhea. It kills more young children than Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, malaria and measles combined. World Health Organization has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhea in all geographical areas. The main research objectives were to estimate the prevalence of diarrhea and identify factors associated with diarrheal diseases in Tiko city in Cameroon. Method: The present study was a cross-sectional community household survey which was conducted in Tiko town from 1st to 31st of August 2012. With the use of a questionnaire, a total of 602 households that had at least one child under five years of age were interviewed. Mothers/caregivers were questioned on the morbidity of diarrhea and the logistic regression model was employed to examine the determinants of childhood diarrhea. Both univariable and multivariable data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 23.8% and children under 24 months were highly affected. We found children using the main toilet and other types of toilet facilities such as bushes, diaper, and streams (OR: 0.194; p < 0.001, 95% CI and usage of narrow-mouth container for storage of drinking water (OR: 0.492; p < 0.001, 95% CI less likely to suffer from diarrhea. In contrast, higher rates of diarrhea prevalence were seen in children from households with two or more siblings (OR: 1.222; p < 0.001, 95% CI and whose mothers/caregivers never had the knowledge of safe sources of drinking water (OR: 1.849; p < 0.01, 95% CI. Conclusion: Childhood diarrhea is a public health problem in Tiko city. Hence, interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence should take into consideration the integration of family planning

  18. Characteristics of mid-level clouds over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Elsa; Bouniol, Dominique; Couvreux, Fleur; Guichard, Françoise; Marsham, John; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Birch, Cathryn; Parker, Doug

    2017-04-01

    Clouds have a major impact on the distribution of water and energy fluxes within the atmosphere. They also represent one of the main sources of uncertainties in global climate models as a result of the difficulty to parametrize cloud processes. However, in West Africa, the cloud type, occurrence and radiative effects have not been extensively documented. This region is characterized by a strong seasonality with precipitation occurring in the Sahel from June to September (monsoon season). This period also coincides with the annual maximum of the cloud cover. Taking advantage of the one-year ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment in 2006 in Niamey (Niger), Bouniol et al (2012) documented the distinct cloud types and showed the frequent occurrence of mid-level clouds (around 6 km height) and their substantial impact on the surface short-wave and long-wave radiative fluxes. Furthermore, in a process-oriented evaluation of climate models, Roehrig et al (2013) showed that these mid-level clouds are poorly represented in numerical models. The aim of this work is to document the macro- and microphysical properties of mid-level clouds and the environment in which such clouds occur across West Africa. To document those clouds, we extensively make use of observations from lidar and cloud radar either deployed at ground-based sites (Niamey and Bordj Badji Mokhtar (Sahara)) or on-board the A-Train constellation (CloudSat/CALIPSO). These datasets reveal the temporal and spatial occurrence of those clouds. They are found throughout the year with a predominance around the monsoon season and are preferentially observed in the Southern and Western part of West Africa which could be linked to the dynamics of the Saharan heat low. Those clouds are usually quite thin (most of them are less than 1000m deep). A clustering method applied to this data allows us to identify three different types of clouds : one with low bases, one with high bases and another with large thicknesses. The first

  19. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... Department of Anthropology, Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of South Africa, PO Box 392,. UNISA 0003, South Africa. Abstract. Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the ...

  20. Back to Africa: Second Chances for the Children of West African Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Sow, Papa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of West African parents living in Europe and North America who send their older children back home: from places of high immigrant aspiration to those of hardship and privation. Drawing on a project on West African immigration to Europe and on previous field studies in Africa, we conclude that West African…

  1. Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic poles in the Taoudeni basin (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudzoumou, Florent; Vandamme, Didier; Affaton, Pascal; Gattacceca, Jérôme

    2011-04-01

    A palaeomagnetic study was carried out on Neoproterozoic samples from seven sites of the sub-basins of Gourma and Bobo Dioulasso, which include a Marinoan glaciogenic deposit. Magnetic mineralogy is represented essentially by magnetite and hematite. The mean directions of the sites are calculated on the high temperature component (500-670 °C). Two locations provide data constrained by statistical reversal and fold tests and determining Neoproterozoic virtual geomagnetic poles. The palaeolatitudes display very low values which place the West-African craton in the sub-equatorial position during the Marinoan glaciation. This result enhances the Snowball Earth hypothesis, which places most of the continental landmasses, and notably Africa, at low latitudes during the Neoproterozoic.

  2. Spatial spread of the West Africa Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andrew M; Pulliam, J Tomlin; Alexander, Laura W; Park, Andrew W; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M

    2016-08-01

    Controlling Ebola outbreaks and planning an effective response to future emerging diseases are enhanced by understanding the role of geography in transmission. Here we show how epidemic expansion may be predicted by evaluating the relative probability of alternative epidemic paths. We compared multiple candidate models to characterize the spatial network over which the 2013-2015 West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus spread and estimate the effects of geographical covariates on transmission during peak spread. The best model was a generalized gravity model where the probability of transmission between locations depended on distance, population density and international border closures between Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and neighbouring countries. This model out-performed alternative models based on diffusive spread, the force of infection, mobility estimated from cell phone records and other hypothesized patterns of spread. These findings highlight the importance of integrated geography to epidemic expansion and may contribute to identifying both the most vulnerable unaffected areas and locations of maximum intervention value.

  3. Ebola in West Africa: an international medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Waheed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  4. Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger

  5. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  6. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. We present the first empirical estimates for S. mansoni and S

  7. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP program has successfully carried out its original aims and objectives to equip young professionals with basic principles of public health, management, and leadership, acquire competence in a second official language (French, English, and Portuguese), information and communication technology. Contributing factors towards this successful evaluation included positive ratings and commentary from previous interns about the relevance, usefulness, and quality of the programme, encouraging feedback from WAHO management, trainers, administrators, and intern employers on the impact of the YPIP program on young professionals, supporting evidence that demonstrates increased knowledge in professional skills and language competency.

  8. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine.

  9. Hybrid insolation forcing of Pliocene monsoon dynamics in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Kuechler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene is regarded as a potential analogue for future climate with conditions generally warmer-than-today and higher-than-preindustrial atmospheric CO2 levels. Here we present the first orbitally resolved records of continental hydrology and vegetation changes from West Africa for two Pliocene time intervals (5.0–4.6 Ma, 3.6–3.0 Ma, which we compare with records from the last glacial cycle (Kuechler et al., 2013. Our results indicate that changes in local insolation alone are insufficient to explain the full degree of hydrologic variations. Generally two modes of interacting insolation forcings are observed: during eccentricity maxima, when precession was strong, the West African monsoon was driven by summer insolation; during eccentricity minima, when precession-driven variations in local insolation were minimal, obliquity-driven changes in the summer latitudinal insolation gradient became dominant. This hybrid monsoonal forcing concept explains orbitally controlled tropical climate changes, incorporating the forcing mechanism of latitudinal gradients for the Pliocene, which probably increased in importance during subsequent Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  10. Promotion and Development of Tourism in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Frida-Tolonen, Frida

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is at Promoting and developing tourism in Cameroon. This work will give a broad overview of issues in tourism in Africa and Cameroon, suggesting guidelines to assist countries such as Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria, to develop a more coherent structure for tourism. Tourism can only develop sustainably if it is united into the country’s overall economic, social and physical planning policies and enhancing regional promotion and effective...

  11. Modulation of precipitation over West Africa by equatorial waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Andreas; van der Linden, Roderick; Vogel, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.; Knippertz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Equatorial waves can couple with deep convection and thus modulate rainfall on the synoptic timescale throughout the tropics. Until now, however, no comparative study of the influence of all the different wave types on precipitation has been performed specifically for West Africa. To fill this gap, the following wave types were analyzed for the pre-/post- and full monsoon season (April to October): (1) the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), (2) Kelvin waves, (3) equatorial Rossby waves, (4) eastward-propagating inertia gravity waves, (5) mixed Rossby-gravity waves and (6) tropical disturbances/African Easterly Waves. The different wave types were filtered in the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of outgoing longwave radiation. Eight different wave phases were defined from a phase diagram that can be calculated from the time-derivative of the filtered wave signal. Subsequently, composites of dynamical and thermodynamical fields for each wave phase of the different wave types were plotted using the ERA Interim reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. This way the propagation of the wave can be depicted. All aforementioned wave types, except the fast eastward-propagating inertia gravity wave, show consistent and significant influence on West African rainfall. The influence of the waves can be seen far into the subtropics for some wave types. The expected theoretical structure is confirmed by the analysis of upper- and lower-level divergence, wind and geopotential height. An interaction between the tropical and extratropical regime appears to occur for the MJO and equatorial Rossby waves. The mechanism involved in this interaction, however, is not fully understood. Composites of low-level wind shear, convective available potential energy and mid-level moisture are used to analyze whether waves create favorable conditions for the organization of convection. Additionally, the source regions of moisture were identified using moisture fields and

  12. South West Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantage of a depressed immune system, a state of hormonal imbalance, increased sugar level, stress and consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics to become .... Rotavirus associated diarrhoea in rural. Bangladsh: two-year study of incidence and serotype distribution. Journal of. 10. 11. Clinical Microbiology. 1991 ...

  13. administration in West Africa; International Institute for Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-03-12

    Mar 12, 2003 ... had to move beyond unity to a higher stage of national integration. To attain ..... Economic Space, Public Morality and Social Integration of Youth in Cameroon" in Bryceson, D.F.. (ed), How .... "1 See special Issue of La Nouveile Expression, 1996, p.18 on Minorités, autochtones, allogénes et democratie. '.

  14. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy-Lacaux, C.; Delon, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000-2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NOx and NH3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha-1 yr-1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha-1 yr-1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha-1 yr-1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated by wet plus dry

  15. Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, J. R.; Rogmann, A.; Falk, U.; Nyarko, B. K.; Amisigo, B.; Barry, B.; Vlek, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    In West Africa, the management and efficient use of natural resources is becoming ever more important. This is largely due to steeply increasing demand through population growth and economic development, and through the effects of greater uncertainty due to climate and environmental change. Developing research capacity in these countries is an essential step in enabling them to assess their natural resources independently, and to develop national strategies and policies to manage their natural resources in the light of growing demand and increasing climatic uncertainty. The project “Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa based on the GLOWA Volta Project” (SDRC) is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity in West Africa. The SDRC is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity; and III. strengthening the institutional capacity. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (2000-2009) with a regional focus on the Volta Basin. The tools and models that have been transferred and trained in the framework of GVP and SDRC cover a range of topics, such as modeling the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, hydro-economic modeling, GIS and Remote Sensing, and the training of database managers, to name a few. Infrastructural capacity is developed by the transfer of a micro-meteorological research network to the Meteorological Service of Burkina Faso, joint operation of a tele-transmitted hydrological gauging network with the Hydrological Service of Ghana, and the provision of hard- and software capacity to use the trained models. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a newly established river basin

  16. Recruitment Of International Students Into Cameroon Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the importance of Cameroon\\'s tertiary institutions\\' cooperation links with other African Universities given the rebirth of Organisation of African Unity as African Union, and the New Partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD). The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been ...

  17. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Carter, Timothy F; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, Darcy B; McLaughlin, Patrick J; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Portik, Daniel M; Stanley, Edward L; Tinsley, Richard C; Tobias, Martha L; Blackburn, David C

    2015-01-01

    African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon) to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana) and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups).

  18. Crisis and neoliberal reforms in Africa : civil society and agro-industry in anglophone Cameroon's plantation economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This book discusses the consequences of the economic and financial crisis that befell the Cameroonian agro-industrial sector in the 1980s, using as a case study the plantation economy of the anglophone region of Cameroon. Two agro-industrial enterprises have dominated the plantation sector: a huge

  19. Comparison of male breast carcinoma in the Ibos of West-Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of male breast carcinoma in the Ibos of West-Africa and in their ethnologically linked Hebrews of the Middle East. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or ... The literature was searched for such data in Hebrews.

  20. Drug Development and Conservation of Biodiversity in West and Central Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bacchi, Cyrus

    2004-01-01

    ...) Program, which was headed by the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research (WRAIR). The project involves screening extracts of medicinal plants from Central and West Africa for growth-inhibitory activity vs...

  1. Prevalence of acquired cystic disease in black Africans on hemodialysis in West Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gnionsahe, D A; Lagou, D A; Tia, W M

    2007-01-01

    .... To determine the prevalence of ACKD in black African patients on chronic hemodialysis in West Africa, we examined by ultrasonography the native kidneys of 83 patients from February to August 2002...

  2. A GIS for the management of fisheries in West Africa: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A GIS for the management of fisheries in West Africa: Preliminary application to the ... based on a georeferenced database including data from commercial fishing ... the physical and juridical environment, trawl operations and artisanal fishing ...

  3. Child fostering in West Africa: New perspectives on theory and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alber, E.; Martin, J.; Notermans, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction / Erdmute Alber, Jeannett Martin and Catrien Notermans -- A framework for the analysis of parent roles / Esther Goody -- Adoption, fosterage and marriage / Suzanne Lallemand -- The transfer of belonging: theories on child fostering in West Africa reviewed / Erdmute Alber -- Experiencing

  4. Promoting research to improve maternal, neonatal, infant and adolescent health in West Africa: the role of the West African Health Organisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issiaka Sombie; Aissa Bouwaye; Yves Mongbo; Namoudou Keita; Virgil Lokossou; Ermel Johnson; Laurent Assogba; Xavier Crespin

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has adopted numerous strategies to counter maternal and infant mortality, provides national maternal and infant health programmes, and hosts many active technical and financial partners...

  5. The Impact of Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Changes on Mobility Patterns in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zickgraf, Caroline; Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara; de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Gemenne, François

    2016-01-01

    From the Sahel to the coast, West Africa is experiencing a variety of climate change impacts, including sea level rise, soil salinization, floods, drought, and desertification, while simultaneously suffering from other forms of environmental degradation. Together, these environmental changes are significantly influencing migration patterns in and out of West Africa. This paper seeks to analyze vulnerability and resilience to environmental changes as they affect and are affected by mobility pa...

  6. An empirical analysis of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2017-02-01

    The data for the Ebola outbreak that occurred in 2014-2016 in three countries of West Africa are analysed within a common framework. The analysis is made using the results of an agent based Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model on a Euclidean network, where nodes at a distance l are connected with probability P(l) ∝ l-δ, δ determining the range of the interaction, in addition to nearest neighbors. The cumulative (total) density of infected population here has the form , where the parameters depend on δ and the infection probability q. This form is seen to fit well with the data. Using the best fitting parameters, the time at which the peak is reached is estimated and is shown to be consistent with the data. We also show that in the Euclidean model, one can choose δ and q values which reproduce the data for the three countries qualitatively. These choices are correlated with population density, control schemes and other factors. Comparing the real data and the results from the model one can also estimate the size of the actual population susceptible to the disease. Rescaling the real data a reasonably good quantitative agreement with the simulation results is obtained.

  7. Data Integration for Climate Vulnerability Mapping in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Sherbinin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability mapping reveals areas that are likely to be at greater risk of climate-related disasters in the future. Through integration of climate, biophysical, and socioeconomic data in an overall vulnerability framework, so-called “hotspots” of vulnerability can be identified. These maps can be used as an aid to targeting adaptation and disaster risk management interventions. This paper reviews vulnerability mapping efforts in West Africa conducted under the USAID-funded African and Latin American Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC project. The focus is on the integration of remotely sensed and socioeconomic data. Data inputs included a range of sensor data (e.g., MODIS NDVI, Landsat, SRTM elevation, DMSP-OLS night-time lights as well as high-resolution poverty, conflict, and infrastructure data. Two basic methods were used, one in which each layer was transformed into standardized indicators in an additive approach, and another in which remote sensing data were used to contextualize the results of composite indicators. We assess the benefits and challenges of data integration, and the lessons learned from these mapping exercises.

  8. Boko Haram: a new paradigm to West Africa security challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Alexandrovna Bokeriya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 Boko Haram uprising, it has transformed into a powerful regional terrorist group whose terrorist act of bombing and kidnapping had attracted the world attention. Rapidly Boko Haram has become the second most dreaded terrorist group in the world after Islamic States (ISIS in Iraq and Syria. The group’s tactics shifted and diversified from attacks on government installations to more damning quest through bombings, robberies, kidnappings, assaults on churches and mainstream Muslim targets, leading to occupation of villages and towns, indicating greater confidence and capacity to form a territory within the territory of Nigeria and declare an “Islamic Caliphate” in Nigeria which is their utmost objective. This article reviews the activities of Boko Haram Islamic Militant terror group operating in the northern region of Nigeria, the result of its frequent attacks in the region, governance and economic activities had been brought to a halt. This article also analyses the roles played by international community and the efforts of the Nigeria government in resolving the crisis. The article further points out the continuous attacks of Boko Haram if unchecked its will threaten the relatively peace and security in the West Africa region.

  9. Multi-level governance and adaptive capacity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In most regions in West Africa, livelihoods depend heavily on forest ecosystem goods and services, often in interplay with agricultural and livestock production systems. Numerous drivers of change are creating a range of fundamental economic, ecological, social and political challenges for the governance of forest commons. Climate change and its impacts on countries’ and regions’ development add a new dimension to an already challenging situation. Governance systems are challenged to set a frame for formulating, financing and implementing adaptation strategies at multiple layers, often in a context of ongoing institutional changes such as decentralisation. A deeper understanding of actors, institutions and networks is needed to overcome barriers in socio-ecological systems to adaptation and enable or enhance adaptive capacity. In this paper, we explore the relationship between governance and adaptive capacity, and characterise and assess the effects of a set of variables and indicators related to two core variables: Institutional flexibility, and individual and organisational understandings and perceptions. We present a comparative analysis with multiple methods based on a number of case studies undertaken at different levels in Burkina Faso and Mali. One of the key findings indicates the importance and influence of discourses and narratives, and how they affect adaptive capacity at different levels. Revealing the ideological character of discourses can help to enable adaptive capacity, as it would break the influence of the actors that employ these narratives to pursuit their own interests.

  10. The consecutive dry days to trigger rainfall over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    In order to resolve contradictions in addressing a soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism over West Africa and to clarify the impact of antecedent soil moisture on subsequent rainfall evolution, we first validated various data sets (SMOS satellite soil moisture observations, NOAH land surface model, TRMM rainfall, CMORPH rainfall and HadGEM climate models) with the Analyses Multidisciplinaires de la Mousson Africaine (AMMA) field campaign data. Based on this analysis, it was suggested that biases of data sets might cause contradictions in studying mechanisms. Thus, by taking into account uncertainties in data, it was found that the approach of consecutive dry days (i.e. a relative comparison of time-series) showed consistency across various data sets, while the direct comparison approach for soil moisture state and rainfall did not. Thus, it was discussed that it may be difficult to directly relate rain with soil moisture as the absolute value, however, it may be reasonable to compare a temporal progress of the variables. Based upon the results consistently showing a positive relationship between the consecutive dry days and rainfall, this study supports a negative feedback often neglected by climate model structure. This approach is less sensitive to interpretation errors arising from systematic errors in data sets, as this measures a temporal gradient of soil moisture state.

  11. La Langue francaise en Afrique occidentale francophone (The French Language in West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Emmanuel N.

    This is a reflection on certain aspects of sociolinguistic and linguistic problems of French in West Africa, particularly in Senegal and the Ivory Coast. The sociolinguistic section discusses the role French has played in Africa and still plays vis-a-vis African languages and English. Conditions in which French is used and attitudes both of…

  12. Mobility and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus into rural areas of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, E.; Schim van der Loeff, M.; Enel, C.; Holmgren, B.; Dray-Spira, R.; Pison, G.; Piau, J. P.; Delaunay, V.; M'Boup, S.; Ndoye, I.; Coeuret-Pellicer, M.; Whittle, H.; Aaby, P.

    2003-01-01

    In eastern and southern Africa, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic appeared first in urban centres and then spread to rural areas. Its overall prevalence is lower in West Africa, with the highest levels still found in cities. Rural areas are also threatened, however, because of the

  13. Redescription of Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 (Crustacea: Branchiura) collected on the west coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Nico J; Van As, Liesl L; Van As, Jo G

    2005-01-01

    Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 was originally described from a single female found in a littoral sample from the east coast of South Africa. We present a redescription of this species based on light and scanning electron microscope studies of 25 females collected from the southern mullet Liza richardsonii (Smith) on the west coast of South Africa.

  14. Ebola virus disease control in West Africa: an ecological, one health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2013-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa had similar nuances with the 1976 outbreaks in Central Africa; both were caused by the Zaire Ebola Virus strain and originated from rural forested communities. The definitive reservoir host of Ebola virus still remains unknown till date. However, from ecological ...

  15. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa - the case of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. Key words: Cardiac surgery, open-heart surgery, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiopulmonary bypass ...

  16. 119 Research Article Resistance to European Penetration into Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-22

    Jun 22, 2017 ... Resistance to European Penetration into Africa:The case of the North West Region of Cameroon. MATHEW .... French from their colonial territories in the East ..... men and women. They arrived at Bangante and were not received by Chief Nana and so he continued south-but was attacked by the people.

  17. [Funding of a free healthcare campaign in a rural district of Cameroon: optimizing the role of civil society in sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keugoung, B; Fouelifack Ymele, F; Dongtsa Mabou, J; Nangue, C; Ngouadjio Kougoum, P; Takoudjou, L; Hercot, D; Meli, J

    2013-05-01

    Financial barriers represent a major obstacle to access to health care in sub-Saharan Africa and thus to the implementation of the Bamako Initiative. We describe an experience in which a civil society organization financed a free healthcare campaign in a rural health district in Cameroon. In all, 2,073 patients received free consultations, laboratory tests, and drugs. Adults older than 40 years accounted for 55.7% of all patients. The most frequent diseases were: osteoarticular conditions (24.1%), malaria (20.8%), and intestinal parasitosis (12.5%). In health systems financed mainly by cost recovery, some population needs remain uncovered by health services. There is a need to involve and reinforce the role of civil society in health system financing. It can help to pool more funds and improve the management of health resources to increase financial access to health care for poor people.

  18. Response of the Water Cycle of West Africa and Atlantic to Radiative Forcing by Saharan Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Sud, Yogesh C.; Walker, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of the atmospheric water cycle and climate of West Africa and the Atlantic to radiative forcing of Saharan dust are studied using the NASA finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), coupled to a mixed layer ocean. We find evidence in support of the "elevated heat pump" (EHP) mechanism that underlines the responses of the atmospheric water cycle to dust forcing as follow. During the boreal summer, as a result of large-scale atmospheric feed back triggered by absorbing dust aerosols, rainfall and cloudiness are enhanced over the West Africa/Easter Atlantic ITCZ, and suppressed over the West Atlantic and Caribbean. region. Shortwave radiation absorption by dust warms the atmosphere and cools the surface, while long wave has the opposite response. The elevated dust layer warms the air over Nest Africa and the eastern Atlantic. The condensation heating associated with the induced deep convection drives and maintains an anomalous large-scale east-west overturning circulation with rising motion over West Africa/eastern Atlantic, and sinking motion over the Caribbean region. The response also includes a strengthening of the West African monsoon, manifested in northward shift of the West Africa precipitation over land, increased low-level westerlies flow over West Africa at the southern edge of the dust layer, and a near surface energy fluxes, resulting in cooling of the Nest African land and the eastern Atlantic, and a warming in the West Atlantic and Caribbean. The EHP effect is most effective for moderate to highly absorbing dusts, and becomes minimized for reflecting dust with single scattering albedo at 0.95 or higher.

  19. Quality management: the challenges of regional governance in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osseni Loukoumanou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a total area of 3 509 600 km2 and a population of over 80 340 000 people, the eight WAEMU countries (the West Africa Economic and Monetary Union have many products to offer the international market. These products can be classified into three categories: fishery products, agricultural products, and agro-industrial products resulting from the processing in the first two categories. Despite the real independence of these categories, they share a common thread: efficient quality management. The crux of the matter is efficient quality management which denotes both effective and efficient management of the products. While all the theories of efficiency acknowledge a border between effectiveness and efficiency and highlight the complementarity of the two concepts, it is nonetheless interesting to note that the Russian language combines the two concepts into a single word: “effectivnost”. The efficiency of a quality infrastructure is determined by both its effectiveness and its efficiency since a quality product is one that meets the standards in place, has a number of inherent characteristics that fulfil stated requirements, and can be sold within budget limits set by the consumer. In other words, quality must be managed at a restricted cost so that it is not a source of increased production costs. The formal ratification of the SOAMET (West African Secretariat of Metrology, the NORMCERQ (Regional Body of Standardization, Certification and Quality Promotion and the SOAC (Regional Body of Accreditation by the eight WAEMU countries through the signing of Regulation No. 01/2005/CM/UEMOA (Scheme for the Harmonization of the Activities of Accreditation, Certification, Standardization and Metrology in the WAEMU is a very positive step. Nevertheless, both the successful implementation of this regulation and the quality of work that will derive from these organizations depend on the quality of the human factor, i.e. the competence of the

  20. Criminal fisheries practices and their perverse effects in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Aliou; Nauen, Cornelia E.

    2017-04-01

    Enforcing sustainable use of natural resources is a challenging task for developing countries, although modern earth observation technologies can help. Exploitation of marine living resources is a very demanding show-case for lessons about the problem as well as for insights into possible remedies. The extent of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing reaches very high proportions in West Africa and accounts for approximately half of total extractions according to most recent independent research results by the Sea Around Us Project. Based on field research in Senegal and neighbouring countries, we argue that the scale of illegal practices, needs to be classified as criminal and no longer as a fisheries management problem. The perpetrators are mostly international industrial fleets operating across borders alternating between organised crime and activities within legitimate agreements. This makes persecution particularly difficult for under-resourced authorities in developing countries with insufficient means for monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) and little capacity to use earth observation technology to track exploitation patterns. The net results are firstly significant financial losses for the countries, estimated elsewhere for West African countries except Namibia at US 1.7 billion for the period 2000 to 2010. The perverse social, institutional and environmental effects may even turn out to be more far-reaching. Among these are the reduction of women entrepreneurs in the dynamic local small-scale fishing industry to low-paid labour in industrial processing plants, break down of traditional solidarity chains within the small-scale sector under excessive economic pressure from industrial competition, corruption and other forms of delegitimisation of public institutions and degradation of the marine ecosystems with serious effects on local food security. We discuss these effects in the light of field research carried out mostly in Senegal and

  1. Spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    2018-01-01

    and West Africa there are some obvious difficulties. Just as in urban settings, some natural targets attract repeated attacks; for example, foreign workers in West African capitals or government forces stationed on military bases. Most victims of recent conflicts in the region are, however, civilians...... leverages the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data project (ACLED) dataset that catalogues violent extremist incidents in North and West Africa since 1997. We use these data to generate a form of “social network” whose nodes are administrative regions, an approach similar to the one described by Batagelj...

  2. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  3. Silicone wristbands detect individuals' pesticide exposures in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Carey E; Scott, Richard P; Blaustein, Kathy L; Halbleib, Mary L; Sarr, Makhfousse; Jepson, Paul C; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-08-01

    We detected between 2 and 10 pesticides per person with novel sampling devices worn by 35 participants who were actively engaged in farming in Diender, Senegal. Participants were recruited to wear silicone wristbands for each of two separate periods of up to 5 days. Pesticide exposure profiles were highly individualized with only limited associations with demographic data. Using a 63-pesticide dual-column gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method, we detected pyrethoid insecticides most frequently, followed by organophosphate pesticides which have been linked to adverse health outcomes. This work provides the first report of individualized exposure profiles among smallholder farmers in West Africa, where logistical and practical constraints have prevented the use of more traditional approaches to exposure assessment in the past. The wristbands and associated analytical method enabled detection of a broad range of agricultural, domestic, legacy and current-use pesticides, including esfenvalerate, cypermethrin, lindane, DDT and chlorpyrifos. Participants reported the use of 13 pesticide active ingredients while wearing wristbands. All six of the pesticides that were both reportedly used and included in the analytical method were detected in at least one wristband. An additional 19 pesticide compounds were detected beyond those that were reported to be in use, highlighting the importance of measuring exposure in addition to collecting surveys and self-reported use records. The wristband method is a candidate for more widespread use in pesticide exposure and health monitoring, and in the development of evidence-based policies for human health protection in an area where food security concerns are likely to intensify agricultural production and pesticide use in the near future.

  4. Biome reconstruction from phytolith data for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, L.; Alexandre, A.; Guiot, J.

    2003-04-01

    Global vegetation models such as BIOME3 (Haxeltine and Prentice, 1996) provide a way to translate the outputs from climate model into map of potential vegetation distribution for present, past and future climate scenarios. They can be used in inverse mode, using pollen as a proxy of vegetation input (Jolly and Haxeltine, 1998). Grass-dominated biomes are widespread and numerous on the continents and this range is hardly reflected by the common proxies such as pollen, charcoal and d13C of organic matter. As pollen cannot trace grass subfamilies it is difficult to reconstruct the various grassland biomes. For instance, boundaries between moist and dry savannas cannot be detected. Phytoliths are amorphous silica particles, that precipitate in and/or between cells of living plant tissues. Phytoliths are well preserved in oxidizing environments such as soils or buried soils. Phytoliths are helpful to trace various grass-dominated biomes through four indices mirroring: the tree cover density; the dominant grass subfamily (C3-Festucoideae; C4-tall Panicoideae; C4-short Chloridoideae) and the grass water stress. Surface soil samples were collected in West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal) by Anne-Marie Lezine under various grassland biomes. Phytolith indices are qualitatively compared to vegetation features and bioclimatic data through statistical analysis. The ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration variable commonly used to explain the vegetation distribution at continental or global scale has been estimated through two phytolith indices, with a good reliability. Grassland biomes have been simulated using discriminant function analysis and compared with pollen-derived biomes and BIOME3 output. Phytolith-derived biomes enhances the accuracy of the boundaries of the pollen-derived biomes. This study promote multiproxy approach combining pollen and phytoliths for biome reconstruction.

  5. A re-evaluation of the origin of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Forbi, Joseph C; Sue, Amanda; Layden, Jennifer E; Switzer, William M; Opare-Sem, Ohene K; Phillips, Richard O; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes based on genetic diversity, and most genotypes have been found in Africa. Infections with HCV genotype 2 (HCV2) are most prevalent in West Africa and it was suggested that HCV2 originated in West Africa. To better understand the evolutionary epidemiology of HCV2 in Africa, we examined new NS5B sequences of HCV2 strains obtained from Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria sequenced at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with those available from West, North and Central Africa. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a discrete trait model showed that Ghana was the most likely geographical region for the origin of HCV2. Spread of HCV2 from Ghana did not appear to be through diffusion to adjacent countries along the coast. Rather, it was transmitted from Ghana to many distant countries in Africa, suggesting that certain routes of geographical dissemination were historically more efficient than mere proximity and that the HCV2 epidemic history in West Africa is extremely complex.

  6. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  7. The role of women's secret societies in cameroon's contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there are many secret societies, most of which belong to the male folk in the North West Province of Cameroon, little was and/or is known about their activities. However, Takumbeng, a women's secret society from the North West Province of Cameroon came to prominence in the 1990's during the political upheaval ...

  8. A Ground Deformation Monitoring Approach to Understanding Magma Chamber Systems and Eruptive Cycles of Mount Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.; Clarke, A.

    2005-05-01

    Mount Cameroon is a 13,400ft basanite volcano on the passive margin of West Africa. It has erupted seven times in the past century making it one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Most recently Mount Cameroon erupted in 1999 and 2000 first issuing strombolian explosions from vents near the summit, and later erupting effusively from a fissure running southwest from the summit (Suh et al., 2003). Prior to 2004, the only monitoring equipment on Mount Cameroon was a small seismometer network installed following the 1982 eruption. By 1999 only a single seismometer in the network was functional. Seismic activity did not rise above background levels until the few days immediately preceding the eruption. In an effort to raise awareness of the volcano's condition and provide a more efficient warning of impending eruptions we have begun constructing a ground deformation network on Mount Cameroon. The new network currently consists of two Applied Geomechanics 711-2A(4X) biaxial tiltmeters capable of resolving 0.1 microradians of tilt. One station is located approximately 500 m from the 2000 summit vent, and the other is approximately 1km away from the central fissure approximately 5km southwest of the 2000 summit vent. Three primary processes could precede eruptions at Mt. Cameroon, offering the opportunity for detection and prediction by our network. These processes are magma chamber pressurization, magma ascent via a central conduit, and/or propagation of magma along the central fissure. Magma chamber location, if a significant chamber exists, is poorly constrained, however, previous petrologic studies on Mount Cameroon (Suh et al., 2003; Fitton et al., 1983) suggest Mount Cameroon magmas originate at a depth less than 40km. Published seismic data (Ambeh, 1989) contains evidence of magmatic activity and possible chambers at depths ranging from 10km to 70km. Preliminary calculations using a simple Mogi model suggest deformation caused by pressurization of a large

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Sahara Africa, Angola, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda...

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa...

  11. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report on Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, and Swaziland, contains...

  12. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Laura D.; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  13. Risk maps of Lassa fever in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the period 1965-2007. Information on contemporary environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, vegetation was derived from NASA Terra MODIS satellite sensor data and other sources and for elevation from the GTOPO30 surface for the region from Senegal to the Congo. All multi-temporal data were analysed using temporal Fourier techniques to generate images of means, amplitudes and phases which were used as the predictor variables in the models. In addition, meteorological rainfall data collected between 1951 and 1989 were used to generate a synoptic rainfall surface for the same region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three different analyses (models are presented, one superimposing Lassa fever outbreaks on the mean rainfall surface (Model 1 and the other two using non-linear discriminant analytical techniques. Model 2 selected variables in a step-wise inclusive fashion, and Model 3 used an information-theoretic approach in which many different random combinations of 10 variables were fitted to the Lassa fever data. Three combinations of absenceratiopresence clusters were used in each of Models 2 and 3, the 2 absenceratio1 presence cluster combination giving what appeared to be the best result. Model 1 showed that the recorded outbreaks of Lassa fever in human populations occurred in zones receiving between 1,500 and 3,000 mm rainfall annually. Rainfall, and to a much lesser extent temperature variables, were most strongly selected in both Models 2 and 3, and

  14. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  15. Digital health and the need to develop centers of expertise in sub-Saharan Africa : two examples in Mali and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayoko, C-O; Bediang, G; Anne, A; Niang, M; Traoré, A-K; Geissbuhler, A

    2017-11-01

    It is generally agreed today that digital technology provides a lever for improving access to health care, care processes, and public health planning and activities such as education and prevention. Its use in countries that have reached a given level of development has taken place in a somewhat fragmented manner that raises important interoperability problems and sometimes makes synergy impossible between the different projects of digital health. This may be linked to several factors, principally the lack of a global vision of digital health, and inadequate methodological knowledge that prevents the development and implementation of this vision. The countries of Africa should be able to profit from these errors from the beginnings of digital health, by moving toward systemic approaches, known standards, and tools appropriate to the realities on the ground. The aim of this work is to present the methodological approaches as well as the principal results of two relatively new centers of expertise in Mali and Cameroon intended to cultivate this vision of digital governance in the domain of health and to train professionals to implement the projects. Both centers were created due to initiatives of organizations of civil society. The center in Mali developed toward an economic interest group and then to collaboration with healthcare and university organizations. The same process is underway at the Cameroon center. The principal results from these centers can be enumerated under different aspects linked to research, development, training, and implementation of digital health tools. They have produced dozens of scientific publications, doctoral dissertations, theses, and papers focused especially on subjects such as the medicoeconomic evaluation tools of e-health and health information technology systems. In light of these results, we can conclude that these two centers of expertise have well and truly been established. Their role may be decisive in the local training of

  16. Assessing the role of non-cotton refuges in delaying #Helicoverpa armigera# resistance to Bt cotton in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brévault, Thierry; Nibouche, Samuel; Achaleke, Joseph; Carrière, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Non-cotton host plants without Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can provide refuges that delay resistance to Bt cotton in polyphagous insect pests. It has proven difficult, however, to determine the effective contribution of such refuges and their role in delaying resistance evolution. Here, we used biogeochemical markers to quantify movement of Helicoverpa armigera moths from non-cotton hosts to cotton fields in three agricultural landscapes of the West African cotton belt (Cameroon) where...

  17. Violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: accounts of violence, harm reduction, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sahnah; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Cange, Charles; Papworth, Erin; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Kamla, Aristide; Billong, Serge; Fokam, Pamella; Njindam, Iliassou; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Baral, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Cameroon, and West Africa generally, suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV. Although violence against FSWs has been documented extensively in other parts of the world, data on violence from West African countries are lacking. The aim of this study was to qualitatively document violence and harm reduction strategies from the perspective of FSWs in Cameroon as well as to understand how experiences of violence may increase FSWs' HIV risk. FSWs from 7 major cities in Cameroon (Douala, Yaounde, Bamenda, Bertoua, Nagoundere, Kribi, and Bafoussam) were purposively recruited. Data from 31 in-depth interviews and 7 focus groups (n = 70; with some overlapping participants from in-depth interviews) conducted with these FSWs in 6 of these 7 cities (excluding Kribi) were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Transcripts revealed 3 primary themes related to violence: (1) sources and types of violence, including sexual, physical, and financial violence perpetrated by clients and police, (2) harm reduction strategies, including screening clients and safe work locations, receipt of payment before sexual act, and formation of an informal security network, and (3) recommendations on structural changes to reduce violence that emphasized sex work decriminalization and increased police accountability. As in other parts of the world, violence against FSWs is pervasive in Cameroon. Interventions targeting violence and HIV must address the forms of violence cited locally by FSWs and can build on FSWs' existing strengths and harm reduction strategies. Structural changes are needed to ensure access to justice for this population.

  18. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  19. Detecting and staging podoconiosis cases in North West Cameroon: positive predictive value of clinical screening of patients by community health workers and researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The suitability of using clinical assessment to identify patients with podoconiosis in endemic communities has previously been demonstrated. In this study, we explored the feasibility and accuracy of using Community Health Implementers (CHIs for the large scale clinical screening of the population for podoconiosis in North-west Cameroon. Methods Before a regional podoconiosis mapping, 193 CHIs and 50 health personnel selected from 6 health districts were trained in the clinical diagnosis of the disease. After training, CHIs undertook community screening for podoconiosis patients under health personnel supervision. Identified cases were later re-examined by a research team with experience in the clinical identification of podoconiosis. Results Cases were identified by CHIs with an overall positive predictive value (PPV of 48.5% [34.1–70%]. They were more accurate in detecting advanced stages of the disease compared to early stages; OR 2.07, 95% CI = 1.15–3.73, p = 0.015 for all advanced stages. Accuracy of detecting cases showed statistically significant differences among health districts (χ2 = 25.30, p = 0.0001. Conclusion Podoconiosis being a stigmatized disease, the use of CHIs who are familiar to the community appears appropriate for identifying cases through clinical diagnosis. However, to improve their effectiveness and accuracy, more training, supervision and support are required. More emphasis must be given in identifying early clinical stages and in health districts with relatively lower PPVs.

  20. The West Africa Initiative to Strengthen Capacities through Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These dismal statistics tell the story of a region facing dysfunctional health and social services with a limited capacity to conduct research that informs sound health policies and ... The Science Granting Councils Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa received a Science Diplomacy Award from the Government of South Africa.

  1. Modeling the impact of changes in Atlantic sea surface temperature on the climate of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Mojisola O.

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the impacts of warming/cooling of the Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) on the climate of West Africa using Version 4.4 of Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The 1-2 K cooling and warming of the Atlantic SST both result in tripole temperature and precipitation change structure, having a northwest-southeast orientation over West Africa. Findings reveal that the responses of precipitation and temperature to the Atlantic SST cooling are opposite to those for the Atlantic SST warming and these responses intensify with increased warming/cooling of the Atlantic SST. The structure of the change in climate is attributed to the response of atmospheric/soil moisture gradient and orientation of orography in West Africa.

  2. Hepatitis A virus in West Africa: Is an epidemiological transition beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2014-07-01

    Studies of hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa have generally found very high anti-HAV IgG seroprevalence rates, but economic development and improved drinking water access may be contributing to decreasing incidence. This review evaluates all 19 articles that have been published on HAV epidemiology in West Africa. Nearly all studies conducted before 1990 found that the majority of preschool-aged children had already developed immunity due to prior infection. However, several recent studies have observed that the age at midpoint of population immunity in some urban populations has shifted to school-aged children. There is preliminary evidence that some West-African countries are beginning the transition towards lower hepatitis A endemicity levels. Additional studies of child seroprevalence rates in diverse parts of West Africa are required in order to clarify the extent to which an early transition may be occurring.

  3. future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over west africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Atlantic Ocean Dipole on West African Summer. Precipitation. Journal of Climate, 24: 1184-1197. 2011. [5] Rodrigues, L. R. L., García-Serrano, J. and Doblas-. Reyes, F. Seasonal prediction of the intraseasonal variability of the West African monsoon precipitation. Física de la Tierra. 25: 83-97. 2013. [6] Mahmood, R.; Pielke, ...

  4. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  5. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2015 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  6. What factors might have led to the emergence of Ebola in West Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Alexander

    Full Text Available An Ebola outbreak of unprecedented scope emerged in West Africa in December 2013 and presently continues unabated in the countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Ebola is not new to Africa, and outbreaks have been confirmed as far back as 1976. The current West African Ebola outbreak is the largest ever recorded and differs dramatically from prior outbreaks in its duration, number of people affected, and geographic extent. The emergence of this deadly disease in West Africa invites many questions, foremost among these: why now, and why in West Africa? Here, we review the sociological, ecological, and environmental drivers that might have influenced the emergence of Ebola in this region of Africa and its spread throughout the region. Containment of the West African Ebola outbreak is the most pressing, immediate need. A comprehensive assessment of the drivers of Ebola emergence and sustained human-to-human transmission is also needed in order to prepare other countries for importation or emergence of this disease. Such assessment includes identification of country-level protocols and interagency policies for outbreak detection and rapid response, increased understanding of cultural and traditional risk factors within and between nations, delivery of culturally embedded public health education, and regional coordination and collaboration, particularly with governments and health ministries throughout Africa. Public health education is also urgently needed in countries outside of Africa in order to ensure that risk is properly understood and public concerns do not escalate unnecessarily. To prevent future outbreaks, coordinated, multiscale, early warning systems should be developed that make full use of these integrated assessments, partner with local communities in high-risk areas, and provide clearly defined response recommendations specific to the needs of each community.

  7. Prevalence, determinants and systems-thinking approaches to optimal hypertension control in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Cooper, Richard; Tayo, Bamidele; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Adanu, Richard; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2014-05-21

    In West Africa, hypertension, once rare, has now emerged as a critical health concern and the trajectory is upward and factors are complex. The true magnitude of hypertension in some West African countries, including in-depth knowledge of underlying risk factors is not completely understood. There is also a paucity of research on adequate systems-level approaches designed to mitigate the growing burden of hypertension in the region. In this review, we thematically synthesize available literature pertaining to the prevalence of hypertension in West Africa and discuss factors that influence its diagnosis, treatment and control. We aimed to address the social and structural determinants influencing hypertension in the sub-region including the effects of urbanization, health infrastructure and healthcare workforce. The prevalence of hypertension in West Africa has increased over the past decade and is rising rapidly with an urban-rural gradient that places higher hypertension prevalence on urban settings compared to rural settings. Overall levels of awareness of one's hypertension status remain consistently low in West African. Structural and economic determinants related to conditions of poverty such as insufficient finances have a direct impact on adherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Urbanization contributes to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the sub-region and available evidence indicates that inadequate health infrastructure may act as a barrier to optimal hypertension control in West Africa. Given that optimal hypertension control in West Africa depends on multiple factors that go beyond simply modifying the behaviors of the individuals alone, we conclude by discussing the potential role systems-thinking approaches can play to achieve optimal control in the sub-region. In the context of recent advances in hypertension management including new therapeutic options and innovative solutions to expand health workforce so as to meet the high

  8. Impact of the Indian part of the summer MJO on West Africa using nudged climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohino, Elsa [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Janicot, Serge [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Li, Laurent Z.X. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LMD/IPSL, CNRS, Paris (France)

    2012-06-15

    Observational evidence suggests a link between the summer Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and anomalous convection over West Africa. This link is further studied with the help of the LMDZ atmospheric general circulation model. The approach is based on nudging the model towards the reanalysis in the Asian monsoon region. The simulation successfully captures the convection associated with the summer MJO in the nudging region. Outside this region the model is free to evolve. Over West Africa it simulates convection anomalies that are similar in magnitude, structure, and timing to the observed ones. In accordance with the observations, the simulation shows that 15-20 days after the maximum increase (decrease) of convection in the Indian Ocean there is a significant reduction (increase) in West African convection. The simulation strongly suggests that in addition to the eastward-moving MJO signal, the westward propagation of a convectively coupled equatorial Rossby wave is needed to explain the overall impact of the MJO on convection over West Africa. These results highlight the use of MJO events to potentially predict regional-scale anomalous convection and rainfall spells over West Africa with a time lag of approximately 15-20 days. (orig.)

  9. Public health professionals? perceptions of mental health services in Equatorial Guinea, Central-West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Peter Robert; McGinnis, Shannon Marcail; Reuter, Kim Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mental health disorders constitute 13% of global disease burden, the impacts of which are disproportionality felt in sub-Saharan Africa. Equatorial Guinea, located in Central-West Africa, has the highest per-capita investment in healthcare on the African continent, but only two studies have discussed mental health issues in the country and none of have examined the perspective of professionals working in the field. The purpose of this study was to gain a preliminary understanding...

  10. International trends in health science librarianship part 15: West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulemani, Solomon Bayugo; Afarikumah, Ebenezer; Aggrey, Samuel Bentil; Ajuwon, Grace A; Diallo, Ousmane

    2015-09-01

    This is the 15th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. It is the third of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal). The next feature column will investigate trends in North Africa. JM. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  11. Why do business fails in West Africa : Case Study Of Globacom Nigeria Limited. “GLO”

    OpenAIRE

    Oni, Temitope Olufemi

    2013-01-01

    The high rate at which business collapse in West Africa worries the stakeholders, as many factors were discovered to be militating against the business growth in Africa. Though business failure is a possibility and fact a manager must be acquitted with, incompetence is however the major reason for business failure. The failure of management team of an organization to take strategic approach into all business decision will take a toll on the fortune of the business, in the light of this; this ...

  12. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L.D.; Hooft, van W.F.; Vrieling, K.; Weerd, de D.R.U.; York, D.S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H.H.T.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; Leirs, H.; Haeringen, van W.A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P.N.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique

  13. Dinosaur trackways from the early Late Cretaceous of western Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Menkem, Elie Fosso; Djomeni, Adrien; Fowe, Paul Gustave; Ntamak-Nida, Marie-Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways have rarely been reported in Cretaceous strata across the African continent. To the exception of ichnological occurrences in Morocco, Tunisia, Niger and Cameroon, our knowledge on the composition of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas mostly relies on skeletal evidence. For the first time, we document several dinosaur trackways from the Cretaceous of the Mamfe Basin in western Cameroon. Small and medium-size tridactyl footprints as well as numerous large circular footprints are present on a single horizon showing mudcracks and ripple marks. The age of the locality is considered Cenomanian-Turonian and if confirmed, this ichnological assemblage could be younger than the dinosaur footprints reported from northern Cameroon, and coeval with or younger than skeletal remains reported from the Saharan region. These trackways were left in an adjacent subsiding basin along the southern shore of the Benue Trough during a time of high-sea stand when the Trans-Saharan Seaway was already disconnecting West Africa from the rest of the continent. We predict that other similar track sites may be occurring along the margin of the Benue Trough and may eventually permit to test hypotheses related to provincialism among African dinosaur faunas.

  14. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  15. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Africa | Obioha | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Stenella clymene (Cetacea, Delphinidae) from the Coast of West Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Robineau; Michel Vely; Jacques Maigret

    1994-01-01

    New West African specimens of Stenella clymene, the Clymene dolphin, are evidence that the present unequal distribution of this species in the western and eastern parts of the tropical North Atlantic...

  17. The WASCAL high-resolution climate projection ensemble for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstmann, Harald; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Bliefernicht, Jan; Hamann, Ilse; Salack, Seyni

    2017-04-01

    With climate change being one of the most severe challenges to rural Africa in the 21st century, West Africa is facing an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation measures to protect its constantly growing population. We perform ensemble-based regional climate simulations at a high resolution of 12km for West Africa to allow a scientifically sound derivation of climate change adaptation measures. Based on the RCP4.5 scenario, our ensemble consist of three simulation experiments with the Weather Research & Forecasting Tool (WRF) and one additional experiment with the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling Model COSMO in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM). We discuss the model performance over the validation period 1980-2010, including a novel, station-based precipitation database for West Africa obtained within the WASCAL (West African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) program. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the dynamics of the West African Summer Monsoon and to the added value of our high-resolution models over existing data sets. We further present results on the climate change signal obtained for the two future periods 2020-2050 and 2070-2100 and compare them to current state-of-the-art projections from the CORDEX-Africa project. While the temperature change signal is similar to that obtained within CORDEX-Africa, our simulations predict a wetter future for the Coast of Guinea and the southern Soudano area and a slight drying in the northernmost part of the Sahel.

  18. Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glato, Kodjo; Aidam, Atsou; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Bassirou, Diallo; Couderc, Marie; Zekraoui, Leila; Scarcelli, Nora; Barnaud, Adeline; Vigouroux, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. Here, we focus on the sweet potato. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated 132 varieties along this gradient. Phenotypic data from field trials conducted in three seasons was also obtained. Genetic diversity in West Africa was found to be 18% lower than in America. Genetic diversity in West Africa is structured into five groups, with some groups found in very specific climatic areas, e.g. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. We also observed genetic groups that occur in a wider range of climates. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubed, Colins Kingoum; Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla

    2016-08-22

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding HIV/AIDS is one of the corner stones in the fight against the disease. Youths are most vulnerable to infection because they engage in risky practices due to a lack of adequate information. Thus, evaluating their KAPs will help in designing appropriate prevention strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the KAPs of senior secondary school students in Fako Division, Cameroon, on HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 464 students aged 13-25 years, selected by systematic quota random sampling from some secondary schools in Fako, from April to June 2014, to evaluate their KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS. Participants were drawn from one secondary school in each of the four health districts in Fako. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information about their KAPs on HIV/AIDS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. All respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS. Sources of information varied, the most common being sex education in school. The majority of participants demonstrated an adequate understanding of HIV transmission and prevention. However, misconceptions about routes of transmission were observed in 3.4 to 23.3 % of respondents. Risky behaviors were found among participants as about 60 % practice safe sex and 40 % reported not to. Up to 196 (42.2 %) respondents had a history of sexual intercourse of which 108 (56.25 %) had used a condom during their last three sexual encounters. About half of the respondents had negative views about HIV infected people. Students with medium (34.3 %) and high (62.1 %) levels of knowledge were more likely to display positive attitudes Although statistically not significant, we found that as knowledge increased the ability of respondents to report safer sex decreased (95 % CI, P = 0.922). Students had a satisfactory level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention. Those with adequate knowledge were more likely to display

  20. 77 FR 74265 - In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Unity Movement for Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as...

  1. Understanding the Root Causes of Military Coups and Governmental Instability in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Delavignette, Robert. 1950. Freedom and authority I French West Africa. London, UK: Oxford University Press. Deutsch , Karl ...McGowan. 1984. Explaining African military coups d’etat. American Political Science Review 78: 622-640. Joreskog, Karl G., and Dag Sorbom. 1989. LISREL 7

  2. Ethics and the Internet in West Africa: Toward an Ethical Model of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The whole world is currently undergoing a period of profound change brought about by the development of the worldwide information and communications network, the Internet, which affects every sphere of social life. This book focuses specifically on ethical questions related to the use of the Internet in West Africa.

  3. Cantharus (Pollia) vermeuleni n.sp. (Mollusca, Prosobranchia, Buccinidae) from West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Cantharus (Pollia) vermeuleni n. sp. (Buccinidae) is described from material collected off St. Louis, Senegal, West Africa. Additional specimens from off the Cape Verde Islands and Ghana are recorded. The problems of classification of the genus are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that the species

  4. Social and cultural aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African ...

  5. Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Oueme Basin, Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, R.; Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Gotzinger, J.; Keyzer, M.A.; Pande, S.; Printz, A.; Gaiser, T.

    2009-01-01

    An integrated assessment of groundwater resources in Benin, West Africa was performed within the framework of the EC-funded research project RIVERTWIN (www.rivertwin.org). The assessment included a spatial analysis of groundwater relevant parameters taken from more than 4000 wells stored in a

  6. Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solem, A.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described

  7. Social justice in the face of early marriages in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social justice in the face of early marriages in West Africa. In Senegal and the Ivory Coast, current statistics show that the average age of marriage for girls has risen to over 18 years. However, evaluations of programs that fight early marriage in these countries reveal that these statistics hide significant variations, particularly ...

  8. Surface Fluxes and Characteristics of Drying Semi-Arid Terrain in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüttemeyer, D.; Moene, A.F.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Giesen, van de N.C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the seasonal cycle of the components of the surface energy balance in the Volta basin in West Africa as part of the GLOWA-Volta project. The regional climate is characterized by a strong north¿south gradient of mean annual rainfall and the occurrence of pronounced dry and wet

  9. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  10. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of

  11. Satellite-Based actual evapotranspiration over drying semiarid terrain in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttemeyer, D.; Schillings, Ch.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink¿s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in 2002 at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern region. The required input for the

  12. The west coast of southern Africa has historically been a lucrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    was 28.6 km and the mean time at liberty was 241.8 days. In recent years, densities of J. lalandii have increased substantially at the south-eastern end of their geographic range. The data indicate that this could not be at- tributable to a population migration of adult male rock lobsters from the west coast of South Africa.

  13. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  14. Pathway for agricultural science impact in West Africa: lessons from the Convergence of Sciences programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, S.; Röling, N.; Huis, van A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of agricultural research on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa has been disappointing. This article reports on research on agricultural research that sought to identify an alternative pathway of science that would lead to greater impact. It is based on the analysis of

  15. Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggleton, P.; Bignell, D.E.; Hauser, S.; Dibog, L.; Norgrove, L.; Madong, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data are presented for termite assemblages across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West and Central Africa. Sampling was by standardised 100 mx2 m transects in: primary forest, several ages of regenerating forest, agroforestry plots, short fallows, mixed food crop

  16. Islamism: What is New, What is Not? Lessons from West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hitherto the monopoly of a few Orientalists, Islamic studies soon became a multidisciplinary field, attracting experts across the spectrum of the social sciences and the humanities, and indeed beyond academia, and many studies were carried out on Islamism. This article, which focuses on West Africa, questions some of the ...

  17. Impact of HIV/aids epidemic on human capital development in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauda, Rasaki Stephen

    2018-01-12

    West Africa occupies the third position with respect to the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) globally, after Southern and East Africa. About 5 million adults and children are infected with the disease in the subregion, while HIV prevalence in the general population hovers around 2% and 5%. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development in 11 West African countries over the period 1990 to 2011. The study used a dynamic panel data modeling approach, using first difference, difference generalized methods of moment, and system generalized methods of moment estimating techniques. Four measures of HIV/AIDS and 2 human capital measures were used in the study. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS pandemic had negative and significant impact on human capital in West Africa. However, the statistical significance was more pronounced on life expectancy (a measure of human capital), while the negative impact on school enrolment (another human capital measure) was not significant. It is therefore recommended that the spread of HIV/AIDS disease in West Africa should be effectively controlled, while the number of infected persons undergoing antiretroviral therapy in the subregion should be increased to a near 100% coverage. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Maternal and adolescent health in West Africa: Toward low-cost ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maternal and adolescent health in West Africa: Toward low-cost reforms grounded in reality. High numbers of women and adolescent girls continue to ... Researchers will draw lessons from 20 years of reform efforts and from users' and health workers' experiences at the local level. LASDEL will also identify health system ...

  19. Characteristics of Zircon in Placer Deposits along the West Coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philander, C.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    Mining along the west coast of South Africa is dominated by the exploitation of onshore and offshore diamond deposits. The relatively recent discovery of vast resources of heavy minerals in the area has resulted in the establishment of a major related industry. Today, Namakwa Sands is a

  20. Precision farming for increased land and labour productivity in semi-arid West Africa. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, Jens B.; Coulibaly, Adama; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Farmers in the semi-arid regions of West Africa face challenges related to poor crop establishment, variable rainfall, low soil fertility and a shortage of labour at times of peak demand. Farmers are generally low on resources. Given these conditions, it is important to develop farming practices

  1. Cryptosporidiosis in infancy and childhood mortality in Guinea Bissau, west Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Højlyng, N; Gottschau, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of and mortality from cryptosporidiosis in young children in Guinea Bissau, West Africa. DESIGN: Three year community study of an open cohort followed up weekly. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semi-urban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS...

  2. Sorghum Quality, Organic Matter Amendments, and Health: Farmers' Perception in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, K.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2005-01-01

    In West Africa, many people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Current interventions have low chances of succeeding. Therefore, a food chain approach including local practices is proposed. This article takes local ecological, cultural, and socio-economic aspects into account through a household

  3. Perspectives on model forecasts of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-01-01

    The unprecedented impact and modeling efforts associated with the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provides a unique opportunity to document the performances and caveats of forecasting approaches used in near-real time for generating evidence and to guide policy. A number of international...

  4. The current capacity for training in public health nutrition in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, F.

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a paper prepared for the Workshop on Establishing a Regional Institute for Public Health Nutrition Research and Training in West Africa, convened in Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 March, 2009. Information was gathered mainly prior to this workshop; several responses, however, came in

  5. The issue of forced labour in the 'Onjembo' : German South West Africa 1904-1908

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1904 the 'Onjembo', the Herero-German war, broke out. During the course of seven months the Herero were driven back from their ancestral homes and lands and forced to retreat into the northeastern reaches of the then German colony of South West Africa, the present-day Republic of Namibia.

  6. Epidemiological features and trends of Ebola virus disease in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a World Health Organization report, the epidemiological features of Ebola virus disease (EVD have changed significantly in West Africa. In this study, the new epidemiological features and prevalence trends for EVD in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are described. It was predicted that the Ebola outbreak would end in June 2015.

  7. Food insecurity, soil degradation and agricultural markets in West Africa: why current policy approaches fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Heerink, N.; Kauffman, S.

    2001-01-01

    The agricultural sector in West Africa is not at present capable of meeting the growing demand for food for its population and of reversing unfavourable trends in soil degradation. We argue that integrated soil management is an essential condition for sustainable agricultural development in the many

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and quality of surface water and groundwater in the vicinity of Lake Monoun, West Cameroon: approach from multivariate statistical analysis and stable isotopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtchueng, Brice T; Fantong, Wilson Y; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Tiodjio, Rosine E; Takounjou, Alain F; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules R; Kusakabe, Minoru; Zhang, Jing; Ohba, Takeshi; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V; Ueda, Akira

    2016-09-01

    With the use of conventional hydrogeochemical techniques, multivariate statistical analysis, and stable isotope approaches, this paper investigates for the first time surface water and groundwater from the surrounding areas of Lake Monoun (LM), West Cameroon. The results reveal that waters are generally slightly acidic to neutral. The relative abundance of major dissolved species are Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) for cations and HCO3 (-) ≫ NO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) for anions. The main water type is Ca-Mg-HCO3. Observed salinity is related to water-rock interaction, ion exchange process, and anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and chloride have been identified as the most common pollutants. These pollutants are attributed to the chlorination of wells and leaching from pit latrines and refuse dumps. The stable isotopic compositions in the investigated water sources suggest evidence of evaporation before recharge. Four major groups of waters were identified by salinity and NO3 concentrations using the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Consistent with the isotopic results, group 1 represents fresh unpolluted water occurring near the recharge zone in the general flow regime; groups 2 and 3 are mixed water whose composition is controlled by both weathering of rock-forming minerals and anthropogenic activities; group 4 represents water under high vulnerability of anthropogenic pollution. Moreover, the isotopic results and the HCA showed that the CO2-rich bottom water of LM belongs to an isolated hydrological system within the Foumbot plain. Except for some springs, groundwater water in the area is inappropriate for drinking and domestic purposes but good to excellent for irrigation.

  9. Namibia : South-West Africa 1888-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 118 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Südwestafrika", written by Ton Dietz.

  10. Namibia : South-West Africa 1914-1923

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 118 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Südwestafrika", written by Ton Dietz.

  11. Namibia : South-West Africa 1888-1920s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 118 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Südwestafrika", written by Ton Dietz.

  12. Cover Crops in West Africa: Contributing to Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It documents past experiences withcover cropping in Africa and will hopefully stimulate future research on priority socioeconomic and biophysical aspects of this important topic. The editors Daniel Buckles is Senior ... IDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate change. IDRC is investing in local ...

  13. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AM Fokkens

    2017-04-05

    Apr 5, 2017 ... the Rehoboth Basters and the Ukuambi had against the SWA. Administration. The Administration perceived these actions as internal unrest and subdued it using police and military resources. Suppressing unrest through force was part of the military policing tradition prevalent in Southern Africa and abroad ...

  14. Building sustainable peace agreements in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reframing State-building and Peacebuilding Narratives in Africa. To date, more than 40 countries have signed the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States, which places peacebuilding and state-building as two central and mutually reinforcing goals to promote... View moreReframing State-building and Peacebuilding ...

  15. Modernity rejected? Marketing schnapps gin in West Africa, 1945 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... oral history interviews with consumers in Ghana and Nigeria; as well as the company archives of distillers. The paper contributes to our understanding of the cultural history of the decolonisation era, and to a developing literature on marketing and consumption of imported commodities in twentieth-century Africa.

  16. Regional Integration in West Africa: Proceedings of the International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More than 30 years after many West African countries achieved their independence, the region remains divided. Economic, linguistic, and cultural differences accentuate this division. Despite numerous efforts aimed at reducing these obstacles, progress towards regional cooperation remains slow. In this book the IDRC ...

  17. The Benguela upwelling system lying off southern Africa's west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    the concept of a narrow jet of flowing northward, which provided the link between the spawning grounds for pelagic species on the western Agulhas Bank and their nursery grounds farther north on the West Coast. Boyd et al. (1992) built upon this concept using data from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) surveys.

  18. Planning a new regional centre for West Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Eric Smith. Participants from several West African countries met in Accra, Ghana, in October 2010 to discuss establishing a centre to promote regional integration, good governance, and democracy. The African Peer Review Mechanism, or APRM, is a self-monitoring tool that encourages member states of ...

  19. Adapting fishing policies to address climate change in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    Led by the Dakar-based organization Environment and Development Action in the Third World (ENDA), the project “Adapting. Fishing Policy to Climate Change in West Africa” (which goes by the French acronym APPECCAO) aims to integrate an improved understanding of climate change's potential impacts and options for ...

  20. West Africa's Atlantic humpback dolphin ( Sousa teuszii ): endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atlantic humpback dolphins (Sousa teuszii) are endemic to nearshore West African waters between Western Sahara and Angola. They are considered Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature based on restricted geographic range, low abundance and apparent decline in recent decades. We review ...

  1. Wintering seabirds in West Africa: foraging hotspots off Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the distribution of wintering seabirds in the context of fisheries and hydrography. The avifauna was dominated by surface-feeding and shallow plunge-diving, often planktivorous, seabirds, originating from West Palaearctic breeding grounds (Arctic, subarctic and temperate zones). Many seabirds were ...

  2. Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to breach a major gap revealed by the situational analysis: the failure to take advantage of taxation in the anti-tobacco campaign. This project aims to contribute to the establishment of conditions favourable to the adoption by West African countries of new regulations enabling an effective and significant rise ...

  3. Democracy and Development in West Africa: How Integral is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship between democracy and development in the West African sub-region and tries to situate both concepts in a historical context. It then suggests a number of variables that can be pursued to meet the challenges of constructing democratic development at the national and regional levels ...

  4. What Constitutes The Domain of Family Medicine in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a convenient sample of key informants who were faculty officers in the National postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the West African college of physicians faculty of General medical practice /family practice who sourced information from documents and the internet this paper explores the extent to which ...

  5. Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    As technology continues to advance, libraries in Europe and America continue to improve upon their virtual reference services by employing new Web technologies and applying them to existing services. West African academic libraries have begun providing resources electronically to their users but still typically lag behind in the services they…

  6. The potential effectiveness of the nutrition improvement program on infant and young child feeding and nutritional status in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsma, Kate; Nkuoh, Godlove; Nshom, Emmanuel

    2016-11-15

    Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) has integrated a cadre of nutrition counselors into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs, infant welfare clinics, and antenatal clinics to improve infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF). The study objective was to evaluate the effects of NIP's infant feeding counselors on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), complementary feeding (CF), and children's linear growth. A cross-sectional evaluation design was used. Using systematic random sampling, caregivers were recruited from NIP sites (n = 359) and non-NIP sites (n = 415) from Infant Welfare Clinics (IWCs) in the Northwest (NWR) and Southwest Regions (SWR) of Cameroon between October 2014 and April 2015. Differences in EBF and CF practices and children's linear growth between NIP and non-NIP sites were determined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression. After adjusting for differences in religion, occupation, and number of months planning to breastfeed, children were almost seven times (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.9; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.30, 21.09; β = 1.94) more likely to be exclusively breastfed at NIP sites compared to non-NIP sites. After adjusting for differences in occupation, religion, number of months planning to breastfeed, rural environment, economic status, attending other Infant Welfare Clinics, and non-biological caregiver, children were five times more likely to be stunted at

  7. First highlights of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Knippertz, P.; Flamant, C.; Adon, J.; Akpo, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Assamoi, E.; Baeza, A.; Julien, B.; Bedou, M.; Brooks, B. J.; Chiu, J. Y. C.; Chiron, C.; Coe, H.; Danuor, S.; Djossou, J.; Evans, M. J.; Fayomi, B.; Fink, A. H.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Gardrat, E.; Jegede, O.; Kalthoff, N.; Kedote, M.; Keita, S.; Kouame, K.; Konare, A.; Leon, J. F.; Mari, C. H.; Lohou, F.; Roblou, L.; Schlager, H.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Toure, E. N.; Veronique, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) is investigating the relationship between weather, climate, air pollution and health in southern West Africa. The air over the coastal region of West Africa is a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquids and particles, emitted in an environment, in which multi-layer cloud decks frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, which has never been studied in detail over West Africa: this information is currently not included in the majority of weather and climate models. For the first time, the entire chain of impacts of natural and manmade emissions on the West African atmosphere was investigated in a coordinated field campaign. As part of this campaign, three research aircraft (Falcon 20, Twin Otter and ATR) based in Lomé (Togo) flew targeted 50 missions over West Africa from 27 June to 16 July 2016. In that campaign also, three highly instrumented measuring sites inland were set up with weather balloons launched several times a day across the region. The main objective was to build robust statistics of cloud properties in southern West Africa in different chemical landscapes (background state, ship/flaring emissions, polluted megacities, agricultural and forest areas, dust from the Sahel/Sahara). In addition, DACCIWA scientists working on measurements of urban emissions, air pollution, and health have set up four urban sites in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Cotonou (Benin) focusing on main specific regional combustion sources (domestic fires, traffic and waste burning). Long-term measurements of gases and particles and census of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases were started in January 2015 and will continue until March 2017 to determine the links between human health and air pollution. Intensive measurement periods took place in July 2015, January 2016, and July 2016 (a final one is planned for January 2017) in

  8. Serosurveillance of Viral Pathogens Circulating in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    sub-Saharan Africa, mainly among 255 livestock and Aedes species mosquitos, with sporadic outbreaks of human disease. While the 256 climate and...report the seroprevalence of LASV to be 50.2%; this shows little change from estimations in 239 Sierra Leone before the civil war, which ranged from 8...Asia and Europe in animals 261 and ticks. Human infection, albeit rare, is severe and usually associated with livestock contact 262 (26–29). Here we

  9. Understanding the nature and threats of drug trafficking to national and regional security in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwesi Aning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several West African states are threatened by increasingly powerful transnational organised criminal networks. Yet, scholarly work on the nature, characteristics and strength of these groups and how their activities threaten states remains sparse, leading to misunderstandings and inadequate appreciation of the precise nature of the threats they pose to West Africa. This paper seeks to fill these lacunae in our knowledge. It focuses on the nexus between drugs, crime and terrorism. It argues that, the financial spin-offs from criminal activities contribute to the development of opportunistic relationships between criminals and extremist groups that threatens West Africa’s fragile states. The analyses are based on evidence from several West African states, but employ the ongoing crisis in the Sahel, particularly Mali, as an empirical case, to demonstrate how ‘profitable collusion’ among different actors permits hollow states to become edifices that allows corruption, criminality and impunity to flourish.

  10. The West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative: Strengthening National Capacities for All-Hazards Disaster Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Kelen, Gabor D; Bradstreet, Nicole A; Beadling, Charles W

    2017-08-01

    The Ebola outbreak demonstrated the need for improved disaster response throughout West Africa. The West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative was a training and assessment effort led by US Africa Command and partners to strengthen capacities among 12 West African partner nations (PNs). Series of 3-week training sessions with representatives from each PN were held from 13 July through 20 November 2015 at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana. A team conducted Disaster Management Capabilities Assessments (DMCAs) for each PN, including a review of key data, a survey for leaders, and in-person interviews of key informants. All 12 PNs generated a national Ebola Preparedness and Response Plan and Emergency Operations Center standard operating procedures. DMCA metrics were generated for each PN. Top performers included Ghana, with a plan rated good/excellent, and Benin and Burkina Faso, which both achieved a satisfactory rating for their plans. More than 800 people from 12 nations were trained. PNs have improved disaster management capabilities and awareness of their strengths and weaknesses. The Economic Community of West African States has increased its lead role in this and future planned initiatives. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:431-438).

  11. Assessment of future streamflow changes in major rivers of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, Philippe; Rojas, Rodrigo; Bisselink, Bernard; Feyen, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Although being one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change, impact studies in West Africa, especially concerning water resources, are still scarce compared to other regions such as Europe, North-America or Asia. Therefore, we investigate in this study how climate change may affect the main rivers of West Africa (Niger, Volta, Senegal) using the global LISFLOOD model. This hydrological rainfall-runoff model, extensively used for pan-European assessments, has been recently set up and calibrated for Africa, allowing such impact analysis. Here, LISFLOOD is set up on a 0.1*0.1 degree grid for the period 1991-2050. Quantifying the uncertainty in climate impact studies is now a fundamental task, especially in West Africa where the agreement among rainfall projections is low. We therefore employ an ensemble of climate experiments originating from 8 different GCM/RCM combinations obtained from the EU FP6 ENSEMBLES project (SRES A1B scenario). Prior to forcing LISFLOOD, bias in the precipitation and temperature fields (Tmin, Tavg and Tmax) is removed with a quantile mapping method using as target the WATCH Forcing Data. In order to take into account the high population growth in West Africa we also account for projected changes in water use. Results first focus on changes in average streamflow conditions and how these changes affect water availability, expressed by the Water Exploitation Index. Second, and as underlined by the recent SREX IPCC report (2012), we show the impacts on extreme events (droughts and floods) using relevant indices such as the 100-year return period flood.

  12. Antiretroviral treatment adherence and its determinants in Sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective study at Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Nadia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With African health-care systems facing exploding demand for HIV care, reliable methods for assessing adherence and its influencing factors are needed to guide effective public-health measures. This study evaluated individual patient characteristics determining antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence and the predictive values of different measures of adherence on virological treatment failure in a cohort of patients in a routine-care setting in Cameroon. Methods Longitudinal study over 6-months following ART introduction, using patients questionnaires and hospital and pharmacy records. Results At the end of the 6 months study period, 219 of 312 patients (70% returned to the pharmacy to refill their medication, 17% (51 were lost to follow-up, 9% (28 were dead and 4% (14 were transferred to other care centres. Virological treatment failure at 6 months was experienced by 26 patients, representing 13% of patients with available viral load value. Pharmacy refill irregularity was the most powerful predictor (odds ratio 12.4; P 3 had a greater risk of dying during the follow-up period (odds ratio 2.69; P = 0.02. Compared with asymptomatic CDC stage A patients, CDC stage B (odds ratio 5.72 and CDC stage C patients (odds ratio 16.9 had higher risk of becoming lost to follow-up (P Conclusion Pharmacy-refill adherence might be considered as an alternative to CD4 count monitoring for identification of patients at risk of virological failure, especially in resources-scarce countries. The study confirmed the difficulty in demonstrating clear associations of individual patient factors and treatment outcomes. The substantial loss to follow-up and deaths occurring within 6 months after initiating ART emphasise the need to understand the best timing of ART initiation and further elucidate and educate on the underlying reasons for delaying initiation of ART in resource-limited countries

  13. Evaluation of high-resolution climate simulations for West Africa using COSMO-CLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrick; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Thierno Gaye, Amadou

    2017-04-01

    The climate change modeling activities within the WASCAL program (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) concentrate on the provisioning of future climate change scenario data at high spatial and temporal resolution and quality in West Africa. Such information is highly required for impact studies in water resources and agriculture for the development of reliable climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this study, we present a detailed evaluation of high simulation runs based on the regional climate model, COSMO model in CLimate Mode (COSMO-CLM). The model is applied over West Africa in a nested approach with two simulation domains at 0.44° and 0.11° resolution using reanalysis data from ERA-Interim (1979-2013). The models runs are compared to several state-of-the-art observational references (e.g., CRU, CHIRPS) including daily precipitation data provided by national meteorological services in West Africa. Special attention is paid to the reproduction of the dynamics of the West African Monsoon (WMA), its associated precipitation patterns and crucial agro-climatological indices such as the onset of the rainy season. In addition, first outcomes of the regional climate change simulations driven by MPI-ESM-LR are presented for a historical period (1980 to 2010) and two future periods (2020 to 2050, 2070 to 2100). The evaluation of the reanalysis runs shows that COSMO-CLM is able to reproduce the observed major climate characteristics including the West African Monsoon within the range of comparable RCM evaluations studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain, especially in the Sahel zone. The added value of the higher resolution of the nested run is reflected in a smaller bias in extreme precipitation statistics with respect to the reference data.

  14. Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  15. HIV/AIDS infection prevalence in an agriculture-dominated rural community of west region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Lendzele Sevidzem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, based on associated demographic factors in order to raise awareness on the occurrence/level of infection in this community. Methods: ‘Determine’ and Uni-GoldTM rapid diagnostic kits were used for diagnosis of 221 individuals coming for testing. Questionnaires were administered and group discussions as well as community visits were held. Results: Overall prevalence was 5.21%, and prevalence based on demographic factors resulted in the following: based on sex, males were more infected than females, with a significant difference (χ2 = 4.251, df = 1, P = 0.039, prevalence did not differ significantly (χ2 = 3.096, df = 3, P = 0.377 with age cohorts but individuals ≥ 36 years old recorded the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference (χ2 = 9.531, df = 6, P = 0.146 in prevalence with profession. Analysis based on marital status revealed that unmarried were more infected as compared to married with a statistical significant difference (χ2 = 7.421, df = 1, P = 0.007. Based on the motif of test, those who made the test because of sickness were significantly (χ2 = 5.44, df = 1, P = 0.020 infected than those who did for pregnancy purpose. The year interval (2014–2016 recorded the highest prevalence as compared to other year intervals with a statistical significant difference (χ2 = 27.373, df = 8, P = 0.002. Usage of condom in sexual practice for prevention in such individuals showed low prevalence as compared to individuals who did not consider such a prevention option. Conclusions: HIV/AIDS prevails in the Fondonera community of west region and serious sensitization on its occurrence/level is of vital importance in order to prevent future infections.

  16. Terrestrial ecology in South Africa and South West Africa – project abstracts for 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystems Programmes, Cooperative Scientific Programmes

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Brief descriptions of over 200 research projects undertaken during 1979 in South African and South West African terrestrial ecosystems are presented. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically according to author name and a keyword index is provided...

  17. West Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2014"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Ijampy, James A.; Sima, Fatou; Francis, Sabastine

    2015-08-06

    This chapter provides summaries of the 2014 temperature and precipitation conditions across seven broad regions: North America, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Oceania. In most cases, summaries of notable weather events are also included. Local scientists provided the annual summary for their respective regions and, unless otherwise noted, the source of the data used is typically the agency affiliated with the authors. Please note that different nations, even within the same section, may use unique periods to define their normals. Section introductions will typically define the prevailing practices for that section, and exceptions will be noted within the text. In a similar way, many contributing authors use languages other than English as their primary professional language. To minimize additional loss of fidelity through re-interpretation after translation, editors have been conservative and careful to preserve the voice of the author. In some cases, this may result in abrupt transitions in style from section to section.

  18. An Inquiry-based Astronomy Summer School in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Mike; Hunter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. The school was organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We designed and led activities that taught astronomy content, promoted students' self-identity as scientists, and encouraged students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. I will describe the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the school, share results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance, and describe future plans for holding the school in 2015, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.

  19. Climate change unlikely to increase malaria burden in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Teresa K.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The impact of climate change on malaria transmission has been hotly debated. Recent conclusions have been drawn using relatively simple biological models and statistical approaches, with inconsistent predictions. Consequently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) echoes this uncertainty, with no clear guidance for the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission, yet recognizing a strong association between local climate and malaria. Here, we present results from a decade-long study involving field observations and a sophisticated model simulating village-scale transmission. We drive the malaria model using select climate models that correctly reproduce historical West African climate, and project reduced malaria burden in a western sub-region and insignificant impact in an eastern sub-region. Projected impacts of climate change on malaria transmission in this region are not of serious concern.

  20. Home range and diving behaviour of Heaviside's dolphins monitored by satellite off the west coast of South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, RW; David, JHM; Meÿer, MA; Sekiguchi, K; Best, PB; Dassis, M; Rodríguez, DH

    2014-01-01

    Three Heaviside's dolphins Cephalorhynchus heavisidii were fitted with satellite depth recorders off the west coast of South Africa during February-April 1997 and monitored for 51, 73 and 130 days, respectively...

  1. Low prevalence of cervical infections in women with vaginal discharge in west Africa: implications for syndromic management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pépin, J; Deslandes, S; Khonde, N; Kintin, D F; Diakité, S; Sylla, M; Méda, H; Sobéla, F; Asamoah-Adu, C; Agyarko-Poku, T; Frost, E

    2004-01-01

    To measure prevalence and risk factors for cervical infections among a large sample of women consulting for vaginal discharge in west Africa and to evaluate its syndromic management through a two visit algorithm...

  2. Informing comprehensive HIV prevention: a situational analysis of the HIV prevention and care context, North West Province South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippman, Sheri A; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    ..., and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa...

  3. What aspects of future rainfall changes matter for crop yields in West Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kaiyu; Sultan, Benjamin; Biasutti, Michela; Baron, Christian; Lobell, David B.

    2015-10-01

    How rainfall arrives, in terms of its frequency, intensity, the timing and duration of rainy season, may have a large influence on rainfed agriculture. However, a thorough assessment of these effects is largely missing. This study combines a new synthetic rainfall model and two independently validated crop models (APSIM and SARRA-H) to assess sorghum yield response to possible shifts in seasonal rainfall characteristics in West Africa. We find that shifts in total rainfall amount primarily drive the rainfall-related crop yield change, with less relevance to intraseasonal rainfall features. However, dry regions (total annual rainfall below 500 mm/yr) have a high sensitivity to rainfall frequency and intensity, and more intense rainfall events have greater benefits for crop yield than more frequent rainfall. Delayed monsoon onset may negatively impact yields. Our study implies that future changes in seasonal rainfall characteristics should be considered in designing specific crop adaptations in West Africa.

  4. Reasons for hospitalization in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dicko, Fatoumata; Desmonde, Sophie; Koumakpai, Sikiratou

    2014-01-01

    -infected children in West Africa (IeDEA West Africa collaboration). METHODS: We performed a six-month prospective multicentre survey from April to October 2010 in five HIV-specialized paediatric hospital wards in Ouagadougou, Accra, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. Baseline and follow-up data during hospitalization were......%) died during hospitalization and four (3%) were transferred out. The leading causes of hospitalization were WHO stage 3 opportunistic infections (37%), non-AIDS-defining events (28%), cachexia and other WHO stage 4 events (25%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, most causes of hospitalizations were HIV related...... but one hospitalization in three was caused by a non-AIDS-defining event, mostly in children on ART. HIV-related fatality is also high despite the scaling-up of access to ART in resource-limited settings....

  5. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  6. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lutz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is increasingly relied on as a source of potable water in developing countries, but factors such as population growth, development, and climate variability, pose potential challenges for ongoing sustainable supply. The effect of these factors on the groundwater system was considered in four scenarios using a numerical model to represent the Bani area of Mali, West Africa. By 2040, population growth, climate variability, and development as urbanization, agriculture, and industry creates scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1 to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.

  7. Serotype Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus in Livestock without History of Vaccination in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, A; Ahmed, Z; Pomeroy, L W; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G R; Moritz, M; Dickmu, S; Abdoulkadiri, S; Arzt, J; Garabed, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2016-02-01

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Regionalism and peacebuilding in West Africa: addressing the challenge of roaming combatants

    OpenAIRE

    M'Cormack, Freida Ibiduni

    2017-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into approaches to regional peacebuilding with reference to the Mano Union River region of West Africa, comprising Liberia, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea. Using the case of the interrelated conflicts in these countries, particularly of regional fighters that fought in two or more countries, it investigates the constraints of conventional peacebuilding theory and practice in addressing regional conflict. \\ud \\ud Drawing largely on a constructivist Interna...

  9. The Impact of the West Africa Ebola Outbreak on Obstetric Health Care in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Kim J Brolin Ribacke; van Duinen, Alex J.; Helena Nordenstedt; Jonas Höijer; Ragnhild Molnes; Torunn Wigum Froseth; A P Koroma; Elisabeth Darj; Håkon Angel Bolkan; AnnaMia Ekström

    2016-01-01

    Background As Sierra Leone celebrates the end of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, we can begin to fully grasp its impact on already weak health systems. The EVD outbreak in West Africa forced many hospitals to close down or reduce their activity, either to prevent nosocomial transmission or because of staff shortages. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of EVD on nationwide access to obstetric care in Sierra Leone. Methods and Findings Community health officers coll...

  10. Aircraft-based investigation of Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in Southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, Cyrille

    2017-04-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa, http://www.dacciwa.eu) is investigating the relationship between weather, climate and air pollution in southern West Africa. The air over the coastal region of West Africa is a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquids and particles, emitted in an environment, in which multi-layer cloud decks frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, mainly due to their impact on radiation, the surface energy balance and thus the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective for the aircraft detachment was to build robust statistics of cloud properties in southern West Africa in different chemical landscapes to investigate the physical processes involved in their life cycle in such a complex chemical environment. As part of the DACCIWA field campaigns, three European aircraft (the German DLR Falcon 20, the French SAFIRE ATR 42 and the British BAS Twin Otter) conducted a total of 50 research flights across Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, and Benin from 27 June to 16 July 2016 for a total of 155 flight hours, including hours sponsored through 3 EUFAR projects. The aircraft were used in different ways based on their strengths, but all three had comparable instrumentation with the the capability to do gas-phase chemistry, aerosol and clouds, thereby generating a rich dataset of atmospheric conditions across the region. Eight types of flight objectives were conducted to achieve the goals of the DACCIWA: (i) Stratus clouds, (ii) Land-sea breeze clouds, (iii) Mid-level clouds, (iv) Biogenic emission, (v) City emissions, (vi) Flaring and ship emissions, (vii) Dust and biomass burning aerosols, and (viii) air-sea interactions. An overview of the DACCIWA aircraft campaign as well as first highlights from the airborne observations will be presented.

  11. Trends in extreme rainfall events in Benin (West Africa), 1960-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Hountondji, Yvon; De Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Global dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency and / or the severity of rainfall extremes changed during the 1960 – 2000 period in the Republic of Benin in West Africa. This period provides the best spatial coverage of homogenous daily series, which can be used for calculating the proportion of global land area exhibiting a significant change in extreme or severe rainfall. We selected 12 indicators of extreme climatic events that are based on daily tot...

  12. Morbidity and mortality due to Bordetella pertussis: a significant pathogen in West Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    KAMPMANN, B; MacKenzie, G

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of specific surveillance platforms for pertussis and availability of suitable diagnostics at the hospital level, reliable data that describe morbidity and mortality from pertussis are difficult to obtain in any setting, as is the case in West Africa. Here, we summarize the available evidence of the burden of pertussis in the region, given historical data, and describe recent and ongoing epidemiological studies that offer opportunities for additional data collection. The availab...

  13. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hanlon, Simon J.; Slater, Hannah C.; Cheke, Robert; Boatin, Boakye A; Coffeng, Luc E.; Pion, Sebastian D.S.; Boussinesq, Michel; Zoure, Honorat G. M.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Basanez, Maria-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence) of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions. __Methods and Findings:__ Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 vil...

  14. Could payments for environmental services improve rangeland management in Central Asia, West Asia and North Africa?:

    OpenAIRE

    Dutilly-Diane, Celine; McCarthy, Nancy; Turkelboom, Francis; Bruggeman, Adriana; Tiedemann, James; Street, Kenneth; Serra, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    "Although several institutional and management approaches that address the degradation of the rangelands have been tested in the dry areas of Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA), impact has been limited. Nonetheless, the development of National Action Plans to combat desertification highlights the interest of governments to tackle this issue. Payment for Environmental Services (PES) may be a viable policy option, though, to date, most PES programs have focused on the management of ...

  15. Migrant workers in West Africa, with special reference to Nigeria and Ghana.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah YF

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on migrant workers in West Africa with special reference to Ghana and Nigeria - discusses effects of economic trends and labour market crisis on migration, the political problem of mass expulsion of irregular migrants from their host countries in 1969, 1983 and 1985; describes case studies of Ghanaian migrations in Nigeria incl. Legal aspects, migration policy, role of ECOWAS, need to observe human rights and freedom of movement. Bibliography.

  16. Incidence of Severe Neutropenia in HIV-Infected People Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Charline; Balestre, Eric; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Sawadogo, Adrien; Drabo, Joseph; Maiga, Moussa; Zannou, Marcel; Seydi, Moussa; Dabis, Francois; Jaquet, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, antiretroviral therapy (ART) including drugs with potential toxicity such as Zidovudine (ZDV) are routinely prescribed. This study aimed at estimating the incidence of severe neutropenia and associated factors after ART initiation in five West African countries. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted within the international epidemiologic database to evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration in West Africa. All HIV-infected adults, initiating ART between 2002 and 2014, with a baseline and at least one follow-up absolute neutrophil count (ANC) measurement were eligible. Incidence of severe neutropenia (ANC neutropenia, expressed with their adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). Between 2002 and 2014, 9,426 HIV-infected adults were enrolled. The crude incidence rate of a first severe neutropenia was 9.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 8.6-9.8). Factors associated with severe neutropenia were exposure to ZDV neutropenia after ART initiation in West Africa is high and associated with ZDV exposure and advanced HIV disease. In this context, efforts are needed to scale-up access to less toxic first-line ART drugs and to promote early ART initiation.

  17. Climate change mitigation by carbon stock - the case of semi-arid West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, A. M.; Barfod, A. S.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Greve, M.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2009-11-01

    Semi-arid West Africa has not been integrated into the afforestation/reforestation (AR) carbon market. Most projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have focused on carbon emission reductions from industry and energy consumption, whereas only few (only one in West Africa) have been certified for AR carbon sequestration. A proposed mechanism, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) to be discussed under COP15 aims to reduce emissions by conserving already existing forests. REDD has high potential for carbon stocking at low costs, but focuses primarily on rain forest countries and excludes semi-arid West Africa from the preliminary setup. African savannas have potential to store carbon in the present situation with degrading ecosystems and relatively low revenues from crops and cattle, especially if it is possible to combine carbon stocking with promotion of secondary crops such as food resources and traditional medicines harvested on a sustainable basis. Methods for modelling and mapping of potential carbon biomass are being developed, but are still in a preliminary state. Although economic benefits from the sale of carbon credits are likely to be limited, carbon stocking is an interesting option if additional benefits are considered such as improved food security and protection of biodiversity.

  18. The British and curriculum development in West Africa: A historical discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-09-01

    THE BRITISH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA: A HISTORICAL STUDY - Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the imposition of British colonial rule. For over 300 years, the curriculum content was essentially European in nature. African interests and cultural practices were largely excluded, as "bookwork" was favored over "handwork". The colonial curriculum also helped introduce a new social order to West Africa, leading to the rise of new local elites reading, writing, and speaking foreign European languages. This study explores how the idea of a "civilized" person, promoted through the colonial school curriculum, developed new local elites with different sets of values and expectations that often made them strangers in their own societies. It also describes the connection between this curriculum and the repeated failure of education-reform efforts.

  19. [Ministerial Conference on Migration and Urbanization in West Africa: declaration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This declaration made by the participants of the Ministerial Conference on Migration and Urbanization in Western Africa, held in Bamako during November 5, 1999, commits the countries of the region to do the following: follow the urbanization process in an effort to make African cities hubs of development and social progress; improve the geographic distribution of populations; bring economic development to mid-sized cities; implement rural development projects and programs, especially in the least advantaged zones; manage urban constraints; define new pathways and coordinated approaches; implement measures which account for those who are newly migrating, such as women and young people; minimize administrative hurdles associated with the return and reintegration of migrants; provide those bodies responsible for urbanization and migration concerns with the communication tools they require; take the necessary measures to facilitate migrants¿ stays and inform potential migrants about the conditions of such stay in host countries; adapt laws to conform with the charters of subregional organizations; consider migration concerns at the commission level; and implement clear, explicit migration policies. Recommendations are offered to the Permanent Interstate Committee Against Drought in the Sahel (CILSS) as well as to all subregional organizations. It is hoped that international organizations and partner agencies in development will support countries¿ efforts.

  20. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  1. Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Amin K.; Ichoku, Charles M.; Mohr, Karen I.; Huffman, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data, three precipitation classes are identified for rainy seasons of West and East Africa: weak convective rainfall (WCR), strong convective rainfall (SCR), and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs).Nearly 75% of the total seasonal precipitation is produced by the SCR and MCSs, even though they represent only 8% of the rain events. Rain events in East Africa tend to have a longer duration and lower intensity than in West Africa, reflecting different characteristics of the SCR and MCS events in these two regions. Surface heating seems to be the primary convection trigger for the SCR, particularly in East Africa, whereas the WCR requires a dynamical trigger such as low-level convergence. The data are used to evaluate the performance of the recently launched Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG)project. The IMERG-based precipitation shows significant improvement over its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), particularly in capturing the MCSs, due to its improved temporal resolution.

  2. Toward a sustainable bioeconomy in West Africa: A focus on biorefining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Duedu, Kwabena O.

    2017-01-01

    biorefineries. However, the limiting factors for establishing biorefineries such as appropriate technology, infrastructure and forward-looking policies have to be addressed. The currently high cost of biofuel production and competitive crude oil prices also make it seem unfeasible for West African countries......Considering its size and expanding population, Africa needs to play a more active role in preventing global warming. The economy of most West African countries is driven by agriculture and the export of processed wood resulting in the generation of tons of wood and agricultural waste. The waste...... is usually disposed of by burning, which releases harmful greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the environment. Wood and agricultural wastes are valuable biomass feedstocks for second-generation biofuels and chemicals. The availability of diverse feedstocks makes the West African sub-region suitable for setting up...

  3. The impact of civil war on forest wildlife in West Africa: Mammals in Gola Forest, Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsell, J.A.; Klop, E.; Siaka, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human conflicts may sometimes benefit wildlife by depopulating wilderness areas but there is evidence from Africa that the impacts tend to be negative. The forested states of West Africa have experienced much recent human conflict but there have been no assessments of impacts on the wildlife. We

  4. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  5. Multivariate Prediction of Total Water Storage Changes Over West Africa from Multi-Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Loth, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Awange, Joseph; Longuevergne, Laurent; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, C. K.

    2014-07-01

    West African countries have been exposed to changes in rainfall patterns over the last decades, including a significant negative trend. This causes adverse effects on water resources of the region, for instance, reduced freshwater availability. Assessing and predicting large-scale total water storage (TWS) variations are necessary for West Africa, due to its environmental, social, and economical impacts. Hydrological models, however, may perform poorly over West Africa due to data scarcity. This study describes a new statistical, data-driven approach for predicting West African TWS changes from (past) gravity data obtained from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE), and (concurrent) rainfall data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and sea surface temperature (SST) data over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The proposed method, therefore, capitalizes on the availability of remotely sensed observations for predicting monthly TWS, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for measuring regional energy balance, as well as for agricultural, and water resource management. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified using independent component analysis and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework. After a learning phase of 72 months, our approach predicted TWS from rainfall and SST data alone that fitted to the observed GRACE-TWS better than that from a global hydrological model. Our results indicated a fit of 79 % and 67 % for the first-year prediction of the two dominant annual and inter-annual modes of TWS variations. This fit reduces to 62 % and 57 % for the second year of projection. The proposed approach, therefore, represents strong potential to predict the TWS over West Africa up to 2 years. It also has the potential to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of 1 month about each 162 days as well as a—hopefully—limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE

  6. Water Sources in Cape Verde and West Africa. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  7. The WASCAL regional climate simulations for West Africa - how to add value to existing climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, J.; Heinzeller, D.; Klein, C.; Dieng, D.; Smiatek, G.; Bliefernicht, J.; Sylla, M. B.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    With climate change being one of the most severe challenges to rural Africa in the 21st century, West Africa is facing an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation measures to protect its constantly growing population. WASCAL (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) is a large-scale research-focused program designed to enhance the resilience of human and environmental systems to climate change and increased variability. An integral part of its climate services is the provisioning of a new set of high resolution, ensemble-based regional climate change scenarios for the region of West Africa. In this contribution, we present the overall concept of the WASCAL regional climate projections and provide information on the dissemination of the data. We discuss the model performance over the validation period for two of the three regional climate models employed, the Weather Research & Forecasting Tool (WRF) and the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling Model COSMO in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM), and give details about a novel precipitation database used to verify the models. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the dynamics of the West African Summer Monsoon and to the added value of our high resolution models over existing data sets. We further present results on the climate change signal obtained from the WRF model runs for the periods 2020-2050 and 2070-2100 and compare them to current state-of-the-art projections from the CORDEX project. As an example, the figure shows the different climate change signals obtained for the total annual rainfall with respect to the 1980-2010 mean (WRF-E: WASCAL 12km high-resolution run MPI-ESM + WRFV3.5.1, CORDEX-E: 50km medium-resolution run MPI-ESM + RCA4, CORDEX-G: 50km medium-resolution run GFDL-ESM + RCA4).

  8. Future impacts of global warming and reforestation on drought patterns over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diasso, Ulrich; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates how a large-scale reforestation in Savanna (8-12°N, 20°W-20°E) could affect drought patterns over West Africa in the future (2031-2060) under the RCP4.5 scenario. Simulations from two regional climate models (RegCM4 and WRF) were analyzed for the study. The study first evaluated the performance of both RCMs in simulating the present-day climate and then applied the models to investigate the future impacts of global warming and reforestation on the drought patterns. The simulated and observed droughts were characterized with the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the drought patterns were classified using a Self-organizing Map (SOM) technique. The models capture essential features in the seasonal rainfall and temperature fields (including the Saharan Heat Low), but struggle to reproduce the onset and retreat of the West African Monsoon as observed. Both RCMs project a warmer climate (about 1-2 °C) over West Africa in the future. They do not reach a consensus on future change in rainfall, but they agree on a future increase in frequency of severe droughts (by about 2 to 9 events per decade) over the region. They show that reforestation over the Savanna could reduce the future warming by 0.1 to 0.8 °C and increase the precipitation by 0.8 to 1.2 mm per day. However, the impact of reforestation on the frequency of severe droughts is twofold. While reforestation decreases the droughts frequency (by about 1-2 events per decade) over the Savanna and Guinea coast, it increases droughts frequency (by 1 event per decade) over the Sahel, especially in July to September. The results of this study have application in using reforestation to mitigate impacts of climate change in West Africa.

  9. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    A biogeochemical model of water, salt and nutrients budgets for two estuarine systems within Cameroon's coastal zone (Latitudes 2°— 1 3°N, Longitudes ... along ecological food webs and the earth's along an approximate 25,000 km along ...... Cameroon. Cameroon Wildlife and. Conservation Society Consultancy Report.

  10. The DACCIWA project: Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippertz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the EU-funded DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project. DACCIWA consists of 16 European and African research organisations and has strong links to universities, weather services and government organisations across West Africa. The project runs from 2010 to 2018 and is built around a major international field campaign in 2016. A key motivation for DACCIWA is the expected tripling of anthropogenic emissions in southern West Africa (SWA) between 2000 and 2030, whose impacts on human health, ecosystems, food security and the regional climate are largely unknown. An integrated assessment of this problem, which is mostly due to massive economic and population growth and urbanization, is challenging due to (a) a superposition of regional effects with global climate change, (b) a strong dependence on the variable West African monsoon, (c) incomplete scientific understanding of interactions between emissions, clouds, radiation, precipitation and regional circulations, and (d) a lack of observations. DACCIWA combines measurements in the field in SWA with extensive modelling activities and work on satellite data. In particular during the main DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016 high-quality observations of emissions, atmospheric composition and meteorological parameters were sampled. The campaign involved three research aircraft, three ground-based supersites, enhanced radiosonde launches, and intensive measurements at urban sites in Abidjan and Cotonou. These data have already been quality-controlled and will be freely available to the research community through a database at http://baobab.sedoo.fr/DACCIWA/ after the end of the project. The resulting benchmark dataset is currently combined with a wide range of modelling and satellite-based research activities that will ultimately allow (a) an assessment of the roles of relevant physical, chemical and biological processes, (b) an improvement

  11. the South-West Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemia (<40mg glucose/d1) was recorded in 12.9% of cerebral malaria patients, but in none of the patients with uncomplicated malaria. [Afr. J.Health Sci. 2002: 61-67]. Prevalence and Case-Control Study of Cerebral Malaria in Limbe of. Introduction. In African children severe complicated malaria presents most ...

  12. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  13. Putting Plant Genetic Diversity and Variability at Work for Breeding: Hybrid Rice Suitability in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat El-Namaky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple food in West Africa, where its demand keeps increasing due to population growth. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify high yielding rice cultivars that fulfill this demand locally. Rice hybrids are already known to significantly increase productivity. This study evaluated the potential of Asian hybrids with good adaptability to irrigated and rainfed lowland rice areas in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal. There were 169 hybrids from China included in trials at target sites during 2009 and 2010. The genotype × environment interaction was highly significant (p < 0.0001 for grain yield indicating that the hybrids’ and their respective cultivar checks’ performance differed across locations. Two hybrids had the highest grain yield during 2010 in Mali, while in Nigeria, four hybrids in 2009 and one hybrid in 2010 had higher grain yield and matured earlier than the best local cultivar. The milling recovery, grain shape and cooking features of most hybrids had the quality preferred by West African consumers. Most of the hybrids were, however, susceptible to African rice gall midge (AfRGM and Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RMYV isolate Ng40. About 60% of these hybrids were resistant to blast. Hybrids need to incorporate host plant resistant for AfRGM and RYMV to be grown in West Africa.

  14. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfotabong-Atheull, Adolphe; Din, Ndongo; Essomè Koum, Léopold G; Satyanarayana, Behara; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2011-12-06

    Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystems

  15. The mechanisms and characteristics of a complex rock-debris avalanche at the Nigeria-Cameroon border, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Mode, Ayonma Wilfred; Nnebedum, Okechukwu; Okonkwo, Ikenna; Oha, Ifeanyi

    2015-04-01

    We describe a rock-debris avalanche which occurred on steep, symmetrical ridges resulting from fracture-controlled erosion in the valley. The fractures were partially filled with clayey materials, probably derived from the weathering of feldspar. Major fault lines trending N-S were located less than 7 km from the landslide location. Exposed sections revealed that the basal rock units were migmatites and gneisses, while the upper section consisted of porphyritic granites. A failure of the residual clay-rich soil, composed of visible crystals of feldspar and mica, is thought to have triggered a long chain of events that led to the development of a rock-debris avalanche, which diverted the course of the rivers in the valley. The area was characterised by a shallow water table in the dry season (2 to 3 m) and this might have facilitated the formation of a slip surface at the regolith-rock interface. Field observations and laboratory analysis showed that the regolith probably failed first because of high pore pressure build-up and rapid reduction in shear resistance; this then triggered the failure of the fractured rock units. The slope movement was perpendicular to the foliation of the gneissic rocks, which probably contributed to landslide mobility. Of interest was that changing saturation level at constant relative density of about 32% resulted in either complete or limited liquefaction, indicating that the mechanism of failure depended on the moisture content of the regolith.

  16. Racism, Ethnicity and the Media in Africa: Reflections Inspired by Studies of Xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa Rassismus, Ethnizität und die Medien in Afrika: Reflektionen angeregt durch Studien zu Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Kamerun und Südafrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Nyamnjoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the extent to which the media and belonging in Africa are torn between competing and often conflicting claims of bounded and flexible ideas of culture and identity. It draws on studies of xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa, inspired by the resilience of the politicization of culture and identity, to discuss the hierarchies and inequalities that underpin political, economic and social citizenship in Africa and the world over, and the role of the media in the production, enforcement and contestation of these hierarchies and inequalities. In any country with liberal democratic aspirations or pretensions, the media are expected to promote national citizenship and its emphasis on large-scale, assimilationist and territorially bounded belonging, while turning a blind eye to those who fall through the cracks as a result of racism and/or ethnicity. Little wonder that such an exclusionary articulation of citizenship is facing formidable challenges from its inherent contradictions and closures, and from an upsurge in the politics of recognition and representation by small-scale communities claiming autochthony at a historical juncture where the rhetoric espouses flexible mobility, postmodern flux and discontinuity. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, inwieweit die Medien und gesellschaftliche Bindungen in Afrika zwischen konfligierenden Ansprüchen abgegrenzter und sich wandelnder kultureller Identitäten zerrissen sind. Angeregt durch die Erfahrung der kontinuierlichen Politisierung kultureller und sozialer Identitäten zieht der Autor Studien zu Fremdenfeindlichkeit in Kamerun und Südafrika heran, um die Hierarchien und Ungleichheiten zu diskutieren, auf denen politische, wirtschaftliche und soziale Staatsbürgerschaft in Afrika und darüber hinaus basiert, sowie die Rolle der Medien bei der Entstehung, Verstärkung und im Wettstreit dieser Hierarchien und Ungleichheiten. In jedem liberal-demokratisch ausgerichteten Staat

  17. Paragonimiasis in Cameroon: molecular identification, serodiagnosis and clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Okamoto, Munehiro; Mabou, Alida Kouojip; Edinga, Eulodie; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Blair, David; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Enyong, Peter; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Paragonimiasis is a common parasitic zoonosis in Cameroon and neighbouring countries in Western Africa. Serum, sputum and faecal samples were collected in an endemic area of South West Province, Cameroon, after administration of a questionnaire to identify individuals with appropriate symptoms and histories. Microscopic examination revealed eggs in sputum from 16 people, but none in any faecal sample. These 16 were among the 25 and 26 people, respectively, positive by ELISA and by immunoblot using Paragonimus africanus crude antigens. Copro-DNA detection was attempted using 23 faecal samples (18 from sputum egg-negative and five from sputum egg-positive individuals). Copro-DNA was detected in four of the five sputum egg-positive individuals. These results strongly suggest that: (1) serology is much more sensitive than sputum examination for diagnosis of paragonimiasis; and (2) a copro-DNA test may be more sensitive than a microscopic search for eggs in faeces. Molecular sequence data from ITS2 and cox1 genes confirmed that adult worms experimentally raised in cats were P. africanus and that eggs from sputum or other worm products from human faeces also belonged to this species. Based on these results, 26 of 168 persons (15.5%) were diagnosed as suffering from paragonimiasis.

  18. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J O'Hanlon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions.Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 villages across the 11 constituent countries in the OCP epidemiological database were used as ground-truth data. These 737 data points, plus a set of statistically selected environmental covariates, were used in a Bayesian model-based geostatistical (B-MBG approach to generate a continuous surface (at pixel resolution of 5 km x 5km of microfilarial prevalence in West Africa prior to the commencement of the OCP. Uncertainty in model predictions was measured using a suite of validation statistics, performed on bootstrap samples of held-out validation data. The mean Pearson's correlation between observed and estimated prevalence at validation locations was 0.693; the mean prediction error (average difference between observed and estimated values was 0.77%, and the mean absolute prediction error (average magnitude of difference between observed and estimated values was 12.2%. Within OCP boundaries, 17.8 million people were deemed to have been at risk, 7.55 million to have been infected, and mean microfilarial prevalence to have been 45% (range: 2-90% in 1975.This is the first map of initial onchocerciasis prevalence in West Africa using B-MBG. Important environmental predictors of infection prevalence were identified and used in a model out-performing those without spatial random effects or environmental covariates. Results may be compared with recent epidemiological mapping efforts to find areas of persisting transmission. These methods may be extended to areas where data are sparse, and may be used to help inform the

  19. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Simon J; Slater, Hannah C; Cheke, Robert A; Boatin, Boakye A; Coffeng, Luc E; Pion, Sébastien D S; Boussinesq, Michel; Zouré, Honorat G M; Stolk, Wilma A; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence) of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions. Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 villages across the 11 constituent countries in the OCP epidemiological database were used as ground-truth data. These 737 data points, plus a set of statistically selected environmental covariates, were used in a Bayesian model-based geostatistical (B-MBG) approach to generate a continuous surface (at pixel resolution of 5 km x 5km) of microfilarial prevalence in West Africa prior to the commencement of the OCP. Uncertainty in model predictions was measured using a suite of validation statistics, performed on bootstrap samples of held-out validation data. The mean Pearson's correlation between observed and estimated prevalence at validation locations was 0.693; the mean prediction error (average difference between observed and estimated values) was 0.77%, and the mean absolute prediction error (average magnitude of difference between observed and estimated values) was 12.2%. Within OCP boundaries, 17.8 million people were deemed to have been at risk, 7.55 million to have been infected, and mean microfilarial prevalence to have been 45% (range: 2-90%) in 1975. This is the first map of initial onchocerciasis prevalence in West Africa using B-MBG. Important environmental predictors of infection prevalence were identified and used in a model out-performing those without spatial random effects or environmental covariates. Results may be compared with recent epidemiological mapping efforts to find areas of persisting transmission. These methods may be extended to areas where data are sparse, and may be used to help inform the feasibility of

  20. Comparison of five gridded precipitation products at climatological scales over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanola, A. A.; Ogunjobi, K. O.; Ajayi, V. O.; Adefisan, E. A.; Omotosho, J. A.; Sanogo, S.

    2017-12-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the capabilities and limitations of five different precipitation products to describe rainfall over West Africa. Five gridded precipitation datasets of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-Platform Analysis (TMPA 3B43v7); University of Delaware (UDEL version 3.01); Climatic Research Unit (CRU version 3.1); Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC version 7) and African Rainfall Climatology (ARC version 2) were compared and validated with reference ground observation data from 81 stations spanning a 19-year period, from January 1990 to December 2008. Spatial investigation of the precipitation datasets was performed, and their capability to replicate the inter-annual and intra-seasonal variability was also assessed. The ability of the products to capture the El Nino and La Nina events were also assessed. Results show that all the five datasets depicted similar spatial distribution of mean rainfall climatology, although differences exist in the total rainfall amount for each precipitation dataset. Further analysis shows that the three distinct phases of the mean annual cycle of the West Africa Monsoon precipitation were well captured by the datasets. However, CRU, GPCC and UDEL failed to capture the little dry season in the month of August while UDEL and GPCC underestimated rainfall amount in the Sahel region. Results of the inter-annual precipitation anomalies shows that ARC2 fail to capture about 46% of the observed variability while the other four datasets exhibits a greater performance ( r > 0.9). All the precipitation dataset except ARC2 were consistent with the ground observation in capturing the dry and wet conditions associated with El Nino and La Nina events, respectively. ARC2 tends to overestimate the El Nino event and failed to capture the La Nina event in all the years considered. In general GPCC, CRU and TRMM were found to be the most outstanding datasets and can, therefore, be used for precipitation

  1. The Challenge of Improving Soil Fertility in Yam Cropping Systems of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Emmanuel; Aighewi, Beatrice A.; Aké, Sévérin; Barjolle, Dominique; Baumann, Philipp; Bernet, Thomas; Dao, Daouda; Diby, Lucien N.; Floquet, Anne; Hgaza, Valérie K.; Ilboudo, Léa J.; Kiba, Delwende I.; Mongbo, Roch L.; Nacro, Hassan B.; Nicolay, Gian L.; Oka, Esther; Ouattara, Yabile F.; Pouya, Nestor; Senanayake, Ravinda L.; Six, Johan; Traoré, Orokya I.

    2017-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a tuber crop grown for food security, income generation, and traditional medicine. This crop has a high cultural value for some of the groups growing it. Most of the production comes from West Africa where the increased demand has been covered by enlarging cultivated surfaces while the mean yield remained around 10 t tuber ha−1. In West Africa, yam is traditionally cultivated without input as the first crop after a long-term fallow as it is considered to require a high soil fertility. African soils, however, are being more and more degraded. The aims of this review were to show the importance of soil fertility for yam, discuss barriers that might limit the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) in yam-based systems in West Africa, present the concept of innovation platforms (IPs) as a tool to foster collaboration between actors for designing innovations in yam-based systems and provide recommendations for future research. This review shows that the development of sustainable, feasible, and acceptable soil management innovations for yam requires research to be conducted in interdisciplinary teams including natural and social sciences and in a transdisciplinary manner involving relevant actors from the problem definition, to the co-design of soil management innovations, the evaluation of research results, their communication and their implementation. Finally, this research should be conducted in diverse biophysical and socio-economic settings to develop generic rules on soil/plant relationships in yam as affected by soil management and on how to adjust the innovation supply to specific contexts. PMID:29209341

  2. The Challenge of Improving Soil Fertility in Yam Cropping Systems of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Frossard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a tuber crop grown for food security, income generation, and traditional medicine. This crop has a high cultural value for some of the groups growing it. Most of the production comes from West Africa where the increased demand has been covered by enlarging cultivated surfaces while the mean yield remained around 10 t tuber ha−1. In West Africa, yam is traditionally cultivated without input as the first crop after a long-term fallow as it is considered to require a high soil fertility. African soils, however, are being more and more degraded. The aims of this review were to show the importance of soil fertility for yam, discuss barriers that might limit the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM in yam-based systems in West Africa, present the concept of innovation platforms (IPs as a tool to foster collaboration between actors for designing innovations in yam-based systems and provide recommendations for future research. This review shows that the development of sustainable, feasible, and acceptable soil management innovations for yam requires research to be conducted in interdisciplinary teams including natural and social sciences and in a transdisciplinary manner involving relevant actors from the problem definition, to the co-design of soil management innovations, the evaluation of research results, their communication and their implementation. Finally, this research should be conducted in diverse biophysical and socio-economic settings to develop generic rules on soil/plant relationships in yam as affected by soil management and on how to adjust the innovation supply to specific contexts.

  3. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in West Africa in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Cao, C. X.; Guo, H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an acute hemorrhagic diseases caused by the Ebola virus, which is highly contagious. This paper aimed to explore the possible gathering area of EHF cases in West Africa in 2014, and identify endemic areas and their tendency by means of time-space analysis. We mapped distribution of EHF incidences and explored statistically significant space, time and space-time disease clusters. We utilized hotspot analysis to find the spatial clustering pattern on the basis of the actual outbreak cases. spatial-temporal cluster analysis is used to analyze the spatial or temporal distribution of agglomeration disease, examine whether its distribution is statistically significant. Local clusters were investigated using Kulldorff's scan statistic approach. The result reveals that the epidemic mainly gathered in the western part of Africa near north Atlantic with obvious regional distribution. For the current epidemic, we have found areas in high incidence of EVD by means of spatial cluster analysis.

  4. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae, a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cheek

    Full Text Available Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae, a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  5. The flight of physicians from West Africa: views of African physicians and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Amy; Ofosu, Anthony; Fatusi, Adesegun; Biritwum, Richard; Essel, Ama; Gary Hart, L; Watts, Carolyn

    2005-10-01

    West African-trained physicians have been migrating from the sub-continent to rich countries, primarily the US and the UK, since medical education began in Nigeria and Ghana in the 1960s. In 2003, we visited six medical schools in West Africa to investigate the magnitude, causes and consequences of the migration. We conducted interviews and focus groups with faculty, administrators (deans and provosts), students and post-graduate residents in six medical schools in Ghana and Nigeria. In addition to the migration push and pull factors documented in previous literature, we learned that there is now a well-developed culture of medical migration. This culture is firmly rooted, and does not simply fail to discourage medical migration but actually encourages it. Medical school faculty are role models for the benefits of migration (and subsequent return), and they are proud of their students who successfully emigrate.

  6. Source mechanisms of mining-related seismic events in the Far West Rand, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kassa, BB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Meeting and Exhibition Swaziland, 16 - 18 September 2009, pages 69 - 72 Source mechanisms of mining-related seismic events in the Far West Rand, South Africa BB Kassa1, J Julià2, AA Nyblade2 and RJ Durrheim1,3 1University of the Witwatersrand... layer between the gold- bearing reefs, the forward problem can be formulated as [Trifu et al., 2000; Julia et al., 2009] u=cF:M where u = vector of spectral displacements, c = 1/(4pV3R), ρ = density, V = P- or S-wave velocity, R = hypocentral...

  7. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross......-border policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within...

  8. Perspectives on model forecasts of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-01-01

    The unprecedented impact and modeling efforts associated with the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provides a unique opportunity to document the performances and caveats of forecasting approaches used in near-real time for generating evidence and to guide policy. A number of international...... academic groups have developed and parameterized mathematical models of disease spread to forecast the trajectory of the outbreak. These modeling efforts often relied on limited epidemiological data to derive key transmission and severity parameters, which are needed to calibrate mechanistic models. Here...

  9. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite, exc...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  10. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  11. Determinants of loan repayment patterns among Micro Agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa beneficiaries in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Oladele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the determinants of loan repayment patterns among Micro Agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa beneficiaries in North West Province, South Africa. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 280 respondents from a total of 344 beneficiaries. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data which was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS with frequencies, percentages and probit regression. Majority of the farmers were males (86.8%, 71.4%, had secondary level school of education. A probit regression analysis was used to analyse factors affecting the repayment of loans, and the results showed that income from crops (t = -2.75; p = 0.006 is significant at 1% and has a negative coefficient. Other sources of income (t = -5.133; p = 0.000 is significant at 1%. The results further show that there were significant indirect relationship between financial capital and social capital (t = -7.106; p = 0.000 after MAFISA loans and loan repayment (t = -7.11; p = 0.000. The other significant variables are membership of organisation (t = -2.281; p = 0.023 and frequency of extension contact (t = -3.836; 0.000, and they are significant at 5% and 1% respectively.

  12. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    Climate Change (IPCC) reckons that, in general, continued global warming will lead to higher temperatures, increased dryness in the Sahel, increased variability in precipitations and storms of heightened intensity. In catchment areas, particularly in the. Sahel, we will see a reduction in the vegetational cover, infiltration and ...

  13. West Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flows, which make the implementation of inde- pendent monetary policy more ... One factor behind the bi- lateral trade expansion is the elimination of .... Stability abroad is equivalent to exchange rate stability and stability at home means domestic monetary developments are consistent with stable domes- tic cost and prices.

  14. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène; Balestre, Eric; Kouakou, Martial; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahouada, Carin; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Dabis, François; Lewden, Charlotte; Minga, Albert

    2015-04-09

    The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)--West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky indexmorbid events occurring in patients on ART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity in substantial proportion.

  15. Climate change impacts on river discharge in West Africa: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, P.; Ducharne, A.; Feyen, L.

    2014-02-01

    This review summarizes the impacts of climate change on runoff in West Africa, assesses the uncertainty in the projections and describes future research needs for the region. To do so, we constitute a meta-database made of 19 studies and 301 future runoff change values. The future tendency in streamflow developments is overall very uncertain (median of the 301 points is 0% and mean +5.2%), except for (i) the Gambia River which exhibits a significant negative change (median = -4.5%) and (ii) the Sassandra and the Niger Rivers where the change is much more positive (+14.4 and +6.1%). A correlation analysis revealed that runoff changes are tightly linked to changes in rainfall (R = 0.49), and to a smaller extent also to changes in PET. Other parameters than climate such as the carbon effect on plant water efficiency, land use dynamics or water withdrawals could also significantly impact on runoff, but they generally do not offset the effects of climate change. In view of the potential changes, the large uncertainty therein, and the high vulnerability of the region to such changes, there is an urgent need for integrated studies that quantify the potential effects of these processes on water resources in West Africa. We especially underline the lack of information concerning projections of future floods and droughts, and of inter-annual fluctuations in streamflows.

  16. The Diurnal Cycle of Diabatic Heating and TRMM Precipitation Estimates in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous investigations have examined the diurnal cycle of convective activity in West Africa based exclusively on satellite observations. However, a unique opportunity exists to study this problem using combined in situ and satellite data thanks to the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA)/NASA AMMA (NAMMA) field campaign that took place in 2006. In particular, a network of radiosonde launch sites was set up from June through September 2006, with the most intensive observations collected over parts of Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, and Ghana. In the present study, composite vertical profiles of diabatic heating through the diurnal cycle are computed within this region of West Africa, based on the AMMA sounding data. Then, these heating profiles are placed within the context of precipitation estimates derived from several TRMM products for the same time period. In particular, the structures and timing of the heating profiles are compared with precipitation feature information provided by the TRMM database of the University of Utah Tropical Meteorology Group. This dataset includes precipitation features based on applying thresholds to data from several different instruments, including the PR, TMI, and VIRS. Differences in the composite diurnal timing of rainfall as detected by these various types of precipitation features are explored and compared with the signatures of convective and stratiform precipitation suggested by the observed diabatic heating. Alignment between the timing of the diabatic profiles and more-processed satellite products, such as 3B42 rain estimates, is also assessed.

  17. Strengthened Ebola surveillance in France during a major outbreak in West Africa: March 2014-January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Noel, H; Pannetier, D; Rapp, C; Yazdanpanah, Y; Vandentorren, S; Chaud, P; Philippe, J M; Worms, B; Bruyand, M; Tourdjman, M; Nahon, M; Belchior, E; Lucas, E; Durand, J; Zurbaran, M; Vaux, S; Coignard, B; DE Valk, H; Baize, S; Quelet, S; Bourdillon, F

    2017-12-01

    Introduction An unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus diseases (EVD) occurred in West Africa from March 2014 to January 2016. The French Institute for Public Health implemented strengthened surveillance to early identify any imported case and avoid secondary cases. Febrile travellers returning from an affected country had to report to the national emergency healthcare hotline. Patients reporting at-risk exposures and fever during the 21st following day from the last at-risk exposure were defined as possible cases, hospitalised in isolation and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Asymptomatic travellers reporting at-risk exposures were considered as contact and included in a follow-up protocol until the 21st day after the last at-risk exposure. From March 2014 to January 2016, 1087 patients were notified: 1053 were immediately excluded because they did not match the notification criteria or did not have at-risk exposures; 34 possible cases were tested and excluded following a reliable negative result. Two confirmed cases diagnosed in West Africa were evacuated to France under stringent isolation conditions. Patients returning from Guinea (n = 531; 49%) and Mali (n = 113; 10%) accounted for the highest number of notifications. No imported case of EVD was detected in France. We are confident that our surveillance system was able to classify patients properly during the outbreak period.

  18. Overview of the DACCIWA ground-based field campaign in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohou, Fabienne; Kalthoff, Norbert; Brooks, Barbara; Jegede, Gbenga; Adler, Bianca; Ajao, Adewale; Ayoola, Muritala; Babić, Karmen; Bessardon, Geoffrey; Delon, Claire; Dione, Cheikh; Handwerker, Jan; Jambert, Corinne; Kohler, Martin; Lothon, Marie; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Smith, Victoria; Sunmonu, Lukman; Wieser, Andreas; Derrien, Solène

    2017-04-01

    During June and July 2016, a ground-based field campaign took place in southern West Africa within the framework of the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project. In the investigated region, extended low-level stratus clouds form very frequently during night-time and persist long into the following day influencing the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer and, hence, the regional climate. The motivation for the measurements was to identify the meteorological controls on the whole process chain from the formation of nocturnal stratus clouds, via the daytime transition to convective clouds and the formation of deep precipitating clouds. During the measurement period, extensive remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed at three supersites in Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). The gathered observations included the energy-balance components at the Earth's surface, the mean and turbulent conditions in the nocturnal and daytime ABL as well as the de- and entrainment processes between the ABL and the free troposphere. The meteorological measurements were supplemented by aerosol and air-chemistry observations. We will give an overview of the conducted measurements including instrument availability and strategy during intensive observation periods.

  19. Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes at four localities in Ghana, West Africa

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    Kaiser Maria L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control programmes that rely on insecticide-based interventions such as indoor house spraying with residual insecticides or insecticide treated bed nets, need to base their decision-making process on sound baseline data. More and more commercial entities in Africa, such as mining companies, are realising the value to staff productivity of controlling malaria transmission in their areas of operation. This paper presents baseline entomological data obtained during surveys conducted for four mining operations in Ghana, West Africa. Results The vast majority of the samples were identified as Anopheles gambiae S form with only a few M form specimens being identified from Tarkwa. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.6% in An. gambiae and 1.81 to 8.06% in An. funestus. High survival rates on standard WHO bioassay tests were recorded for all insecticide classes except the organophosphates that showed reasonable mortality at all locations (i.e. > 90%. The West African kdr mutation was detected and showed high frequencies in all populations. Conclusions The data highlight the complexity of the situation prevailing in southern Ghana and the challenges facing the malaria vector control programmes in this region. Vector control programmes in Ghana need to carefully consider the resistance profiles of the local mosquito populations in order to base their resistance management strategies on sound scientific data.

  20. Viral bioterrorism: Learning the lesson of Ebola virus in West Africa 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenciarelli, Orlando; Gabbarini, Valentina; Pietropaoli, Stefano; Malizia, Andrea; Tamburrini, Annalaura; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Carestia, Mariachiara; Di Giovanni, Daniele; Sassolini, Alessandro; Palombi, Leonardo; Bellecci, Carlo; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-12-02

    Among the potential biological agents suitable as a weapon, Ebola virus represents a major concern. Classified by the CDC as a category A biological agent, Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever, characterized by high case-fatality rate; to date, no vaccine or approved therapy is available. The EVD epidemic, which broke out in West Africa since the late 2013, has got the issue of the possible use of Ebola virus as biological warfare agent (BWA) to come to the fore once again. In fact, due to its high case-fatality rate, population currently associates this pathogen to a real and tangible threat. Therefore, its use as biological agent by terrorist groups with offensive purpose could have serious repercussions from a psychosocial point of view as well as on closely sanitary level. In this paper, after an initial study of the main characteristics of Ebola virus, its potential as a BWA was evaluated. Furthermore, given the spread of the epidemic in West Africa in 2014 and 2015, the potential dissemination of the virus from an urban setting was evaluated. Finally, it was considered the actual possibility to use this agent as BWA in different scenarios, and the potential effects on one or more nation's stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal anaemia in West and Central Africa: time for urgent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Bendech, Mohamed Ag; Zagré, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité

    2012-05-01

    To review the prevalence, severity and determinants of anaemia among women in West and Central Africa (WCA) and raise awareness among policy makers and programme planners in the region. Systematic descriptive review of data in the public domain of the ORC Macro MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys, national nutrition surveys, oral and technical communications at regional meetings, studies published in scientific journals, and WHO and UNICEF databases. West and Central Africa region. Women of childbearing age. The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant and non-pregnant women is higher than 50 % and 40 %, respectively, in all countries. Within countries, this prevalence varies by living setting (rural v. urban), women's age and education. Across countries, socio-economic and climatic differences have no apparent association with the prevalence of anaemia among women. Several factors contribute either alone or jointly to the high rates of maternal anaemia in this region. These include widespread nutritional deficiencies; high incidence of infectious diseases; low access to and poor quality of health services; low literacy rates; ineffective design, implementation and evaluation of anaemia control programmes; and poverty. Addressing the multiple causes and minimizing the consequences of anaemia on maternal and child health and development in WCA require integrated multifactorial and multisectoral strategies. This also calls for unprecedented, historical and stronger political will and commitment that put adolescent girls and maternal health at the centre of the development agenda.

  2. THE SPECTRUM OF STUDENT ENROLLMENT-RELATED OUTCOMES IN PHYSIOTHERAPY EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN WEST AFRICA

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    Joseph A. Balogun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study investigated student enrollment-related outcomes from physiotherapy education programs in West Africa. Methods: The Head of Department of all physiotherapy education programs in Nigeria and Ghana universities (N=14 completed a questionnaire that sought information on admission capacity/goal, student enrollment, baccalaureate (BPT/BS and postgraduate (MS, Ph.D. degrees conferred and the student-core faculty ratio (SFR. Results: In Nigeria, 4,748 BPT, 325 MS and 50 Ph.D. degrees in physiotherapy were conferred over a 50 year period; 2,038 BPT, 160 MS, and 42 Ph.D. students are currently enrolled. In Ghana, over a 14 year period, 277 BS degrees were conferred and 162 students are currently enrolled. The mean SFR for the undergraduate program in Nigeria and Ghana was 17.6 and 13.5, respectively. In Nigeria, 83.3% of the physiotherapy programs are located in Federal owned university; while in Ghana 100% of the programs are in State-owned university (χ² = 8.556; p =.014. Admission goal and university ownership are significantly (p<.05 influenced by the number of students annually admitted, students enrolled and SFR. Conclusion: The number of physiotherapists currently produced by universities in West Africa is inadequate to meet the regional physiotherapist needs

  3. University Strategic Planning in Cameroon

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    Terfot Augustine Ngwana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the global, regional, and local realities can complement rather than contradict each other in the process of strategic planning for universities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Using the case of the University of Buea in Cameroon, it attempts to use the global trends of polarisation in knowledge production capacity as an input or tool for identifying strategic choice in the process of strategic planning in institutions. The national policy background is used to highlight the context and inherent role of the central government in the process of institutional strategic planning.

  4. Improving agricultural drought monitoring in West Africa using root zone soil moisture estimates derived from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C. C.; Yatheendradas, S.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelarere, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) relies heavily on remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation data to monitor agricultural drought in Sub-Saharan Africa and other places around the world. Analysts use satellite rainfall to calculate rainy season statistics and force crop water accounting models that show how the magnitude and timing of rainfall might lead to above or below average harvest. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is also an important indicator of growing season progress and is given more weight over regions where, for example, lack of rain gauges increases error in satellite rainfall estimates. Currently, however, near-real time NDVI is not integrated into a modeling framework that informs growing season predictions. To meet this need for our drought monitoring system a land surface model (LSM) is a critical component. We are currently enhancing the FEWS NET monitoring activities by configuring a custom instance of NASA's Land Information System (LIS) called the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System. Using the LIS Noah LSM, in-situ measurements, and remotely sensed data, we focus on the following questions: What is the relationship between NDVI and in-situ soil moisture measurements over the West Africa Sahel? How can we use this relationship to improve modeled water and energy fluxes over the West Africa Sahel? We investigate soil moisture and NDVI cross-correlation in the time and frequency domain to develop a transfer function model to predict soil moisture from NDVI. This work compares sites in southwest Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso, and Mali to test the generality of the transfer function. For several sites with fallow and millet vegetation in the Wankama catchment in southwest Niger we developed a non-parametric frequency response model, using NDVI inputs and soil moisture outputs, that accurately estimates root zone soil moisture (40-70cm). We extend this analysis by developing a low order parametric transfer function

  5. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

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    Nfotabong-Atheull Adolphe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region, 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45% in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp. and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb. Wurmb. purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to

  6. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable

  7. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

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    Moussa Sanogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI. Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1, Niger (1, Nigeria (34, The Gambia (3, and Togo (3] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries.

  8. The 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Hands On

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    Pauline Vetter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Consortium for Prevention and Infection Control (ICPIC organises a biannual conference (ICPIC on various subjects related to infection prevention, treatment and control. During ICPIC 2015, held in Geneva in June 2015, a full one-day session focused on the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa. This article is a non-exhaustive compilation of these discussions. It concentrates on lessons learned and imagining a way forward for the communities most affected by the epidemic. The reader can access video recordings of all lectures delivered during this one-day session, as referenced. Topics include the timeline of the international response, linkages between the dynamics of the epidemic and infection prevention and control, the importance of community engagement, and updates on virology, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination issues. The paper also includes discussions from public health, infectious diseases, critical care and infection control experts who cared for patients with EVD in Africa, in Europe, and in the United Sates and were involved in Ebola preparedness in both high- and low-resource settings and countries. This review concludes that too little is known about the pathogenesis and treatment of EVD, therefore basic and applied research in this area are urgently required. Furthermore, it is clear that epidemic preparedness needs to improve globally, in particular through the strengthening of health systems at local and national levels. There is a strong need for culturally sensitive approaches to public health which could be designed and delivered by social scientists and medical professionals working together. As of December 2015, this epidemic killed more than 11,000 people and infected more than 28,000; it has also generated more than 17,000 survivors and orphans, many of whom face somatic and psychological complications. The continued treatment and rehabilitation of these people is a

  9. Impact of dynamical regionalization on precipitation biases and teleconnections over West Africa

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    Gómara, Iñigo; Mohino, Elsa; Losada, Teresa; Domínguez, Marta; Suárez-Moreno, Roberto; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén

    2017-09-01

    West African societies are highly dependent on the West African Monsoon (WAM). Thus, a correct representation of the WAM in climate models is of paramount importance. In this article, the ability of 8 CMIP5 historical General Circulation Models (GCMs) and 4 CORDEX-Africa Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to characterize the WAM dynamics and variability is assessed for the period July-August-September 1979-2004. Simulations are compared with observations. Uncertainties in RCM performance and lateral boundary conditions are assessed individually. Results show that both GCMs and RCMs have trouble to simulate the northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in boreal summer. The greatest bias improvements are obtained after regionalization of the most inaccurate GCM simulations. To assess WAM variability, a Maximum Covariance Analysis is performed between Sea Surface Temperature and precipitation anomalies in observations, GCM and RCM simulations. The assessed variability patterns are: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); the eastern Mediterranean (MED); and the Atlantic Equatorial Mode (EM). Evidence is given that regionalization of the ENSO-WAM teleconnection does not provide any added value. Unlike GCMs, RCMs are unable to precisely represent the ENSO impact on air subsidence over West Africa. Contrastingly, the simulation of the MED-WAM teleconnection is improved after regionalization. Humidity advection and convergence over the Sahel area are better simulated by RCMs. Finally, no robust conclusions can be determined for the EM-WAM teleconnection, which cannot be isolated for the 1979-2004 period. The novel results in this article will help to select the most appropriate RCM simulations to study WAM teleconnections.

  10. Evaluation of the COSMO-CLM high-resolution climate simulations over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Bliefernicht, Jan; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Sarr, A.; Gaye, A. T.; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of a high-resolution simulation at 0.11° (12 km) with the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling in CLimate Mode (CCLM) regional climate model, applied over West Africa, is presented. This simulation is nested in a CCLM run at resolution of 0.44°, driven with boundary forcing data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period from 1981 to 2010. The simulated temperature and precipitation are evaluated using three selected climate indices for temperature and eight indices for precipitation in five different regions against a new, daily precipitation climatology covering West Africa and against other state of the art climatologies. The obtained results indicate that CCLM is able to reproduce the observed major climate characteristics including the West African Monsoon within the range of comparable regional climate modeling evaluations studies, but substantial uncertainties remain, especially in the Sahel zone. The seasonal mean temperature bias for the rainy season from June to September ranges from -0.8°C to -1.1°C. The CCLM simulations also underestimate the observed precipitation with biases in precipitation reaching -10% in the high-resolution and -20% in the low-resolution model runs. CCLM extends the monsoon precipitation belt too far north, which results in an overestimation of precipitation in the Sahel zone of up to 60%. In the coastal zone, the precipitation is underestimated by up to -90%. These biases in precipitation amounts are associated with errors in the precipitation seasonality. The added value of the higher resolution of the nested run is reflected in a smaller bias in extreme precipitation statistics with respect to the reference data.

  11. Evaluating the performance of remotely sensed and reanalysed precipitation data over West Africa using HBV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poméon, Thomas; Jackisch, Dominik; Diekkrüger, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Water is a crucial resource in West Africa, where large parts of the population rely on rainfed agriculture. Therefore, accurate knowledge of the water resources is of the utmost importance. Due to the declining number of rain gauging stations, the use of satellite and reanalysis precipitation datasets in hydrological modelling is steadily rising. However, accurate information on the benefits and deficits of these datasets is often lacking, especially in the West African subcontinent. For validation purposes, these products are commonly compared to freely available rain gauge data, which has in some cases already been used to bias correct the products in the first place. We therefore explored the possibility of a hydrological evaluation, where a model is calibrated for each dataset using streamflow as the observed variable. In this study, ten freely available satellite and reanalysis datasets (CFSR, CHIRPS, CMORPHv1.0 CRT, CMORPHv1.0 RAW, PERSIANN CDR, RFE 2.0, TAMSAT, TMPA 3B42v7, TMPA 3B42 RTv7 and GPCC FDDv1) were thus evaluated for six differently sized and located basins in West Africa. Results show that while performances differ, most datasets manage to somewhat accurately predict the observed streamflow in a given basin. Best results were achieved by datasets which use a multitude of input data, namely infrared and microwave satellite data, as well as observations from rain gauges (usually GPCC) for bias correction. If considering only the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency averaged for all six basins during the calibration phase, best results were achieved by CMORPH CRT and PERSIANN CDR (both 0.66), followed by TAMSAT, CHIRPS and TMPA 3B42 (all three 0.64). Average results were achieved by RFE 2.0 (0.63), GPCC (0.61) and TMPA 3B42 RT (0.54). CMORPH RAW and CFSR performed worst (0.36 and -0.34 on average).

  12. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

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    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  13. Uncertainties in projected climate changes of the rainy season over West Africa related to bias adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Grigory; Bosshard, Thomas; Wilcke, Renate; Yang, Wei; Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Bias adjustment has become an integral part of pre-processing of climate simulations for use in impact modeling studies. Considered now as a necessary step to deal with inability of climate models to accurately simulate the present/recent climate, bias adjustment is a statistical approach missing physical arguments. Even if bias adjustment is widely used nowadays it is still a topic for debates and criticism. One of the main questions is what level of uncertainty does bias adjustment introduce to future climate projections? In this study, using an ensemble of the CORDEX-Africa simulations, we investigate potential impact of bias adjustment on the simulated rainy season in West Africa. A number of characteristics reflecting different aspects of the rainy season are used, namely: onset and cessation of the rainy season, mean intensity, total amount of precipitation and intra-seasonal variability within the rainy season. All these characteristics are evaluated in the original CORDEX-Africa simulations and in bias-adjusted ones for a reference period first and then future climate projections of these characteristics are compared between two ensembles. Additionally, we examine how bias adjustment may impact selection of a smaller more manageable ensemble of regional climate simulations from a grand one.

  14. Structure and petrology of Pan-African nepheline syenites from the South West Cameroon; Implications for their emplacement mode, petrogenesis and geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Nsifa Nkonguin; Rigobert, Tchameni; Anne, Nédélec; Roberto, Siqueira; André, Pouclet; Jérôme, Bascou

    2013-11-01

    Three late-Neoproterozoic nepheline syenite intrusions crop out close to the late-Pan-African SW Cameroon shear zone, namely the Mont des Eléphants, Eboundja and Rocher du Loup intrusions. They are characterized by magmatic to solid-state deformation structures and microstructures. Their magmas were mainly derived from partial melting of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Magmatic differentiation may have occurred through fractionation of clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase and accessory minerals (apatite, sphene, magnetite and zircon). Bulk magnetic susceptibilities are variable in intensity depending of the magnetite content. Their magnetic anisotropies are unusally high, especially in the Rocher du Loup intrusion. The trajectories of magnetic foliations and lineations display an arcuate shape from an E-W direction in the easternmost Mont des Eléphants to a N-S direction in the Rocher du Loup intrusion. These features are consistent with a synkinematic emplacement in relation with the sinistral motion along the SW Cameroon shear zone, whose age is therefore dated by the age of the syenites, i.e. 590 Ma. Magma genesis and ascent was likely favored by a large gradient in lithospheric thickness along the western margin of the Congo craton.

  15. The Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli) at Mawambi Hills, South-West Cameroon: habitat suitability and vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiendem, Denis N; Funwi-Gabga, Neba; Tagg, Nikki; Hens, Luc; Indah, Eni K

    2013-01-01

    Only about 300 individuals of the Cross River gorilla (CRG; Gorilla gorilla diehli) survive today. The subspecies is endemic to approximately 12-14 sites at the Cameroon-Nigeria border, and is critically endangered. To understand survival prospects of the CRG at Mawambi Hills, Cameroon, a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distribution model was used to predict the distribution of gorillas. Overall, 24% of the study area was predicted to be suitable for gorillas. The most important predictors of gorilla distribution were elevation as a surrogate for accessibility (52.4%), distance to nearby villages which represents proximity to anthropogenic disturbance (22.7%), and slope steepness as a proxy for security (19.4%). Gorillas mainly occupied slopes of steep hills and avoided areas of human disturbance. To evaluate the spatial relationship between gorilla distribution and human activities, the predicted habitat suitability map was overlaid with a kernel density map of human activities. A positive correlation was found between locations of human activity and suitable habitat for gorillas (r = 0.5). This suggests that anthropogenic pressures in previously unused forest areas are increasing as a result of resource depletion at lower altitudes, consequently putting the gorillas at greater risk. Conservation management plans that seek to reduce human encroachment into habitats preferred by gorillas such as steep hills will probably contribute to gorilla survival. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A Mycobacterial Perspective on Tuberculosis in West Africa: Significant Geographical Variation of M. africanum and Other M. tuberculosis Complex Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Florian; Kumar, Samrat; Kendall, Lindsay; Ejo, Mebrat; Secka, Oumie; Ofori-Anyinam, Boatema; Abatih, Emmanuel; Antonio, Martin; Berkvens, Dirk; de Jong, Bouke C

    2016-03-01

    Phylogenetically distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages differ in their phenotypes and pathogenicity. Consequently, understanding mycobacterial population structures phylogeographically is essential for design, interpretation and generalizability of clinical trials. Comprehensive efforts are lacking to date to establish the West African mycobacterial population structure on a sub-continental scale, which has diagnostic implications and can inform the design of clinical TB trials. We collated novel and published genotyping (spoligotyping) data and classified spoligotypes into mycobacterial lineages/families using TBLineage and Spotclust, followed by phylogeographic analyses using statistics (logistic regression) and lineage axis plot analysis in GenGIS, in which a phylogenetic tree constructed in MIRU-VNTRplus was analysed. Combining spoligotyping data from 16 previously published studies with novel data from The Gambia, we obtained a total of 3580 isolates from 12 countries and identified 6 lineages comprising 32 families. By using stringent analytical tools we demonstrate for the first time a significant phylogeographic separation between western and eastern West Africa not only of the two M. africanum (West Africa 1 and 2) but also of several major M. tuberculosis sensu stricto families, such as LAM10 and Haarlem 3. Moreover, in a longitudinal logistic regression analysis for grouped data we showed that M. africanum West Africa 2 remains a persistent health concern. Because of the geographical divide of the mycobacterial populations in West Africa, individual research findings from one country cannot be generalized across the whole region. The unequal geographical family distribution should be considered in placement and design of future clinical trials in West Africa.

  17. Vegetation dynamics and climate variability-associated biophysical process in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G.; Xue, Y.; Cox, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    West Africa is a bioclimatic zone of predominantly annual grasses with shrubs and trees with a steep gradient in climate, soils, vegetation, fauna, land use and human utilization. West Africa ecosystem region suffered from the most severe and longest drought in the world during the Twentieth Century since the later 1960s. This study systematically investigates how climate variability and anomalies in West Africa affect the regional terrestrial ecosystem, including plant functional types' (PFT) spatial distribution and temporal variations and vegetation characteristics, through biophysical and photosynthesis processes at different scales. We use the offline Simplified Simple Biosphere Version 4/ Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), which is a fully coupled biophysical-dynamic vegetation (DVM) model to adequately incorporate the complex non-linear coupling dynamics between ecosystem and climate variability. The biophysical parameters in SSiB4 are adjusted with TRIFFID-produced vegetation parameter values, which ensure adequate biophysical process coupling. A 59-year simulation from 1948 was conducted using the meteorological forcing, which consists of substantial seasonal, interannual, and interdecal variability and long term dry trend. The results show that the simulated PFT's and leaf area index (LAI) correspond well to climate variability and are consistent with satellite derived vegetation conditions. The simulated inter-decadal variability in vegetation conditions is consistent with the Sahel drought in the 1970s and the 1980s and partial recovery in the 1990s and the 2000s (fig1). To further understand the biophysical mechanism of interactions of water, carbon, radiation, and vegetation dynamics, analyses are conducted to find relationships between vegetation variability and environmental conditions. It is found that the vegetation characteristics simulated by SSiB4/TRIFFID responds primarily to five

  18. The prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among workers in West Africa: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Bosu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions in workplace settings are considered to be cost-effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of hypertension and the level of awareness and control among workers in West Africa. Design: A systematic search for studies on formal and informal sector workers aged ≥15 years in West Africa published between 1980 and September 2014 was undertaken using the Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. Clinical and obstetric studies and studies that did not report prevalence were excluded. Data on study settings, characteristics of workers, blood pressure (BP levels, prevalence of hypertension, and associated demographic factors were extracted. Results: A total of 45 studies from six countries were identified involving 30,727 formal and informal sector workers. In 40 studies with a common definition of hypertension, the prevalence ranged from 12.0% among automobile garage workers to 68.9% among traditional chiefs. In 15 of these studies, the prevalence exceeded 30%. Typically sedentary workers such as traders, bank workers, civil servants, and chiefs were at high risk. Among health care workers, the prevalence ranged from 17.5 to 37.5%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males and workers with higher socio-economic status. Complications of hypertension, co-morbidities, and clustering of risk factors were common. The crude prevalence of hypertension increased progressively from 12.9% in studies published in the 1980s to 34.4% in those published in 2010–2014. The proportion of hypertensives who were previously aware of their diagnosis, were on treatment or had their BP controlled was 19.6–84.0%, 0–79.2%, and 0–12.7%, respectively. Hypertensive subjects, including health workers, rarely checked their BP except when they were ill. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of hypertension among West Africa's workforce, of which

  19. The prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among workers in West Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, William K

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions in workplace settings are considered to be cost-effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of hypertension and the level of awareness and control among workers in West Africa. Design A systematic search for studies on formal and informal sector workers aged ≥15 years in West Africa published between 1980 and September 2014 was undertaken using the Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. Clinical and obstetric studies and studies that did not report prevalence were excluded. Data on study settings, characteristics of workers, blood pressure (BP) levels, prevalence of hypertension, and associated demographic factors were extracted. Results A total of 45 studies from six countries were identified involving 30,727 formal and informal sector workers. In 40 studies with a common definition of hypertension, the prevalence ranged from 12.0% among automobile garage workers to 68.9% among traditional chiefs. In 15 of these studies, the prevalence exceeded 30%. Typically sedentary workers such as traders, bank workers, civil servants, and chiefs were at high risk. Among health care workers, the prevalence ranged from 17.5 to 37.5%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males and workers with higher socio-economic status. Complications of hypertension, co-morbidities, and clustering of risk factors were common. The crude prevalence of hypertension increased progressively from 12.9% in studies published in the 1980s to 34.4% in those published in 2010-2014. The proportion of hypertensives who were previously aware of their diagnosis, were on treatment or had their BP controlled was 19.6-84.0%, 0-79.2%, and 0-12.7%, respectively. Hypertensive subjects, including health workers, rarely checked their BP except when they were ill. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of hypertension among West Africa's workforce, of which a significant proportion is

  20. Australia's response to Ebola Virus disease in West Africa, 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2016-12-14

    In March 2016, the World Health Organization declared the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak officially over. With around 29 000 cases and 11 000 deaths in 27 months, this EVD outbreak was more than 60 times larger than any before, and unique in its cross-border spread and involvement of urban centres. Local and international responses were slow and initially inadequate, but establishment of the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response, 9 months after the outbreak began, allowed a coordinated effort that slowed and eventually controlled the spread of disease. Internationally, there were fears that EVD would spread widely beyond Africa, despite reassurances from public health authorities. However, after nurses in the US became infected, public fear and concern for the safety of healthcare workers led to political intervention and varied, sometimes excessive, border controls, quarantine arrangements and hospital preparations. Altogether, fewer than 30 EVD cases were managed in countries outside Africa, all but three of which were acquired in West Africa. In Australia, the Australian Health Protection Principal Committee led the internal response, including enhanced screening of incoming passengers at international airports and development of public health and laboratory testing protocols by expert subcommittees. States and territories nominated designated hospitals to care for EVD patients. Development of EVD infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines was initially poorly coordinated within and between jurisdictions, often with significant discrepancies, causing confusion and fear among healthcare workers. The Infection Prevention and Control Expert Advisory Group was established to develop national IPC guidelines. There were no confirmed cases in Australia, but investigation of several people with suspected EVD provided valuable experience in use of protocols and high-level containment facilities. The Australian Government was initially

  1. Ostracod provincialism and migration as a response to movements of Earth's plates: Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods of West Africa, North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Ashraf M. T.

    2017-10-01

    This paper documents the Cretaceous -Paleogene ostracods response as the continental plates tend to show divergence. For example, in the intervals from the Early to Late Cretaceous when the South American plate tended to exhibit divergent movement westward from the African plate, the migration of ostracods show westward trend from Northeast Africa to West Africa; whereas, the divergence of the Indian and the Australian plates as well as the Antarctic plate from the African and the Eurasian plates, and Arabia is accompanied with ostracod migration southward. Another example from the Maastrichtian-Eocene ostracods of West Africa, where ostracods exhibit east-west migration (despite the migration of epineritic ostracods in both directions; east-west and vice-versa) towards the North American and South American plates. These trends of migration towards the deep oceans (Atlantic and Indian oceans of present time) indicate the tendency of ostracods of these geologic times towards endemism in the deep oceans resulted from seafloor spreading during the divergence of the continental plates. On the other hand, the paleoenvironmental changes should also have significant effect on these trends of migration.

  2. Mapping and characterizing mangrove rice growing environments in West-Africa using remote sensing and secondary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adefurin, O.; Hamdy, M; Zwart, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is one of the major staple foods consumed in Africa and its demand continues to increase as a result of population growth, urbanization and changing diets. Mangrove rice cultivation is of importance along the West-African Atlantic coast from Senegal and Gambia down to Guinea-Bissau,

  3. Investigation on the 1970s and 1980s droughts in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available West Africa has experienced severe droughts during 1970s and 1980s. On the other hand, the region is characterized by high inter-annual rainfall variability and there seems to be a recent recovery. But has the drought stopped? To answer...

  4. Systems development in agricultural mechanization with special reference to soil tillage and weed control : a case study for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curfs, H.P.F.

    1976-01-01

    Introduction

    Mechanization in West Africa has been of limited importance and influence for farming and manual labour is the dominant power input. At present only about 0.07 kW per ha is applied, while at least about 0.37 kW is desirable to obtain high yield

  5. Ethics issues and research in vulnerable communities: a case study from the North West province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available study described here, researchers used a community-based participatory research design to study the impact of an ICT intervention on a group of largely illiterate, low status elderly woman in a rural village in the North West province of South Africa...

  6. Evaluation of recent hydro-climatic changes in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available West Africa experienced severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s, posing a threat to water resources. A wetter climate more recently suggests recovery from the drought. The Mann-Kendall trend and Theil-Sen’s slope estimator were applied to detect...

  7. Ongeluk basaltic andesite formation in Griqualand West, South Africa: Submarine alteration in a 2222 Ma Proterozoic sea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cornell, DH

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ongeluk lavas form part of the Palaeoproterozoic Transvaal-Griqualand West supracrustal sequence of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. They form a thick shallow-marine volcanic sequence of pillow lava, massive flows and hyaloclastite...

  8. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the

  9. Soil salinity and acidity : spatial variabil[it]y and effects on rice production in West Africa's mangrove zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylla, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the mangrove environment of West Africa, high spatial and temporal variability of soil constraints (salinity and acidity) to rice production is a problem for the transfer and adoption of new agronomic techniques, for land use planning, and for soil and water management. Recently, several

  10. Climate change, climate variability and adaptation options in smallholder cropping systems of the Sudano - Sahel region in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, B.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: crop production, maize, millet, sorghum, cotton, fertilizer, rainfall, temperature, APSIM, Mali,   In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa (SSWA) agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities, providing employment to more than 60 percent of

  11. The impact of climate change on crop production in West Africa : An assessment for the Oueme River Basin in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Adegbola, P.; Pande, S.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change studies forWest Africa tend to predict a reduced potential for farming that will affect the food security situation of an already impoverished population. However, these studies largely ignore farmers’ adaptations and market adjustments that mitigate predicted negative effects. The

  12. Commodities, Prices and Risk: the changing market for non-slave products in pre-abolition in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalrymple-Smith, A.E.; Woltjer, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a newly constructed dataset on the quantities and prices of African commodities over the long 18th century this paper provides new insights into the changing nature of the non-slave trade with West Africa in the era before the abolition of the British transatlantic slave trade. We find that

  13. Rethinking commons management in Sub-Saharan West Africa: public authority and participation in the agricultural water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venot, J.P.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Promoted for over three decades, participatory irrigation management (PIM) and its organizational upshot the water user association (WUA) have been framed as a solution to the irrigation sector problems. Based on a case study of small reservoirs in two countries of West Africa, Burkina Faso and

  14. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  15. Impact of Military Coups d’etat on West Africa’s Socio-Economic and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Toure, Abubakar Tafawa Balawa, Felix 17Adebajo, Building Peace in West Africa, 39. 20 Houphouet-Boigny, Leopard Sedar Senghor, Modibo Keita...diplomatic cover they had drugged him and put him in a sealed box bound for Nigeria aboard Nigeria Airways.46 This act of criminal intent on the

  16. Recent historical climate change and its effect on land use in the eastern part of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    There are indications that low rainfall, drought periods and famine become more frequent in West Africa. This may in part be a rather early expression of the effect of global warming but it is very likely that local factors such as drastic changes in land cover due to expanded cultivated area, as

  17. Climate change, climate variability and adaptation options in smallholder cropping systems of the Sudano - Sahel region in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traore, B.

    2014-01-01

    In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa (SSWA) agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing to about 30% of gross domestic product. Smallholder agricultural production is

  18. Mapping transmission risk of Lassa fever in West Africa: the importance of quality control, sampling bias, and error weighting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Townsend Peterson

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is a disease that has been reported from sites across West Africa; it is caused by an arenavirus that is hosted by the rodent M. natalensis. Although it is confined to West Africa, and has been documented in detail in some well-studied areas, the details of the distribution of risk of Lassa virus infection remain poorly known at the level of the broader region. In this paper, we explored the effects of certainty of diagnosis, oversampling in well-studied region, and error balance on results of mapping exercises. Each of the three factors assessed in this study had clear and consistent influences on model results, overestimating risk in southern, humid zones in West Africa, and underestimating risk in drier and more northern areas. The final, adjusted risk map indicates broad risk areas across much of West Africa. Although risk maps are increasingly easy to develop from disease occurrence data and raster data sets summarizing aspects of environments and landscapes, this process is highly sensitive to issues of data quality, sampling design, and design of analysis, with macrogeographic implications of each of these issues and the potential for misrepresenting real patterns of risk.

  19. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  20. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M

    2014-01-01

    previously received antiretroviral treatment (ART). The underlying causes of hospitalization were AIDS-defining conditions (54%), other infections (32%), other diseases (8%) and non-specific illness (6%). The most frequent diseases diagnosed were: tuberculosis (29%), pneumonia (15%), malaria (10......%) and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%). Overall, 315 (38%) patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%), non-AIDS-defining infections (26%), other diseases (7%) and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%). Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36...... frequent causes of hospitalization in HIV-positive adults in West Africa and resulted in high in-hospital fatality. Sustained efforts are needed to integrate care of these disease conditions and optimize earlier diagnosis of HIV infection and initiation of ART....

  1. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences...... between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously...... the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial...

  2. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Maiga, Abdou

    2012-01-01

    , vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500–900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region......Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic...... to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources...

  3. Climate factors play a limited role for past adaptation strategies in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors...... as drivers of land use and livelihood change need to be better understood. Based on the perceptions of 1249 households in five countries across an annual rainfall gradient of 400-900 mm, we provide an estimate of the relative weight of climate factors as drivers of changes in rural households during the past...... 20 years. Climate factors, mainly inadequate rainfall, are perceived by 30-50% of households to be a cause of decreasing rainfed crop production, whereas a wide range of other factors explains the remaining 50-70%. Climate factors are much less important for decreasing livestock production...

  4. Continued Transmission of Zika Virus in Humans in West Africa, 1992-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Bobby Brooke; Chang, Charlotte A; Hamel, Donald J; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndiaye, Daouda; Imade, Godwin; Okpokwu, Jonathan; Agbaji, Oche; Bei, Amy K; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2017-05-15

    First identified in 1947 in Uganda, Zika virus (ZIKV) has remained largely unstudied until the recent outbreak in Latin America. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of ZIKV in febrile patients in Senegal and Nigeria in samples collected from 1992 to 2016. The seroprevalence of ZIKV was 6.2% based on ZIKV immunoglobulin M and negative for dengue reactivity. ZIKV envelope was amplified from 4 samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ZIKVs belonged to the African lineage, grouping with either the Nigerian or MR766 sublineages. This study provides evidence that ZIKV has been silently circulating in West Africa for 2 decades. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Dynamics in carbon exchange fluxes for a grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cropley, Ford

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) for semi-arid savanna ecosystems of the Sahel region and its response to climatic and environmental change. A subsidiary aim is to study and quantify the seasonal dynamics in light use efficiency (ε) being a key...... variable in scaling carbon fluxes from ground observations using earth observation data. The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) 2010-2013 was measured using the eddy covariance technique at a grazed semi-arid savanna site in Senegal, West Africa. Night-time NEE was not related to temperature......, confirming that care should be taken before applying temperature response curves for hot dry semi-arid regions when partitioning NEE into gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Partitioning was instead done using light response curves. The values of ε ranged between 0.02g carbon...

  6. Sawah Rice Eco-technology and Actualization of Green Revolution in West Africa: Experience from Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. OLADELE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and dissemination of sawah rice eco-technology in Nigeria and Ghana as prerequisites for the actualization of green revolution in West Africa were described. It showed that the neglect of the eco-technology and the overemphasis of the biotechnology have rendered the ineffective transferability of the green revolution process from Asia to Africa. The sawah eco-technology increases yield up to 5 t/hm2 through bunding and the use of inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage, which enhances effective water control and management, improves the efficiency of fertilizer, improves nitrogen fixation by soil microbes and algae, increases the use of wetlands, improves soil organic matter accumulation, suppresses weed growth, and enhances immune mechanism of rice through nutrient supply. The current experience has therefore established that the technology overcomes the constraints that have limited the realization of green revolution in West Africa.

  7. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  8. Surface Fluxes and Characteristics of Drying Semi-Arid Terrain in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttemeyer, D.; Moene, A. F.; Holtslag, A. A. M.; de. Bruin, H. A. R.; de. Giesen, N. Van

    2006-03-01

    This study examines the seasonal cycle of the components of the surface energy balance in the Volta basin in West Africa as part of the GLOWA-Volta project. The regional climate is characterized by a strong north-south gradient of mean annual rainfall and the occurrence of pronounced dry and wet seasons within one annual cycle, causing a strong seasonal variation in the natural vegetation cover. The observations are conducted with a combined system, consisting of a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) for areally averaged sensible heat flux, radiometers and sensors for soil heat flux. For comparisons the eddy-covariance (EC) method providing the fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat is utilized as well. The measurements of a seasonal cycle in 2002/2003 were gathered including the rapid wet-to-dry transition after the wet season at two locations in Ghana, one in the humid tropical southern region and one in the northern region. A direct comparison and the energy balance closure of the two methods are investigated for daytime and nighttime separately. An attempt is made to understand and explain the differences between the two methods and the closure of energy budget found for these. It is found that the two systems correspond well during daytime. During nighttime the LAS seems to perform more realistically than the EC system. Considering the fact that a LAS system is much easier to use in the climate conditions of the Volta basin, it is concluded that the LAS approach is very suitable in this type of climate conditions. Surface conductances are estimated by rearranging the Penman-Monteith equation and compared to a Jarvis-type model optimised for savannah conditions. It is found that temperature dependence should be included in the conductance formulation in contrast to earlier findings. Based on the findings the gathered dataset can be used for further model studies of the climate and environment of West Africa.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol from biogenic VOCs over West Africa during AMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, G.; Murphy, J. G.; Reeves, C. E.; McQuaid, J. B.; Hamilton, J. F.; Hopkins, J. R.; Crosier, J.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents measurements of organic aerosols above subtropical West Africa during the wet season using data from the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft. Measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) at low altitudes over these subtropical forests were made during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) field experiment during July and August 2006 mainly above Benin, Nigeria and Niger. Data from an Aerodyne Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer show a median organic aerosol loading of 1.07 μg m-3 over tropical West Africa, which represents the first regionally averaged assessment of organic aerosol mass (OM) in this region during the wet season. This is broadly in agreement with global model predictions based on partitioning schemes, although there are large uncertainties associated with such estimates. In contrast our own calculations based on aerosol yields from isoprene and monoterpenes during chamber studies under represent the OM measured in this region on a comparable scale to the under representations of OM by predictive models in the mid latitudes. As global models rely on similar yield calculations in their global estimates, as our calculations this points to further systematic differences between global model estimates and measurements of SOA, most likely caused by use of incorrect BVOC emission rates. The under predictions of OM by our calculations and those in the mid latitudes employ yields extrapolated from chamber data obtained at higher mass concentrations - more recent yield data for α-pinene obtained at ambient concentrations in a flow through chamber (Shilling et al., 2008) show considerably better agreement with our data.

  10. Evaporation from cultivated and semi-wild Sudanian Savanna in west Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, Natalie C.; Mande, Theophile; van de Giesen, Nick; Tyler, Scott; Yacouba, Hamma; Parlange, Marc B.

    2017-08-01

    Rain-fed farming is the primary livelihood of semi-arid west Africa. Changes in land cover have the potential to affect precipitation, the critical resource for production. Turbulent flux measurements from two eddy-covariance towers and additional observations from a dense network of small, wireless meteorological stations combine to relate land cover (savanna forest and agriculture) to evaporation in a small (3.5 km2) catchment in Burkina Faso, west Africa. We observe larger sensible and latent heat fluxes over the savanna forest in the headwater area relative to the agricultural section of the watershed all year. Higher fluxes above the savanna forest are attributed to the greater number of exposed rocks and trees and the higher productivity of the forest compared to rain-fed, hand-farmed agricultural fields. Vegetation cover and soil moisture are found to be primary controls of the evaporative fraction. Satellite-derived vegetation index (NDVI) and soil moisture are determined to be good predictors of evaporative fraction, as indicators of the physical basis of evaporation. Our measurements provide an estimator that can be used to derive evaporative fraction when only NDVI is available. Such large-scale estimates of evaporative fraction from remotely sensed data are valuable where ground-based measurements are lacking, which is the case across the African continent and many other semi-arid areas. Evaporative fraction estimates can be combined, for example, with sensible heat from measurements of temperature variance, to provide an estimate of evaporation when only minimal meteorological measurements are available in remote regions of the world. These findings reinforce local cultural beliefs of the importance of forest fragments for climate regulation and may provide support to local decision makers and rural farmers in the maintenance of the forest areas.

  11. How influences on teenage smoking reflect gender and society in Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    To provide further understanding and discussion on the influences on smoking in young people in Mali. A generic qualitative methodological approach was used following Caelli's generic principles. Six focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 31 participants followed by two semi-structured interviews. A reflexive account was kept to record development in the researcher's theoretical position The setting was recreational areas of Bamako, capital city of Mali, West Africa. Participants aged 13-15 years were recruited opportunistically in a recreational area of Bamako. MAINOUTCOME MEASURES: To develop further understanding of the influences of teenage smoking in Mali, West Africa. FIVE MAIN CATEGORIES THAT EXPLAINED INFLUENCES ON YOUTH SMOKING EMERGED: knowledge and awareness of smoking; associations with smoking; influential people; key messages in Malian society; and access to tobacco. The results showed that influences were complex and interwoven, notable gender differences were revealed, and the role of elder members of the community proved decisive in participants' smoking experiences. Participants described vague knowledge of the impact on health of smoking and reported trying smoking from an early age. Often contact with smoking was through elders and being sent to buy and sometimes light cigarettes for them. Associations with smoking were influenced by gender with smoking more desirable for boys than girls. Any approach to preventing smoking initiation in young people requires an understanding of the social influences and pressures on young people. A tobacco control strategy is required to look at all areas of influence on smoking behaviours. Different needs should also account for the differing characteristics and perceptions of specific population groups.

  12. Effect of subclinical infection on maintaining immunity against measles in vaccinated children in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, H C; Aaby, P; Samb, B; Jensen, H; Bennett, J; Simondon, F

    1999-01-09

    Despite a high coverage with measles vaccines in parts of west Africa, epidemics of measles occur with reduced severity in an increasing proportion of older children who have been vaccinated. We examined the effect of exposure to natural measles on immunity in vaccinated children. Our study was carried out in 1992 during an epidemic of measles in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal with about 27,000 inhabitants who mostly live in compounds that include several households; within each household people live in different huts. Vaccine coverage in Niakhar was 81% at the time of our study. We measured haemagglutinin-inhibiting antibody at exposure and twice thereafter (after 4-5 weeks and at 6 months) in 36 vaccinated and 87 unvaccinated children. The frequency of measles and subclinical measles--defined as a four-fold or greater rise in antibody titre without clinical signs or symptoms--was related to intensity of exposure according to whether the index case was in the same hut, household, or compound. Clinical measles occurred in 20 (56%) of 36 unvaccinated children and in one (1%) of 87 vaccinated children. Subclinical measles occurred in 39 (45%) of 86 vaccinated children who were exposed to measles and in four (25%) of 16 unvaccinated children. The frequency was inversely related to pre-exposure antibody concentration (p<0.001 for trend) and directly related to intensity of exposure (p=0.002 for trend). Antibody concentrations in subclinical cases increased on average by 45-fold and remained raised for at least 6 months. Increased antibody titre after subclinical measles may be common in vaccinated children in West Africa where the intensity of exposure is high. As measles vaccination coverage increases, the circulation of wild measles will decrease, and vaccine-induced antibody is less likely to be boosted. Thus, new epidemics, albeit milder in form, may occur in vaccinated areas which should be recognised in campaigns to eradicate measles.

  13. African Journals Online: Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). ... It is intended to provide locally and internationally relevant updates to the clinical practice of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Pediatrics while touching on the broader public health ...

  14. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Boone Kauffman

    Full Text Available Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and 1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1 and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1. At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters. Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1 and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1 but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1. This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  15. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Bhomia, Rupesh K

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and 1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1) and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1). At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters). Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1) and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1) but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1). This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values) of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  16. West Africa - a safe haven for frogs? A sub-continental assessment of the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Penner

    Full Text Available A putative driver of global amphibian decline is the panzootic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. While Bd has been documented across continental Africa, its distribution in West Africa remains ambiguous. We tested 793 West African amphibians (one caecilian and 61 anuran species for the presence of Bd. The samples originated from seven West African countries - Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone - and were collected from a variety of habitats, ranging from lowland rainforests to montane forests, montane grasslands to humid and dry lowland savannahs. The species investigated comprised various life-history strategies, but we focused particularly on aquatic and riparian species. We used diagnostic PCR to screen 656 specimen swabs and histology to analyse 137 specimen toe tips. All samples tested negative for Bd, including a widespread habitat generalist Hoplobatrachus occipitalis which is intensively traded on the West African food market and thus could be a potential dispersal agent for Bd. Continental fine-grained (30 arc seconds environmental niche models suggest that Bd should have a broad distribution across West Africa that includes most of the regions and habitats that we surveyed. The surprising apparent absence of Bd in West Africa indicates that the Dahomey Gap may have acted as a natural barrier. Herein we highlight the importance of this Bd-free region of the African continent - especially for the long-term conservation of several threatened species depending on fast flowing forest streams (Conraua alleni ("Vulnerable" and Petropedetes natator ("Near Threatened" as well as the "Critically Endangered" viviparous toad endemic to the montane grasslands of Mount Nimba (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis.

  17. West Africa - A Safe Haven for Frogs? A Sub-Continental Assessment of the Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Johannes; Adum, Gilbert B.; McElroy, Matthew T.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Sandberger, Laura; Weldon, Ché; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Ohst, Torsten; Wombwell, Emma; Portik, Daniel M.; Reid, Duncan; Hillers, Annika; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oduro, William; Plötner, Jörg; Ohler, Annemarie; Leaché, Adam D.; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    A putative driver of global amphibian decline is the panzootic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While Bd has been documented across continental Africa, its distribution in West Africa remains ambiguous. We tested 793 West African amphibians (one caecilian and 61 anuran species) for the presence of Bd. The samples originated from seven West African countries - Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone - and were collected from a variety of habitats, ranging from lowland rainforests to montane forests, montane grasslands to humid and dry lowland savannahs. The species investigated comprised various life-history strategies, but we focused particularly on aquatic and riparian species. We used diagnostic PCR to screen 656 specimen swabs and histology to analyse 137 specimen toe tips. All samples tested negative for Bd, including a widespread habitat generalist Hoplobatrachus occipitalis which is intensively traded on the West African food market and thus could be a potential dispersal agent for Bd. Continental fine-grained (30 arc seconds) environmental niche models suggest that Bd should have a broad distribution across West Africa that includes most of the regions and habitats that we surveyed. The surprising apparent absence of Bd in West Africa indicates that the Dahomey Gap may have acted as a natural barrier. Herein we highlight the importance of this Bd-free region of the African continent - especially for the long-term conservation of several threatened species depending on fast flowing forest streams (Conraua alleni (“Vulnerable”) and Petropedetes natator (“Near Threatened”)) as well as the “Critically Endangered” viviparous toad endemic to the montane grasslands of Mount Nimba (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis). PMID:23426141

  18. A GCM Study of Responses of the Atmospheric Water Cycle of West Africa and the Atlantic to Saharan Dust Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. M.; Kim, K. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    2009-01-01

    The responses of the atmospheric water cycle and climate of West Africa and the Atlantic to radiative forcing of Saharan dust are studied using the NASA finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), coupled to a mixed layer ocean. We find evidence of an "elevated heat pump" (EHP) mechanism that underlines the responses of the atmospheric water cycle to dust forcing as follow. During the boreal summerr, as a result of large-scale atmospheric feedback triggered by absorbing dust aerosols, rainfall and cloudiness are ehanIed over the West Africa/Eastern Atlantic ITCZ, and suppressed over the West Atlantic and Caribbean region. Shortwave radiation absorption by dust warms the atmosphere and cools the surface, while longwave has the opposite response. The elevated dust layer warms the air over West Africa and the eastern Atlantic. As the warm air rises, it spawns a large-scale onshore flow carrying the moist air from the eastern Atlantic and the Gulf of Guinea. The onshore flow in turn enhances the deep convection over West Africa land, and the eastern Atlantic. The condensation heating associated with the ensuing deep convection drives and maintains an anomalous large-scale east-west overturning circulation with rising motion over West Africa/eastern Atlantic, and sinking motion over the Caribbean region. The response also includes a strengthening of the West African monsoon, manifested in a northward shift of the West Africa precipitation over land, increased low-level westerlies flow over West Africa at the southern edge of the dust layer, and a near surface westerly jet underneath the dust layer overr the Sahara. The dust radiative forcing also leads to significant changes in surface energy fluxes, resulting in cooling of the West African land and the eastern Atlantic, and warming in the West Atlantic and Caribbean. The EHP effect is most effective for moderate to highly absorbing dusts, and becomes minimized for reflecting dust with single scattering albedo at0

  19. Determinants of Mean Blood Pressure and Hypertension among Workers in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, William K

    2016-01-01

    Background. This review was undertaken to estimate the mean blood pressure and evaluate its determinants as well as the determinants of hypertension among workers in West Africa. Methods. In a follow-up to an earlier study, a systematic search for articles published between 1980 and August 2015 was undertaken using major databases. Results. A total of 55 articles involving 34,919 different cadres of workers from six countries were retrieved. The mean systolic blood pressure (BP) ranged from 116.6 ± 1.3 mmHg to 151.7 ± 13.6 mmHg while the mean diastolic BP ranged from 69.6 ± 11.0 mmHg to 97.1 ± 9.1 mmHg. Population-wide prehypertension was common. The major determinants of mean BP and hypertension were similar and included male sex, older age group, higher socioeconomic status, obesity, alcohol consumption, plasma glucose, and sodium excretion. Ethnicity and educational level were inconsistently associated with hypertension. Workers at higher risk of cardiovascular event did not perceive themselves as such. Conclusion. The prevailing mean prehypertensive BP, low perception of risk, and clustering of risk factors call for interventions such as healthy diets, improved physical activity, and a favourable work environment. Successful models for improving the cardiovascular health of sedentary informal sector workers in Africa are urgently needed.

  20. Determinants of Mean Blood Pressure and Hypertension among Workers in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Bosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This review was undertaken to estimate the mean blood pressure and evaluate its determinants as well as the determinants of hypertension among workers in West Africa. Methods. In a follow-up to an earlier study, a systematic search for articles published between 1980 and August 2015 was undertaken using major databases. Results. A total of 55 articles involving 34,919 different cadres of workers from six countries were retrieved. The mean systolic blood pressure (BP ranged from 116.6±1.3 mmHg to 151.7±13.6 mmHg while the mean diastolic BP ranged from 69.6±11.0 mmHg to 97.1±9.1 mmHg. Population-wide prehypertension was common. The major determinants of mean BP and hypertension were similar and included male sex, older age group, higher socioeconomic status, obesity, alcohol consumption, plasma glucose, and sodium excretion. Ethnicity and educational level were inconsistently associated with hypertension. Workers at higher risk of cardiovascular event did not perceive themselves as such. Conclusion. The prevailing mean prehypertensive BP, low perception of risk, and clustering of risk factors call for interventions such as healthy diets, improved physical activity, and a favourable work environment. Successful models for improving the cardiovascular health of sedentary informal sector workers in Africa are urgently needed.

  1. The roles of fire in Holocene ecosystem changes of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, L. M.; Schefuß, E.

    2018-01-01

    The climate changes associated with the Holocene wet phase in the Sahara, the African Humid Period, are subject to ongoing debate discussing interactions between climate and vegetation and possible feedbacks between vegetation, albedo, desertification, and dust. However, very little attention has been given to the role of fire in shaping the land cover, although it is known that fires are important in the formation and consolidation of the African savanna. To fill this gap, we investigated the interaction between precipitation changes, vegetation shifts, and fire occurrence in West Africa by combining stable isotope measurements on plant waxes with pollen and micro-charcoal counts of marine sediments retrieved offshore of Cape Blanc. Our study focuses on the roles of fire at the dry limit of savanna during the Holocene evolution of precipitation changes indicating that the impact of fire during a relative wet climate differs from that during aridification. During the humid early Holocene, increased savanna extension and diversification ran parallel to increased fire occurrence. In contrast, after aridification of northern Africa started at the end of the African Humid Period, a maximum in fire occurrence correlated with a deterioration of the vegetation promoting desertification.

  2. Public health professionals' perceptions of mental health services in Equatorial Guinea, Central-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Peter Robert; McGinnis, Shannon Marcail; Reuter, Kim Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disorders constitute 13% of global disease burden, the impacts of which are disproportionality felt in sub-Saharan Africa. Equatorial Guinea, located in Central-West Africa, has the highest per-capita investment in healthcare on the African continent, but only two studies have discussed mental health issues in the country and none of have examined the perspective of professionals working in the field. The purpose of this study was to gain a preliminary understanding of Equatoguinean health care professionals' perspectives on the mental health care system. Nine adult participants (directors or program managers) were interviewed in July 2013 in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea from government agencies, aid organizations, hospitals, and pharmacies. Interviews were designed to collect broad information about the mental healthcare system in Equatorial Guinea including the professionals' perspectives and access to resources. This research was reviewed and approved by an ethical oversight committee. All individuals interviewed indicated that the mental health system does not currently meet the needs of the community. Professionals cited infrastructural capacity, stigmatization, and a lack of other resources (training programs, knowledgeable staff, medications, data) as key factors that limit the effectiveness of mental healthcare. This study provides a preliminary understanding of the existing mental health care needs in the country, highlighting opportunities for enhanced healthcare services.

  3. Comparative analysis of the global transcriptome of Anopheles funestus from Mali, West Africa.

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    Andrew C Serazin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles funestus is a principal vector of malaria across much of tropical Africa and is considered one of the most efficient of its kind, yet studies of this species have lagged behind those of its broadly sympatric congener, An. gambiae. In aid of future genomic sequencing of An. funestus, we explored the whole body transcriptome, derived from mixed stage progeny of wild-caught females from Mali, West Africa.Here we report the functional annotation and comparative genomics of 2,005 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from An. funestus, which were assembled with a previous EST set from adult female salivary glands from the same mosquito. The assembled ESTs provided for a nonredundant catalog of 1,035 transcripts excluding mitochondrial sequences.Comparison of the An. funestus and An. gambiae transcriptomes using computational and macroarray approaches revealed a high degree of sequence identity despite an estimated 20-80 MY divergence time between lineages. A phylogenetically broader comparative genomic analysis indicated that the most rapidly evolving proteins--those involved in immunity, hematophagy, formation of extracellular structures, and hypothetical conserved proteins--are those that probably play important roles in how mosquitoes adapt to their nutritional and external environments, and therefore could be of greatest interest in disease control.

  4. Insecticide dissipation from soil and plant surfaces in tropical horticulture of southern Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Atcha-Ahowé, Cyrien; James, Braima; Amelung, Wulf

    2009-06-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, horticulture provides livelihood opportunities for millions of people, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. Although the vegetable agroecosystems are often characterized by intensive pesticide use, risks resulting therefrom are largely unknown under tropical horticultural conditions. The objective of this study therefore was to study the fate of pesticides in two representative horticultural soils (Acrisol and Arenosol) and plants (Solanum macrocarpon L.) after field application and thus to gain first insight on environmental persistence and dispersion of typical insecticides used in vegetable horticulture in Benin, West Africa. On plant surfaces, dissipation was rapid with half lives ranging from 2 to 87 h (alpha-endosulfan < beta-endosulfan < deltamethrin). Soil dissipation was considerably slower than dissipation from plant surfaces with half-lives ranging from 3 (diazinon) to 74 d (total endosulfan), but persistence of pesticides in soil was still reduced compared to temperate climates. Nevertheless, for deltamethrin and endosulfan, a tendency for mid-term accumulation in soil upon repeated applications was observed. The soil and plant surface concentrations of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate increased during the entire trial period, indicating that this compound is a potential long-term pollutant even in tropical environments.

  5. Fatalism and HIV/AIDS beliefs in rural Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F; McKinney, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    To examine beliefs about HIV/AIDS of rural Malians and to measure their level of fatalism in context of HIV/AIDS and prevention behaviors. Descriptive, correlational. An AIDS Knowledge and Beliefs survey and the Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI)-HIV/AIDS version were administered to a convenience sample of 84 people at three health center maternity clinics in southeastern Mali, West Africa. The sample's HIV/AIDS fatalism mean was 9.2 on a 15-point scale, with an internal consistency of .89. Health workers and more educated participants had significantly lower fatalism scores. Fatalism also varied by the combination of gender and ethnicity. People who believed that AIDS was not real, was a punishment from God, was fabricated by the West, was a curse, and that it was taboo to talk about AIDS had higher fatalism means. None of the prevention indicators were significantly related to fatalism scores. These rural Malians had a high overall fatalism mean and their beliefs about AIDS based on traditional culture may affect prevention behaviors. More research is needed to understand the influence of fatalism on prevention behaviors.

  6. Population structure in sorghum accessions from West Africa differing in race and maturity class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Sankalp U; Stich, Benjamin; Rattunde, H Frederick W; Weltzien, Eva; Haussmann, Bettina I G; Hash, C Thomas; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Parzies, Heiko K

    2011-04-01

    Accounting for population structure to minimize spurious associations in association analyses is of crucial importance. With sorghum genomic sequence information being available, there is a growing interest in performing such association studies for a number of important agronomic traits using a candidate gene approach. The aims of our study were to conduct a systematic survey of molecular genetic diversity and analyze the population structure in cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] accessions from West Africa. Our analysis included 219 West African cultivated sorghum accessions with differing maturity intended for a marker-trait association study. A total of 27 SSRs were used, which resulted in detection of 513 alleles. Genetic diversity estimates for the accessions were found to be high. The accessions were divided into two subgroups using a model-based approach. Our findings partly agree with previous studies in that the guinea race accessions could be distinguished clearly from other accessions included in the analysis. Race and geographical origin of the accessions may be responsible for the structure we observed in our material. The extent of linkage disequilibrium for all combinations of SSRs was in agreement with expectations based on the mating system.

  7. Modelling the effects of weather and climate on malaria distributions in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Ali; Jackson, Monica C; Kongoli, Cezar

    2014-03-28

    Malaria is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. There is currently conflicting data and interpretation on how variability in climate factors affects the incidence of malaria. This study presents a hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework for the analysis of malaria versus climate factors in West Africa. The hierarchical Bayesian framework takes into account spatiotemporal dependencies, and in this paper is applied to annual malaria and climate data from ten West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo) during the period 1996-2006. Results show a statistically significant correspondence between malaria rates and the climate variables considered. The two most important climate factors are found to be average annual temperature and total annual precipitation, and they show negative association with malaria incidence. This modelling framework provides a useful approach for studying the impact of climate variability on the spread of malaria and may help to resolve some conflicting interpretations in the literature.

  8. Satellite-based Assessment of Fire Impacts on Ecosystem Changes in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Fires bum many vegetated regions of the world to a variety of degrees and frequency depending on season. Extensive biomass burning occurs in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, posing great threat to ecosystem stability among other real and potential adverse impacts. In Africa, such landscape-scale fires are used for various agricultural purposes, including land clearing and hunting, although there may be a limited number of cases of fires ignited by accident or due to arson. Satellite remote sensing provides the most practical means of mapping fires, because of their sudden and aggressive nature coupled with the tremendous heat they generate. Recent advancements in satellite technology has enabled, not only the identification of fire locations, but also the measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has been found to have a direct linear relationship with the rate of biomass combustion. A recent study based on FRP measurements from the Moderate-resolution imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites revealed that, among all the regions of the world where fires occur, African regions rank the highest in the intensity of biomass burning per unit area of land during the peak of the burning season. In this study, we will analyze the burning patterns in West Africa during the last several years and examine the extent of their impacts on the ecosystem dynamics, using a variety of satellite data. The study introduces a unique methodology that can be used to build up the knowledge base from which decision makers can obtain scientific information in fomulating policies for regulating biomass burning in the region.

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and…

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming in 16 Countries in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom (AV is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa.We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. Specific AVs included in the model were Antivipmyn, FAV Afrique, EchiTab-G and EchiTab-Plus. We derived inputs from the literature which included: type of snakes causing bites (carpet viper (Echis species/non-carpet viper, AV effectiveness against death, mortality without AV, probability of Early Adverse Reactions (EAR, likelihood of death from EAR, average age at envenomation in years, anticipated remaining life span and likelihood of amputation. Costs incurred by the victims include: costs of confirming and evaluating envenomation, AV acquisition, routine care, AV transportation logistics, hospital admission and related transportation costs, management of AV EAR compared to the alternative of free snakebite care with ineffective or no AV. Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs were assessed as the cost per death averted and the cost per Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALY averted. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analyses (PSA using Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain 95% Confidence Intervals of ICERs.The cost/death averted for the 16 countries of interest ranged from $1,997 in Guinea Bissau to $6,205 for Liberia and Sierra Leone. The cost/DALY averted ranged from $83 (95% Confidence Interval: $36-$240 for Benin Republic to $281 ($159-457 for Sierra-Leone. In all cases, the base-case cost/DALY averted estimate fell below the commonly accepted threshold of one time per capita GDP, suggesting that AV is highly cost-effective for the treatment of snakebite in all 16 WA countries. The findings were consistent even with variations of inputs in 1-way sensitivity analyses. In addition, the PSA showed that

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming in 16 Countries in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Muhammad; Idris, Maryam A.; Maiyaki, Musa B.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Warrell, David A.; Kuznik, Andreas; Habib, Abdulrazaq G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom (AV) is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa. Methods We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. Specific AVs included in the model were Antivipmyn, FAV Afrique, EchiTab-G and EchiTab-Plus. We derived inputs from the literature which included: type of snakes causing bites (carpet viper (Echis species)/non-carpet viper), AV effectiveness against death, mortality without AV, probability of Early Adverse Reactions (EAR), likelihood of death from EAR, average age at envenomation in years, anticipated remaining life span and likelihood of amputation. Costs incurred by the victims include: costs of confirming and evaluating envenomation, AV acquisition, routine care, AV transportation logistics, hospital admission and related transportation costs, management of AV EAR compared to the alternative of free snakebite care with ineffective or no AV. Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) were assessed as the cost per death averted and the cost per Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALY) averted. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analyses (PSA) using Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain 95% Confidence Intervals of ICERs. Results The cost/death averted for the 16 countries of interest ranged from $1,997 in Guinea Bissau to $6,205 for Liberia and Sierra Leone. The cost/DALY averted ranged from $83 (95% Confidence Interval: $36-$240) for Benin Republic to $281 ($159–457) for Sierra-Leone. In all cases, the base-case cost/DALY averted estimate fell below the commonly accepted threshold of one time per capita GDP, suggesting that AV is highly cost-effective for the treatment of snakebite in all 16 WA countries. The findings were consistent even with variations of inputs in 1—way sensitivity analyses. In addition

  12. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  13. Identification and Diagnosis of Rainfall Types over Southern West Africa Using Satellite and Rain Gauge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranan, Marlon; Fink, Andreas H.; Amekudzi, Leonard K.; Atiah, Winifred A.

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall over Southern West Africa (SWA) is mainly controlled by the West African Monsoon circulation. Not much is known, however, about the (thermo-)dynamic environmental conditions and storm dynamics of various regional rainfall systems that contribute to the total annual rainfall. This study exploits both satellite and rain gauge measurements to quantify the contribution and to examine the importance of different rainfall types in SWA. For the period of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 1998-2014, the rainfall types are identified by analyzing the 3-D reflectivity structure using scans of the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR). Since TRMM-PR scans only provide instantaneous snapshots, the rainfall events are then traced back and forward in time with observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) over the overlapping period of 2004-2014 to obtain information about their life cycle. The composition of the ensemble of the different rainfall types exhibits a substantial regional variability across SWA. Strong convection (Radar echo > 40 dBZ) generally makes a dominant contribution to the number of rainfall events and to the total rainfall amount. However, the influence of deeper (40 dBZ echo at altitudes > 10 km) and wider (Area of 40 dBZ echo > 1000 km2) systems on the total rainfall amount increases going farther northward into the continent. Additionally, the number of tracks of those systems features relative minima along the Ivorian and Ghanaian-Togolese coast, the latter reflecting the climatologically dry Dahomey Gap. In contrast, local warm rain from isolated shallow convection develops more often along the immediate coast line. Yet, their contribution to total rainfall remains negligible and is almost non-existent further north. Compared with high-resolution rain gauge data around Kumasi, Ghana, for the year 2016, it can be assumed that warm rain events show an even higher occurrence frequency. Likewise, their

  14. Isoprene emissions modelling for West Africa: MEGAN model evaluation and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene emissions are the largest source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere, with the tropics being a major source region. These natural emissions are expected to change with changing climate and human impact on land use. As part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA project the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN has been used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of isoprene emissions over the West African region. During the AMMA field campaign, carried out in July and August 2006, isoprene mixing ratios were measured on board the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. These data have been used to make a qualitative evaluation of the model performance.

    MEGAN was firstly applied to a large area covering much of West Africa from the Gulf of Guinea in the south to the desert in the north and was able to capture the large scale spatial distribution of isoprene emissions as inferred from the observed isoprene mixing ratios. In particular the model captures the transition from the forested area in the south to the bare soils in the north, but some discrepancies have been identified over the bare soil, mainly due to the emission factors used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the model response to changes in driving parameters, namely Leaf Area Index (LAI, Emission Factors (EF, temperature and solar radiation.

    A high resolution simulation was made of a limited area south of Niamey, Niger, where the higher concentrations of isoprene were observed. This is used to evaluate the model's ability to simulate smaller scale spatial features and to examine the influence of the driving parameters on an hourly basis through a case study of a flight on 17 August 2006.

    This study highlights the complex interactions between land surface processes and the meteorological dynamics and chemical composition of the PBL. This has implications for quantifying the impact of biogenic emissions

  15. The nutrition and health impact of cash cropping in west Africa: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, T A

    1991-01-01

    The impact of cash cropping in West Africa cannot be isolated from its social and historical background. Among the many changes brought to West African economies by cash cropping since the beginning of the century, the present document shows how the extension of trade with European merchants and colonizers created new sets of values and criteria for wealth. Food crops gradually lost their prominent cultural and economics roles to the benefit of export crops or goods. Traditional systems of agricultural production were profoundly disrupted by military actions. They imposed colonial rule and control of trade of tropical crops and goods. Forced labor and compulsory (poorly paid) work assignments were instituted for private and public enterprises: construction of roads, railways, public buildings and plantations. The main justification was the need for cheap labor to cultivate, transport and build roads for the extraction of raw materials. This in turn caused massive migrations from countries such as Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) to Ivory Coast. Cash cropping made systematic collection of taxes possible. An imposition on a per capita basis became the rule and the major incentive of small farmers to engage in commercial farming. Cash cropping made also possible extensive monetarization of West Africa. This results in both favorable and unfavorable effects on the quality of the diet. In profoundly disrupted traditional societies, the diffusion of new consumption patterns was easier and faster. It led to massive food imports of wheat, rice, sugar, alcohol, etc. Cash cropping was (and still is) practiced as a 'mining' agriculture, exhausting soils and deteriorating their fertility for extended periods of time. In the Sudanian and Sahelian zones cash cropping conflicted with the cultivation of grains because peak demands for labor were similar. Therefore, millet and sorghum production declined. Cash cropping was developed in response to the need of European economies for

  16. Sustainable Development of Research Capacity in West Africa based on the GLOWA Volta Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Jens R.; Rogmann, Antonio; Falk, Ulrike; Amisigo, Barnabas; Nyarko, Kofi; Harmsen, Karl; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2010-05-01

    The Sustainable Development of Research Capacity (SDRC) in West Africa is an 18 month project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, to strengthen the research capacity, give access to data and models, and to support the establishment of the newly formed Volta Basin Authority. The SDRC project largely builds on the results and models developed in the framework of the GLOWA Volta Project (GVP), a nine-year, interdisciplinary research project (May 2000 - May 2009). The GVP's central objectives were to analyze the physical and socio-economic determinants of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin in the face of global change, and to develop scientifically sound decision support resources. Another major achievement of GVP was the extensive capacity building. Of the 81 participating students (57 Ph.D.'s), 44 originated from West Africa, and 85% of the West African graduates returned to their home countries. The SDRC makes use of the wide range of research results and decision support tools developed in the course of the GVP. It is based on three columns: I. knowledge transfer and strengthening of human capacity, which focus on a training on the modeling of the onset of the rainy season, hydrological, economic, and hydro-economic modeling, and training of geospatial database managers; II. strengthening of infrastructural research capacity through the support of a research instrumentation network through the operation and transfer of a weather station network, a network of tele-transmitted stream gauges; and III. the transfer of a publicly accessible online Geoportal for the dissemination of various geospatial data and research results. At the center of the SDRC effort is the strengthening of the Volta Basin Authority, a river basin authority with a transnational mandate, especially through the transfer of the Geoportal, and the associated training and promotion efforts. The Geoportal is an effort to overcome the data scarcity previously observed in

  17. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J Christine [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Yann [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Hill, Peter [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, Laurie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West African monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of Leeds

  18. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  19. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus - infected patients from the South-West region of Cameroon, using the adult treatment panel III criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunkah, Herbert Afegenwi; Meriki, Henry Dilonga; Kukwah, Anthony Tufon; Nfor, Omarine; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is more common in subjects with HIV infection than in HIV-negative individuals. HIV infection and the use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) have been shown to predispose HIV-infected persons to MS. In this study, we report the prevalence of MS in Cameroonian HIV-infected subjects receiving different combinations of HAART as well as HIV patients who have never received antiretroviral drugs. In this cross-sectional study, 173 treated and untreated HIV-infected out-patients (aged 18-70 years) managed at the Buea and Limbe Regional Hospitals and 50 seronegative individuals (controls) were recruited after obtaining their consent. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the National Ethics Committee of Cameroon. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was examined using the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) criteria. Data was analyzed using SPSS® (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 16. Statistical significance was set at p treatment with HAART may predispose HIV patients to developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in spite of improvements in morbidity and mortality conferred by immune reconstitution as a result of HAART treatment.

  1. Country report Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagne, E.

    2007-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the history of activities in biogas projects in Cameroon. The first projects started in the year 1978. The latest projects are concerned to an anaerobic sanitation system Cameroon (ASSC) biogas plant at different places in Cameroon. Problems arise from a weak cooperation between project beneficiary and project officers as well as from irregular supply of building materials. Direct consequences of such project will be the creation of job opportunities, improvement of health, education and training of youths from nursery to high schools, also contractors and local artisans for the use of anaerobic systems to the detriment of septic tanks.

  2. Efficiency measurement of 6 major container ports in West Africa with Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Κωνσταντινίδης, Γιάννης

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to apply the DEA and SFA methods to evaluate efficiencies of 6 major ports out of 12 in total, in West Africa and to understand if these ports can become the main hubs of container transport to African inland in the future and how they can evolve through the time. The selection of 6 West African ports based on their container throughput levels which is over 100,000 TEU’s per year. The DEA and SFA methods were used to determine their relative e...

  3. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of congestive heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: experience of the Cardiac Centre in Shisong, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantchou Tchoumi, Jacques Cabral; Ambassa, Jean Claude; Kingue, Samuel; Giamberti, Alessandro; Cirri, Sylvia; Frigiola, Alessandro; Butera, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. Of these patients, 462 were diagnosed with congestive heart failure according to the modified Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure. Complementary investigations used to confirm and establish the aetiology of the disease were the chest X-ray, electrocardiography, bi-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. The results showed that the occurrence of congestive heart failure in our centre was 5.7%. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 198 females and 264 males, aged between 8 and 86 years old (42.5±18 years old). Post rheumatic valvulopathies (14.6%) and congenital heart diseases (1.9%) were the first aetiologic factor of congestive heart failure in the young, meanwhile cardiomyopathies (8.3%) in elderly followed by hypertensive cardiomyopathy (4.4%). Congestive heart failure was also seen in adults with congenital heart diseases in 0.01%. In this zone of Cameroon, we discovered that HIV cardiomyopathy (1.6%) and Cor pulmonale (8%) were represented, aetiological factors not mentioned in previous studies conducted in urban areas of Cameroon. The mean duration of hospital stay for the compensation treatment was thirteen days, ranging between 7 and 21 days), the mortality being 9.2%. All the medications recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure are available in our centre but many patients are not compliant to the therapy or cannot afford them. Financial limitation is causing the exacerbation of the disease and premature death. Our data show a high incidence of congestive heart failure mainly due to post rheumatic valvulopathies in young patients in our centre. National

  4. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of congestive heart failure in sub-saharan Africa: experience of the Cardiac Centre in Shisong, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantchou Tchoumi Jacques Cabral

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. METHODS: Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. Of these patients, 462 were diagnosed with congestive heart failure according to the modified Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure. Complementary investigations used to confirm and establish the aetiology of the disease were the chest X-ray, electrocardiography, bi-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: The results showed that the occurrence of congestive heart failure in our centre was 5,7%. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 198 females and 264 males, aged between 8 and 86 years old (42.5, plus or minus 18 years old. Post rheumatic valvulopathies (14.6% and congenital heart diseases (1.9% were the first aetiologic factor of congestive heart failure in the young, meanwhile cardiomyopathies (8,3% in elderly followed by hypertensive cardiomyopathy (4.4%. Congestive heart failure was also seen in adults with congenital heart diseases in 0.01%. In this zone of Cameroon, we discovered that HIV cardiomyopathy (1.6% and Cor pulmonale (8% were represented, aetiological factors not mentioned in previous studies conducted in urban areas of Cameroon. The mean duration of hospital stay for the compensation treatment was thirteen days, ranging between 7 and 21 days, the mortality being 9.2%. All the medications recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure are available in our centre but many patients are not compliant to the therapy or cannot afford them. Financial limitation is causing the exacerbation of the disease and premature death. CONCLUSION: Our data show a high incidence of congestive heart failure mainly due to post

  5. Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2011-03-01

    The radiative forcing of dust and its impact on precipitation over the West Africa monsoon (WAM) region is simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem). During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to AOD over West Africa. In the standard simulation, on 24-hour domain average, dust has a cooling effect (-6.11 W/m2) at the surface, a warming effect (6.94 W/m2) in the atmosphere, and a relatively small TOA forcing (0.83 W/m2). Dust modifies the surface energy budget and atmospheric diabatic heating and hence causes lower atmospheric cooling in the daytime but warming in the nighttime. As a result, atmospheric stability is increased in the daytime and reduced in the nighttime, leading to a reduction of late afternoon precipitation by up to 0.14 mm/hour (30%) and an increase of nocturnal and early morning precipitation by up to 0.04 mm/hour (23%) over the WAM region. Dust-induced reduction of diurnal precipitation variation improves the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation when compared to measurements. However, daily precipitation is only changed by a relatively small amount (-0.14 mm/day or -4%). On the other hand, sensitivity simulations show that, for weaker-to-stronger absorbing dust, dust longwave warming effect in the nighttime surpasses its shortwave cooling effect in the daytime at the surface, leading to a less stable atmosphere associated with more convective precipitation in the nighttime. As a result, the dust-induced change of daily WAM precipitation varies from a significant reduction of -0.40 mm/day (-12%, weaker absorbing dust) to a small increase of 0.05 mm/day (1%, stronger absorbing dust). This variation originates from the competition between dust impact on daytime and nighttime precipitation, which depends on dust shortwave absorption. Dust reduces the diurnal variation of precipitation regardless of its absorptivity, but more reduction is associated with stronger absorbing dust.

  6. The quest for safe drinking water: an example from Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordalo, Adriano A; Savva-Bordalo, Joana

    2007-07-01

    While humans require water for life, one-sixth of our species lives without access to safe water. In Africa, the situation is particularly acute because of global warming, the progression of the Sahara desert, civil unrest and poor governance, population growth, migration and poverty. In rural areas, the lack of adequate safe water and sanitary infrastructures leaves millions with doubtful water quality, increasing the harshness of daily life. In this paper, a pilot study was conducted during the wet season on Bolama Island (Guinea-Bissau, West Africa), a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve. Twenty-eight shallow wells, supplying water to most of the population, were sampled for microbiological, physical and chemical water quality characteristics. A ten-parameter water quality index (WQI) adapted to tropical conditions was applied to compare the different wells. About 79% of the wells showed moderate to heavy fecal contamination. From the surveyed parameters, it was found that chemical contamination was less important, although all samples were acidic, with the pH averaging 5.12+/-0.08. The WQI was 43+/-4% (0%-worst; 100%-best quality), showing that the water from the majority of wells was polluted but should be suitable for domestic use after appropriate treatment. At the onset of the wet season, diarrhea represented 11.5% of all medical cases, 92.5% of which were children aged <15. This paper suggests inexpensive steps to reduce the fecal contamination and control the pH in order to increase the potability of the well water and, concomitantly, to raise the living standards of the population in one of the poorest countries of the world.

  7. Is there echinococcosis in West Africa? A refugee from Niger with a liver cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angheben, Andrea; Mariconti, Mara; Degani, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Palvarini, Loredana; Gobbi, Federico; Brunetti, Enrico; Tamarozzi, Francesca

    2017-05-11

    Italy is presently facing an increase in immigration from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean Sea. Case reports of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) have been reported from most sub-Saharan countries. Therefore, an increase in the number of patients with CE coming from these areas in the Italian and European centers for infectious diseases is expected. Unfortunately, the epidemiology of CE in sub-Saharan countries is poorly known, which makes clinical suspicion and diagnosis of such infection difficult in patients coming from these areas. Here we report a case of hepatic CE in a patient from Niger who arrived in Italy through Libya and visited in a Tropical Medicine referral center in Northern Italy. The parasite was identified molecularly as the G6 "camel" strain of Echinococcus granulosus (E. canadensis). The diagnosis and management of a chronic and clinically complex infection like CE in such situation is difficult. Only 40 cases of CE from Niger have been reported; of these, 75% had extra-hepatic localization. To our knowledge, no strain characterization of human isolates from Niger has been reported so far. The CE cyst of the patient was in CE3a stage, indicating active transmission from the area in which the patient came. However, prevalence data from Niger, and from any other country in West Africa, are almost inexistent. We argue that population epidemiology surveys with ultrasound are warranted in Sahelian countries, including Niger. These studies could improve the knowledge of CE epidemiology, provide health authorities with important information for public health interventions targeting this zoonosis, and shed light on any difference between tissue tropism and clinical manifestations caused by the different E. granulosus strains.

  8. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Onchocerciasis in West Africa after 2002: a challenge to take up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hougard J.M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially planned for a 20 year life time, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP will have finally continued its activities for nearly three decades (vector control alone from 1975 to 1989, then vector control and/or therapeutic treatment until 2002. Although onchocerciasis is no longer a problem of public health importance nor an obstacle to socioeconomic development in the OCP area, the control of this filariasis is not over because OCP never aimed at eradication, neither of the parasite (Onchocerca volvulus, nor of its vector (Simulium damnosum s.l.. In 2003, the eleven Participating countries of OCP will take over the responsibility of carrying out the residual activities of monitoring and the control of this disease. This mission is of great importance because any recrudescence of the transmission could lead in the long run to the reappearance of the clinical signs of onchocerciasis, if not its most serious manifestations. For epidemiological and operational reasons, and given the disparity in national health policies and infrastructures, the capacities of the countries to take over the residual activities of monitoring and control of onchocerciasis are very unequal. Indeed, the interventions to be carried out are very different from one country to another and the process of integrating the residual activities into the national health systems is not taking place at the same pace. This inequality among the countries vis-a-vis the challenges to be met does not, however, prejudge the epidemiological situation after 2002 whose evolution will also depend on the effectiveness of the provisions made before that date by OCP, then after 2002, by the Regional Office for Africa of the World Health Organization which is currently setting up a sub-regional multidisease surveillance centre.

  10. Energy Use: Electricity System in West Africa and Climate Change Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Suleiman Momodu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a low carbon pathway, the theoretical frame for understanding the trade-offs between economic development and climate change. An already developed model - Electricity Planning-Low Carbon Development (EP-LCD - was adapted and modified to examine the nonlinear relationship between generation adequacy and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction for better targeted strategic regional intervention on climate change. Two broad scenarios - Base and LCD Option - were tested for the West African Power Pool (WAPP. The cost impact of increasing generation capacity in the LCD Option was estimated at US$1.54 trillion over a 50 year period. Achieving the goal of low carbon pathway would be largely influenced by government decision. Four strategies, in line with the Nationally Determined Contribution in Paris Agreement, were recommended. These are: a enforced improved efficient electricity generation through increased energy efficiency that should result in increased capacity factor; b decreased energy intensity of economic activities to result in reduced emission factor in existing plants; c attract new investment through low tax or tax exemption to reduce cost of constructing power plants for the benefit of base-load plants; and d subsidized cost of low-carbon fuels in the short run to benefit intermediate load plants and allow for the ramping up of low-/no-carbon fuel generation capacity. These are recommended considering the region’s specific economical and political conditions where funds are tremendously difficult to raise. Implementing these recommendations will allow the electric power industry in West Africa to contribute to achieving sustainable development path.

  11. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromise between aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo. Aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  12. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 11, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Yields in Meme Division, South West Region of Cameroon · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Martin Keghe Nkobe, Susan Imbolo Mulua, Amougou Joseph Armathée, ...

  13. The Quest for the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary West of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitellini, N.

    2009-04-01

    A new swath bathymetry compilation of the Gulf of Cadiz Area and SW Iberia is presented. The new map is the result of a collaborative research performed after year 2000 by teams from 7 European countries and 14 research institutions. This new dataset allow for the first time to present and to discuss the missing link in the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in the Central Atlantic. A set of almost linear and sub parallel dextral strike-slip faults, the SWIM Faults (SWIM is the acronym of the ESF EuroMargins project "Earthquake and Tsunami hazards of active faults at the South West Iberian Margin: deep structure, high-resolution imaging and paleoseismic signature") was mapped using a the new swath bathymetry compilation available in the area. The SWIM Faults form a narrow band of deformation over a length of 600 km coincident with a small circle centred on the pole of rotation of Africa with respect to Eurasia, This narrow band of deformation connects the Gloria Fault to the Rif-Tell Fault Zone, two segments of the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia. In addition, the SWIM faults cuts across the Gulf of Cadiz, in the Atlantic Ocean, where the 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake, M~8.5-8.7, and tsunami were generated, providing a new insights on its source location. SWIM Team: E. Gràcia (2), L. Matias (3), P. Terrinha (4), M.A. Abreu (5), G. DeAlteriis(6), J.P. Henriet (7), J.J. Dañobeitia (2), D.G. Masson (8), T. Mulder (9), R. Ramella (10), L. Somoza (11) and S. Diez (2) (2) Unitat de Tecnologia Marina (CSIC), Centre Mediterrani d'Investigacions Marines i Ambientals, Barcelona, Spain (3) Centro Geofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CGUL, IDL), Lisboa, Portugal (4) National Institute for Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI, LATTEX), Departamento de Geologia Marinha, Amadora, Portugal (5) Estrutura de Missão para a Extensão da Plataforma Continental, Lisboa, Portugal (6) Geomare Sud IAMC, CNR, Napoli, Italy (7) Renard Centre of Marine Geology

  14. Precipitation recycling in West Africa - regional modeling, evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald; Knoche, Hans-Richard

    2015-04-01

    -atmospheric processes involved in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle in West Africa, based on our WRF simulation. We will particularly focus on the respective contribution of local and remote water vapor to atmospheric processes involved in local precipitation, and compare the results at the 100 and 1000 km2 scales. The potential impact of local land use change on local precipitation will finally be discussed based on this quantitative analysis.

  15. Partners in Progress or Economic Enemies China’s Impact on U.S. National Interests in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    differences over Taiwan…Senegal was granted zero-tariff treatment to export its products to China ” (Cisse 2013, 3). This resulted in a significant...government has focused this power is West Africa, specifically through economic investment. Is China using this investment to exert greater “soft...power” in the region, and convince those governments to support China on the global stage? Does this investment and influence come at the expense of

  16. DPA1*02012: A DPA1*0201-related Mhc class II allele in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.G.; May, J.; Spauke, D.; Schnittger, L. [Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    DNA techniques such as sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridizations, restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses, and DNA sequencing have greatly supported the characterization of Mhc class II allelic polymorphism. Here the authors describe a DPA 1 allele which has been identified in two male individuals from Liberia and Benin, West Africa, during a survey study on Mhc class II associations with the different manifestations after infection with Onchocerca volvulus. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Biogeography and conservation of viperids from North-West Africa : an application of ecological niche-based models and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, J. C.; Fahd, S.; Geniez, P.; Martinez-Freiria, F.; Pleguezuelos, J. M.; Trape, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    North-West Africa is an outstanding region to study biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. This study identifies biogeographic affinities and areas of probable occurrence for seven viperid snakes through the combination of high resolution presence data and environmental factors. Vipers exhibited distinct biogeographical affinities: Bitis arietans was mostly found along savannahs, Echis leucogaster along the Sahel/savannahs, Cerastes cerastes and C vipera throughout most desertic...

  18. Challenges and Prospects of Liberal Democracy in West Africa: A Comparative Assessment of Benin, Ghana and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    before diamonds were discovered in 30 Botswana , this former desert protectorate, which was neglected by the British under colonialism, demonstrated a...gold, diamond , bauxite, iron, coffee, timber, cotton and groundnuts. External economic investors in the sub-region are the European Union, China...for controlling the ethnic divisions in the sub-region ( Mine 2008). Subsequently, the political instability that plagued West Africa after this period

  19. West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Horses and Other Animals with Neurologic Disease, South Africa, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Marietjie; Pretorius, Marthi; Fuller, James A; Botha, Elizabeth; Rakgotho, Mpho; Stivaktas, Voula; Weyer, Camilla; Romito, Marco; Williams, June

    2017-12-01

    During 2008-2015 in South Africa, we conducted West Nile virus surveillance in 1,407 animals with neurologic disease and identified mostly lineage 2 cases in horses (7.4%, 79/1,069), livestock (1.5%, 2/132), and wildlife (0.5%, 1/206); 35% were fatal. Geographic correlation of horse cases with seropositive veterinarians suggests disease in horses can predict risk in humans.

  20. Raptors in changing West African savannas : the impact of anthropogenic land transformation on populations of Palearctic and Afrotropical raptors in northern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Raptors in West Africa’s savannas have strongly declined the past four decades and many species now survive only in a few pockets of intact habitat, mostly inside protected areas, while some species are on the brink of extinction. Little is known about the processes that sustain raptor populations

  1. Desert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Doumbia, Seydou; Henry, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database ( N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else.

  2. Assessing the link between Atlantic Niño 1 and drought over West Africa using CORDEX regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Mojisola Oluwayemisi; Dilau, Kabiru Alabi

    2016-12-01

    The skill of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) models (ARPEGE, CCLM, HIRHAM, RACMO, REMO, PRECIS, RegCM3, RCA, WRF and CRCM) in simulating the climate (precipitation, temperature and drought) of West Africa is determined using a process-based metric. This is done by comparing the CORDEX models' simulated and observed correlation coefficients between Atlantic Niño Index 1 (ATLN1) and the climate over West Africa. Strong positive correlation is observed between ATLN1 and the climate parameters at the Guinea Coast (GC). The Atlantic Ocean has Niño behaviours through the ATLN indices which influence the climate of the tropics. Drought has distinct dipole structure of correlation with ATLN1 (negative at the Sahel); precipitation does not have distinct dipole structure of correlation, while temperature has almost a monopole correlation structure with ATLN1 over West Africa. The magnitude of the correlation increases with closeness to the equatorial eastern Atlantic. Correlations between ATLN1 and temperature are mostly stronger than those between ATLN1 and precipitation over the region. Most models have good performance over the GC, but ARPEGE has the highest skill at GC. The PRECIS is the most skilful over Savannah and RCA over Sahel. These models can be used to downscale the projected climate at the region of their highest skill.

  3. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J; Morley, David W; Atkinson, Peter M; Wardrop, Nicola A; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J

    2015-03-01

    Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Analysis and Diagnosis of the Agrarian System in the Niayes Region, Northwest Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Fare

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian system Analysis and Diagnosis is used for this study, the goal of which was to provide a corpus of basic knowledge and elements of reflection necessary for the understanding the Niayes farming systems dynamics in Senegal, West Africa. Such holistic work has never been done before for this small region that provides the majority of vegetables in the area, thanks to its microclimate and access to fresh water in an arid country. Reading of the landscape and historical interviews coupled with fine-tuned household surveys were used to build a typology of agricultural production units (each type being represented by a production system. The main phases within the region’s history were distinguished. Before colonization, agriculture was based on gathering and shifting agriculture (millet and peanut in the southern region and transhumant stockbreeding in the North. During colonization, market gardening became a source of income as a response to cities’ increasing demand. Two major droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s have accelerated this movement. Extension of market gardening areas and intensification of activities were made possible by Sahelian migrants’ influx and the creation of mbeye seddo, a contract that allows for sharing added value between the employer and seasonal workers, named sourghas. Over the past 20 years, the “race for motorization” has created important social gaps (added value sharing deserves review and a risk of overexploitation of groundwater.

  5. Farmer-managed natural regeneration enhances rural livelihoods in dryland west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. 'Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  6. Microcredit in West Africa: how small loans make a big impact on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbezo, B E

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the impact of microfinancing schemes in West Africa and the role of the International Labor Organization (ILO) in their development. Microfinancing or microcredit schemes are meant to create the kind of jobs that can keep households severely hit by the economic crisis afloat. They affect not only the financial, but also the agricultural, crafts, financing of social economy, and social protection sectors of the society. Thus, they contribute to improved access to basic social, health and family planning services and to drinking water. The challenge then, is for institutes to adopt microfinancing and to reach out to more than 100 million families in the region. To realize this, nongovernmental organizations are setting up as veritable microfinancing institutions, which are able to realize the resulting benefits so as to be economically viable. In the context of its role in the development of microfinancing schemes, ILO manages a portfolio of technical cooperation and research projects aimed at identifying and removing constraints in the access to credit, savings, insurance, and other financial services through its Social Finance Unit. In addition, ILO is promoting women's entrepreneurship through the International Small Enterprise Programme and the International Programme on More and Better Jobs for Women.

  7. Deciphering Dynamics of Recent Epidemic Spread and Outbreak in West Africa: The Case of Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Roy, Parimita

    Recently, the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was the largest outbreak to date. In this paper, an attempt has been made for modeling the virus dynamics using an SEIR model to better understand and characterize the transmission trajectories of the Ebola outbreak. We compare the simulated results with the most recent reported data of Ebola infected cases in the three most affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The epidemic model exhibits two equilibria, namely, the disease-free and unique endemic equilibria. Existence and local stability of these equilibria are explored. Using central manifold theory, it is established that the transcritical bifurcation occurs when basic reproduction number passes through unity. The proposed Ebola epidemic model provides an estimate to the potential number of future cases. The model indicates that the disease will decline after peaking if multisectorial and multinational efforts to control the spread of infection are maintained. Possible implication of the results for disease eradication and its control are discussed which suggests that proper control strategies like: (i) transmission precautions, (ii) isolation and care of infectious Ebola patients, (iii) safe burial, (iv) contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, and (v) early diagnosis are needed to stop the recurrent outbreak.

  8. Integrated Flood Risk Assessment of Rural Communities in the Oti River Basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossi Komi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage in West Africa has increased appreciably during the last two decades. Poor communities are more at risk due to the vulnerability of their livelihoods, especially in rural areas where access to services and infrastructures is limited. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors that contribute to flood risk of rural communities in the Oti River Basin, Togo. A community-based disaster risk index model is applied. The analyses use primary data collected through questionnaires during fieldwork, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method, population and housing census data and flood hazard mapping of the study area. The results showed a moderate level of flood risk despite a high level of hazard and vulnerability for all investigated communities. In addition, the results suggest that decreasing vulnerability through creation of new income-generating opportunities and increasing capacity of communities to manage their own flood risk should be paramount in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. The results of this work contribute to the understanding of flood risk and can be used to identify, assess, and compare flood-prone areas, as well as simulating the impacts of flood management measures in the Oti River Basin.

  9. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  10. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  11. Mining and environmental change in Sierra Leone, West Africa: a remote sensing and hydrogeomorphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiwumi, Fenda A; Butler, David R

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental changes in southwestern Sierra Leone, West Africa from rutile (titanium dioxide) between 1967 and 1995. Mining in peripheral parts of the world economy is a consequence of larger global economic interests. Historically, long-distance trade and export production of minerals and other natural resources primarily for the benefit of core countries are responsible for transforming the natural environment and landscapes of peripheral sectors of the world economy. Tracking environmental change in developing countries such as Sierra Leone is challenging because of financial and infrastructural constraints on the use of ground methods of evaluation and monitoring. Remote sensing data are invaluable in assessing the human dimensions of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) with implications for political ecology. Using available multi-date infrared Landsat images supplemented with field hydrological and biophysical data, we monitored the rapid temporal and spatial dynamic characteristic of mining areas in the study area with a focus on physical changes to the landscape. Reservoir construction for mining has caused flooding of alluvial lowlands, deforestation, and the creation of tailings and stockpiles over mined-out portions of the lease. Although the study was conducted at a local scale, it represents the broad, regional, past-to-present manner by which global economic interests exploit natural resources and impact the environment in distant places.

  12. Impact of Low Level Clouds on radiative and turbulent surface flux in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohou, Fabienne; Kalthoff, Norbert; Dione, Cheikh; Lothon, Marie; Adler, Bianca; Babic, Karmen; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Vila-Guerau De Arellano, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    During the monsoon season in West Africa, low-level clouds form almost every night and break up between 0900 and the middle of the afternoon depending on the day. The break-up of these clouds leads to the formation of boundary-layer cumuli clouds, which can sometimes evolve into deep convection. The low-level clouds have a strong impact on the radiation and energy budget at the surface and consequently on the humidity in the boundary layer and the afternoon convection. During the DACCIWA ground campaign, which took place in June and July 2016, three supersites in Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria were instrumented to document the conditions within the lower troposphere including the cloud layers. Radiative and turbulent fluxes were measured at different places by several surface stations jointly with low-level cloud occurrence during 50 days. These datasets enable the analysis of modifications in the diurnal cycle of the radiative and turbulent surface flux induced by the formation and presence of the low-level clouds. The final objective of this study is to estimate the error made in some NWP simulations when the diurnal cycle of low-level clouds is poorly represented or not represented at all.

  13. Continental margin subsidence from shallow mantle convection: Example from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhia, Bhavik Harish; Roberts, Gareth G.; Fraser, Alastair J.; Fishwick, Stewart; Goes, Saskia; Jarvis, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    Spatial and temporal evolution of the uppermost convecting mantle plays an important role in determining histories of magmatism, uplift, subsidence, erosion and deposition of sedimentary rock. Tomographic studies and mantle flow models suggest that changes in lithospheric thickness can focus convection and destabilize plates. Geologic observations that constrain the processes responsible for onset and evolution of shallow mantle convection are sparse. We integrate seismic, well, gravity, magmatic and tomographic information to determine the history of Neogene-Recent (water-loaded subsidence occurred in a ∼500 × 500 km region centered on the Mauritania basin during the last 23 Ma. Conversion of shear wave velocities into temperature and simple isostatic calculations indicate that asthenospheric temperatures determine bathymetry from Cape Verde to West Africa. Calculated average excess temperatures beneath Cape Verde are > + 100 °C providing ∼103 m of support. Beneath the Mauritania basin average excess temperatures are < - 100 °C drawing down the lithosphere by ∼102 to 103 m. Up- and downwelling mantle has generated a bathymetric gradient of ∼1/300 at a wavelength of ∼103 km during the last ∼23 Ma. Our results suggest that asthenospheric flow away from upwelling mantle can generate downwelling beneath continental margins.

  14. Snail intermediate host/Schistosoma haematobium relationships from three transmission sites in Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Mouahid, Gabriel; Mintsa Nguema, Rodrigue; Sakiti, Nestor; Massougbodji, Achille; Moné, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between three strains of Schistosoma haematobium (Doh, Sô-Tchanhoué and Toho-Todougba; from Benin, West Africa) and their snail hosts were assessed by measurement of several life-history traits, including the infection rate; pre-patent period; cercarial production of each parasite strain; and growth, fecundity and survival of the host snails. Adaptations to its local snail host was found for the Toho-Todougba strain and included a short pre-patent period, a long patent period and production of more cercariae in its local snail host. In contrast, the life-history traits of the Doh and Sô-Tchanhoué strains indicated non-local adaptations, as some sympatric host-parasite combinations were not compatible, the highest infection rates occurred in the allopatric snail Bulinus wrighti, and the duration of cercarial production was short because of the high level of mortality of the snails. Furthermore, snail reproduction ceased following infection by each of the three parasite strains, and the life-history traits were not influenced by the miracidial dose.

  15. Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Duah, S; Donoghue, D N M; Burt, T P

    2008-04-17

    This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors - NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ESA's ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL). The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R²=0.71) with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ~2.0 mm day -1 , when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R²=0.13) with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

  16. Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and ESA’s ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL. The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71 with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ~2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13 with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

  17. Multisensor monitoring of deforestation in the Guinea Highlands of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, Peter T.; Hutchinson, Charles F.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple remote sensing systems were used to assess deforestation in the Guinea Highlands (Fouta Djallon) of West Africa. Sensor systems included: (1) historical (1953) and current (1989) aerial mapping photography; (2) current large-scale, small format (35mm) aerial photography; (3) current aerial video imagery; and (4) historical (1973) and recent (1985) LANDSAT MSS. Photographic and video data were manually interpreted and incorporated in a vector-based geographic information system (GIS). LANDSAT data were digitally classified. General results showed an increase in permanent and shifting agriculture over the past 35 years. This finding is consistent with hypothesized strategies to increase agricultural production through a shortening of the fallow period in areas of shifting cultivation. However, results also show that the total area of both permanent and shifting agriculture had expanded at the expense of natural vegetation and an increase in erosion. Although sequential LANDSAT MSS cannot be used in this region to accurately map land over, the location, direction and magnitude of changes can be detected in relative terms. Historical and current aerial photography can be used to map agricultural land use changes with some accuracy. Video imagery is useful as ancillary data for mapping vegetation. The most prudent approach to mapping deforestation would incorporate a multistage approach based on these sensors.

  18. Numerical simulation of convectively generated gravity waves in West Africa and comparisons with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, P.; Blanc, E.

    2012-04-01

    Convective clouds in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) are a major source of nonstationary gravity waves, that propagate to the stratosphere and result in upward displacements at low levels, which induces new convection. Simulations of wind fields are performed by the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting) over a period of 2 days during active thunderstorm days. Simulations are carried out in a domain covering the ITCZ in West Africa using 2 nested grids with horizontal grid spacing of 27 and 9 km respectively. Simulations are driven by ECMWF winds (defined by 91 levels from surface to 80 km), using 100 levels from surface to 50 Pa and a sponge layer above 45 km. The waves characteristics are compared to observations at the CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) infrasound station in Ivory Coast. The aim of this study is to further understand the mechanisms of wave generation by deep convection and propagation to the stratosphere. In a second part, we also study the effects of gravity waves on the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere and perform sensitivity simulations to the top height of the model.

  19. Mercury, hydroquinone and clobetasol propionate in skin lightening products in West Africa and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbetoh, Mètogbé Honoré; Amyot, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Skin lightening products are types of cosmetics (creams, gels, lotions and soaps) applied voluntarily on skin. Several of these products contain a variety of active ingredients that are highly toxic. Among those toxic agents, the present study focuses on mercury, hydroquinone, and clobetasol propionate. Out of the 93 lightening soaps and 98 creams purchased in large city markets in sub-Saharan West Africa and in small ethnic shops in Canada, 68-84% of all creams and 7.5-65% of all soaps exceeded regulatory guidelines for at least one active ingredient when considering different regulations. Mercury was found in high concentrations mainly in soaps, while hydroquinone and clobetasol propionate concentrations exceeded US FDA standards in some creams for all countries included in our study. Concentrations of the three compounds declared on labels of soaps and creams usually did not correspond to concentrations actually measured, particularly for mercury and hydroquinone. Overall, our results indicate that most studied skin-lightening products are potentially toxic and that product labels are frequently inaccurate with respect to the presence of toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of climate change on hydro-meteorological drought over the Volta Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the characteristics of drought in the Volta River Basin (VRB), investigates the influence of drought on the streamflow, and projects the impacts of future climate change on the drought. A combination of observation data and regional climate simulations of past and future climates (1970-2013, 2046-2065, and 2081-2100) were analyzed for the study. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (SPEI) were used to characterize drought while the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) were used to quantify runoff. Results of the study show that the historical pattern of drought is generally consistent with previous studies over the Basin and most part of West Africa. RCA ensemble medians (RMED) give realistic simulations of drought characteristics and area extent over the Basin and the sub-catchments in the past climate. Generally, an increase in drought intensity and spatial extent are projected over VRB for SPEI and SPI, but the magnitude of increase is higher with SPEI than with SPI. Drought frequency (events per decade) may be magnified by a factor of 1.2 (2046-2065) to 1.6 (2081-2100) compared to the present day episodes in the basin. The coupling between streamflow and drought episodes was very strong (P climate change that could have consequences on agriculture, water resources and energy supply.

  1. HIV-2 integrase variation in integrase inhibitor-naïve adults in Senegal, West Africa.

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    Geoffrey S Gottlieb

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infection is hampered by intrinsic resistance to many of the drugs used to treat HIV-1. Limited studies suggest that the integrase inhibitors (INIs raltegravir and elvitegravir have potent activity against HIV-2 in culture and in infected patients. There is a paucity of data on genotypic variation in HIV-2 integrase that might confer intrinsic or transmitted INI resistance.We PCR amplified and analyzed 122 HIV-2 integrase consensus sequences from 39 HIV-2-infected, INI-naive adults in Senegal, West Africa. We assessed genetic variation and canonical mutations known to confer INI-resistance in HIV-1.No amino acid-altering mutations were detected at sites known to be pivotal for INI resistance in HIV-1 (integrase positions 143, 148 and 155. Polymorphisms at several other HIV-1 INI resistance-associated sites were detected at positions 72, 95, 125, 154, 165, 201, 203, and 263 of the HIV-2 integrase protein.Emerging genotypic and phenotypic data suggest that HIV-2 is susceptible to the new class of HIV integrase inhibitors. We hypothesize that intrinsic HIV-2 integrase variation at "secondary" HIV-1 INI-resistance sites may affect the genetic barrier to HIV-2 INI resistance. Further studies will be needed to assess INI efficacy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2-infected patients.

  2. HIV-2 Integrase Variation in Integrase Inhibitor-Naïve Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Smith, Robert A.; Dia Badiane, Ndeye Mery; Ba, Selly; Hawes, Stephen E.; Toure, Macoumba; Starling, Alison K.; Traore, Fatou; Sall, Fatima; Cherne, Stephen L.; Stern, Joshua; Wong, Kim G.; Lu, Paul; Kim, Moon; Raugi, Dana N.; Lam, Airin; Mullins, James I.; Kiviat, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infection is hampered by intrinsic resistance to many of the drugs used to treat HIV-1. Limited studies suggest that the integrase inhibitors (INIs) raltegravir and elvitegravir have potent activity against HIV-2 in culture and in infected patients. There is a paucity of data on genotypic variation in HIV-2 integrase that might confer intrinsic or transmitted INI resistance. Methods We PCR amplified and analyzed 122 HIV-2 integrase consensus sequences from 39 HIV-2–infected, INI-naive adults in Senegal, West Africa. We assessed genetic variation and canonical mutations known to confer INI-resistance in HIV-1. Results No amino acid-altering mutations were detected at sites known to be pivotal for INI resistance in HIV-1 (integrase positions 143, 148 and 155). Polymorphisms at several other HIV-1 INI resistance-associated sites were detected at positions 72, 95, 125, 154, 165, 201, 203, and 263 of the HIV-2 integrase protein. Conclusion Emerging genotypic and phenotypic data suggest that HIV-2 is susceptible to the new class of HIV integrase inhibitors. We hypothesize that intrinsic HIV-2 integrase variation at “secondary” HIV-1 INI-resistance sites may affect the genetic barrier to HIV-2 INI resistance. Further studies will be needed to assess INI efficacy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2–infected patients. PMID:21765953

  3. A chaotic model for the epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain; Peyre, Marisa; Huc, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    An epidemic of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) broke out in Guinea in December 2013. It was only identified in March 2014 while it had already spread out in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The spill over of the disease became uncontrollable and the epidemic could not be stopped before 2016. The time evolution of this epidemic is revisited here with the global modeling technique which was designed to obtain the deterministic models from single time series. A generalized formulation of this technique for multivariate time series is introduced. It is applied to the epidemic of EVD in West Africa focusing on the period between March 2014 and January 2015, that is, before any detected signs of weakening. Data gathered by the World Health Organization, based on the official publications of the Ministries of Health of the three main countries involved in this epidemic, are considered in our analysis. Two observed time series are used: the daily numbers of infections and deaths. A four-dimensional model producing a very complex dynamical behavior is obtained. The model is tested in order to investigate its skills and drawbacks. Our global analysis clearly helps to distinguish three main stages during the epidemic. A characterization of the obtained attractor is also performed. In particular, the topology of the chaotic attractor is analyzed and a skeleton is obtained for its structure.

  4. Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration Enhances Rural Livelihoods in Dryland West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A.

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. `Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  5. International Collaboration on Groundwater Research in Benin, West Africa: Lessons from an IYPE Groundwater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Yalo, N.

    2009-12-01

    Collaborative groundwater research under the badge of IYPE has been pursued by the Universite d’Abomey-Calavi (Benin, West Africa) and the University of Notre Dame (USA) and is focused on the coastal aquifer system of Benin. Recent efforts have involved integration of numerical and field methods so as to characterize the hydrologic conditions along a coastal region consisting of a complex interplay among freshwater lagoons, saltwater lagoons, undeveloped land, and small villages. Collaboration between the two universities has involved joint field and numerical efforts, short-courses taught in Benin to mixed groups of Benin and US students, and joint research efforts by students from both countries. These collaborations have resulted in a relatively innovative mixture of field and numerical methods, including finite difference modeling at multiple scales, geophysical (resistivity) measurements, hydraulic characterization (in the lagoons and a large, salt-water lake), chemical characterization of surface and groundwaters, and geostatistical analysis of these diverse data sets. The majority of these research tools can be (and have been) applied to other groundwater research efforts in Benin. Lessons learned from this collaboration have included both opportunities for innovative research on groundwater systems based on international collaborations and challenges in developing these collaborations to their maximum potential. This history of collaboration, including the benefits and challenges, suggests a number of insights into future efforts in Benin and elsewhere, particularly for those future collaborations focused on building research capacity within the partner countries.

  6. Taxonomic diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in Aby Lagoon (Ivory Coast, West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, K N; Diomandé, D; Ouattara, A; Koné, Y J M; Gourène, G

    2008-09-15

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of Aby lagoon (West Africa: Ivory coast) was studied during four seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season, respectively) from June 2006 to March 2007. The distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates species was recorded at 13 stations on the whole of the lagoon. A total of 62 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were listed. The molluscs and crustaceans dominate qualitatively by adding up 51 and 24%, respectively of the total number of organisms. Five taxa (Corbula trigona (20%), Pachymelania aurita (12%), Clibernhardius cooki (7%), Oligochaeta (7%) and Crassostrea gasar (6%) accounted for 52% of total abundance. Classification analysis used to perform the characterisation of the lagoon on the basis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed the existence of four main clusters in which the seasonal pattern in benthic macroinvertebrates were very similar in the four seasons. In contrast the species richness and diversity indices were significantly different. Furthermore these indices where higher in the stations closer to the sea and surrounded by mangrove trees (southern area) compared to the inland ones.

  7. Febrile rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin in refugees coming from West Africa through the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolini, Silvia; Gobbi, Federico; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Migliore, Simona; Mencarini, Paola; Vecchia, Marco; di Lauria, Nicoletta; Schivazappa, Simona; Sabatini, Tony; Chianura, Leonardo; Vanino, Elisa; Piacentini, Daniela; Zanotti, Paola; Bussi, Anna; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bisoffi, Zeno; Castelli, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Cases of undiagnosed severe febrile rhabdomyolysis in refugees coming from West Africa, mainly from Nigeria, has been observed since May 2014. The aim of this study was to describe this phenomenon. This was a multicentre retrospective observational study of cases of febrile rhabdomyolysis reported from May 2014 to December 2016 in 12 Italian centres. A total of 48 cases were observed, mainly in young males. The mean time interval between the day of departure from Libya and symptom onset was 26.2 days. An average 8.3 further days elapsed before medical care was sought. All patients were hospitalized with fever and very intense muscle aches. Creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase values were abnormal in all cases. The rhabdomyolysis was ascribed to an infective agent in 16 (33.3%) cases. In the remaining cases, the aetiology was undefined. Four out of seven patients tested had sickle cell trait. No alcohol abuse or drug intake was reported, apart from a single reported case of khat ingestion. The long incubation period does not support a mechanical cause of rhabdomyolysis. Furthermore, viral infections such as those caused by coxsackievirus are rarely associated with such a severe clinical presentation. It is hypothesized that other predisposing conditions like genetic factors, unknown infections, or unreported non-conventional remedies may be involved. Targeted surveillance of rhabdomyolysis cases is warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa

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    Martin Roffeis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of insect based feeds (IBFs promises great potential, especially in developing countries, the sustainability performance of IBF production remains widely underexplored. Drawing on experimental data from rearing trials in West Africa, three different insect production systems were modelled ex-ante. The generic models served as a basis to analyse and compare the process performances of different IBF production systems using Musca domestica and Hermetia illucens reared on different substrates. The results show that the input efficiency in the production of IBF is largely determined by the quality of rearing substrates, the larval development time and the employed inoculation practises, i.e., the method by which eggs or larvae are added to rearing substrates. The H. illucens system ranked highest for conversion efficiency (substrate input per IBF output, but showed substantially higher inputs in labour, fossil energy and output of wastewater. M. domestica systems operated at lower conversion efficiencies, which resulted in higher outputs of residue substrates, together with higher emissions, land requirements, built infrastructure and water. By offering full disclosure of generic inventory data, this study provides data and inspiration for prospect research and development activities and offers a reference to future life cycle assessments (LCAs on IBF.

  9. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  10. Climate forecasts in disaster management: Red Cross flood operations in West Africa, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Lisette Martine; van Aalst, Maarten Krispijn; Mason, Simon J; Suarez, Pablo; Ait-Chellouche, Youcef; Tall, Arame

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) used a seasonal forecast for West Africa for the first time to implement an Early Warning, Early Action strategy for enhanced flood preparedness and response. Interviews with disaster managers suggest that this approach improved their capacity and response. Relief supplies reached flood victims within days, as opposed to weeks in previous years, thereby preventing further loss of life, illness, and setbacks to livelihoods, as well as augmenting the efficiency of resource use. This case demonstrates the potential benefits to be realised from the use of medium-to-long-range forecasts in disaster management, especially in the context of potential increases in extreme weather and climate-related events due to climate variability and change. However, harnessing the full potential of these forecasts will require continued effort and collaboration among disaster managers, climate service providers, and major humanitarian donors. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  11. Healthcare in Equatorial Guinea, West Africa: obstacles and barriers to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim Eleanor; Geysimonyan, Aurora; Molina, Gabriela; Reuter, Peter Robert

    2014-01-01

    The provision of healthcare services in developing countries has received increasing attention, but inequalities persist. One nation with potential inequalities in healthcare services is Equatorial Guinea (Central-West Africa). Mitigating these inequalities is difficult, as the Equatoguinean healthcare system remains relatively understudied. In this study, we interviewed members of the healthcare community in order to: 1) learn which diseases are most common and the most common cause of death from the perspective of healthcare workers; and 2) gain an understanding of the healthcare community in Equatorial Guinea by describing how: a) healthcare workers gain their professional knowledge; b) summarizing ongoing healthcare programs aimed at the general public; c) discussing conflicts within the healthcare community and between the public and healthcare providers; d) and addressing opportunities to improve healthcare delivery. We found that some causes of death, such as serious injuries, may not be currently treatable in country, potentially due to a lack of resources and trauma care facilities. In addition, training and informational programs for both healthcare workers and the general public may not be effectively transmitting information to the intended recipients. This presents hurdles to the healthcare community, both in terms of having professional competence in healthcare delivery and in having a community that is receptive to medical care. Our data also highlight government-facility communication as an opportunity for improvement. Our research is an important first step in understanding the context of healthcare delivery in Equatorial Guinea, a country that is relatively data poor.

  12. Logistics Aspect of Offshore Support Vessels on the West Africa Market

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    Ivica Skoko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly increasing global energy needs, offshore oil production has become an attractive source of energy. Supplying offshore oil production installations is a complex logistics problem that hinges on many factors with significant uncertainties. So, it is critical to provide the necessary supplies and services without interruption. In a typical offshore oil production effort, oil companies charter most or all drilling units as well as offshore supply vessels (OSV. The type and duration of charter contract has direct impact on the project budget as vessels market is closely correlated with the world market crude oil price which can have daily significant fluctuations. As the region of West Africa is one of the world’s busiest offshore exploration and oil production markets employing 12% of the world’s fleet, exploring its issues, was taken to study the relations between daily OSV rates and crude oil price. The research results presented in this paper show correlation between OSV daily rates and crude oil price with broader fluctuations in crude oil price. 

  13. University-level nutrition training in West Africa: cost and financing issues

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    Roger Sodjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a serious shortage of skilled nutrition professionals in West Africa. Investing in nutrition training is one of the strategies for strengthening the human resource base in nutrition. However, little is known about how nutrition training in the region is financed and the levels of tuition fees charged. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment about the levels of tuition fees charged for nutrition training in the West Africa region and to determine to what extent this is of reach to the average student. Methodology: The data for this study were obtained from 74 nutrition degree programs operating in nine West African countries in 2013 through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. They included the age of the programs, school ownership, tuition fees, financial assistance, and main sources of funding. Tuition fees (in 2013 US$ were expressed per program to enable uniformity and comparability. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: Results from 74 nutrition training programs in nine countries showed a wide variation in tuition fees within and between countries. The tuition fees for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs, respectively, ranged from 372 to 4,325 (mean: 2,353; 162 to 7,678 (mean: 2,232; and 369 to 5,600 (mean: 2,208. The tuition fees were significantly higher (p<0.05 in private institutions than in public institutions (mean: US$3,079 vs. US$2,029 for bachelor's programs; US$5,118 vs. US$1,820 for master's programs; and US$3,076 vs. US$1,815 for doctoral programs. The difference in the tuition fees between Francophone and Anglophone countries was not statistically significant (mean: US$2,570 vs. US$2,216 for bachelor's programs; US$2,417 vs. US$2,147 for master's programs; US$3,285 vs. US$2,055 for doctoral programs. In most countries, the tuition fees appeared to be out of reach of the average student

  14. Marine incursion: the freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are the product of a marine invasion into west Africa.

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    Anthony B Wilson

    Full Text Available The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25-50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics.

  15. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  16. Factors Associated with Ivermectin Non-Compliance and Its Potential Role in Sustaining Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonjo, Laura; Oye, Joseph; Bakajika, Didier; Biholong, Benjamin; Tekle, Afework; Boakye, Daniel; Schmidt, Elena; Elhassan, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Community Directed Treatment with ivermectin is the cornerstone of current efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis. However recent studies suggest there are foci where long-term annual distribution of the drug alone has failed to ensure elimination thresholds are reached. It is important to achieve high levels of compliance in order to obtain elimination targets. An epidemiological and entomological evaluation conducted in the western region of Cameroon in 2011 revealed that two health districts remained with a high prevalence of infection, despite long-term distribution of ivermectin since 1996. This paper explores potential factors that may have contributed to the non-interruption of transmission, focusing on ivermectin treatment compliance and the importance of systematic non-compliance within the population. A mixed methods approach was used, including a population-based survey to assess treatment compliance and factors associated and qualitative assessments including focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with key programme stakeholders and drug distributors. Compliance was reported at 71.2% (95%CI: 61.7-79.2%;n = 853/1198). The key factors related to compliance in the most recent round related to either programmatic and delivery issues, primarily absenteeism at the time of the campaign or alternatively individual determinants. An individual's experience of side effects in the past was strongly associated with non-compliance to ivermectin. Other factors included ethnicity, how long lived in the village and age. There was a high percentage of reported systematic non-compliance at 7.4% (95% CI: 4.3-12.3%; n = 86/1165), higher amongst females. This group may be important in facilitating the sustainment of on-going transmission. Efforts to reduce the number of systematic non-compliers and non-compliance in certain groups may be important in ensuring the interruption of transmission in the study area. However, in areas with high pre-control force of

  17. Factors Associated with Ivermectin Non-Compliance and Its Potential Role in Sustaining Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Senyonjo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Community Directed Treatment with ivermectin is the cornerstone of current efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis. However recent studies suggest there are foci where long-term annual distribution of the drug alone has failed to ensure elimination thresholds are reached. It is important to achieve high levels of compliance in order to obtain elimination targets. An epidemiological and entomological evaluation conducted in the western region of Cameroon in 2011 revealed that two health districts remained with a high prevalence of infection, despite long-term distribution of ivermectin since 1996. This paper explores potential factors that may have contributed to the non-interruption of transmission, focusing on ivermectin treatment compliance and the importance of systematic non-compliance within the population.A mixed methods approach was used, including a population-based survey to assess treatment compliance and factors associated and qualitative assessments including focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with key programme stakeholders and drug distributors. Compliance was reported at 71.2% (95%CI: 61.7-79.2%;n = 853/1198. The key factors related to compliance in the most recent round related to either programmatic and delivery issues, primarily absenteeism at the time of the campaign or alternatively individual determinants. An individual's experience of side effects in the past was strongly associated with non-compliance to ivermectin. Other factors included ethnicity, how long lived in the village and age. There was a high percentage of reported systematic non-compliance at 7.4% (95% CI: 4.3-12.3%; n = 86/1165, higher amongst females. This group may be important in facilitating the sustainment of on-going transmission.Efforts to reduce the number of systematic non-compliers and non-compliance in certain groups may be important in ensuring the interruption of transmission in the study area. However, in areas with high pre

  18. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Balestre, Eric; Coffie, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework o...

  19. Identification of three Me/oidogyne species from Cameroon by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify some Cameroonian Mefoidogyne species by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Meloidogyne isolates from various host crops in fifteen localities of the South West, West, and North West Provinces of Cameroon, were cultured on susceptible tomato in a greenhouse in Munster, Germany.

  20. The spectrum of cancers in West Africa: associations with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristophane Tanon

    Full Text Available Cancer is a growing co-morbidity among HIV-infected patients worldwide. With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in developing countries, cancer will contribute more and more to the HIV/AIDS disease burden. Our objective was to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for diagnosis or treatment of cancer in West Africa.A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals in Côte d'Ivoire and Benin. Each participating clinical ward enrolled all adult patients seeking care for a confirmed diagnosis of cancer and clinicians systematically proposed an HIV test. HIV prevalence was compared between AIDS-defining cancers and a subset of selected non-AIDS defining cancers to a referent group of non-AIDS defining cancers not reported in the literature to be positively or inversely associated with HIV. An unconditional logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI of the risk of being HIV-infected for selected cancers sites compared to a referent group of other cancers.The HIV overall prevalence was 12.3% (CI 10.3-14.4 among the 1,017 cancer cases included. A total of 442 patients constituted the referent group with an HIV prevalence of 4.7% (CI 2.8-6.7. In multivariate analysis, Kaposi sarcoma (OR 62.2 [CI 22.1-175.5], non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.0 [CI 2.0-8.0], cervical cancer (OR 7.9 [CI 3.8-16.7], anogenital cancer (OR 11.6 [CI 2.9-46.3] and liver cancer (OR 2.7 [CI 1.1-7.7] were all associated with HIV infection.In a time of expanding access to ART, AIDS-defining cancers remain highly associated with HIV infection. This is to our knowledge, the first study reporting a significant association between HIV infection and liver cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.